WorldWideScience

Sample records for common high renewable

  1. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  2. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  5. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 8,2017 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures. Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures)--an analysis of the costs and grid impacts of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system--examined renewable energy resources, technical issues regarding the integration of these resources into the grid, and the costs associated with high renewable penetration scenarios. These scenarios included up to 90% of annual generation from renewable sources, although most of the analysis was focused on 80% penetration scenarios. Hourly production cost modeling was performed to understand the operational impacts of high penetrations. One of the conclusions of RE Futures was that further work was necessary to understand whether the operation of the system was possible at sub-hourly time scales and during transient events. This study aimed to address part of this by modeling the operation of the power system at sub-hourly time scales using newer methodologies and updated data sets for transmission and generation infrastructure. The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). It focused on operational impacts, and it helps verify that the operational results from the capacity expansion models are useful. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%.

  7. GHG effects of spinning reserve for high penetration renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Wibberley; Peter Scaife; Joe Winsen

    2008-03-15

    This study gives a high level assessment of the greenhouse gas cost implications of providing additional backup for intermittent renewable power at a high level (20%) of penetration. The report considers international experience with higher levels of renewable generation, the Australian electricity system, and the current and likely future levels of renewables on the grids. To enable coal to provide back up/spinning reserve with a high degree of flexibility it is proposed that direct injected coal engines and novel gasification/gas engine combinations be considered. 31 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Advanced Propulsion Fuels R&D, Subtask: Evaluation of 50/50 Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and JP8 in the Ford 6.7L High-Pressure Common Rail Design Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Fuels R&D Subtask: Evaluation of 50/50 Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and JP8 in the Ford 6.7L High-Pressure Common Rail Design Engine Douglas...Rail Design Engine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-D-2806-0011 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63216F 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas M. Yost...treated with 9ppm of a QPL-25017 additive. Testing was completed using a Ford 6.7L V8 turbocharged diesel engine. Testing was completed following a

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). The scenarios analyzed for this study included a variety of generation infrastructure buildouts and power system operational assumptions, with three different portfolios of renewable generators. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%. Dynamic studies will need to be done to understand any impacts on reliability during contingencies and transient events.

  10. Robust Energy Management for Microgrids With High-Penetration Renewables

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Gatsis, Nikolaos; Georgios B. Giannakis

    2012-01-01

    Due to its reduced communication overhead and robustness to failures, distributed energy management is of paramount importance in smart grids, especially in microgrids, which feature distributed generation (DG) and distributed storage (DS). Distributed economic dispatch for a microgrid with high renewable energy penetration and demand-side management operating in grid-connected mode is considered in this paper. To address the intrinsically stochastic availability of renewable energy sources (...

  11. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  12. Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsteed, Edward; Gill, Andrew B; Birchenough, Silvana N R; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations. In practise, however, such assessments are beset by uncertainties resulting in substantial delays during the licensing process that reduce MRED investor confidence and limit progress towards meeting climate change targets. In light of these targets and ambitions to manage the marine environment sustainably, reducing the uncertainty surrounding MRED effects and cumulative effects assessment are timely and vital. This review investigates the origins and evolution of cumulative effects assessment to identify why the multitude of approaches and pertinent research have emerged, and discusses key considerations and challenges relevant to assessing the cumulative effects of MREDs and other activities on ecosystems. The review recommends a shift away from the current reliance on disparate environmental impact assessments and limited strategic environmental assessments, and a move towards establishing a common system of coordinated data and research relative to ecologically meaningful areas, focussed on the needs of decision makers tasked with protecting and conserving marine ecosystems and services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Developing common information elements for renewable energy systems: summary and proceedings of the SERI/AID workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the activities, conclusions, and recommendations of the Workshop on Evaluation Systems for Renewable Energy Systems sponsored by the Agency for International Development and SERI, held 20-22 February 1980 in Golden, Colorado. The primary objectives of the workshop was to explore whether it was possible to establish common information elements that would describe the operation and impact of renewable energy projects in developing countries. The workshop provided a forum for development program managers to discuss the information they would like to receive about renewable energy projects and to determine whether common data could be agreed on to facilitate information exchange among development organizations. Such information could be shared among institutions and used to make informed judyments on the economic, technical, and social feasibility of the technologies. Because developing countries and foreign assistance agencies will be financing an increasing number of renewable energy projects, these organizations need information on the field experience of renewable energy technologies. The report describes the substance of the workshop discussions and includes the papers presented on information systems and technology evaluation and provides lists of important information elements generated by both the plenary sessions and the small working groups.

  14. Optimizing the U.S. Electric System with a High Penetration of Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    As renewable energy generators are increasingly being installed throughout the U.S., there is growing interest in interconnecting diverse renewable generators (primarily wind and solar) across large geographic areas through an enhanced transmission system. This reduces variability in the aggregate power output, increases system reliability, and allows for the development of the best overall group of renewable technologies and sites to meet the load. Studies are therefore needed to determine the most efficient and economical plan to achieve large area interconnections in a future electric system with a high penetration of renewables. This research quantifies the effects of aggregating electric load together with diverse renewable generation throughout the ten Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous U.S. A deterministic linear program has been built in AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language) to solve for the least-cost organizational structure and system (generators, transmission, and storage) for a highly renewable electric grid. The analysis will 1) examine a highly renewable 2006 electric system, including various sensitivity cases and additional system components such as additional load from electric vehicles, and 2) create a 'roadmap' from the existing 2006 system to a highly renewable system in 2030, accounting for projected price and demand changes and generator retirements based on age and environmental regulations. Ideally, results from this study will offer insight for a federal renewable energy policy (such as a renewable portfolio standard) and how to best organize U.S. regions for transmission planning.

  15. The effectiveness of Renewable Portfolio Standard banding and carve-outs in supporting high-cost types of renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, Greg, E-mail: greg.buckman@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Canberra (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are renewable electricity (RES-E) subsidy mechanisms in which governments mandate how much RES-E should be generated and markets determine the cost of the subsidy needed to generate the RES-E. Two modifications of the RPS that can help support high-cost types of RES-E are banding, where governments mandate higher multiples of RPS tradable certificates for high-cost types of RES-E, and carve-outs, where governments prescribe parts of a RPS target that can be met only by a particular type, or types, of RES-E. This paper analyses the design and generation performance of banding, as used in the UK, with some reference to Italy; and carve-outs, as used in the USA. To date, there is insufficient experience of either device to reach firm conclusions about their generation effectiveness. However, there is early, tentative evidence that banding is successful at supporting high-cost types of RES-E in the UK. Carve-outs are not being fully exploited in US states that use a RPS mechanism, and Italy is using banding in a fairly insignificant way. Though both devices have different design strengths and weaknesses, and either could be adapted to specific RPS markets, banding is probably the better device for supporting high-cost RES-E. - Highlights: > I analysed three countries that use either Renewable Portfolio Standards banding or carve-outs. > I assess whether banding or carve-outs have diversified renewable electricity generation. > There's insufficient banding/carve-out experience to reach firm diversification conclusions. > There's early evidence that the UK banding is diversifying its renewable electricity.

  16. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  17. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is

  18. Fair distribution of power-generating capacity: justice, microgrids and utilizing the common pool of renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.; Bickerstaff, K.; Walker, G.; Bulkeley, H.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing problems with renewable energy schemes have shown that institutional factors have proved to be the main determinants of renewables' deployment. The institutional constraints will likely affect the next stage of deployment of renewables even more. This phase concerns the integration of

  19. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  20. Integrating High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy into Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.

  1. Optimizing the U.S. Electric System with a High Penetration of Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2012-12-01

    As renewable energy generators are increasingly being installed throughout the U.S., there is growing interest in interconnecting diverse renewable generators (primarily wind and solar) across large geographic areas through an enhanced transmission system. This reduces variability in the aggregate power output, increases system reliability, and allows for the development of the best overall group of renewable technologies and sites to meet the load. Studies are therefore needed to determine the most efficient and economical plan to achieve large area interconnections in a future electric system with a high penetration of renewables. This research quantifies the effects of aggregating electric load and, separately, electric load together with diverse renewable generation throughout the ten Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous U.S. The effects of aggregating electric load alone -- including generator capacity capital cost savings, load energy shift operating cost savings, reserve requirement cost savings, and transmission costs -- were calculated for various groupings of FERC regions using 2006 data. Transmission costs outweighed cost savings due to aggregation in nearly all cases. East-west transmission layouts had the highest overall cost, and interconnecting ERCOT to adjacent FERC regions resulted in increased costs, both due to limited existing transmission capacity. Scenarios consisting of smaller aggregation groupings had the lowest overall cost. This analysis found no economic case for further aggregation of load alone within the U.S., except possibly in the West and Northwest. If aggregation of electric load is desired, then small, regional consolidations yield the lowest overall system cost. Next, the effects of aggregating electric load together with renewable electricity generation are being quantified through the development and use of an optimization tool in AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language). This deterministic

  2. Synchronization of grid-connected renewable energy sources under highly distorted voltages and unbalanced grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast...... and dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel...... renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults....

  3. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Bremen, Lueder von; Greiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe......The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite...... the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases....

  4. Curtailment in a Highly Renewable Power System and Its Effect on Capacity Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kies

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity factor of a power plant is the ratio of generation over its potential generation. It is an important measure to describe wind and solar resources. However, the fluctuating nature of renewable power generation makes it difficult to integrate all generation at times. Whenever generation exceeds the load, curtailment or storage of energy is required. With increasing renewable shares in the power system, the level of curtailment will further increase. In this work, the influence of the curtailment on the capacity factors for a highly renewable German power system is studied. An effective capacity factor is introduced, and the implications for the distribution of renewable power plants are discussed. Three years of highly-resolved weather data were used to model wind and solar power generation. Together with historical load data and a transmission model, a possible future German power system was simulated. It is shown that effective capacity factors for unlimited transmission are strongly reduced by up to 60% (wind and 70% (photovoltaics and therefore of limited value in a highly renewable power system. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that wind power benefits more strongly from a reinforced transmission grid than photovoltaics (PV does.

  5. Western Grid Can Handle High Renewables in Challenging Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-01

    Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  6. Renewing functionalized graphene as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yan [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Song, Qi [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Jungong Road 516, 200093, Shanghai (China)

    2012-12-11

    An acid-assisted ultrarapid thermal strategy is developed for constructing specifically functionalized graphene. The electrochemical performance of functionalized graphene can be boosted via elaborate coupling between the pseudocapacitance and the electronic double layer capacitance through rationally tailoring the structure of graphene sheets. This presents an opportunity for developing further high-performance graphene-based electrodes to bridge the performance gap between traditional capacitors and batteries. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Managing high penetration of renewable energy in MV grid by electric vehicle storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the medium voltage by intelligently managing electric vehicles (EVs), as one of the grid flexible loads. The MV grid used in this work is a CIGRE benchmark grid. Different...

  8. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  9. The research agenda on social acceptance of distributed generation in smart grids: renewable as common pool resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid developing literature on ‘smart grids’ suggests that these will facilitate ‘distributed generation’ (DG) preferably from renewable sources. However, the current development of smart (micro)grids with substantial amount of DG ("DisGenMiGrids") suffers from a focus on mere ‘technology’.

  10. Final Technical Report: Distributed Controls for High Penetrations of Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashkin, Lee J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this effort was to apply four potential control analysis/design approaches to the design of distributed grid control systems to address the impact of latency and communications uncertainty with high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The four techniques considered were: optimal fixed structure control; Nyquist stability criterion; vector Lyapunov analysis; and Hamiltonian design methods. A reduced order model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) developed for the Matlab Power Systems Toolbox (PST) was employed for the study, as well as representative smaller systems (e.g., a two-area, three-area, and four-area power system). Excellent results were obtained with the optimal fixed structure approach, and the methodology we developed was published in a journal article. This approach is promising because it offers a method for designing optimal control systems with the feedback signals available from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data as opposed to full state feedback or the design of an observer. The Nyquist approach inherently handles time delay and incorporates performance guarantees (e.g., gain and phase margin). We developed a technique that works for moderate sized systems, but the approach does not scale well to extremely large system because of computational complexity. The vector Lyapunov approach was applied to a two area model to demonstrate the utility for modeling communications uncertainty. Application to large power systems requires a method to automatically expand/contract the state space and partition the system so that communications uncertainty can be considered. The Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) design methodology was selected to investigate grid systems for energy storage requirements to support high penetration of variable or stochastic generation (such as wind and PV) and loads. This method was applied to several small system models.

  11. Realizing High-Performance Buildings; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    High-performance buildings (HPBs) are exceptional examples of both design and practice. Their energy footprints are small, and these are buildings that people want to work in because of their intelligent structure, operations, and coincident comfort. However, the operation of most buildings, even ones that are properly constructed and commissioned at the start, can deviate significantly from the original design intent over time, particularly due to control system overrides and growing plug and data center loads. With early planning for systems such as submetering and occupant engagement tools, operators can identify and remedy the problems. This guide is a primer for owners and owners’ representatives who are pursuing HPBs. It describes processes that have been successful in the planning, procurement, and operation of HPBs with exceptional energy efficiency. Much of the guidance offered results from a series of semi-structured conference calls with a technical advisory group of 15 owners and operators of prominent HPBs in the United States. The guide provides a prescription for planning, achieving, and maintaining an HPB. Although the guide focuses on the operations stage of buildings, many of the operations practices are specified during the planning stage.

  12. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  13. A Switched-Capacitor Based High Conversion Ratio Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yin, Zhijian; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    A high step-up switched-capacitor based converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features high conversion ratio, low voltage stress and continuous input current, which makes it very suitable for renewable energy applications like photovoltaic systems. More importantly......, the proposed switched-capacitor cells in series with converter can be generalized in two ways, resulting in dc-dc converters of ultra-high dc conversion ratios. Theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental tests have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed converter in terms of high dc...... voltage gain, low voltage stress on the switches, continuous input current, and relatively high efficiency....

  14. Principal Mismatch Patterns Across a Simplified Highly Renewable European Electricity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Raunbak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its spatio-temporal variability, the mismatch between the weather and demand patterns challenges the design of highly renewable energy systems. A principal component analysis is applied to a simplified networked European electricity system with a high share of wind and solar power generation. It reveals a small number of important mismatch patterns, which explain most of the system’s required backup and transmission infrastructure. Whereas the first principal component is already able to reproduce most of the temporal mismatch variability for a solar dominated system, a few more principal components are needed for a wind dominated system. Due to its monopole structure the first principal component causes most of the system’s backup infrastructure. The next few principal components have a dipole structure and dominate the transmission infrastructure of the renewable electricity network.

  15. Development and field evaluation of a pipe renewal system for high pressure gas mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckendorf, P. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Driver, F.T. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States); Lawrence, S. [Pacific Gas & Electric, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a cured-in-place pipe renewal product, the high pressure liner, for use in natural gas pipelines at up to 450 psig. The liner development, testing of liner strength and durability, state approval, and field evaluation results are summarized. Problems encountered during field testing included: (1) modifications required for end seals, including methods for installation and seal integrity pressure testing; (2) gas leakage betweem the liner and the pipe; (3) liner wrinkling at a 20 degree miter joint. These problems are being addressed by redesign and/or further study; overall, the initial field evaluation successfully advanced the development of a high pressure liner as a significantly lower cost alternative for pipeline renewal.

  16. Managing high penetration of renewable energy in MV grid by electric vehicle storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the medium voltage by intelligently managing electric vehicles (EVs), as one of the grid flexible loads. The MV grid used in this work is a CIGRE benchmark grid. Different residential and industrial loads are considered in this grid. The connection of medium voltage wind turbines to the grid is investigated. The solar panels in this study are residential panels. Also, EVs are l...

  17. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  18. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical design of a high field common coil magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Caspi, S; Dietderich, D R; Gourlay, S A; Gupta, R; McInturff, A; Millos, G; Scanlan, R M

    1999-01-01

    A common coil design for high field 2-in-1 accelerator magnets has been previously presented as a "conductor-friendly" option for high field magnets applicable for a Very Large Hadron Collider. This paper presents the mechanical design for a 14 tesla 2-in-1 dipole based on the common coil design approach. The magnet will use a high current density Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor. The design addresses mechanical issues particular to the common coil geometry: horizontal support against coil edges, vertical preload on coil faces, end loading and support, and coil stresses and strains. The magnet is the second in a series of racetrack coil magnets that will provide experimental verification of the common coil design approach. (9 refs).

  20. Mechanical design of a high field common coil magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.; Gourlay, S.; Gupta, R.; McInturff, A.; Millos, G.; Scanlan, R.

    1999-03-18

    A common coil design for high field 2-in-1 accelerator magnets has been previously presented as a 'conductor-friendly' option for high field magnets applicable for a Very Large Hadron Collider. This paper presents the mechanical design for a 14 tesla 2-in-1 dipole based on the common coil design approach. The magnet will use a high current density Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor. The design addresses mechanical issues particular to the common coil geometry: horizontal support against coil edges, vertical preload on coil faces, end loading and support, and coil stresses and strains. The magnet is the second in a series of racetrack coil magnets that will provide experimental verification of the common coil design approach.

  1. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron; Townsend, Aaron; Palchak, David

    2015-07-29

    Balancing wind and solar in a model is relatively easy. All you need to do is assume a very large system with infinite flexibility! But what if you don't have an infinitely flexible system? What if there are thousands of generators nestled in a handful of regions that are unlikely to change their operational practices? Would you still have enough flexibility to balance hundreds of gigawatts of wind and solar at a 5 minute level? At NREL, we think we can, and our industry partners agree. This presentation was presented at the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting by Aaron Bloom, highlighting results of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study.

  2. Current barriers to confine high frequency common mode currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A commercially produced three phase power line filter is submitted to a Current Barrier (CB) Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) zoning strategy as an attempt to confine high frequency common mode currents. The intent of the paper is not to show how to build a ’perfect’ filter, since this is known.

  3. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  4. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA.Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40 and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well-being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  5. Efficient Simulation Methods of Large Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources : Theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shayesteh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical energy is one of the most common forms of energy these days. Consequently, electric power system is an indispensable part of any society. However, due to the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth in the share of power generation by uncontrollable renewable energies such as

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  10. A High-Efficiency Voltage Equalization Scheme for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System in Renewable Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its fast charge and discharge rate, a supercapacitor-based energy storage system is especially suitable for power smoothing in renewable energy generation applications. Voltage equalization is essential for series-connected supercapacitors in an energy storage system, because it supports the system’s sustainability and maximizes the available cell energy. In this paper, we present a high-efficiency voltage equalization scheme for supercapacitor energy storage systems in renewable generation applications. We propose an improved isolated converter topology that uses a multi-winding transformer. An improved push-pull forward circuit is applied on the primary side of the transformer. A coupling inductor is added on the primary side to allow the switches to operate under the zero-voltage switching (ZVS condition, which reduces switching losses. The diodes in the rectifier are replaced with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs to reduce the power dissipation of the secondary side. In order to simplify the control, we designed a controllable rectifying circuit to achieve synchronous rectifying on the secondary side of the transformer. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  11. Integrating High Levels of Renewables in to the Lanai Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Burman, K.; Keller, J.; Kandt, A.; Glassmire, J.; Lilienthal, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) is working with a team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory (Sandia) to assess the economic and technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of renewable energy sources on the island of Lanai with a stated goal of reaching 100% renewable energy. NREL and Sandia partnered with Castle & Cooke, Maui Electric Company (MECO), and SRA International to perform the assessment.

  12. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  13. High step-up isolated efficient single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gopi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an isolated high step-up single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source is proposed. In the proposed converter high step-up voltage is obtained by single power switching technique that operates low duty cycle with isolated transformer inductors and switched capacitors and power diodes. The disadvantage of conventional converters is that it has high duty ratio and high voltage stress on power devices with less efficiency. The proposed converter eliminates the switching losses and recycles the leakage energy which includes reverse recovery energy of the power diode by using passive clamp circuit. To achieve high output voltage gain, the isolated transformer primary terminal and secondary terminal are connected in series during switching operation. PSIM software has been used for simulation. Simulation circuit is analyzed at 40Vdc/400Vdc, 200 W and this operation is validated by implementing in the hardware model at 12Vdc/120Vdc, 60 W.

  14. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  15. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    , we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather......-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years.(R2.9) These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system.(R2.10) The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door...

  16. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany’s electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje; Benders, Reinerus; Dávila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  17. High-speed organocatalytic polymerization of a renewable methylene butyrolactone by a phosphazene superbase

    KAUST Repository

    Schmitt, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The organic phosphazene superbase, 1-tert-butyl-4,4,4-tris(dimethylamino)- 2,2-bis[tris(dimethylamino)phosphoranylid-enamino]-2λ5, 4λ5-catenadi(phosphazene) (t-Bu-P4), is found to directly initiate high-speed polymerization of the biomass-derived renewable γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL), in contrast to other polymerization systems using t-Bu-P4 which typically require addition of an organic acid or a nucleophile as a co-initiating component. This MMBL polymerization by t-Bu-P4 alone is extremely rapid; even with a low t-Bu-P4 loading of 0.1 mol% or 0.02 mol%, quantitative monomer conversion is achieved in 20 s or 1 min, respectively, affording medium to high molecular weight PMMBL bioplastics in a catalytic fashion. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational studies have yielded mechanisms of chain initiation through abstraction of a proton from a monomer by t-Bu-P 4, essentially barrier-less chain propagation through rapid conjugate addition of the enolate anion stabilized by the nano-size cation [t-Bu-P 4H]+ to the monomer, and chain termination through chain transfer to the monomer which generates a saturated termination chain end and the [t-Bu-P4H]+-stabilized anionic active species that starts a new chain. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  19. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

  20. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  1. Emergence of a phase transition for the required amount of storage in highly renewable electricity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Due to global environmental concerns, our electricity supply will transform from mostly conventional power generation to mostly fluctuating renewable power generation. The transition will require combined backup from conventional sources and storage. A phase transition emerges during the ramp...

  2. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Jenkin, Philipp Beiter, and Robert Margolis

    2016-02-01

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while providing relatively little capacity. This effect becomes more pronounced the higher the variable renewable energy penetration in a market. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets using administratively determined capacity demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers. Third, we consider some of the challenges to capacity markets that arise with higher variable renewable energy penetration.

  3. Review of energy system flexibility measures to enable high levels of variable renewable electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter D. Lund; Lindgren, Juuso; Mikkola, Jani; Salpakari, Jyri

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches, technologies, and strategies to manage large-scale schemes of variable renewable electricity such as solar and wind power. We consider both supply and demand side measures. In addition to presenting energy system flexibility measures, their importance to renewable electricity is discussed. The flexibility measures available range from traditional ones such as grid extension or pumped hydro storage to more advanced strategies such as demand side manageme...

  4. Noise Simulations of the High-Lift Common Research Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Vatsa, Veer N.; O'Connell, Matthew D.; Duda, Benjamin; Fares, Ehab

    2017-01-01

    The PowerFLOW(TradeMark) code has been used to perform numerical simulations of the high-lift version of the Common Research Model (HL-CRM) that will be used for experimental testing of airframe noise. Time-averaged surface pressure results from PowerFLOW(TradeMark) are found to be in reasonable agreement with those from steady-state computations using FUN3D. Surface pressure fluctuations are highest around the slat break and nacelle/pylon region, and synthetic array beamforming results also indicate that this region is the dominant noise source on the model. The gap between the slat and pylon on the HL-CRM is not realistic for modern aircraft, and most nacelles include a chine that is absent in the baseline model. To account for those effects, additional simulations were completed with a chine and with the slat extended into the pylon. The case with the chine was nearly identical to the baseline, and the slat extension resulted in higher surface pressure fluctuations but slightly reduced radiated noise. The full-span slat geometry without the nacelle/pylon was also simulated and found to be around 10 dB quieter than the baseline over almost the entire frequency range. The current simulations are still considered preliminary as changes in the radiated acoustics are still being observed with grid refinement, and additional simulations with finer grids are planned.

  5. Design and integration of an isolated microgrid with a high penetration of renewable generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Daniel Scott

    This dissertation addresses the design and integration of an isolated hybrid power system. More specifically, the goal of this work is to design a stationary electric power system for Necker Island that permits full operation and future expansion of the resort's facilities while drastically reducing the environmental impact of the current fossil fuel generation. The existing power system on Necker Island is a self-contained grid; with decentralized electricity loads, small-scale generation sources and a modest hot water demand. In this dissertation, the Necker Island power system is redesigned as a microgrid which integrates the Island's hot water, electrical and water desalination systems. This microgrid is designed via a combined optimization of performance and cost with a constraint on the Island's carbon emissions. A series of simulations are presented, comparing the performance and economics for various penetrations of renewable (wind and photovoltaic) generation. The results of each simulation are then evaluated by their cost-effectiveness at reducing CO2e emissions. The resulting microgrid design presented is a hybrid system consisting of multiple types of distributed generation, energy storage and controllable loads. Integrating high penetrations of stochastic renewable generation into a low-voltage grid is a difficult design challenge. For isolated systems, the balance between demand and generation must be met locally. The design presented in this dissertation utilizes an advanced battery to regulate the active and reactive power flows in the Necker Island microgrid system. Through the use of distributed control, each unit is able to float their frequency and voltage set-points in order to maintain system stability with changing demand and supply profiles. The new Necker Island microgrid system consists of diesel gen sets, wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays connected in a low-voltage radial network to meet the local electrical demand. Each of these

  6. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  7. Energy system modelling – interactions and synergies in a highly renewable Pan-European power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitemeyer Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very likely that the European power supply system will be transformed in the next decades to a low carbon system based almost entirely on Renewable Energy Sources (RES. However, due to the natural fluctuations of the most powerful RES (wind and solar energy, it is also very likely that a significant amount of balancing and controllable backup power capacities will be required to ensure a stable grid operation. This implies high additional investments and operating costs. Therefore this work provides an overview of potential options and possibly more cost-effective alternatives to the installation of costly storage capacities, namely grid expansion, demand side management, an optimised mix between different RES as well as the use of overcapacities. Furthermore, the paper provides an approximation of the maximum RES penetration of the German electricity system in the absence of significant storage capacities. Our calculations show that from a numerical perspective on average approximately half of the load can be met by RES if flexible conventional power stations would provide the remaining electricity demand. However, in a 100% RES scenario a significant amount of storage capacities as well as limited overcapacities are required to ensure a reliable electricity supply.

  8. Allergic rhinitis and the common cold high cost to society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hellgren, J; Cervin, A; Nordling, S; Bergman, A; Cardell, L. O

    2010-01-01

    ...:  The common cold and allergic rhinitis constitute a global health problem that affects social life, sleep, school and work performance and is likely to impose a substantial economic burden on society...

  9. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to a reduction in the total inertia of the system because renewable generators are connected to the grid by power converters, and transient stability becomes a significant issue. Simulation results show that sodium-sulfur batteries can keep the system in operation and stable after strong transient disturbances, especially for an isolated system. The results also show how the reduction of the inertia in the system can be mitigated by exploiting the kinetic energy of wind turbines.

  10. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  11. The Role of Meteorological Forecasting in Quantifying the Carbon Emissions Associated with Highly Intermittent Renewable Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    A new model is proposed for carbon emissions assessments of systems with very high penetrations of intermittent renewables. Our approach combines a deterministic portfolio planning module with a Monte Carlo simulation of system operation that determines the conventional dispatchable generating capacity required to meet a reliability constraint. Least-cost scheduling optimizations utilize day-ahead wind speed, irradiance, and load forecasts, while real-time dispatch relies on simple statistical models of forecast errors that maintain historical geographical and temporal correlations. The model includes treatments of intermittent generators including wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as conventional generators including natural gas, hydroelectric, and geothermal plants. Results are presented from a model run of the years 2005 and 2006 with wind speed data from the Western Wind Resources Database (WWRD), irradiance data from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB), hydroelectric discharge data from California Department of Water Resources (DWR), and load data from the California ISO. The resulting portfolio is capable of meeting the California ISO load over the simulation period with an 80% reduction in electric power sector carbon emissions, while also meeting a loss of load expectation of 1 day in 10 years. With this portfolio, over 99% of the annual load can be met with non-carbon-based generation and all of the instantaneous demand can be met with non-carbon-based sources in 97% of the hours in the Monte Carlo simulation. The results suggest that further reductions in carbon emissions may be achieved with emerging technologies that can reliably provide large capacities without necessarily providing positive net annual energy generation. These technologies may include demand response, vehicle-to-grid systems, and large-scale energy storage.

  12. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    There is considerable debate about the degree to which restructured markets perform successfully in their use of capacity markets. In providing appropriate incentives for new and existing generation to meet reliability requirements, a variety of capacity market designs have developed across RTOs and ISOs in the United States and internationally. Growing levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because VREs suppress energy prices while providing relatively little capacity, with these effects increase with VRE penetration. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets under consideration using variable resource requirement (VRR) demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers, including where there substantive differences in opinion. Third, we consider some of the challenges that may be specific to higher penetration levels of VRE. While the well known 'merit order' effect from VRE can be expected to suppress wholesale energy prices and revenue, this may be partly mitigated by increased capacity payments and the greater importance of AS payments for flexible capacity. The potential for greater reliance on capacity markets for generator revenues may amplify any inefficiency and costs associated with capacity price volatility and other suboptimal market design choices. Regulatory intervention to ensure adequate capacity payments and ancillary service revenue may become more prevalent under current market designs as the timescale for market signals shifts increasingly from near term (e.g., day-ahead in wholesale electricity markets) to longer term (annual intervals in capacity markets). Our review and discussion with market participants suggest substantive challenges may

  13. Nanocrystalline core material for high-performance common mode inductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    Modern power electronic semiconductors are switching very fast to reduce heat dissipation. Due to parasitic capacitances in the system, for instance, in a motor driven by an adjustable speed electrical power drive system, common mode currents are developed creating electromagnetic interference. The

  14. HIGH BIFURCATION OF THE BRACHIAL ARTERY - A COMMON VARIANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 28 cadavers were dissected for variations in the bifurcation of brachial artery bilaterally {n=56} at the department of anatomy, Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, A.P. from 2010 to 2015 . Found variations during routine dissections for first year MBBS students. The findings have thrown light on the common as well as rare variants in the anatomy of brachial artery bifurcation and the course of radial and ulnar arteries in current study

  15. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  16. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  17. Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores...... and residential sectors, based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. Some field tests were carried out on a facility for intelligent, active and distributed power systems, which...... strategies are able to achieve load shifting and enable end users to participate in market-based power systems, and thus profit from optimal consumption of energy in relation to price and supply of ancillary services in the power system, as well as improve grids with integration of high penetration...

  18. Geometry of power flows and convex-relaxed power flows in distribution networks with high penetration of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energies are increasingly integrated in electric distribution networks and will cause severe overvoltage issues. Smart grid technologies make it possible to use coordinated control to mitigate the overvoltage issues and the optimal power flow (OPF) method is proven to be efficient...... in the applications such as curtailment management and reactive power control. Nonconvex nature of the OPF makes it difficult to solve and convex relaxation is a promising method to solve the OPF very efficiently. This paper investigates the geometry of the power flows and the convex-relaxed power flows when high...... penetration level of renewables is present in the distribution networks. The geometry study helps understand the fundamental nature of the OPF and its convex-relaxed problem, such as the second-order cone programming (SOCP) problem. A case study based on a three-node system is used to illustrate the geometry...

  19. Incorporating Charging/Discharging Strategy of Electric Vehicles into Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow to Support High Renewable Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsung An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve the operational efficiency and security of electric power systems at high renewable penetration by exploiting the envisioned controllability or flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs; EVs interact with the grid through grid-to-vehicle (G2V and vehicle-to-grid (V2G services to ensure reliable and cost-effective grid operation. This research provides a computational framework for this decision-making process. Charging and discharging strategies of EV aggregators are incorporated into a security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF problem such that overall energy cost is minimized and operation within acceptable reliability criteria is ensured. Particularly, this SCOPF problem has been formulated for Jeju Island in South Korea, in order to lower carbon emissions toward a zero-carbon island by, for example, integrating large-scale renewable energy and EVs. On top of conventional constraints on the generators and line flows, a unique constraint on the system inertia constant, interpreted as the minimum synchronous generation, is considered to ensure grid security at high renewable penetration. The available energy constraint of the participating EV associated with the state-of-charge (SOC of the battery and market price-responsive behavior of the EV aggregators are also explored. Case studies for the Jeju electric power system in 2030 under various operational scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and improved operational flexibility via controllable EVs.

  20. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J

    2003-01-01

    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services...

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  6. Overview of Parallel Platforms for Common High Performance Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fryza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with various parallel platforms used for high performance computing in the signal processing domain. More precisely, the methods exploiting the multicores central processing units such as message passing interface and OpenMP are taken into account. The properties of the programming methods are experimentally proved in the application of a fast Fourier transform and a discrete cosine transform and they are compared with the possibilities of MATLAB's built-in functions and Texas Instruments digital signal processors with very long instruction word architectures. New FFT and DCT implementations were proposed and tested. The implementation phase was compared with CPU based computing methods and with possibilities of the Texas Instruments digital signal processing library on C6747 floating-point DSPs. The optimal combination of computing methods in the signal processing domain and new, fast routines' implementation is proposed as well.

  7. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  8. Cogeneration and beyond: The need and opportunity for high efficiency, renewable community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1992-06-01

    The justification, strategies, and technology options for implementing advanced district heating and cooling systems in the United States are presented. The need for such systems is discussed in terms of global warming, ozone depletion, and the need for a sustainable energy policy. Strategies for implementation are presented in the context of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act and proposed new institutional arrangements. Technology opportunities are highlighted in the areas of advanced block-scale cogeneration, CFC-free chiller technologies, and renewable sources of heating and cooling that are particularly applicable to district systems.

  9. Novel Interleaved Converter with Extra-High Voltage Gain to Process Low-Voltage Renewable-Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel interleaved converter (NIC with extra-high voltage gain to process the power of low-voltage renewable-energy generators such as photovoltaic (PV panel, wind turbine, and fuel cells. The NIC can boost a low input voltage to a much higher voltage level to inject renewable energy to DC bus for grid applications. Since the NIC has two circuit branches in parallel at frond end to share input current, it is suitable for high power applications. In addition, the NIC is controlled in an interleaving pattern, which has the advantages that the NIC has lower input current ripple, and the frequency of the ripple is twice the switching frequency. Two coupled inductors and two switched capacitors are incorporated to achieve a much higher voltage gain than conventional high step-up converters. The proposed NIC has intrinsic features such as leakage energy totally recycling and low voltage stress on power semiconductor. Thorough theoretical analysis and key parameter design are presented in this paper. A prototype is built for practical measurements to validate the proposed NIC.

  10. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  11. Why we need high-tech politics to make renewables a success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Kathrin; Mans, Ulrich [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany). Transdisciplinary Panel on Energy Change (TPEC)

    2013-04-01

    With the continued growth of renewable energy technologies, major changes are under way in a growing number of energy systems across the globe. Wind, solar, biomass, hydroelectric and geothermal solutions experience an impressive boom and have created a new business sector worth US Dollars 243 billion in 2011. This trend is not caused by recent breakthroughs in engineering; in fact most of the technology has been around for some time. The way we organize our energy infrastructure is not primarily a technical matter; it is above all a political decision. The scale-up of renewable energy supplies at the cost of today's fossil-fuel dominated energy infrastructure is a systemic transition from one technology regime to another and thus requires political leadership for setting the targets, guiding institutional change, freeing resources and deciding on the relevant regulations. Today's energy systems are based on well-established routines and - as any other existing societal arrangement - are governed by a certain degree of lock-in: because people are generally happy to do things the way they have done it in the past, they are unlikely to embrace change quickly. These 'lock-ins' shape, to a large extent, the speed of change as well as the type of solutions required in order to leave behind what works for today in favor of what we want to work for tomorrow. This article provides an overview of recent developments in the energy systems in Germany, California and Japan. We show that in order to appreciate the dilemma's that arise when creating a more sustainable energy system, we need to understand the local political landscape and how it influences decision-making processes. Looking at the three regions, it becomes evident that the level of political leadership determines much of what technology can do to facilitate innovation in the field of sustainable energy. (orig.)

  12. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  13. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  14. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing......, deterministic market designs were considered adequate with straightforward setups consisting of a forward optimal allocation accompanied by a real-time balancing mechanism. However, as the share of renewable sources of energy (RES) increases, such market designs tend to become inefficient since they were...... not designed to take into account the uncertainty brought by the substantial variability and limited predictability associated with stochastic sources, most notably wind power and solar energy. Due to these developments, the need for decision making models able to account for the uncertainty introduced by high...

  15. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization: A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experiences (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64831. Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate. Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  16. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization. A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experience for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate (NDRC ERI 2015). Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  17. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hongjun

    2017-07-13

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  18. Demonstration of Parallel Algal Processing: Production of Renewable Diesel Blendstock and a High-Value Chemical Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoshaug, Eric P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mohagheghi, Ali [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagle, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stickel, Jonathan J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dong, Tao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruger, Jacob S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hyman, Deborah A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Co-production of high-value chemicals such as succinic acid from algal sugars is a promising route to enabling conversion of algal lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock. Biomass from the green alga Scenedesmus acutus was acid pretreated and the resulting slurry separated into its solid and liquor components using charged polyamide induced flocculation and vacuum filtration. Over the course of a subsequent 756 hours continuous fermentation of the algal liquor with Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z, we achieved maximum productivity, process conversion yield, and titer of 1.1 g L-1 h-1, 0.7 g g-1 total sugars, and 30.5 g L-1 respectively. Succinic acid was recovered from fermentation media with a yield of 60% at 98.4% purity while lipids were recovered from the flocculated cake at 83% yield with subsequent conversion through deoxygenation and hydroisomerization to a renewable diesel blendstock. This work is a first-of-its-kind demonstration of a novel integrated conversion process for algal biomass to produce fuel and chemical products of sufficient quality to be blend-ready feedstocks for further processing.

  19. Optimal Operation and Management for Smart Grid Subsumed High Penetration of Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicle, and Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenobu, Ryuto; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Distributed generators (DG) and renewable energy sources have been attracting special attention in distribution systems in all over the world. Renewable energies, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generators are considered as green energy. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation beyond the statutory range and reverse power flow at interconnection points in the distribution system. If excessive voltage deviation occurs, consumer's electric devices might break and reverse power flow will also has a negative impact on the transmission system. Thus, mass interconnections of DGs has an adverse effect on both of the utility and the customer. Therefore, reactive power control method is proposed previous research by using inverters attached DGs for prevent voltage deviations. Moreover, battery energy storage system (BESS) is also proposed for resolve reverse power flow. In addition, it is possible to supply high quality power for managing DGs and BESSs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to maintain voltage, active power, and reactive power flow at interconnection points by using cooperative controlled of PVs, house BESSs, EVs, large BESSs, and existing voltage control devices. This paper not only protect distribution system, but also attain distribution loss reduction and effectivity management of control devices. Therefore mentioned control objectives are formulated as an optimization problem that is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Modified scheduling method is proposed in order to improve convergence probability of scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by case studies results and by using numerical simulations in MATLAB®.

  20. Tragedy of the commons revisited: the high tech-high risk wireless world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    In 1968, Garrett Hardin, an eminent population ecologist from Santa Barbara, CA published an article in Science titled 'Tragedy of the Commons' that was immediately hailed as a landmark piece of thinking. This paper reshaped prevailing views about our place in the ecological network of the planet and was pivotal in defining how pursuit of our individual actions to maximize self-interest will, across populations all doing the same thing, result in diminished and overused environmental resources. Before sustainability was even a buzzword, Hardin created a way of seeing the world that emphasized how individuals must learn to recognize and to act with more in mind than squeezing one more cow onto the common pasture. He gave us new ways to think about how we might better manage our resources in the face of new technologies. He was not a believer in the technological fix. Those lessons are highly relevant today to the unchecked proliferation of wireless radiofrequency signals, thought by many to cause serious health consequences.

  1. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  3. Operations-Based Planning for Placement and Sizing of Energy Storage in a Grid With a High Penetration of Renewables

    OpenAIRE

    Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2011-01-01

    As the penetration level of transmission-scale time-intermittent renewable generation resources increases, control of flexible resources will become important to mitigating the fluctuations due to these new renewable resources. Flexible resources may include new or existing synchronous generators as well as new energy storage devices. The addition of energy storage, if needed, should be done optimally to minimize the integration cost of renewable resources, however, optimal placement and sizi...

  4. Urban renewal based wind environment at pedestrian level in high-density and high-rise urban areas in Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J. W.; Zheng, J. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Shao, Y. H.; Yuan, F.

    2017-11-01

    In high-density and high-rise urban areas, pedestrian level winds contribute to improve comfort, safety and diffusion of heat in urban areas. Outdoor wind study is extremely vital and a prerequisite in high-density cities considering that the immediate pedestrian level wind environment is fundamentally impacted by the presence of a series of high-rise buildings. In this paper, the research site of Sai Ying Pun in Hong Kong will be analysed in terms of geography, climate and urban morphology, while the surrounding natural ventilation has also been simulated by the wind tunnel experiment Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has found that, the existing problems in this district are the contradiction between planning control and commercial interests, which means some areas around tall buildings are not benefit to the residents because of the unhealthy wind environment. Therefore, some recommendation of urban renewal strategy has been provided.

  5. An Extended IEEE 118-Bus Test System With High Renewable Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Ivonne; Martinez-Anido, Carlo Brancucci; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a new publicly available version of the IEEE 118-bus test system, named NREL-118. The database is based on the transmission representation (buses and lines) of the IEEE 118-bus test system, with a reconfigured generation representation using three regions of the US Western Interconnection from the latest Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) 2024 Common Case [1]. Time-synchronous hourly load, wind, and solar time series are provided for over one year (8784 hours). The public database presented and described in this manuscript will allow researchers to model a test power system using detailed transmission, generation, load, wind, and solar data. This database includes key additional features that add to the current IEEE 118-bus test model, such as: the inclusion of 10 generation technologies with different heat rate functions, minimum stable levels and ramping rates, GHG emissions rates, regulation and contingency reserves, and hourly time series data for one full year for load, wind and solar generation.

  6. An Improved Dispatch Strategy of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Energy System with High Penetration Level of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As more and more renewable energy sources (RES integrated into the conventional distribution system, how to make the current electric grid more reliable and efficient is becoming an important topic the world must face. In order to achieve these goals, grid-connected hybrid energy systems (HES which contain battery energy storage systems (BESS and many other advanced technologies have been developed and applied. Many benefits of BESS, such as high density of energy and power, have fast response in energy time-shift, frequency regulation, and so on. This paper focuses on the fluctuation alleviation and power quality improvement of grid-connected HES with high penetration level of RES. A multistage dispatch strategy of BESS for HES is proposed in this paper to mitigate the randomness and intermittence of the power flowed in HES because of high penetration level of RES integration. Four other conventional strategies are also discussed for evaluating the performance of the method proposed in this paper. Detailed cases and corresponding discussions are implemented, and the results show that the method proposed in this paper is more effective and robust than the other conventional strategies.

  7. Implementation and control of electrolysers to achieve high penetrations of renewable power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso, E.; Newborough, M. [ITM Power plc, Orkney House, Great Chesterford Court, Great Chesterford, Saffron Walden CB10 1PF (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    The mass deployment of electrolysers, within a power system serving a region of high wind resource, as the enabling mechanism for achieving five key objectives is assessed (that is: a very high installed capacity of wind power plant (WPP); zero wind curtailment during times of low demand; a very high load factor for thermal power plant; an electricity supply of low-carbon intensity; and a hydrogen supply of low-carbon intensity). Three electrolyser implementation cases were simulated for three days characterised mainly by wind availability and emphasis was placed on maximizing the smoothness of the load profile (LF) applied to thermal power plant. If zero-carbon hydrogen is to be produced a daily load factor for thermal power plant of 90% is the upper limit, but load factors of up to 100% are achievable if a carbon intensity of 3kgCO{sub 2}/kgH{sub 2} is permitted. For wind penetrations exceeding approximately 30% of system maximum demand, the electrolyser stock must include implementations close to WPP if curtailment is to be avoided. To achieve very high wind penetrations and very high load factors for thermal power plant requires a large stock of electrolysers - for the system investigated approximately 1.1 MW of electrolyser capacity is required per installed MW of wind power. (author)

  8. LSD. Its rise, fall, and renewed popularity among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H

    1995-04-01

    LSD is making a comeback nationwide among Caucasian middle-class high school and college students. Compared to the mean values during the years 1985 to 1990, an approximately 25% increase occurred in lifetime-, annual-, and monthly-use rates of LSD, in 1993, according to the annual NIDA high school senior survey. In 1992, an increase in LSD-related arrests occurred, as did seizures of larger quantities of consumer-ready LSD. The number of LSD-related emergency room visits by adolescents increased, and intermittent LSD-related violent behavior, including suicide, homicide, and accidental death, were higher than in the previous 5-year period. Fewer high school students attribute great danger in trying LSD once or twice. The painfully learned lessons about LSD seem, sadly, destined to be relearned by the youth of the 1990s.

  9. Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E.D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J.R.; Sinke, W.C.; Sonntag-O'Brien, V.; Thresher, B.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Usher, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major

  10. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  11. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  12. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshkbar-Sadigh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Part I: Dynamic Voltage RestorerIn the present power grids, voltage sags are recognized as a serious threat and a frequently occurring power-quality problem and have costly consequence such as sensitive loads tripping and production loss. Consequently, the demand for high power quality and voltage stability becomes a pressing issue. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), as a custom power device, is more effective and direct solutions for "restoring" the quality of voltage at its load-side terminals...

  13. Virtual Inertia Control-Based Model Predictive Control for Microgrid Frequency Stabilization Considering High Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thongchart Kerdphol

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RESs, such as wind and solar generations, equip inverters to connect to the microgrids. These inverters do not have any rotating mass, thus lowering the overall system inertia. This low system inertia issue could affect the microgrid stability and resiliency in the situation of uncertainties. Today’s microgrids will become unstable if the capacity of RESs become larger and larger, leading to the weakening of microgrid stability and resilience. This paper addresses a new concept of a microgrid control incorporating a virtual inertia system based on the model predictive control (MPC to emulate virtual inertia into the microgrid control loop, thus stabilizing microgrid frequency during high penetration of RESs. The additional controller of virtual inertia is applied to the microgrid, employing MPC with virtual inertia response. System modeling and simulations are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink® software. The simulation results confirm the superior robustness and frequency stabilization effect of the proposed MPC-based virtual inertia control in comparison to the fuzzy logic system and conventional virtual inertia control in a system with high integration of RESs. The proposed MPC-based virtual inertia control is able to improve the robustness and frequency stabilization of the microgrid effectively.

  14. Bottom-Up Cost Analysis of a High Concentration PV Module; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Lee, H.; Smestad, G.

    2015-04-13

    We present a bottom-up model of III-V multi-junction cells, as well as a high concentration PV (HCPV) module. We calculate $0.65/Wp(DC) manufacturing costs for our model HCPV module design with today’s capabilities, and find that reducing cell costs and increasing module efficiency offer the promising pathways for future cost reductions. Cell costs could be significantly reduced via an increase in manufacturing scale, substrate reuse, and improved manufacturing yields. We also identify several other significant drivers of HCPV module costs, including the Fresnel lens primary optic, module housing, thermal management, and the receiver board. These costs could potentially be lowered by employing innovative module designs.

  15. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjun; Liu, Yue; Ji, Deqiang; Li, Zhida; Yi, Guanlin; Yuan, Dandan; Wang, Baohui; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wang, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  16. Grid of the Future: Quantification of Benefits from Flexible Energy Resources in Scenarios With Extra-High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebic, Jovan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Hinkle, Gene [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Matic, Slobodan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Schmitt, William [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting

    2015-01-15

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the entitlement for system benefits attainable by pervasive application of flexible energy resources in scenarios with extra-high penetration of renewable energy. The quantified benefits include savings in thermal energy and reduction of CO2 emissions. Both are primarily a result of displacement of conventional thermal generation by renewable energy production, but there are secondary improvements that arise from lowering operating reserves, removing transmission constraints, and by partially removing energy-delivery losses due to energy production by distributed solar. The flexible energy resources in the context of this study include energy storage and adjustable loads. The flexibility of both was constrained to a time horizon of one day. In case of energy storage this means that the state of charge is restored to the starting value at the end of each day, while for load this means that the daily energy consumed is maintained constant. The extra-high penetration of renewable energy in the context of this study means the level of penetration resulting in significant number of hours where instantaneous power output from renewable resources added to the power output from baseload nuclear fleet surpasses the instantaneous power consumption by the load.

  17. Renewable Energy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China is the most densely populated country in the world with high rate of economic growth resulting in higher demand for energy resources and in strive to guarantee stable supply of these resources. Chinese annual GDP growth in 2012 and 2013 was down to 7.7% comparing to 10% in 2000-2011 [7]. In 2012 and 2013 economic growth stumbled because of slowdown in manufacturing and exports, taking into account that Chinese government was eager to cut inflation and excessive investments in some segments of the market. Speaking about energy sector Chinese government is aimed at promotion of market-based pricing systems, activities for advanced energy efficiency and higher competition between energy companies, and increased investment in renewable energy resources. Considering renewables as one of many ways to diversify energy supplies, lower dependence on coal and improve environmental situation Chinese government actively supports and develops programs aimed at support of renewable energy industry in China. Chinese economic development is tightly attached to five-year plans. It seems important to mention the fact that main energy goals for current 12-th "five-year plan" are to achieve 15% renewables consumption and CO2 sequestration up to 40-45% by2020 in order to lower dependency on coal and improve environmental situation. As a result of Chinese state policy to develop renewables China achieved certain results in wind energy, helioenergetics, hydroenergetics and energy from waste recycling.

  18. Analysis of coupling between high-speed railway and common speed railway system in transportation corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongchang; Li, Haijun; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhu, Changfeng

    2017-04-01

    The high-speed railway and common speed railway subsystems as important components of the railway transportation system, can make railway traffic organization more orderly, when there are a rational division and balance development between them. In order to quantitatively evaluate the coordinate relations between high-speed railway subsystem and common speed railway subsystem, this paper takes the railway transportation corridor from Baoji to Lanzhou as an example. Firstly, using Logit model and grey forecasting model predict the passenger volume, passenger turnover and time value of high-speed railway and common speed railway in the Baoji-Lanzhou corridor. And then, the coupling forecast model of these two subsystems is established. Lastly, the coupling and coupling coordination of these two subsystems using are predicted and analyzed at theatrically level.

  19. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  20. Factors Relevant to Utility Integration of Intermittent Renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Parsons, B.

    1993-08-24

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among fmdings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface, (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels am feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also indentified.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  3. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  4. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery-Based Energy Storage System for a Microgrid with High Penetration of Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    ) in order to make an optimal dispatch of resources in the microgrid and enhance the storage system lifetime while minimizing the cost of electric consumption. The load demand and generation profiles are derived from the analysis of consumption and renewable production (solar photovoltaic sources and wind......A new scheduling method is proposed to manage efficiently the integration of renewable sources in microgrids (MGs) with energy storage systems (ESSs). The purpose of this work is to take into account the main stress factors influencing the ageing mechanisms of a battery energy storage system (BESS...... turbines) of the Western Denmark electric grid. Thus, the proposed microgrid is mainly fed by renewable sources and few electricity is coming from the main grid (which helps operating costs minimization). In this respect, a cost analysis is performed to find the optimal hourly power output of the BESS...

  5. Inheritance of high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas Axonopodis pv. Phaseoli in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is an important biotic factor limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. A few interspecific bean breeding lines such as VAX 6 exhibit a high level of resistance to a wide range of Xap strains repr...

  6. Transforming a High School Media Center into a Library Learning Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study outlines a planned action based research project focused on studying the transformation of an urban high school media center to a learning commons model. This study includes a descriptive account as well as the impact of steps taken to match the media center to the needs of the 21st century learner. The research focuses on shifting…

  7. ‘IAC Milênio’ – Common bean cultivar with high grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Instituto Agronômico de Campinas – IAC registered the carioca type common bean cultivar IAC Milênio. The cultivar has a mean yield of 2831 kg ha-1, high grain quality with tolerance to darkening, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and physiological races 81, 89, and 95 of the anthracnose pathogen (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

  8. Supporting Common Core-Driven Curriculum Adaptations for High School Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Raymond; Leary, Heather; Penuel, William R.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) has created a need for many teachers and school districts to adapt their current curricular materials. Using the methods of design-based implementation research (Penuel et al., 2011), this project partnered with high school algebra teachers, district curriculum staff, and university researchers to support teachers in the selection and use of high-quality mathematical tasks. This participatory design process yielded a set ...

  9. The effectiveness of capacity markets in the presence of a high portfolio share of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhagwat, P.C.; Iychettira, K.K.; Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; de Vries, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of a capacity market is analyzed by simulating three conditions that may cause suboptimal investment in the electricity generation: imperfect information and uncertainty; declining demand shocks resulting in load loss; and a growing share of renewable energy sources in the

  10. A Concept of Constructing a Common Information Space for High Tech Programs Using Information Analytical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Alexandra A.; Kolegova, Olga A.; Nekrasova, Maria E.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the issues in program management used for engineering innovative products. The existing project management tools were analyzed. The aim is to develop a decision support system that takes into account the features of program management used for high-tech products: research intensity, a high level of technical risks, unpredictable results due to the impact of various external factors, availability of several implementing agencies. The need for involving experts and using intelligent techniques for information processing is demonstrated. A conceptual model of common information space to support communication between members of the collaboration on high-tech programs has been developed. The structure and objectives of the information analysis system “Geokhod” were formulated with the purpose to implement the conceptual model of common information space in the program “Development and production of new class mining equipment - “Geokhod”.

  11. Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

    2010-06-01

    To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2

  12. Integration of a very high share of renewable production, the role of nuclear; Integracion de una muy alta cuota de produccion renovable. El papel de la nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarri, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the following decade, 2010-2020, there are few uncertainties regarding the generation mix: the Electricity System already counts on the thermal power that ir requires, the renewable energy targets are fairly clear, the nuclear option would require development period that goes beyond this decade and the Carbon Capture and Storage technology (CCS) is unlikely to be commercially available yet. Nevertheless, a challenge arises: how to manage a System with a high share of non-manageable energy sources. In the future, periods of excess of energy are bound to happen and its annual profile is foreseen sharp: high power peaks but little annual energy. Therefore, to make use of such an excess, very high investments in new capacity would be needed (pumping hydro, compressed air). However the load factor of this new capacity would be low, at least by this concept. Spillage of renewable energy may be the most efficient solution, and thus it should be accepted by every stake holder. Looking at the very long term alternative are opened. One of them tends to balance the production of the different energy sources: nuclear, thermal and renewable (1/3-1/3-1/3). Although this option is aligned with the targets of competitiveness, sustainability and energy security, doubts may arise about the compatibility of such share of nuclear and renewable Massive, and coordinated, deployment of the electric vehicle and the smart grids, facilitates remarkably the integration of new nuclear capacity, not as much by the energy involved (TWh) as by the power (GW) and the capacity to manage such power when charging the batteries. (Author)

  13. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the patellar retinaculum: normal anatomy, common injury patterns, and pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thawait, Shrey K. [Yale University - Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Soldatos, Theodoros; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The medial patellar retinaculum (MPR) and the lateral patellar retinaculum (LPR) are vital structures for the stability of the patella. Failure to identify or treat injury to the patellar retinaculum is associated with recurrent patellar instability and contributes to significant morbidity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readily depicts the detailed anatomy of various components (layers) of the retinacula. In this review article, we discuss normal anatomy, important landmarks, common injury patterns, and other pathologies encountered in patellar retinacula. High field strength MRI is an excellent noninvasive tool for evaluation of patellar retinaculum anatomy and pathology. This article will help the reader become familiar with normal imaging findings and the most commonly occurring injuries/pathologies in MPR and LPR. (orig.)

  14. A Common Criteria-Based Team Project for High Assurance System Education

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Cynthia E.

    2005-01-01

    Most courses in information security do not provide students with practical experience in high assurance development. To complement a course in secure systems that focuses of foundational principles of constructive security, a laboratory project that requires students to work in teams while meeting Common Criteria Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) 6 assurance requirements has been created. The objectives, structure, and experience with this laboratory project are described.

  15. Detecting genetic association of common human facial morphological variation using high density 3D image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouneng; Tan, Jingze; Hu, Sile; Zhou, Hang; Guo, Jing; Jin, Li; Tang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ∼30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation.

  16. Artificial intelligence in the selection of common bean genotypes with high phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Barroso, L M A; Nascimento, M; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-04-28

    Artificial neural networks have been used for various purposes in plant breeding, including use in the investigation of genotype x environment interactions. The aim of this study was to use artificial neural networks in the selection of common bean genotypes with high phenotypic adaptability and stability, and to verify their consistency with the Eberhart and Russell method. Six trials were conducted using 13 genotypes of common bean between 2002 and 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates. Grain yield data were submitted to individual and joint variance analyses. The data were then submitted to analysis of adaptability and stability through the Eberhart and Russell and artificial neural network methods. There was high concordance between the methodologies evaluated for discrimination of phenotypic adaptability of common bean genotypes, indicating that artificial neural networks can be used in breeding programs. Based on both approaches, the genotypes Aporé, Rudá, and CNFv 8025 are recommended for use in unfavorable, general and favorable environments, respectively by the grain yield above the overall average of environments and high phenotypic stability.

  17. High Lift Common Research Model for Wind Tunnel Testing: An Active Flow Control Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Melton, Latunia P.; Viken, Sally A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Koklu, Mehti; Hannon, Judith A.; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project to achieve the required high-lift performance using active flow control (AFC) on simple hinged flaps while reducing the cruise drag associated with the external mechanisms on slotted flaps of a generic modern transport aircraft. The removal of the external fairings for the Fowler flap mechanism could help to reduce drag by 3.3 counts. The main challenge is to develop an AFC system that can provide the necessary lift recovery on a simple hinged flap high-lift system while using the limited pneumatic power available on the aircraft. Innovative low-power AFC concepts will be investigated in the flap shoulder region. The AFC concepts being explored include steady blowing and unsteady blowing operating in the spatial and/or temporal domain. Both conventional and AFC-enabled high-lift configurations were designed for the current effort. The high-lift configurations share the cruise geometry that is based on the NASA Common Research Model, and therefore, are also open geometries. A 10%-scale High Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) is being designed for testing at the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel during fiscal year 2018. The overall project plan, status, HL-CRM configurations, and AFC objectives for the wind tunnel test are described.

  18. Detecting genetic association of common human facial morphological variation using high density 3D image registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouneng Peng

    Full Text Available Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ∼30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation.

  19. Common mode noise modeling and its suppression in ultra-high efficiency full bridge boost converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten; Madawala, Udaya

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, common mode noise modeling of low-voltage high-current isolated full bridge boost dc-dc converters intended for fuel cell application is presented. Due to the tightly coupled primary and secondary windings of the transformer, such converter has inherently large capacitive coupling...... with the CISPR-A requirements. Finally, a 3kW dc-dc converter including filters has been built and tested to verify the theoretical model. Experimental results confirm the theoretical analysis of the converter....

  20. High-efficiency dual-polarized patch antenna array with common waveguide feed

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaltella Esteve, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Treball realitzat a l'Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik (IHF)de la Universität Stuttgart [ANGLÈS] A concept for a dual-polarized patch antenna array with large bandwidth and high efficiency is proposed. A short overmoded waveguide section is connected to a square feed waveguide on one side, and to the common groundplane of a 2x2 or a 3x3 patch array on the other side. Each square-shaped patch is coupled to the waveguide by crossed slots in the groundplane. The coupled resonances of the patc...

  1. Productive common light chain libraries yield diverse panels of high affinity bispecific antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarcom, Thomas; Melton, Zea; Cheung, Wai Ling; Wagstrom, Chris; McDonough, Dan; Valle Oseguera, Cendy; Ding, Sheng; Rossi, Andrea; Potluri, Shobha; Sundar, Purnima; Sirota, Marina; Yan, Yu; Jones, Jeffrey; Roe-Zurz, Zygy; Srivatsa Srinivasan, Surabhi; Zhai, Wenwu; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The commercial success of bispecific antibodies generally has been hindered by the complexities associated with generating appropriate molecules for both research scale and large scale manufacturing purposes. Bispecific IgG (BsIgG) based on two antibodies that use an identical common light chain can be combined with a minimal set of Fc mutations to drive heavy chain heterodimerization in order to address these challenges. However, the facile generation of common light chain antibodies with properties similar to traditional monoclonal antibodies has not been demonstrated and they have only been used sparingly. Here, we describe the design of a synthetic human antibody library based on common light chains to generate antibodies with biochemical and biophysical properties that are indistinguishable to traditional therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We used this library to generate diverse panels of well-behaved, high affinity antibodies toward a variety of epitopes across multiple antigens, including mouse 4-1BB, a therapeutically important T cell costimulatory receptor. Over 200 BsIgG toward 4-1BB were generated using an automated purification method we developed that enables milligram-scale production of BsIgG. This approach allowed us to identify antibodies with a wide range of agonistic activity that are being used to further investigate the therapeutic potential of antibodies targeting one or more epitopes of 4-1BB. PMID:29227213

  2. Renewable energy in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kost, Christoph Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The transition of the North African electricity system towards renewable energy technologies is analyzed in this thesis. Large potentials of photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP) and onshore wind power provide the opportunity to achieve a long-term shift from conventional power sources to a highly interconnected and sustainable electricity system based on renewable energy sources (RES). A multi-dimensional analysis evaluates the economic and technical effects on the electricity ...

  3. New 2LC-Y DC-DC converter topologies for high-voltage/low-current renewable applications: New members of X-Y converter family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Maroti, Pandav Kiran

    2017-01-01

    applications. The noticeable features of the proposed 2LC-Y converter topologies are: i) Only one power control switch and input source; ii) High negative output voltage with moderate duty ratio; iii) Low output current and minimal internal resistance; iv) Transformer-less converter topologies; v) High voltage......New members of XY converter family topologies are proposed in this treatise for a high-voltage/low-current renewable application. Based on the X Converter, the whole existing X-Y Converter family is categorized into four categories; L-Y, 2L-Y, 2LC-Y and 2LCm-Y converter. Four new 2LC-Y topologies...... (2LC-LVD, 2LC-2LVD, 2LC-2LCVD and 2LC-2LCmVD) converters are presented in this treatise which offer an effective solution for renewable applications requiring a very high voltage conversion ratio such as a Photovoltaic Multilevel Inverter (PV-MLI) system, hybrid electrical drives and automotive...

  4. Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Expression Is Decreased in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Correlation with Ig Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pecoraro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin (Acrp30 is an adipokine widely studied for its beneficial metabolic properties. It circulates as low molecular weight (LMW, medium molecular weight (MMW, and high molecular weight (HMW oligomers. The latter exerts the most potent biological effects. Acrp30 attracted renewed interest with the finding that it was associated with the development and progression of immune disorders. The mechanisms underlying this association and the role of Acrp30 in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated conditions remain unknown. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by chronic activation of the immune system, impaired antibody production, and imbalanced cytokine production. In the attempt to shed light on the expression of Acrp30 in CVID, we: (a investigated total Acrp30 and its oligomerization state in CVID patients undergoing maintenance Ig replacement therapy; (b assessed the effects of Ig replacement therapy on Acrp30 expression in treatment-naïve CVID patients, namely, patients not treated before diagnosis, before and after the first Ig administration; and (c evaluated the correlation between Acrp30 levels and clinical phenotypes of the disease. As controls, we analyzed healthy subjects and patients affected by a non-immunodeficiency chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP, before and after Ig infusion. We found that total Acrp30 and HMW oligomers were decreased in CVID but not in CIDP patients versus controls. Moreover, Acrp30 levels were correlated with IgA levels and were associated with two CVID phenotypes, namely, autoimmune cytopenia and enteropathy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that Acrp30 modulation is specific for CVID patients. Acrp30 and HMW levels quickly and dramatically increased after Ig infusion only in eight treatment-naïve CVID patients but not in five CIDP patients. This finding indicates that Ig administration per se is not able to

  5. Integration of renewables and reverse osmosis desalination – Case study for the Jordanian energy system with a high share of wind and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, T.; Ćosić, B.; Pukšec, T.

    2015-01-01

    Jordan is a country faced with several environmental and energy related issues. It is the Worlds' fourth most water deprived country with a water consumption of only 145m3 per capita annually, less than a third of the established severe water poverty line. Jordan is also a country rich in wind...... of the Jordanian energy system until the year 2050. The results have shown that the demonstrated configuration can increase the share of intermittent renewables in the production of electricity up to 76% resulting in a high reduction of fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and costs. These analyses have been performed...... using the EnergyPLAN advanced energy system analyses tool....

  6. Modelling of the work processes high-pressure pump of common rail diesel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Common rail injection systems are becoming a more widely used solution in the fuel systems of modern diesel engines. The main component and the characteristic feature of the system is rail injection of the fuel under high pressure, which is passed to the injector and further to the combustion chamber. An important element in this process is the high-pressure pump, continuing adequate pressure in the rail injection system. Common rail (CR systems are being modified in order to optimise their work and virtual simulations are a useful tool in order to analyze the correctness of operation of the system while varying the parameters and settings, without any negative impact on the real object. In one particular study, a computer simulation of the pump high-pressure CR system was made in MatLab environment, based on the actual dimensions of the object – a one-cylinder diesel engine, the Farymann Diesel 18W. The resulting model consists of two parts – the first is responsible for simulating the operation of the high-pressure pump, and the second responsible for simulation of the remaining elements of the CR system. The results of this simulation produced waveforms of the following parameters: fluid flow from the manifold to the injector [m3/s], liquid flow from the manifold to the atmosphere [m3/s], and manifold pressure [Pa]. The simulation results allow for a positive verification of the model and the resulting system could become a useful element of simulation of the entire position and control algorithm.

  7. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Lee, K. B.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources are increased because of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing pollution level from energy production. The wind energy and the solar energy are most widely used among the renewable energy sources. Power electronics is needed in almost all kinds...... of renewable energy system. It controls the renewable source and interfaces with the load effectively, which can be grid-connected or van work in stand-alone mode. In this presentation, overview of wind and photovoltaic energy systems are introduced. Next, the power electronic circuits behind the most common...

  8. Contribution of Renewable Cooling to the Renewable Energy Target of the EU. Policy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkmann, T.; Buerger, V. [The Oeko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Renewable cooling technologies do not play a major role in the climate protection discussion in the European Union today. At the same time the cooling demand is expected to increase significantly in the coming decades. Renewable cooling technologies could contribute to the EU renewable energy target if an appropriate political framework for a further spread of the technologies is created. This renewable cooling policy report intends to support the dissemination of renewable cooling technologies. It provides an overview of the situation, technologies and potential for cool-ing from renewable sources and identifies key areas in which further investigation is required. The report shows that there is a great need for the creation of a political framework supporting the market diffusion of renewable cooling technologies. Firstly the question of a commonly accepted definition on renewable cooling is being addressed. Secondly renewable cooling technologies are described and the today's role of cooling in European statistics and policies is analysed. In the next step existing studies are evaluated to compare the expected development of the cooling demand in Europe to the market potential of renewable cooling. At the end of the paper a long-term vision for renewable cooling is described and first steps towards a European roadmap for renewable cooling are given.

  9. Power Electronics and Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Zhou, Dao

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronics are needed in almost all kind of renewable energy systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and also for interfacing to the load, which can be grid-connected or working in stand-alone mode. More and more efforts are put into making renewable energy systems...... better in terms of reliability in order to ensure a high availability of the power sources, in this case the knowledge of mission profile of a certain application is crucial for the reliability evaluation/design of power electronics. In this paper an overview on the power electronic circuits behind...... the most common converter configurations for wind turbine and photovoltaic is done. Next different aspects of improving the system reliability are mapped. Further on examples of how to control the chip temperature in different power electronic configurations as well as operation modes for wind power...

  10. Biogas in a future energy supply structure with a high proportion of fluctuating renewable energies; Biogas in einer zukuenftigen Energieversorgungsstruktur mit hohen Anteilen fluktuierender Erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhammer, Uwe Abraham

    2015-07-01

    The power supply must integrate in the future an increasing share of renewable energies for the supply of electricity customers to meet the climate protection requirements. The proportion of weather-dependent renewable energy plays a leading role of renewable power supply in the future. These highly volatile provided electricity volumes do not match in base-load power generated amounts, as it has come in the past biogas park and still mostly delivers. It seems necessary that the non-fluctuating production units ''make room'' the wind and PV electricity volumes in the energy system and provide the electricity in phases when the fluctuating renewable energy electricity volumes are not available. In this study, it is determined how the biogas park with its high number of production systems should behave from total cost perspective in the energy system in 2030. It primarily concerns the question whether the base-load electricity production of biogas parks should be changed and made more flexible from the perspective of the overall costs and if so, to what extent. [German] Die Stromversorgung muss in Zukunft einen stetig steigenden Anteil an Erneuerbarer Energien zur Versorgung der Stromkunden integrieren, um die den Klimaschutzanforderungen zu genuegen. Der Anteil an wetterabhaengigen Erneuerbaren Energien nimmt dabei zukuenftig die tragende Rolle der Erneuerbaren Stromversorgung ein. Diese sehr volatil bereitgestellten Strommengen passen nicht zu in Grundlast erzeugten Strommengen, wie sie in der Vergangenheit der BiogasPark geliefert hat und immer noch groesstenteils liefert. Es scheint erforderlich, dass die nicht fluktuierenden Erzeugungseinheiten den Wind-und PV-Strommengen im Energiesystem ''Platz machen'' und den Strom in Phasen bereitstellen, wenn die fluktuierende Erneuerbaren Energie-Strommengen nicht zur Verfuegung stehen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ermittelt, wie sich der BiogasPark mit seiner hohen Zahl an

  11. Viability of common wine spoilage organisms after exposure to high power ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hua; Schmid, Frank; Grbin, Paul R; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Microbial spoilage of wine can lead to significant economic loss. At present sulfur dioxide is the main additive to juice/must/wine to prevent and control microbial spoilage. As an alternative, or complement to SO(2), high power ultrasonics (HPU) may be used to control microbes. Several wine spoilage yeasts and bacteria were treated with HPU in saline (0.9% w/v NaCl), juice and red wine to assess their susceptibility to HPU. Significant killing was seen across several yeasts and bacteria commonly associated with winemaking and wine spoilage. In general the viability of yeast was more affected than that of bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Decoupling Analysis on Pressure Fluctuation and Needle Valve Response for High Pressure Common Rail Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of multiple injections, the influence of different injections makes the controlling of cycle fuel injection quantity more difficult. The high pressure common rail (HPCR simulation model is established in AMESim environment. Through the method of combining numerical simulation and experiment test, it is found that the strong coupling of pressure fluctuation and needle valve response is the fundamental reason, which leads to the fluctuation of main injection fuel quantity (MIFQ with dwell time (DT. The result shows that the largest fluctuation quantity is 3.6mm3 when the reference value of main injection is 60.0mm3. Non-damping LC hydraulic system model is also established. Through the analysis of the model, reducing the length-diameter ratio of internal oil duct and the delivery chamber volume are decoupling methods to the strong coupling.

  13. Chemical synthesis and characterization of highly soluble conducting polyaniline in the mixtures of common solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeghioud Hichem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the synthesis and characterization of soluble and conducting polyaniline PANI-PIA according to chemical polymerization route. This polymerization pathway leads to the formation of poly(itaconic acid doped polyaniline salts, which are highly soluble in a number of mixtures between organic common polar solvents and water, the solubility reaches 4 mg mL-1. The effect of synthesis parameters such as doping level on the conductivity and the study of solubility and other properties of the resulting PANI salts were also undertaken. The maximum of conductivity was found equal to 2.48×10-4 S cm-1 for fully protonated PANI-EB. In addition, various characterizations of the synthesized materials were also done with the help of viscosity measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR and finally TGA for the thermal properties behaviour.

  14. A common genetic influence on human intensity ratings of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-08-01

    The perception of sweetness varies among individuals but the sources of this variation are not fully understood. Here, in a sample of 1,901 adolescent and young adults (53.8% female; 243 MZ and 452 DZ twin pairs, 511 unpaired individuals; mean age 16.2±2.8, range 12–26 years), we studied the variation in the perception of sweetness intensity of two monosaccharides and two high-potency sweeteners: glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame. Perceived intensity for all sweeteners decreased with age (2–5% per year) and increased with the history of otitis media (6–9%). Males rated aspartame slightly stronger than females (7%). We found similar heritabilities for sugars (glucose: h2=0.31, fructose: h2=0.34) and high-potency sweeteners (NHDC: h2=0.31, aspartame: h2=0.30); all were in the modest range. Multivariate modeling showed that a common genetic factor accounted for >75% of the genetic variance in the four sweeteners, suggesting that individual differences in perceived sweet intensity, which are partly due to genetic factors, may be attributed to a single set of genes. This study provided evidence of the shared genetic pathways between the perception of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

  15. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  16. Common fusion transcripts identified in colorectal cancer cell lines by high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard Os; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%-28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated.

  17. Common Fusion Transcripts Identified in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard OS; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%–28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

  18. FEMP Renewable Energy Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-06-01

    This four-page overview describes how Federal agencies can contact the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to obtain assistance in acquiring renewable energy systems, renewable fuels, and renewable ("green") power for use in their facilities and vehicles. Renewable resources, technologies, and fuels are described, as well as Federal goals for using clean, sustainable renewable energy; the current goal is to supply 2.5% of the Federal Government's energy with renewable sources by 2005. Also included is a description of the resources and technologies themselves and associated benefits.

  19. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  20. The Gulf of Ambracia's Common Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: A Highly Dense and yet Threatened Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalvo, J; Lauriano, G; Hammond, P S; Viaud-Martinez, K A; Fossi, M C; Natoli, A; Marsili, L

    The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the only cetacean present in the semiclosed waters of the Gulf of Ambracia, Western Greece. This increasingly degraded coastal ecosystem hosts one of the highest observed densities in the Mediterranean Sea for this species. Photo-identification data and tissue samples collected through skin-swabbing and remote biopsy sampling techniques during boat-based surveys conducted between 2006 and 2015 in the Gulf, were used to examine bottlenose dolphin abundance, population trends, site fidelity, genetic differentiation and toxicological status. Bottlenose dolphins showed high levels of year-round site fidelity throughout the 10-year study period. Dolphin population estimates mostly fell between 130 and 170 with CVs averaging about 10%; a trend in population size over the 10 years was a decline of 1.6% per year (but this was not significant). Genetic differentiation between the bottlenose dolphins of the Gulf and their conspecifics from neighbouring populations was detected, and low genetic diversity was found among individuals sampled. In addition, pesticides where identified as factors posing a real toxicological problem for local bottlenose dolphins. Therefore, in the Gulf of Ambracia, high dolphin density does not seem to be indicative of favourable conservation status or pristine habitat. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepalli, Deepak L. N.; Alshehri, Ali M.; Marquez, Daniela T.; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Scaiano, Juan C.; Bhardwaj, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    The ever-increasing demand for high data storage capacity has spurred research on development of innovative technologies and new storage materials. Conventional GByte optical discs (DVDs and Bluray) can be transformed into ultrahigh capacity storage media by encoding multi-level and multiplexed information within the three dimensional volume of a recording medium. However, in most cases the recording medium had to be photosensitive requiring doping with photochromic molecules or nanoparticles in a multilayer stack or in the bulk material. Here, we show high-density data storage in commonly available plastics without any special material preparation. A pulsed laser was used to record data in micron-sized modified regions. Upon excitation by the read laser, each modified region emits fluorescence whose intensity represents 32 grey levels corresponding to 5 bits. We demonstrate up to 20 layers of embedded data. Adjusting the read laser power and detector sensitivity storage capacities up to 0.2 TBytes can be achieved in a standard 120 mm disc.

  2. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  3. Modern methods of high-pressure fuel pump common rail power system diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyshchun В.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We've considered high pressure fuel pumps design features and equipment for their diagnosis. It was noted that the reliability of the fuel elements Common Rail system primarily provide precision parts of the fuel equipment. As a consequence, the aim of study was comparative analysis and laborious of modern methods of the high pressure fuel pump diagnosing. In particular, the definition of a technical condition of the fuel pump was carried out using a special stand and by measuring the fuel pressure and duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal. As an object of our research we've chosen Bosch № 0445010008 fuel pump (from Mercedes Benz E320cdi in which the plunger pairs were changed alternately with different technical conditions. Preliminary fuel pump parameters were determined by hydraulic testing. Based on conducted experiments we've found out that fuel pressure measurement change method and the duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal at the starting and full load modes less laborious compared to the definition of a technical condition of the pump on the stand. The results of both methods of diagnosing confirmed identity of the fuel pumps.

  4. Role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. Simulation and optimization; Rolle und Bedeutung der Stromspeicher bei hohen Anteilen erneuerbarer Energien in Deutschland. Speichersimulation und Betriebsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Niklas

    2013-06-13

    The share of renewable electricity generation of gross electricity consumption in Germany increased from 6.8 % to about 20 % during the years of 2000 and 2011. This share will increase even more in the future. The greater part of the renewable electricity generation is characterized by significant fluctuations, which can only be planned to a limited extent. Hence, the electricity system in Germany faces the challenge to integrate an increasing amount of fluctuating renewable electricity generation. Additionally the system stability needs to be ensured, despite a decreasing capacity in conventional power plants. One option to support the integration of large amounts of renewable electricity generation and to enhance system stability is the deployment of storage technologies. The aim of this research was to analyze the role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. To achieve this aim, adiabatic compressed air energy storage, diabatic compressed air energy storage and mobile battery storage systems were simulated and compared with a pumped hydro storage as the reference storage system. Key characteristics of these storage systems were modeled within a fundamental stochastic unit commitment model of the German power markets (Joint-Market-Model) in order to analyze the effect of the implementation of these storage systems on the overall cost of the electricity system. Additionally, the operation of the storages in an electricity system with high shares of renewable energy was evaluated. The results show that the integration of large shares of renewable electricity generation into the grid can only be achieved with a substantial implementation of storage systems. To integrate 50 % of renewable energy, a storage power of 27 GW and storage capacity of 245 GWh is needed. For a renewable energy share of 80 %, a storage power of 78 GW and a storage capacity of 6.3 TWh are necessary. A 100

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  6. Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about regulations, developed by EPA, in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders, that ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

  7. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  8. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    by simulation and experimental tests under various conditions considering all possible cases such as different amounts of voltage sag depth (VSD), different amounts of point-on-wave (POW) at which voltage sag occurs, harmonic distortion, line frequency variation, and phase jump (PJ). Furthermore, the ripple amount of fundamental voltage amplitude calculated by the proposed method and its error is analyzed considering the line frequency variation together with harmonic distortion. The best and worst detection time of proposed method were measured 1ms and 8.8ms, respectively. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other voltage sag detection methods available in literature. Part 2: Power System Modeling for Renewable Energy Integration: As power distribution systems are evolving into more complex networks, electrical engineers have to rely on software tools to perform circuit analysis. There are dozens of powerful software tools available in the market to perform the power system studies. Although their main functions are similar, there are differences in features and formatting structures to suit specific applications. This creates challenges for transferring power system circuit models data (PSCMD) between different software and rebuilding the same circuit in the second software environment. The objective of this part of thesis is to develop a Unified Platform (UP) to facilitate transferring PSCMD among different software packages and relieve the challenges of the circuit model conversion process. UP uses a commonly available spreadsheet file with a defined format, for any home software to write data to and for any destination software to read data from, via a script-based application called PSCMD transfer application. The main considerations in developing the UP are to minimize manual intervention and import a one-line diagram into the destination software or export it from the source software, with all details to allow load flow, short circuit and

  9. An Augmented Common Weight Data Envelopment Analysis for Material Selection in High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shokr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a challenging issue in manufacturing processes while the inappropriate selected material may lead to fail the manufacturing process or end user experience especially in high-tech industries such as aircraft and shipping. Every material has different quantitative and qualitative criteria which should be considered simultaneously when assessing and selecting the right material. A weighted linear optimization method (WLOM in the class of data envelopment analysis which exists in literature is adopted to address material selection problem while accounting for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. However, it is demonstrated the adopted WLOM method is not able to produce a full ranking vector for the material selection problems borrowed from the literature. Thus, an augmented common weight data envelopment analysis model (ACWDEA is developed in this paper with the aim of eliminating deficiencies of WLOM model. The proposed ACWDEA is able to produce full ranking vector in decision making problems with less computational complexities in superior to the WLOM. Two material selection problems are solved and results are compared with WLOM and previous methods. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed ACWDEA method are evaluated through Spearman’s correlation tests.

  10. Common statistical and research design problems in manuscripts submitted to high-impact medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Taylor, Sara; Hyun, Jenny K; Reeder, Rachelle N; Harris, Alex Hs

    2011-08-19

    To assist educators and researchers in improving the quality of medical research, we surveyed the editors and statistical reviewers of high-impact medical journals to ascertain the most frequent and critical statistical errors in submitted manuscripts. The Editors-in-Chief and statistical reviewers of the 38 medical journals with the highest impact factor in the 2007 Science Journal Citation Report and the 2007 Social Science Journal Citation Report were invited to complete an online survey about the statistical and design problems they most frequently found in manuscripts. Content analysis of the responses identified major issues. Editors and statistical reviewers (n = 25) from 20 journals responded. Respondents described problems that we classified into two, broad themes: A. statistical and sampling issues and B. inadequate reporting clarity or completeness. Problems included in the first theme were (1) inappropriate or incomplete analysis, including violations of model assumptions and analysis errors, (2) uninformed use of propensity scores, (3) failing to account for clustering in data analysis, (4) improperly addressing missing data, and (5) power/sample size concerns. Issues subsumed under the second theme were (1) Inadequate description of the methods and analysis and (2) Misstatement of results, including undue emphasis on p-values and incorrect inferences and interpretations. The scientific quality of submitted manuscripts would increase if researchers addressed these common design, analytical, and reporting issues. Improving the application and presentation of quantitative methods in scholarly manuscripts is essential to advancing medical research.

  11. Cultural Factors in High School Student Motivation to Study Less Commonly Taught Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nunn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning less commonly taught languages (LCTLs such as Japanese can be challenging for American students. Due to the difficulty of learning LCTLs, more effort is required of the learners to become proficient as compared to European languages. Motivation contributes to the learners’ academic success. In the socio-cultural perspective, the learners’ cultural background mediates their cognitive process. This study examines the motivational differences and similarities among two culturally diverse groups of high school learners of Japanese: Asians excluding Japanese-Americans and non-Asians. One hundred forty two students completed a survey. Factor analysis yielded six factors: integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, intrinsic motivation (doing activities for enjoyment, self-efficacy (a belief in one’s ability to succeed, goal specificity, and goal strategy. The motivational differences were confirmed in intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for LCTL teachers suggest practical steps that can be taken on motivational factors that influence students from different cultural backgrounds.

  12. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Xianhu; Li, Jiongtang; Jiang, Yanliang; Kuang, Youyi; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Li, Chuangju; Yu, Juhua; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-04-24

    A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species.

  13. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  14. Urban renewal in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, P.

    1995-01-01

    Urban renewal in transition consists revised and enlarged version of two papers. The first paper 'urban renewal and restructuring: between economie and social renewal' had been presented at the conference 'Labour on the move and transitions in the building process', organlzed by the Bartlett School

  15. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  16. Renewable energy systems the earthscan expert guide to renewable energy technologies for home and business

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Dilwyn

    2013-01-01

    This book is the long awaited guide for anyone interested in renewables at home or work. It sweeps away scores of common misconceptions while clearly illustrating the best in renewable and energy efficiency technologies. A fully illustrated guide to renewable energy for the home and small business, the book provides an expert overview of precisely which sustainable energy technologies are appropriate for wide-spread domestic and small business application. The sections on different renewable energy options provide detailed descriptions of each technology along with case studies, installatio

  17. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  18. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  19. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herfatmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Peng, Zhijun; Ihracska, Alexis; Lin, Yuzhen; Lu, Lipeng; Zhang, Chi

    2016-01-01

    The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions...

  20. Are High-IQ Individuals Deficient in Common Sense? A Critical Examination of the "Clever Sillies" Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    A controversial hypothesis [Charlton (2009). "Clever sillies: Why high-IQ people tend to be deficient in common sense." "Medical Hypotheses," 73, 867-870] has recently been proposed to account for why individuals of high-IQ and high social status tend to hold counter-intuitive views on social phenomena. It is claimed that these "clever sillies"…

  1. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  2. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  3. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  4. A Common Criteria-Based Team Project for High Assurance Secure Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, Cynthia E

    2005-01-01

    .... To complement a course in secure systems that focuses on foundational principles of constructive security, a laboratory project that requires students to work in teams while meeting Common Criteria...

  5. Transcriptional Profiling Reveals a Common Metabolic Program in High-Risk Human Neuroblastoma and Mouse Neuroblastoma Sphere-Forming Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-risk neuroblastoma remains one of the deadliest childhood cancers. Identification of metabolic pathways that drive or maintain high-risk neuroblastoma may open new avenues of therapeutic interventions. Here, we report the isolation and propagation of neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential from tumors of the TH-MYCN mouse, an animal model of high-risk neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification. Transcriptional profiling reveals that mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells acquire a metabolic program characterized by transcriptional activation of the cholesterol and serine-glycine synthesis pathways, primarily as a result of increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding factors and Atf4, respectively. This metabolic reprogramming is recapitulated in high-risk human neuroblastomas and is prognostic for poor clinical outcome. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the metabolic program markedly decreases the growth and tumorigenicity of both mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells and human neuroblastoma cell lines. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for targeting the metabolic program of high-risk neuroblastoma.

  6. Environment project: 50 measures for a development of the high environmental quality renewable energies; Grenelle Environnement: 50 mesures pour un developpement des energies renouvelables a haute qualite environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    This document presents the 50 measures decided by the government to develop the renewable energies in France and reach the 20% of participation to the energy production in 2020. Some measures concern all the renewable energies, they deal with the regulation, the administrative procedures of the building, others are specific to each energy. (A.L.B.)

  7. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  8. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ravi; Campbell, Daniel; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm sh...

  9. [Hypernatremia - common condition in critical illness associated with high mortality. But the treatment arsenal is inadequate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Karin; Barle, Hans

    2016-11-14

    Hypernatremia in ICU is common, both as a preexisting condition and acquired during intensive care. Hypernatremia increases mortality and morbidity as an increased length of a stay and increased risk of complications. Current treatment options of manifest hypernatremia are limited, but there are opportunities for prevention that should not be overlooked.

  10. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T. Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  11. Evaluation of common bean lines for adaptation to high temperatures in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in other regions worldwide, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America and the Caribbean (CA/C) region is threatened by effects of climate change including increasing temperatures and drought due to variable rainfall patterns. One of the main alternatives for increasing ada...

  12. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  13. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  15. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  18. Molecular characterization of high performance inbred lines of Brazilian common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P C B; Veiga, M M; de Menezes, I P P; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Melo, L C; Del Peloso, M J; Brondani, C; Vianello, R P

    2013-02-06

    The identification of germplasm genetic variability in breeding programs of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is essential for determining the potential of each combination of parent plants to obtain superior genotypes. The present study aimed to estimated the extent of genetic diversity in 172 lineages and cultivars of the common bean by integrating five tests of value for cultivation and use (VCU) that were conducted over the last eight years by the breeding program of Embrapa Arroz e Feijão in Brazil. Nine multilocus genotyping systems composed of 36 fluorescent microsatellite markers distributed across 11 different chromosomes of the common bean were used, of which 24 were polymorphic in all trials. One hundred and eighty-seven alleles were identified, with an average of 7.79 alleles per locus and an average gene diversity of 0.65. The combined probability of identity for all loci was 1.32 x 10(-16). Lineages that are more genetically divergent between the selection cycles were identified, allowing the breeding program to develop a crossbreed between elite genotypes with a low degree of genetic relatedness. HE values ranged from 0.31 to 0.63, with a large reduction in the genetic base over successive selection cycles. The test showed a significant degree of differentiation (FST = 0.159). Private alleles (26%) were identified and can be directly incorporated into the gene pool of cultivated germplasm, thereby contributing effectively to the expansion of genetic diversity in this bean-breeding program.

  19. Notch Stimulates Both Self-Renewal and Lineage Plasticity in a Subset of Murine CD9High Committed Megakaryocytic Progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Weiss-Gayet

    Full Text Available This study aimed at reinvestigating the controversial contribution of Notch signaling to megakaryocytic lineage development. For that purpose, we combined colony assays and single cells progeny analyses of purified megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEP after short-term cultures on recombinant Notch ligand rDLL1. We showed that Notch activation stimulated the SCF-dependent and preferential amplification of Kit+ erythroid and bipotent progenitors while favoring commitment towards the erythroid at the expense of megakaryocytic lineage. Interestingly, we also identified a CD9High MEP subset that spontaneously generated almost exclusively megakaryocytic progeny mainly composed of single megakaryocytes. We showed that Notch activation decreased the extent of polyploidization and maturation of megakaryocytes, increased the size of megakaryocytic colonies and surprisingly restored the generation of erythroid and mixed colonies by this CD9High MEP subset. Importantly, the size increase of megakaryocytic colonies occurred at the expense of the production of single megakaryocytes and the restoration of colonies of alternative lineages occurred at the expense of the whole megakaryocytic progeny. Altogether, these results indicate that Notch activation is able to extend the number of divisions of MK-committed CD9High MEPs before terminal maturation while allowing a fraction of them to generate alternative lineages. This unexpected plasticity of MK-committed progenitors revealed upon Notch activation helps to better understand the functional promiscuity between megakaryocytic lineage and hematopoietic stem cells.

  20. Mechanism study of high browning degree of mantle muscle meat from Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus during air-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jie-Ting; Kaido, Toshiki; Kasukawa, Masaru; Zhong, Chan; Sun, Le-Chang; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2015-06-01

    Mantle meat from the Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) browns more than other squid meats during air-drying. The factors contributing to the browning of Japanese common squid, long-finned squid (Photololigo edulis) and bigfin reef squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) were studied in boiled and raw meat both before and after air-drying. Dried raw meat from the Japanese common squid browned more than dried boiled meat (b(∗) value, from 4.7 to 28.5). The results from SDS-PAGE showed significant degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) suggesting that protease activity in raw Japanese common squid meat was higher than in the other two species. The concentration of arginine (1932.0mg/100g) and ribose (28.8μmol/g) in Japanese common squid meat was higher than in the other two species. These results suggest that high protease activity and high concentrations of arginine and ribose increase the browning discoloration of Japanese common squid during air-drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High Prevalence of Tula Hantavirus in Common Voles in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Miriam; de Vries, Ankje; van Roon, Annika; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke; Rockx, Barry

    2017-03-01

    Tula virus (TULV) is a zoonotic hantavirus. Knowledge about TULV in the Netherlands is very scarce. Therefore in 2014, 49 common voles (Microtus arvalis) from a region in the south of the Netherlands, and in 2015, 241 common voles from regions in the north of the Netherlands were tested with the TULV quantitative RT-PCR. In the southern region, prevalence of TULV was 41% (20/49). In the northern regions, prevalence ranged from 12% (4/34) to 45% (17/38). Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the regions fall within different clusters. Voles from the south were also tested on-site for the presence of hantavirus antibodies, but serology results were poorly associated with qRT-PCR results. These findings suggest that TULV may be more widespread than previously thought. No human TULV cases have been reported thus far in the Netherlands, but differentiation between infection by TULV or the closely related Puumala virus is not made in humans in the Netherlands, thus cases may be misdiagnosed.

  2. The common cuckoo is an effective indicator of high bird species richness in Asia and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Møller, Anders Pape; Nelson, Emma; Benedetti, Yanina; Liang, Wei; Šímová, Petra; Moretti, Marco; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2017-06-29

    Common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is a charismatic bird species with a dominant presence in human culture: from folklore legends to nowadays there is evidence of cuckoos being a prime candidate as a surrogate of bird diversity. Recent studies demonstrated that the cuckoo can predict hotspots of taxonomic diversity and functional diversity of bird communities in European countries. In this study, we demonstrated that the cuckoo is an excellent bioindicator at multi-spatial scale, extending cuckoo surrogacy from Europe to Asia. Even using three different survey methods (transect, square, point counts), comparing the new findings with results of our research in Europe, sites where the cuckoo is present were characterized by greater species richness, while the cuckoo was absent from sites with low species richness. The goodness of fit of models based on point counts ranged between 71 and 92%. Furthermore, the cuckoo population trend mirrors the average population trend and climate suitability of overall bird communities in Europe. The common cuckoo is therefore a suitable intercontinental bioindicator of hotspots of bird richness, even under climate change scenarios or in areas where the species co-occurs with other cuckoo species, opening a new avenue for standardized citizen science on bird biodiversity surveys worldwide.

  3. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  4. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  5. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  6. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    and educational tools are introduced to allow initial estimates of which chemical processes could be viable. Specifically, fossil and renewables value chains are used to indicate where renewable feedstocks can be optimally valorized. Additionally, C factors are introduced that specify the amount of CO2 produced...

  7. Allergic rhinitis and the common cold--high cost to society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, J; Cervin, A; Nordling, S; Bergman, A; Cardell, L O

    2010-06-01

    The common cold and allergic rhinitis constitute a global health problem that affects social life, sleep, school and work performance and is likely to impose a substantial economic burden on society because of absence from work and reduced working capacity. This study assesses the loss of productivity as a result of both allergic rhinitis and the common cold in the Swedish working population. Four thousand questionnaires were sent to a randomized adult population, aged 18-65 years, in Sweden, stratified by gender and area of residence (metropolitan area vs rest of the country). The human capital approach was used to assign monetary value to lost productivity in terms of absenteeism (absence from work), presenteeism (reduced working capacity while at work) and caregiver absenteeism (absence from work to take care of a sick child). Thousand two hundred and thirteen individuals responded, response rate 32%. The mean productivity loss was estimated at 5.1 days or euro 653 per worker and year, yielding a total productivity loss in Sweden of euro 2.7 billion a year. Of the total costs, absenteeism (44%) was the dominant factor, followed by presenteeism (37%) and caregiver absenteeism (19%). Poisson regression analyses revealed that women, people in the 18-29 year age group, and respondents with 'doctor-diagnosed asthma' reported more lost days than the rest of the group. In Sweden, the cost of rhinitis is euro 2.7 billion a year in terms of lost productivity. A reduction in lost productivity of 1 day per individual and year would potentially save euro 528 million.

  8. Quantum dot immunoassays in renewable surface column and 96-well plate formats for the fluorescence detection of Botulinum neurotoxin using high-affinity antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Marvin G.; Grate, Jay W.; Tyler, Abby J.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Miller, Keith D.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2009-09-01

    A fluorescence sandwich immunoassay using high affinity antibodies and quantum dot (QD) reporters has been developed for detection of botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). For the development of the assay, a nontoxic recombinant fragment of the holotoxin (BoNT/A-HC-fragment) has been used as a structurally valid simulant for the full toxin molecule. The antibodies used, AR4 and RAZ1, bind to nonoverlapping epitopes present on both the full toxin and on the recombinant fragment. In one format, the immunoassay is carried out in a 96-well plate with detection in a standard plate reader. Detection down to 31 pM of the BoNT/Hc-fragment was demonstrated with a total incubation time of 3 hours, using AR4 as the capture antibody and QD-coupled RAZ1 as the reporter. In a second format, the AR4 capture antibody was coupled to Sepharose beads, and the immunochemical reactions were carried out in microcentrifuge tubes with an incubation time of 1 hour. These beads were subsequently captured and concentrated in a rotating rod “renewable surface” flow cell as part of a sequential injection fluidic system. This flow cell was equipped with a fiber optic system for fluorescence measurements. In PBS buffer solution matrix, the BoNT/A-HC-fragment was detected to concentrations as low as 5 pM using the fluidic measurement approach.

  9. BRS FC402: high-yielding common bean cultivar with carioca grain, resistance to anthracnose and fusarium wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS FC402 is a common bean cultivar of the carioca-grain group with commercial grain quality, suitable for cultivation in 21 Brazilian states. Cultivar has a normal cycle (85-94 days, high yield potential (4479 kg ha-1, 10.1% higher mean yield than the controls (2462 kg ha-1 and resistance to fusarium wilt and anthracnose.

  10. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  11. Character Development: Renewing an Old Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Growing public concern with student discipline, increases in student suicide rates, homicides, and high pregnancy rates of teenage girls are causing educators to give renewed attention to the concept of "character development" in public education. (MD)

  12. High-Resolution RNA Maps Suggest Common Principles of Splicing and Polyadenylation Regulation by TDP-43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Rot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs regulate both alternative exons and poly(A site selection. To understand their regulatory principles, we developed expressRNA, a web platform encompassing computational tools for integration of iCLIP and RNA motif analyses with RNA-seq and 3′ mRNA sequencing. This reveals at nucleotide resolution the “RNA maps” describing how the RNA binding positions of RBPs relate to their regulatory functions. We use this approach to examine how TDP-43, an RBP involved in several neurodegenerative diseases, binds around its regulated poly(A sites. Binding close to the poly(A site generally represses, whereas binding further downstream enhances use of the site, which is similar to TDP-43 binding around regulated exons. Our RNAmotifs2 software also identifies sequence motifs that cluster together with the binding motifs of TDP-43. We conclude that TDP-43 directly regulates diverse types of pre-mRNA processing according to common position-dependent principles.

  13. Limitation of C3-CAM shift in the common ice plant under high irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronska, K; Romanowska, E; Miszalski, Z; Niewiadomska, E

    2013-01-15

    In the halophytic plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum salinity or drought can change the mode of photosynthesis from C(3) to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). These two stress factors are linked to oxidative stress, however, the induction of CAM by oxidative stress per se is not straightforward. Treatment with high light (HL) did not lead to the induction of CAM, as documented by a low night/day difference in malate level and a low expression of the CAM-related form of phosphoenolcarboxylase (Ppc1), despite causing some oxidative damage (elevated MDA level, malondialdehyde). In contrast to the action of high salinity (0.4M NaCl), HL treatment did not activate neither the cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme nor the chloroplastic form of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH). In plastids of HL-treated plants a huge amount of starch was accumulated. This was associated with a weak stimulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic starch-degrading enzymes, in contrast to their strong up-regulation under high salinity. It is concluded that HL alone is not able to activate starch degradation necessary for CAM performance. Moreover, in the absence of salinity in C(3)M. crystallinum plants an age-dependent increase in energy dissipation from PSII was documented under high irradiance, as illustrated by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Obtained data suggest that in this halophytic species several photoprotective strategies are strictly salinity-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatibility of Four Common Orthopedic Biomaterials Following a High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lecocq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, salt consumption appears to be drastically above the recommended level in industrialized countries. The health consequences of this overconsumption are heavy since high-salt intake induces cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and stroke. Moreover, harmful interaction may also occur with orthopaedic devices because overconsumption of salt reinforces the corrosive aspect of biological tissues and favors bone resorption process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect of three weeks of a high-salt diet, associated (or not with two weeks of the neuro-myoelectrostimulation (NMES rehabilitation program on the biocompatibility of four biomaterials used in the manufacture of arthroplasty implants. Thus, two non-metallic (PEEK and Al2O3 and two metallic (Ti6Al4V and CrCo compounds were implanted in the rat tibial crest, and the implant-to-bone adhesion and cell viability of two surrounded muscles, the Flexor Digitorum (FD and Tibialis Anterior (TA, were assessed at the end of the experiment. Results indicated lower adhesion strength for the PEEK implant compared to other biomaterials. An effect of NMES and a high-salt diet was only identified for Al2O3 and Ti6Al4V implants, respectively. Moreover, compared to a normal diet, a high-salt diet induced a higher number of dead cells on both muscles for all biomaterials, which was further increased for PEEK, Al2O3, and CrCo materials with NMES application. Finally, except for Ti6Al4V, NMES induced a higher number of dead cells in the directly stimulated muscle (FD compared to the indirectly stimulated one (TA. This in vivo experiment highlights the potential harmful effect of a high-salt diet for people who have undergone arthroplasty, and a rehabilitation program based on NMES.

  15. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  16. Production of biosurfactants using substrates from renewable-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds commonly used in industries are chemically synthesized. However, biosurfactants have been paid increasing attention to replace the synthetic surfactants owing to their advantages such as biodegradability and low toxicity. Nowadays, the use of biosurfactant has been limited due to the high production cost. Nevertheless, biosurfactants can be produced with high yield by some microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas sp. These microorganisms can use the various renewal resources, especially agroindustrial wastes, as the potential carbon sources. This leads to the greater possibility for economical biosurfactant production and reduced pollution caused by those wastes.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Trieu

    2013-04-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

  18. Investigation on Electromagnetic Models of High-Speed Solenoid Valve for Common Rail Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel formula easily applied with high precision is proposed in this paper to fit the B-H curve of soft magnetic materials, and it is validated by comparison with predicted and experimental results. It can accurately describe the nonlinear magnetization process and magnetic saturation characteristics of soft magnetic materials. Based on the electromagnetic transient coupling principle, an electromagnetic mathematical model of a high-speed solenoid valve (HSV is developed in Fortran language that takes the saturation phenomena of the electromagnetic force into consideration. The accuracy of the model is validated by the comparison of the simulated and experimental static electromagnetic forces. Through experiment, it is concluded that the increase of the drive current is conducive to improving the electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency of the HSV at a low drive current, but it has little effect at a high drive current. Through simulation, it is discovered that the electromagnetic energy conversion characteristics of the HSV are affected by the drive current and the total reluctance, consisting of the gap reluctance and the reluctance of the iron core and armature soft magnetic materials. These two influence factors, within the scope of the different drive currents, have different contribution rates to the electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of probable common mental disorders in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Chibanda, D.; Cowan, F; Gibson, L; Weiss, HA; Lund, C

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2014 close to 10 million people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa were on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The incidence of non-communicable diseases has increased markedly in PLWH as mortality is reduced due to use of HAART. Common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent in PLWH. We aimed to determine factors associated with probable CMD and depression, assessed by 2 locally validated screening tools in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Ha...

  20. High Levels of Resistance in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), to Neonicotinoid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Anderson, Troy D

    2016-05-01

    The rapid increase of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of novel control tactics. Products combining pyrethroids and neonicotinoids have become very popular for bed bug control in the United States, but there are concerns about evolution of resistance to these compounds. Laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of topical applications of four neonicotinoids to a susceptible population and three pyrethroid-resistant populations. Activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and cytochrome P450s of all strains was also evaluated. High levels of resistance to four neonicotinoids, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam, relative to the susceptible Fort Dix population, were detected in populations collected from human dwellings in Cincinnati and Michigan. Because activity of detoxifying enzymes was increased in these two populations, our results suggest that these enzymes have some involvement in neonicotinoid resistance, but other resistance mechanisms might be involved as well. Detection of high levels of resistance to neonicotinoids further limits the options for chemical control of bed bugs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Improved high-throughput quantification of luminescent microplate assays using a common Western-blot imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Liam J; Storey, Kenneth B

    2017-01-01

    Common Western-blot imaging systems have previously been adapted to measure signals from luminescent microplate assays. This can be a cost saving measure as Western-blot imaging systems are common laboratory equipment and could substitute a dedicated luminometer if one is not otherwise available. One previously unrecognized limitation is that the signals captured by the cameras in these systems are not equal for all wells. Signals are dependent on the angle of incidence to the camera, and thus the location of the well on the microplate. Here we show that: •The position of a well on a microplate significantly affects the signal captured by a common Western-blot imaging system from a luminescent assay.•The effect of well position can easily be corrected for.•This method can be applied to commercially available luminescent assays, allowing for high-throughput quantification of a wide range of biological processes and biochemical reactions.

  2. High Sensitivity to Auxin is a Common Feature of Hairy Root 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen Hui; Davioud, Elisabeth; David, Chantal; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Tempé, Jacques; Guern, Jean

    1990-01-01

    The responses to auxin of Lycopersicon esculentum roots transformed by (Tl+Tr)-DNA of the Ri plasmid of agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834 and Catharanthus trichophyllus roots transformed by the (Tl+Tr)-DNA, and by Tl- or Tr- DNA alone of the same bacterial strain were compared to that of their normal counterparts. The transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts was measured as a function of the concentration of exogenous naphthalene acetic acid. The sensitivity to auxin expressed by this response was shown to be independent of the measurement conditions and of the basal polarization of isolated protoplasts. According to this electrical response, as well as to the modulation by auxin of proton excretion by root tips and root tip elongation, roots transformed by (Tl+Tr) DNA are 100 to 1000 times more sensitive to exogenous auxin than normal roots, as is the case with normal and transformed roots from Lotus corniculatus (WH Shen, A Petit, J Guern, J Tempé [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 3417-3421). Further-more, transformed roots of C. trichophyllus are not modified in their sensitivity to fusicoccin, illustrating the specificity of the modification of the auxin sensitivity. Roots transformed by the Tr-DNA alone showed the same sensitivity to auxin as normal roots, whereas the roots transformed by the Tl-DNA alone exhibited an auxin sensitivity as high as the roots transformed by (Tl+Tr)-DNA. It was concluded that the high sensitivity to auxin is controlled by the Tl-DNA in agropine type Ri plasmids. PMID:16667748

  3. INTEGRATED RENEWAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyono .

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The marginal distribution of integrated renewal process is derived in this paper. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson point processes. The results are presented in the form of Laplace transforms.

  4. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  5. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  6. High photobiont diversity in the common European soil crust lichen Psora decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Ulrike; Brunauer, Georg; Türk, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of green algal photobionts (chlorobionts) in soil crust forming lichens was studied as part of the SCIN-project (Soil Crust InterNational). A total of 64 lichen samples were collected from four different sites along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe (Tabernas/Spain; Hochtor-Großglockner/Austria; Gynge Alvar/Sweden; Ruine Homburg/Germany). The dominant lichen species at all four sites was Psora decipiens, often occurring with Buellia elegans, Fulgensia bracteata, F. fulgens and Peltigera rufescens. Genetic identification of chlorobionts was carried out using the nuclear marker (nrITS) and a chloroplast marker (psbL-J). We found P. decipiens to be associated with several different species of Trebouxia and Asterochloris, although previously described to only have Asterochloris sp. The phylogenetic analyses revealed a high chlorobiont diversity with 12 well supported clades, including Trebouxia asymmetrica, T. jamesii, T. impressa and other, as yet taxonomically unidentified clades (Trebouxia sp. URa1-4, T. sp. URa6, T. sp. URa7-13). Additionally, five clades of Asterochloris were identified (A. magna, A. sp. URa14 -17). Most of the chlorobiont species appeared to be cosmopolitan, but five clades were unevenly distributed between the sampling sites with only Trebouxia being found in the warm and dry Spanish habitats and combinations of Trebouxia and Asterochloris in the cooler and more humid habitats. The wide range of chlorobiont species might contribute to the observed domination of P. decipiens at all four research sites of the SCIN project which range from a desert in Spain to an alpine site in the Alps of Austria.

  7. Analysis of high allergenicity airborne pollen dispersion: common ragweed study case in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šaulienė, Ingrida; Veriankaitė, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of ragweed pollen in the air became more frequent in northerly countries. Attention of allergologists and aerobiologists in these countries is focused on the phenomenon that Ambrosia plants found relatively sporadic but the amount of pollen is high in particular days. Over the latter decade, a matter of particular concern has been Ambrosia pollen, whose appearance in the air is determined by the plants dispersing it and meteorological processes that alter pollen release, dissemination, transport or deposition on surfaces. Pollen data used in this study were collected in three pollen-trapping sites in Lithuania. The data corresponding to 2006-2011 years of pollen monitoring were documented graphically and evaluated statistically. Analysis of the pollen data suggests that although the number of ragweed plants identified has not increased over the latter decade, the total pollen count has been on the increase during the recent period. The highest atmospheric pollen load is established on the last days of August and first days of September. The estimated effect of meteorological parameters on pollen dispersal in the air showed that in Lithuania ragweed pollen is recorded when the relative air humidity is about 70%, and the minimal air temperature is not less than 12°C. Analysis of wind change effect on pollen count indicates that pollen is most often recorded in the air when the changes in wind speed are low (1-2 m/s). We have established a regularity exhibiting an increase in ragweed pollen count conditioned by south-eastern winds in Lithuania.

  8. Highly controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from combustion of a common African biofuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie L.; Thomas, J. Chris; Morgan, William T.; Hadden, Rory; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Keita, Sekou; Liousse, Cathy; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Particulate emissions from biomass burning can both alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, due to the large effect on emissions caused by even small alterations to the way in which a fuel burns, it is difficult to study particulate production of biomass combustion mechanistically and in a repeatable manner. In order to address this gap, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire in West Africa were burned in a highly controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding thermal environment were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing aerosol emissions to be mapped directly onto different phases of combustion. Emissions from pyrolysis were visible as a distinct phase before flaming was established. After flaming combustion was initiated, a black-carbon-dominant flame was observed during which very little organic aerosol was produced, followed by a period that was dominated by organic-carbon-producing smouldering combustion, despite the presence of residual flaming. During pyrolysis and smouldering, the two phases producing organic aerosol, distinct mass spectral signatures that correspond to previously reported variations in biofuel emissions measured in the atmosphere are found. Organic aerosol emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event were found to be representative of the time spent in the pyrolysis and smouldering phases, rather than reflecting a coupling between emissions and the mass loss of the sample. Further exploration of aerosol yields from similarly carefully controlled fires and a careful comparison with data from macroscopic fires and real-world emissions will help to deliver greater constraints on the

  9. Evaluation criteria for an optimized regional energy supply with high shares of renewable generation; Bewertungskriterien einer optimierten Energieversorgung regionaler Verbuende mit hohen Anteilen erneuerbarer Erzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Michael [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    To determine an optimum economic solution for a renewable energy supply, an integral consideration of the system would be desirable. Because the difficulty of implementation increases with the number of stakeholders involved, locally optimized sub systems could accelerate the change in energy supply, albeit the global optimum might not be reached. An enhanced regional self-sufficiency could be a conceivable measure to increase public acceptance for interventions in the energy supply system. In this paper different ratios for quantification and illustration of the improvement of an optimized energy supply are defined. The effectiveness of demand side management, flexibly operated cogeneration units and energy storages are examined. The results are compared with those of a systematic throttling of producers during peak times. The calculations are performed within the Regenerative Modellregion Harz project, one of six model regions that are supported by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety within the E-Energy-initiative. The potential for increasing the internal consumption and the ratio of self-supply of the listed residual load smoothing methods can be determined. The reduction of maximum imports and exports by demand side management and flexibly operated cogeneration units prove to be comparatively small. A greater effect on the level of residual loads can be achieved by the use of storage power plants and especially power-to-gas because of the technology's high storage capacity. A strong decrease of maximum exports can be realized by systematic reduction of production during peak times. The required grid capacities can almost be cut in half by using 99 instead of 100 percent of the power generation potentials. (orig.)

  10. Generators for renewable energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C.

    2010-07-01

    Generators for renewable energy applications were discussed in this presentation. These applications included: hydel, wind, biomass, and solar thermal. Generators can be designed and manufactured to match the type of prime movers and their characteristics with basic design experience in the rotating electrical machines. Though the output power with these renewable systems range from small kilowatts to megawatts, the controls systems required are quite different depending on the site and the type of customers. There are many types of generators, including synchronous or asynchronous generators, or those with or without permanent magnets. They could also be with controls or without controls and with the grid or without the grid. They could also be slow speed or high speed; direct coupled or indirect; or single or dual or DFIG systems. Most of the generators being used are designed as generators meant for the specific prime movers characteristics. In many cases prime mover alone are not designed for prime mover applications.

  11. Renewable energy and environment - a future perspective

    OpenAIRE

    SANDHYA KATTAYAT; SMITHA JOSEY; ASHA J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s adolescent students are part of the population heading towards the energy crisis. An awareness about alternate energy resources especially renewable energy resources is required among today’s youngsters. If the younger generation is part of today’s innovation programs in the field of renewable energy, their future advancement in this field will be high and their progress will be in a rapid pace. Thus the inevitable energy crisis awaiting us can be avoided. Along with that, the problem...

  12. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  13. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  14. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  15. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  16. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  17. An ultra-high common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) AC instrumentation amplifier for laplacian electrocardiographic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C C; Tarjan, P P

    1999-01-01

    Laplacian electrocardiograms (LECGs) localize the moment of activation (MOA) of the heart noninvasively at a nearby point on the chest surface. Tripolar concentric ring (TCR) electrodes provide small, but well-defined, site-specific second spatial derivative signals of the potential on the chest surface for studying the activation sequence of the myocardium. A battery-powered, modified AC instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used as preamplifier to obtain signals with a high common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR). The authors' direct-coupled quasi-high-pass IA has high input impedance and high CMRR, without the need to match capacitors and resistors. The amplifier circuit and two lithium cells were integrated with the substrate for the TCR sensor to minimize inductive pickup by the leads. Combining the natural ability of the TCR electrodes to reject common-mode signals with the high CMRR of the IA made it possible to obtain LECG signals in real time with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The authors observed and recorded the MOAs from 16 sites in a 4-by-4 matrix from the left side of the thorax of each subject. Beat-by-beat changes were observed from one subject showing episodes of bigeminal rhythm. The authors were able to obtain localized signals representing the right and left ventricles from surface TCR electrodes in real time.

  18. Parallel Sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags from Two Complementary DNA Libraries for High and Low Phosphorus Adaptation in Common Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Blair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Expressed sequence tags (ESTs have proven useful for gene discovery in many crops. In this work, our objective was to construct complementary DNA (cDNA libraries from root tissues of common beans ( L. grown under low and high P hydroponic conditions and to conduct EST sequencing and comparative analyses of the libraries. Expressed sequence tag analysis of 3648 clones identified 2372 unigenes, of which 1591 were annotated as known genes while a total of 465 unigenes were not associated with any known gene. Unigenes with hits were categorized according to biological processes, molecular function, and cellular compartmentalization. Given the young tissue used to make the root libraries, genes for catalytic activity and binding were highly expressed. Comparisons with previous root EST sequencing and between the two libraries made here resulted in a set of genes to study further for differential gene expression and adaptation to low P, such as a 14 kDa praline-rich protein, a metallopeptidase, tonoplast intrinsic protein, adenosine triphosphate (ATP citrate synthase, and cell proliferation genes expressed in the low P treated plants. Given that common beans are often grown on acid soils of the tropics and subtropics that are usually low in P these genes and the two parallel libraries will be useful for selection for better uptake of this essential macronutrient. The importance of EST generation for common bean root tissues under low P and other abiotic soil stresses is also discussed.

  19. High resolution melting analytical platform for rapid prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia common among Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajantasen, Thanet; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa

    2015-02-20

    High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a powerful technology for scanning sequence alteration. We have applied this HRM assay to screen common β-thalassemia mutations found among Southeast Asian population. Known DNA samples with 8 common mutations were used in initial development of the methods including -28 A-G, codon 17 A-T, IVSI-1G-T, IVSI-5G-C, codon 26G-A (Hb E), codons 41/42 -TTCT, codons 71/72+A and IVSII-654 C-T. Further validation was done on 60 postnatal and 6 prenatal diagnoses of β-thalassemia. Each mutation has specific HRM profile which could be used in rapid screening. Apart from those with DNA deletions, the results of HRM assay matched 100% with those of routine diagnosis made by routine allele specific PCR. In addition, the HRM assay could initially recognize three unknown mutations including a hitherto un-described one in Thai population. The established HRM assay should prove useful for rapid and high throughput platform for screening and prenatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia common in the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    it can compete with hydrogen production from natural gas. Similar substitution possibilities are emerging in the case of conversion of renewable alcohols to synthesis gas, which is used for instance in the manufacture of methanol and synthetic fuel. Here it is illustrated how glycerol can be converted...... of a possible production of value-added chemicals from renewable resources. High temperature dehydration of methanol and ethanol results in a range of different hydrocarbons, which can be used either as gasoline fuel or, by altering process conditions, as a way to produce important olefin products which can......The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...

  1. Integrated renewable energy networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Spencer, L.

    2015-12-01

    This multidisciplinary research is focused on studying implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Our modern economy now depends heavily on large-scale, energy-intensive technologies. A transition to low carbon, renewable sources of energy is needed. We will develop a procedure for designing and analyzing renewable energy systems based on the magnitude, distribution, temporal characteristics, reliability and costs of the various renewable resources (including biomass waste streams) in combination with various measures to control the magnitude and timing of energy demand. The southern Canadian prairies are an ideal location for developing renewable energy networks. The region is blessed with steady, westerly winds and bright sunshine for more hours annually than Houston Texas. Extensive irrigation agriculture provides huge waste streams that can be processed biologically and chemically to create a range of biofuels. The first stage involves mapping existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation, such as ridges, rooftops and valley walls, will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids.

  2. Organometallics and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Michael A.R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C.A. (eds.) [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Debye Inst. of Nanomaterials Science

    2012-11-01

    USPs - BPF Each volume of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry provides the broad scientific readership with a comprehensive summary and critical overview of a specific topic in organometallic chemistry. Research in this rapidly developing transdisciplinary field is having profound influence on other areas of scientific investigation, ranging from catalytic organic synthesis to biology, medicine and material science. With contributions by international experts. Lucas Montero de Espinosa and Michael A. R. Meier: Olefin Metathesis of Renewable Platform Chemicals.- Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx, Robin Jastrzebski, Peter J. C. Hausoul, Robertus J. M. Klein Gebbink, and Bert M. Weckhuysen: Pd-Catalysed Telomerisation of 1,3-Dienes with Multifunctional Renewable Substrates - Versatile Routes for the Valorisation of Biomass-Derived Platform Molecules.- A Behr, A. J. Vorholt: Hydroformylation and related reactions of renewable resources.- Ties J. Korstanje, Robertus J.M. Klein Gebbink: Catalytic oxidation and deoxygenation of renewables with rhenium complexes.- Antoine Buchard, Clare M. Bakewell, Jonathan Weiner and Charlotte K. Williams: Recent Developments In Catalytic Activation Of Renewable Resources For Polymer Synthesis.

  3. Greening the Grid: Advances in Production Cost Modeling for India Renewable Energy Grid Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-12

    The Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid study uses advanced weather and power system modeling to explore the operational impacts of meeting India's 2022 renewable energy targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integrating high levels of renewable energy into the Indian grid. The study relies primarily on a production cost model that simulates optimal scheduling and dispatch of available generation in a future year (2022) by minimizing total production costs subject to physical, operational, and market constraints. This fact sheet provides a detailed look at each of these models, including their common assumptions and the insights provided by each.

  4. Characterization of a Type-Common Human Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus with High Therapeutic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Logu, Alessandro; Williamson, R. Anthony; Rozenshteyn, Roman; Ramiro-Ibañez, Fernando; Simpson, Cindy D.; Burton, Dennis R.; Paolo Sanna, Pietro

    1998-01-01

    We report the characterization of a type-common human recombinant monoclonal antibody previously isolated by antigen selection from a phage-displayed combinatorial antibody library established from a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-seropositive individual. Competition with well-characterized murine monoclonal antibodies and immunodetection of gD truncations revealed that this antibody recognizes the group Ib antigenic site of glycoprotein D, a highly conserved and protective type-common determinant. To our knowledge, this is the first human group Ib monoclonal antibody ever described. The antibody also displayed first-order neutralization kinetics and a high neutralization rate constant, was capable of completely inhibiting syncytium formation by a fusogenic strain of HSV type 1, and efficiently neutralized low-passage clinical isolates of both HSV serotypes. Taken together with our earlier observations of the in vivo antiviral activities of this human recombinant antibody in animal models of HSV infection, the present results support the high therapeutic potential of this antibody. PMID:9774565

  5. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  6. Integrated Renewal Process

    OpenAIRE

    Suyono .; Van der Weide, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The marginal distribution of integrated renewal process is derived in this paper. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson point processes. The results are presented in the form of Laplace transforms. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jims.13.2.64.149-159

  7. Sources of Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Herb

    1980-01-01

    Given the outside pressures of layoffs, inflation, and public criticism, many teachers are turning to the specifics of teaching for release. Talking with one's students, developing humor in the classroom, experimenting with a slower pace of life, and thinking about self-sufficiency can lead to renewed energy and interest. (Author/SJL)

  8. Renewable Energy for Microenterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allderdice, A.; Rogers, J.H.

    2000-11-28

    This guide provides readers with a broad understanding of the potential benefits that current renewable energy technologies can offer rural microenterprises. It also introduces the institutional approaches that have been developed to make RE technologies accessible to microentrepreneurs and the challenges that these entrepreneurs have encountered.

  9. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  10. Ensemble forecasting for renewable energy applications - status and current challenges for their generation and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The operational management of renewable energy generation in power systems and electricity markets requires forecasts in various forms, e.g., deterministic or probabilistic, continuous or categorical, depending upon the decision process at hand. Besides, such forecasts may also be necessary at various spatial and temporal scales, from high temporal resolutions (in the order of minutes) and very localized for an offshore wind farm, to coarser temporal resolutions (hours) and covering a whole country for day-ahead power scheduling problems. As of today, weather predictions are a common input to forecasting methodologies for renewable energy generation. Since for most decision processes, optimal decisions can only be made if accounting for forecast uncertainties, ensemble predictions and density forecasts are increasingly seen as the product of choice. After discussing some of the basic approaches to obtaining ensemble forecasts of renewable power generation, it will be argued that space-time trajectories of renewable power production may or may not be necessitate post-processing ensemble forecasts for relevant weather variables. Example approaches and test case applications will be covered, e.g., looking at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm in Denmark, or gridded forecasts for the whole continental Europe. Eventually, we will illustrate some of the limitations of current frameworks to forecast verification, which actually make it difficult to fully assess the quality of post-processing approaches to obtain renewable energy predictions.

  11. Human mesenchymal stem cells self-renew and differentiate according to a deterministic hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sarugaser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs have been isolated from a variety of connective tissues, and are commonly called "mesenchymal stem cells" (MSCs. A stem cell is defined as having robust clonal self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential. Accordingly, the term "MSC" has been criticised, as there is little data demonstrating self-renewal of definitive single-cell-derived (SCD clonal populations from a mesenchymal cell source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that a tractable MPC population, human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs, was capable of multilineage differentiation in vitro and, more importantly, contributed to rapid connective tissue healing in vivo by producing bone, cartilage and fibrous stroma. Furthermore, HUCPVCs exhibit a high clonogenic frequency, allowing us to isolate definitive SCD parent and daughter clones from mixed gender suspensions as determined by Y-chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of the multilineage differentiation capacity of SCD parent clones and daughter clones enabled us to formulate a new hierarchical schema for MSC self-renewal and differentiation in which a self-renewing multipotent MSC gives rise to more restricted self-renewing progenitors that gradually lose differentiation potential until a state of complete restriction to the fibroblast is reached.

  12. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    ) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results......Renewable natural resources (like water, fish and wildlife stocks, forests and grazing lands) are critical for the livelihood of millions of people and understanding how they can be managed efficiently is an important economic problem. I show how regulator uncertainty about different economic...

  13. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  14. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K.

    2016-12-01

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  15. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  16. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  17. Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands.

  18. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  19. High genetic variability in endophytic fungi from the genus Diaporthe isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, T T; de Souza Leite, T; de Queiroz, C B; de Araújo, E F; Pereira, O L; de Queiroz, M V

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the present study were to identify, to analyse the phylogenetic relations and to evaluate the genetic variability in Diaporthe endophytic isolates from common bean. Diaporthe sp., D. infecunda and D. phaseolorum strains were identified using multilocus phylogeny (rDNA ITS region; EF1-α, β-tubulin, and calmodulin genes). IRAP (Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism) and REMAP (Retrotransposon-Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism) molecular markers reveal the existence of high genetic variability, especially among D. infecunda isolates. It was concluded that the multilocus phylogenetic approach was more effective than individual analysis of ITS sequences, in identifying the isolates to species level, and that IRAP and REMAP markers can be used for studying the genetic variability in the genus Diaporthe particularly at the intraspecific level. The combined use of molecular tools such as multilocus phylogenetic approach and molecular markers, as performed in this study, is the best way to distinguish endophytic strains of Diaporthe isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Lateralization of visually guided detour behaviour in the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, a reptile with highly independent eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi

    2013-11-01

    Chameleons (Chamaeleonidae, reptilia), in common with most ectotherms, show full optic nerve decussation and sparse inter-hemispheric commissures. Chameleons are unique in their capacity for highly independent, large-amplitude eye movements. We address the question: Do common chameleons, Chamaeleo chameleon, during detour, show patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use that differ from those shown by other ectotherms? To reach a target (prey) in passing an obstacle in a Y-maze, chameleons were required to make a left or a right detour. We analyzed the direction of detours and eye use and found that: (i) individuals differed in their preferred detour direction, (ii) eye use was lateralized at the group level, with significantly longer durations of viewing the target with the right eye, compared with the left eye, (iii) during left side, but not during right side, detours the durations of viewing the target with the right eye were significantly longer than the durations with the left eye. Thus, despite the uniqueness of chameleons' visual system, they display patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use, typical of other ectotherms. These findings are discussed in relation to hemispheric functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From Digital Commons to OCLC: A Tailored Approach for Harvesting and Transforming ETD Metadata into High-Quality Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Veve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The library literature contains many examples of automated and semi-automated approaches to harvest electronic theses and dissertations (ETD metadata from institutional repositories (IR to the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC. However, most of these approaches could not be implemented with the institutional repository software Digital Commons because of various reasons including proprietary schema incompatibilities and high level programming expertise requirements our institution did not want to pursue. Only one semi-automated approach was found in the library literature which met our requirements for implementation, and even though it catered to the particular needs of the DSpace IR, it could be implemented to other IR software if further customizations were applied. The following paper presents an extension of this semi-automated approach originally created by Deng and Reese, but customized and adapted to address the particular needs of the Digital Commons community and updated to integrate the latest Resource Description & Access (RDA content standards for ETDs. Advantages and disadvantages of this workflow are discussed and presented as well.

  2. The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth

    2015-02-25

    A previous meta-analysis found that high dose zinc acetate lozenges reduced the duration of common colds by 42%, whereas low zinc doses had no effect. Lozenges are dissolved in the pharyngeal region, thus there might be some difference in the effect of zinc lozenges on the duration of respiratory symptoms in the pharyngeal region compared with the nasal region. The objective of this study was to determine whether zinc acetate lozenges have different effects on the duration of common cold symptoms originating from different anatomical regions. We analyzed three randomized trials on zinc acetate lozenges for the common cold administering zinc in doses of 80-92 mg/day. All three trials reported the effect of zinc on seven respiratory symptoms, and three systemic symptoms. We pooled the effects of zinc lozenges for each symptom and calculated point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Zinc acetate lozenges shortened the duration of nasal discharge by 34% (95% CI: 17% to 51%), nasal congestion by 37% (15% to 58%), sneezing by 22% (-1% to 45%), scratchy throat by 33% (8% to 59%), sore throat by 18% (-10% to 46%), hoarseness by 43% (3% to 83%), and cough by 46% (28% to 64%). Zinc lozenges shortened the duration of muscle ache by 54% (18% to 89%), but there was no difference in the duration of headache and fever. The effect of zinc acetate lozenges on cold symptoms may be associated with the local availability of zinc from the lozenges, with the levels being highest in the pharyngeal region. However our findings indicate that the effects of zinc ions are not limited to the pharyngeal region. There is no indication that the effect of zinc lozenges on nasal symptoms is less than the effect on the symptoms of the pharyngeal region, which is more exposed to released zinc ions. Given that the adverse effects of zinc in the three trials were minor, zinc acetate lozenges releasing zinc ions at doses of about 80 mg/day may be a useful treatment for the common cold

  3. MediaCommons for cultural heritage: Applied mixed media visualization storytelling for high resolution collaborative cyberarchaeological displays

    KAUST Repository

    Mangan, John

    2013-10-01

    Archaeology is a discipline that studies time through an understanding of space and objects in that space; archaeology is ultimately, therefore, an intersection where the visualization of space and the visualization of time meet. Archaeology has long utilized visualization as a technique to analyze and disseminate information; however, comprehensive and collaborative analysis and storytelling with this visual data has always been limited by the capacity of the systems, which create and display it. To present the most complete narrative of the past, one must seek the \\'big picture\\' by assembling the disparate pieces of data, which reflect the lives of the humans we study. This paper presents a framework for the visualization of and interaction with rich data collections in high resolution, networked, tiled-display environments, called the MediaCommons Framework. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. In vitro digestibility and changes in physicochemical and structural properties of common buckwheat starch affected by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Wang, Lijing; Cao, Rong; Fan, Huanhuan; Wang, Min

    2016-06-25

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal processing technology, was applied at 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600MPa to assess its effect on the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of common buckwheat starch (CBS). HHP treatment resulted in CBS granules with more rough surfaces. With the increasing pressure level, amylose content, pasting temperature, and thermal stability substantially increased and relative crystallinity, hardness, swelling power, and viscosity decreased. At 120-480MPa, HHP did not affect the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of CBS. However, at 600MPa, HHP contributed to a similar 'B'-type pattern. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified CBS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced content of rapidly digestible starch, and increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results revealed that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of CBS are effectively modified by HHP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradable polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Amy; Wright, Zachary C; Frank, Curtis W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns have led to the development of biorenewable polymers with the ambition to utilize them at an industrial scale. Poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxyalkanoates) are semicrystalline, biorenewable polymers that have been identified as the most promising alternatives to conventional plastics. However, both are inherently susceptible to brittleness and degradation during thermal processing; we discuss several approaches to overcome these problems to create a balance between durability and biodegradability. For example, copolymers and blends can increase ductility and the thermal-processing window. Furthermore, chain modifications (e.g., branching/crosslinking), processing techniques (fiber drawing/annealing), or additives (plasticizers/nucleating agents) can improve mechanical properties and prevent thermal degradation during processing. Finally, we examine the impacts of morphology on end-of-life degradation to complete the picture for the most common renewable polymers.

  6. High genetic diversity of common toad (Bufo bufo) populations under strong natural fragmentation on a Northern archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Steffen; Jehle, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The last decades have shown a surge in studies focusing on the interplay between fragmented habitats, genetic variation, and conservation. In the present study, we consider the case of a temperate pond-breeding anuran (the common toad Bufo bufo) inhabiting a naturally strongly fragmented habitat at the Northern fringe of the species' range: islands offshore the Norwegian coast. A total of 475 individuals from 19 populations (three mainland populations and 16 populations on seven adjacent islands) were genetically characterized using nine microsatellite markers. As expected for a highly fragmented habitat, genetic distances between populations were high (pairwise F st values ranging between 0.06 and 0.33), with however little differences between populations separated by ocean and populations separated by terrestrial habitat (mainland and on islands). Despite a distinct cline in genetic variation from mainland populations to peripheral islands, the study populations were characterized by overall high genetic variation, in line with effective population sizes derived from single-sample estimators which were on average about 20 individuals. Taken together, our results reinforce the notion that spatial and temporal scales of fragmentation need to be considered when studying the interplay between landscape fragmentation and genetic erosion.

  7. Proposed framework legislation for renewable energy in South Africa / David Frederik van der Merwe

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, David Frederik

    2015-01-01

    It is common-cause that South Africa can be regarded as a country that is rich in diversity of natural resources. Moreover, it is generally accepted that South Africa has the best legislation with regard to the regulation of the environment in various fields such as water, air, biodiversity and waste management. However, there is to date, no specific legislation regulating renewable energy in South Africa. As a result of the high unemployment rate, poverty and the rural populat...

  8. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  9. Reducing Risks for Problem Behaviors During the High School Transition: Proximal Outcomes in the Common Sense Parenting Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Thompson, Ronald W; Haggerty, Kevin P; Snyder, James J

    2015-09-01

    This study tests Common Sense Parenting (CSP)®, a widely used parent-training program, in its standard form and in a modified form known as CSP Plus , with low-income 8 th graders and their families during the high school transition. The six-session CSP program proximally targets parenting and child emotion regulation skills. CSP Plus adds two sessions that include youth, and the eight-session program further targets skills for avoiding negative peers and activities in high school. Over two cohorts, 321 families were enrolled and randomly assigned to either CSP, CSP Plus , or minimal-contact control conditions. To date, pretest and posttest assessments have been completed, with 93% retention over about a 6-month interval. Here, analyses of preliminary outcomes from pretest to posttest focus on data collected from parents, who represent the primary proximal intervention targets. Intent-to-treat structural equation modeling analyses were conducted. CSP and CSP Plus had statistically significant effects on increased parent-reported child emotion regulation skills. CSP Plus further showed a statistically significant effect on increased parent perceptions of their adolescent being prepared for high school, but only in a model that excluded the CSP condition. Neither program had a significant proximal effect on parenting practices. Emotion regulation, one indicator of self-control, is a robust protective factor against problem behaviors. Intervention effects on this outcome may translate into reduced problems during high school. Moreover, CSP Plus showed some limited signs of added value for preparing families for the high school transition.

  10. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  11. Renewables for Sustainable Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Baring-Gould, I.; Bianchi, J.; Corbus, D.; Drouilhet, S.; Elliott, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Jimenez, A.; Lilienthal, P.; Newcomb, C.; Taylor, R.

    2000-11-06

    This paper describes the efforts of NREL's Renewables for Sustainable Village Power team to match renewable energy technologies with rural energy needs in the international market. The paper describes the team's activities, updates the lessons learned, and proposes an integrated approach as a model for rural electrification with renewables.

  12. Design for Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhou, Dao; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2017-01-01

    Power electronics are widely used in renewable energy systems to achieve lower cost of energy, higher efficiency and high power density. At the same time, the high reliability of the power electronics products is demanded, in order to reduce the failure rates and ensure cost-effective operation...... of the renewable energy systems. This paper thus describes the basic concepts used in reliability engineering, and presents the status and future trends of Design for Reliability (DfR) in power electronics, which is currently undergoing a paradigm shift to a physics-of-failure approach. Two case studies of a 2 MW...

  13. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  14. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  15. Bolivia renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  16. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...

  17. Education in the Australian CRC for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The sudden surge of growth which has occurred in the renewable energy industry over the past five years has caught educators napping. Utilities and industry are finding it difficult to recruit staff who are qualified to design and maintain renewable energy systems. The Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy (ACRE), established in July 1996, is committed to addressing the social and environmental issues raised by global warming by developing and commercializing high quality renewable energy systems. A crucial part of this mission is to provide educational services to support this new technology and to build public confidence in renewable energy systems. The Education Program of ACRE will provide a range of education, training and information about renewable energy systems and greenhouse issues. This paper describes the approach and objectives of the Education Program and the outcomes it hopes to achieve. (author). 5 refs.

  18. Potential and use of renewable energy sources in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrhovcak, Maja Boicevic; Debrecin, Nenad [Department of Power Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Tomsic, Eljko [Ministry of Economy, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-10-15

    The current share of renewable energy sources in electricity production in Croatia is very high, around 50%. Nevertheless it is expected that the share of renewables will have to rise and efficient strategies must be examined and adopted. The Croatian government has recognised the important role renewable energy sources could play in Croatian energy and electricity supply. The most important barrier for a wider deployment of renewables in energy production is their cost which is still above those of conventional energy sources. As the energy market is currently undergoing the process of liberalisation, support mechanisms that are compatible with an open market philosophy must be adopted. The characteristics of the Croatian power system, the expected consumption, growth and possible future role of renewables in energy and electricity production is presented. The current legislative framework relevant for renewables is analysed and discussed. (author)

  19. Renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  20. Experiments on common property management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.; Shogren, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Common property resources are (renewable) natural resources where current excessive extraction reduces future resource availability, and the use of which is de facto restricted to a specific set of agents, such as inhabitants of a village or members of a community; think of community-owned forests,

  1. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  2. A high-throughput phenotyping procedure for evaluation of antixenosis against common cutworm at early seedling stage in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guangnan; Liu, Kai; Gai, Junyi

    2017-01-01

    Common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a major leaf-feeding pest of soybean in Asia. The previous methods of measuring antixenosis against CCW using adult plant under field or net-room conditions were time-consuming, labor-intensive and precision-inferior. To solve the problems, this study aimed at (i) establishing a high-throughput phenotyping method for evaluating antixenosis against CCW at early seedling stage, (ii) using the procedure to evaluate the antixenosis of an insect-resistant versus -susceptible germplasm population (IRSGP), (iii) validating the proposed method through comparing the results with the historical phenotypic data and phenotyping-genotyping consistency data using PAV (presence/absence variation) markers linked with the identified loci CCW-1 and CCW-2, (iv) and evaluating the efficiency of the novel method through comparisons to the previous methods. A dynamic and efficient evaluation procedure characterized with using V1 stage soybean seedlings infested with third-instar larvae in a micro-net-room in greenhouse with damaged leaf percentage (DLP) as indicator was established and designated V1TMD method. The middle term testing stage is the best dates for identifying resistant and susceptible accessions. The results from the V1TMD method were relatively stable, precise and accurate in comparison with the previous method with the detected most resistant and susceptible accessions consistent to the previous results. The DLP values differentiated obviously to coincide with the resistant and susceptible alleles of the PAV markers Gm07PAV0595 and Gm07PAV0389 tightly linked to the two resistance-related loci, CCW-1 and CCW-2, respectively, in IRSGP. Thus V1TMD is a high-throughput phenotyping method with its estimated efficiency 12 times and period shortening 4 times of those of the previous method. A dynamic and efficient V1TMD method for testing antixenosis against CCW was established, with highly resistant and highly susceptible

  3. High Leptospira Diversity in Animals and Humans Complicates the Search for Common Reservoirs of Human Disease in Rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Veronica; Chiriboga, Jorge; Miller, Erin; Olivas, Sonora; Birdsell, Dawn; Hepp, Crystal; Hornstra, Heidie; Schupp, James M; Morales, Melba; Gonzalez, Manuel; Reyes, Soraya; de la Cruz, Carmen; Keim, Paul; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Trueba, Gabriel; Pearson, Talima

    2016-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease responsible for high morbidity around the world, especially in tropical and low income countries. Rats are thought to be the main vector of human leptospirosis in urban settings. However, differences between urban and low-income rural communities provide additional insights into the epidemiology of the disease. Our study was conducted in two low-income rural communities near the coast of Ecuador. We detected and characterized infectious leptospira DNA in a wide variety of samples using new real time quantitative PCR assays and amplicon sequencing. We detected infectious leptospira in a high percentage of febrile patients (14.7%). In contrast to previous studies on leptospirosis risk factors, higher positivity was not found in rats (3.0%) but rather in cows (35.8%) and pigs (21.1%). Six leptospira species were identified (L. borgpetersenii, L kirschnerii, L santarosai, L. interrogans, L noguchii, and an intermediate species within the L. licerasiae and L. wolffii clade) and no significant differences in the species of leptospira present in each animal species was detected (χ2 = 9.89, adj.p-value = 0.27). A large portion of the world's human population lives in low-income, rural communities, however, there is limited information about leptospirosis transmission dynamics in these settings. In these areas, exposure to peridomestic livestock is particularly common and high prevalence of infectious leptospira in cows and pigs suggest that they may be the most important reservoir for human transmission. Genotyping clinical samples show that multiple species of leptospira are involved in human disease. As these genotypes were also detected in samples from a variety of animals, genotype data must be used in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide evidence of transmission and the importance of different potential leptospirosis reservoirs.

  4. Y-chromosome evidence for common ancestry of three Chinese populations with a high risk of esophageal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Huang

    Full Text Available High rates of esophageal cancer (EC are found in people of the Henan Taihang Mountain, Fujian Minnan, and Chaoshan regions of China. Historical records describe great waves of populations migrating from north-central China (the Henan and Shanxi Hans through coastal Fujian Province to the Chaoshan plain. Although these regions are geographically distant, we hypothesized that EC high-risk populations in these three areas could share a common ancestry. Accordingly, we used 16 East Asian-specific Y-chromosome biallelic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; Y-SNPs and six Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR loci to infer the origin of the EC high-risk Chaoshan population (CSP and the genetic relationship between the CSP and the EC high-risk Henan Taihang Mountain population (HTMP and Fujian population (FJP. The predominant haplogroups in these three populations are O3*, O3e*, and O3e1, with no significant difference between the populations in the frequency of these genotypes. Frequency distribution and principal component analysis revealed that the CSP is closely related to the HTMP and FJP, even though the former is geographically nearer to other populations (Guangfu and Hakka clans. The FJP is between the CSP and HTMP in the principal component plot. The CSP, FJP and HTMP are more closely related to Chinese Hans than to minorities, except Manchu Chinese, and are descendants of Sino-Tibetans, not Baiyues. Correlation analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining tree all support close genetic relatedness among the CSP, FJP and HTMP. The network for haplogroup O3 (including O3*, O3e* and O3e1 showed that the HTMP have highest STR haplotype diversity, suggesting that the HTMP may be a progenitor population for the CSP and FJP. These findings support the potentially important role of shared ancestry in understanding more about the genetic susceptibility in EC etiology in high-risk populations and have

  5. Prevalence and correlates of probable common mental disorders in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibanda, Dixon; Cowan, Frances; Gibson, Lorna; Weiss, Helen A; Lund, Crick

    2016-02-29

    In 2014 close to 10 million people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa were on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The incidence of non-communicable diseases has increased markedly in PLWH as mortality is reduced due to use of HAART. Common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent in PLWH. We aimed to determine factors associated with probable CMD and depression, assessed by 2 locally validated screening tools in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Harare, Zimbabwe. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of a systematic random sample of patients utilizing the largest primary health care facility in Harare. Adults aged ≥18 years attending over a 2-week period were eligible, excluding those who were critically ill or unable to give written informed consent. Two locally validated screening tools the Shona symptom questionnaire (SSQ-14) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered by trained research assistants to identify probable CMD and depression. Of the 264 participants, 165 (62.5 %) were PLWH, and 92 % of these were on HAART. The prevalence of probable CMD (SSQ14 > = 9) and depression (PHQ9 > = 11) were higher among people living with HIV than among those without HIV (67.9 and 68.5 % vs 51.4 and 47.2 % respectively). Multivariable analysis showed female gender and recent negative life events to be associated with probable CMD and depression among PLWH (gender: OR = 2.32 95 % CI:1.07-5.05; negative life events: OR = 4.14; 95 % CI 1.17-14.49) and with depression (gender: OR = 1.84 95 % CI:0.85-4.02; negative life events: OR = 4.93.; 95 % CI 1.31-18.50) CONCLUSION: Elevated scores on self-report measures for CMD and depression are highly prevalent in this high HIV prevalence population. There is need to integrate packages of care for CMD and depression in existing primary health care programs for HIV/AIDS.

  6. Portfolio Analysis of Renewable Energy Opportunities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Allison; Deprizio, Jodi; Anderson, Kate; DiOrio, Nick; Elgqvist, Emma; Simpkins, Travis

    2016-11-01

    Time Warner Cable (TWC), now Charter Communications (CC), partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the technical and economic potential for solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and ground-source heat-pump systems at 696 TWC facilities. NREL identified 306 sites where adding a renewable energy system would provide cost savings over the project life-cycle. In general, the top sites have some combination of high electricity rates ($0.16-$0.29/kWh), significant state incentives, and favorable net-metering policies. If all projects were implemented via third-party power purchase agreements, TWC/CC would save $37 million over 25 years and meet 10.5% of their energy consumption with renewable energy. This paper describes the portfolio screening methodology used to identify and prioritize renewable energy opportunities across the TWC sites, as well as a summary of the potential cost savings that may be realized by implementing these projects. This may provide a template for other companies interested in identifying and prioritizing renewable energy opportunities across a large number of geographically dispersed sites. Following this initial portfolio analysis, NREL will be conducting in-depth analysis of project development opportunities at ten sites and evaluating off-grid solutions that may enable carbon emission reduction and grid independence at select facilities.

  7. Complex Technical Solution for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex technical solution for implementing renewable energy, namely: wind, solar photovoltaic and hydraulics. Because wind and solar photovoltaic energy habe a highly random character, it is required to find solution to store the product energy for unfavorable periods, without wind or solar radiations. This could be achieved using the third type of renewable energy, the hydraulic one, obtained from an hydroelectric pumped storage plant (HPSP, located in the imediate vicinity of the wind and solar photovoltaic plant.

  8. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case......, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously....... In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish...

  9. Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pristupa, A.O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly

  10. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Walke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC. It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed.

  11. Fabrication of Compact Microstrip Line-Based Balun-Bandpass Filter with High Common-Mode Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of balun-bandpass filter was proposed based on the traditional coupled-line theory and folded open-loop ring resonators (OLRRs configuration. For that, a new device with both filter-type and balun-type characteristics was investigated and fabricated. Both magnetic and electric coupling structures were implemented to provide high performance balun-bandpass responses. The fabricated balun-bandpass filters had a wide bandwidth more than 200 MHz and a low insertion loss less than 2.51 dB at a center frequency of 2.6 GHz. The differences between the two outputs were below 0.4 dB in magnitude and within 180 ± 7° in phase. Also, the balun-bandpass filter presented an excellent common-mode rejection ratio over 25 dB in the passband. An advanced design methodology had been adopted based on EM simulation for making these designed parameters of OLRRs, microstrip lines, and open stubs. The measured frequency responses agreed well with simulated ones.

  12. Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffinger, D. R.; Fuller, C. W.; Gordon, E. M.; Kalu, A.; Hepp, Aloysius F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology (SORET) program is an education program involving three Historically Black Colleges and Universities and NASA's John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. These three universities; Central State University (CSU), Savannah State University (SSU) and Wilberforce University (WU) are working together with NASA Glenn to use the theme of renewable energy to improve the science, engineering and technology education of minority students and to attract minority students to these fields. In this vein, a renewable energy laboratory course is being offered at WU with the goal of giving the students of WU and CSU hands on experiences. As part of this course, the students are constructing solar light posts for a local high school with a high minority population. A Physics teacher from this school and some of his high school students are involved with this project. A lecture course on energy systems and sustainability is being developed by SSU to be delivered via distance reaming to the other institutions. Summer activities are being planned at all three institutions involving student projects in renewable energy. For example, WU students will work on a study of the synthesis and properties of photovoltaic materials. In addition, CSU will present a weeklong summer program to high school students with the assistance of WU. This presentation will focus on the student involvement and achievements in the educational area to date and plot the future course of this program.

  13. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on creation of high-efficiency renewable resources, and bioconversion technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabi ni bioconversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey was made on material production technology using creation technology of high-efficiency renewable resources (photosynthesis reaction of plants). Industrially usable plant resources in overseas countries and Japan were arranged, and plant resources unused for food were also surveyed. The present state of genetic engineering necessary for metabolic engineering of higher plants such as fit and high-expression technology of genes, plant cell cultivation, and control technology of plant cell multiplication is described, and elementary technologies required for future gene-recombined plants are predicted. Survey was also made on the trend of creation technology of industrial plants for fat and oil, biodegradable polyester, amino acid, cellulose, fiber (cotton) and forest wood. A patent list on plant biotechnology was prepared, and study on bioconversion of plant resources was also surveyed. Overseas R & D trends on conversion and effective use technologies of renewable bio- resources are reported, and process design and its profitability were evaluated through a case study. 414 refs., 87 figs., 55 tabs.

  14. Migration routes and strategies in a highly aerial migrant, the common swift Apus apus, revealed by light-level geolocators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Åkesson

    Full Text Available The tracking of small avian migrants has only recently become possible by the use of small light-level geolocators, allowing the reconstruction of whole migration routes, as well as timing and speed of migration and identification of wintering areas. Such information is crucial for evaluating theories about migration strategies and pinpointing critical areas for migrants of potential conservation value. Here we report data about migration in the common swift, a highly aerial and long-distance migrating species for which only limited information based on ringing recoveries about migration routes and wintering areas is available. Six individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle from Sweden to Africa and back. The autumn migration followed a similar route in all individuals, with an initial southward movement through Europe followed by a more southwest-bound course through Western Sahara to Sub-Saharan stopovers, before a south-eastward approach to the final wintering areas in the Congo basin. After approximately six months at wintering sites, which shifted in three of the individuals, spring migration commenced in late April towards a restricted stopover area in West Africa in all but one individual that migrated directly towards north from the wintering area. The first part of spring migration involved a crossing of the Gulf of Guinea in those individuals that visited West Africa. Spring migration was generally wind assisted within Africa, while through Europe variable or head winds were encountered. The average detour at about 50% could be explained by the existence of key feeding sites and wind patterns. The common swift adopts a mixed fly-and-forage strategy, facilitated by its favourable aerodynamic design allowing for efficient use of fuel. This strategy allowed swifts to reach average migration speeds well above 300 km/day in spring, which is higher than possible for similar sized passerines. This study

  15. Migration routes and strategies in a highly aerial migrant, the common swift Apus apus, revealed by light-level geolocators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Susanne; Klaassen, Raymond; Holmgren, Jan; Fox, James W; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The tracking of small avian migrants has only recently become possible by the use of small light-level geolocators, allowing the reconstruction of whole migration routes, as well as timing and speed of migration and identification of wintering areas. Such information is crucial for evaluating theories about migration strategies and pinpointing critical areas for migrants of potential conservation value. Here we report data about migration in the common swift, a highly aerial and long-distance migrating species for which only limited information based on ringing recoveries about migration routes and wintering areas is available. Six individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle from Sweden to Africa and back. The autumn migration followed a similar route in all individuals, with an initial southward movement through Europe followed by a more southwest-bound course through Western Sahara to Sub-Saharan stopovers, before a south-eastward approach to the final wintering areas in the Congo basin. After approximately six months at wintering sites, which shifted in three of the individuals, spring migration commenced in late April towards a restricted stopover area in West Africa in all but one individual that migrated directly towards north from the wintering area. The first part of spring migration involved a crossing of the Gulf of Guinea in those individuals that visited West Africa. Spring migration was generally wind assisted within Africa, while through Europe variable or head winds were encountered. The average detour at about 50% could be explained by the existence of key feeding sites and wind patterns. The common swift adopts a mixed fly-and-forage strategy, facilitated by its favourable aerodynamic design allowing for efficient use of fuel. This strategy allowed swifts to reach average migration speeds well above 300 km/day in spring, which is higher than possible for similar sized passerines. This study demonstrates that new

  16. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  17. Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mas, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-11-13

    Presently, the US EPA is constructing a new complex at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina to consolidate its research operations in the Raleigh-Durham area. The National Computer Center (NCC) is currently in the design process and is planned for construction as part of this complex. Implementation of the new technologies can be planned as part of the normal construction process, and full credit for elimination of the conventional technologies can be taken. Several renewable technologies are specified in the current plans for the buildings. The objective of this study is to identify measures that are likely to be both technically and economically feasible.

  18. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type*­Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

  19. A High-Density Consensus Map of Common Wheat Integrating Four Mapping Populations Scanned by the 90K SNP Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Gao, Fengmei; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Zhai, Shengnan; Qu, Yanying; Xia, Xianchun

    2017-01-01

    A high-density consensus map is a powerful tool for gene mapping, cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based consensus map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by integrating genetic maps from four recombinant inbred line populations. The populations were each genotyped using the wheat 90K Infinium iSelect SNP assay. A total of 29,692 SNP markers were mapped on 21 linkage groups corresponding to 21 hexaploid wheat chromosomes, covering 2,906.86 cM, with an overall marker density of 10.21 markers/cM. Compared with the previous maps based on the wheat 90K SNP chip detected 22,736 (76.6%) of the SNPs with consistent chromosomal locations, whereas 1,974 (6.7%) showed different chromosomal locations, and 4,982 (16.8%) were newly mapped. Alignment of the present consensus map and the wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) Chromosome Bin Map enabled assignment of 1,221 SNP markers to specific chromosome bins and 819 ESTs were integrated into the consensus map. The marker orders of the consensus map were validated based on physical positions on the wheat genome with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 (4D) to 0.97 (1A, 4B, 5B, and 6A), and were also confirmed by comparison with genetic position on the previously 40K SNP consensus map with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 (6D) to 0.99 (6A). Chromosomal rearrangements reported previously were confirmed in the present consensus map and new putative rearrangements were identified. In addition, an integrated consensus map was developed through the combination of five published maps with ours, containing 52,607 molecular markers. The consensus map described here provided a high-density SNP marker map and a reliable order of SNPs, representing a step forward in mapping and validation of chromosomal locations of SNPs on the wheat 90K array. Moreover, it can be

  20. Zfx: at the crossroads of survival and self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellot, Sonia; Sauvageau, Guy

    2007-04-20

    As the molecular mechanisms that govern stem cell fate are beginning to be unraveled, Galan-Caridad et al. (2007) report in this issue of Cell a common role for the transcription factor Zfx in the self-renewal/maintenance of both embryonic stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Their work suggests that a regulator of self-renewal can be shared between two different cell types.

  1. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  2. Development of a Low-Noise High Common-Mode-Rejection Instrumentation Amplifier. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Kenneth; Blalock, T. V.; Kennedy, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several previously used instrumentation amplifier circuits were examined to find limitations and possibilities for improvement. One general configuration is analyzed in detail, and methods for improvement are enumerated. An improved amplifier circuit is described and analyzed with respect to common mode rejection and noise. Experimental data are presented showing good agreement between calculated and measured common mode rejection ratio and equivalent noise resistance. The amplifier is shown to be capable of common mode rejection in excess of 140 db for a trimmed circuit at frequencies below 100 Hz and equivalent white noise below 3.0 nv/square root of Hz above 1000 Hz.

  3. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  4. The Geopolitics of Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; O'Sullivan, Meghan; Sandalow, David

    2017-01-01

    For a century, the geopolitics of energy has been synonymous with the geopolitics of oil and gas. However, geopolitics and the global energy economy are both changing. The international order predominant since the end of World War II faces mounting challenges. At the same time, renewable energy is growing rapidly. Nevertheless, the geopolitics of renewable energy has received relatively little attention, especially when considering the far-reaching consequences of a global shift to renewable ...

  5. Selling Renewable Energy in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Shrestha, Sarina Selling Renewable Energy in Nepal Year 2012 Pages 74 This study has been conducted for the CONNECT Project of Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The main research question addressed in the thesis is whether Finnish companies should start a renewable energy business in Nepal. This process involved investigating the current renewable energy business and markets in Nepal. The main objective of this research is to support the growth and sp...

  6. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  7. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable

  8. Renewal of the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M.

    2008-12-31

    To ensure that state-of-the-art hard x-ray tools are available for US scientists and engineers who are solving key problems in energy, environment, technology development and human health, the nation's unique high-energy x-ray source needs a major renewal of its capabilities. The Advanced Photon Source renewal program responds to key scientific needs driven by our user community. The renewal encompasses many innovations in beamlines and accelerator capabilities, each of which will transform our tools and allow new problems to be solved. In particular the APS renewal dramatically expands two compelling avenues for research. Through x-ray imaging, we can illuminate complex hierarchical structures from the molecular level to the macroscopic level, and study how they change in time and in response to stimuli. Images will facilitate understanding how proteins fit together to make living organisms, contribute to development of lighter, higher-strength alloys for fuel-efficient transportation and advance the use of biomass for alternative fuels. Hard x-rays are also especially suited to the study of real materials, under realistic conditions and in real-time. The advances proposed in this area would help develop more efficient catalysts, enhance green manufacturing, point the way to artificial light-harvesting inspired by biology and help us develop more efficient lighting. The scope of the renewal of our {approx}$1.5B facility is estimated to be {approx}$350M over five years. It is vital that the investment begin as soon as possible. The renewed APS would complement other national investments such as the National Synchrotron Light Source-II and would keep the U.S. internationally competitive.

  9. [Sickle cell anemia causes varied symptoms and high morbidity. Serious prognosis in the most common genetic disease in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellander, Christian; Sennström, Maria K B; Stiller, Viveka; Ågren, Anna

    2015-03-03

    Sickle cell anemia is a life-threatening disease, and the most common genetic disease in the world. The prevalence of sickle cell anemia in Sweden is unknown. Sickle cell anemia is an important disease, because of its variable complications, in many medical and surgical specialties. The overview highlights common medical problems encountered in sickle cell anemia presented through a case report of a pregnant woman.

  10. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on Public Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-02-01

    This report represents an initial activity of the Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) proposed National Energy Policy Implementation Plan: identify and evaluate renewable energy resources on federal lands and any limitations on accessing them. Ultimately, BLM will prioritize land-use planning activities to increase industrys development of renewable energy resources. These resources include solar, biomass, geothermal, water, and wind energy. To accomplish this, BLM and the Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of renewable energy resources on BLM lands in the western United States. The objective of this collaboration was to identify BLM planning units in the western states with the highest potential for private-sector development of renewable resources. The assessment resulted in the following findings: (1) 63 BLM planning units in nine western states have high potential for one or more renewable energy technologies; and (2) 20 BLM planning units in seven western states have high potential for power production from three or more renewable energy sources. This assessment report provides BLM with information needed to prioritize land-use planning activities on the basis of potential for the development of energy from renewable resources.

  11. Student Outreach With Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eric B. (Technical Monitor); Buffinger, D.; Fuller, C.; Kalu, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology (SORET) program is a joint grant that involves a collaboration between three HBCU's (Central State University, Savannah State University, and Wilberforce University) and NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The overall goal of the grant is to increase the interest of minority students in the technical disciplines, to encourage participating minority students to continue their undergraduate study in these disciplines, and to promote graduate school to these students. As a part of SORET, Central State University has developed an undergraduate research associates program over the past two years. As part of this program, students are required to take special laboratory courses offered at Wilberforce University that involve the application of renewable energy systems. The course requires the students to design, construct, and install a renewable energy project. In addition to the applied renewable energy course, Central State University provided four undergraduate research associates the opportunity to participate in summer internships at Texas Southern University (Renewable Energy Environmental Protection Program) and the Cleveland African-American Museum (Renewable Energy Summer Camp for High School Students) an activity co sponsored by NASA and the Cleveland African-American Museum. Savannah State University held a high school summer program with a theme of the Direct Impact of Science on Our Every Day Lives. The purpose of the institute was to whet the interest of students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) by demonstrating the effectiveness of science to address real world problems. The 2001 institute involved the design and installation of a PV water pumping system at the Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems at Savannah State. Both high school students and undergraduates contributed to this project. Wilberforce University has used NASA support to provide

  12. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  13. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  14. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  15. Renewable Acrylonitrile Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Todd R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorotnikov, Vassili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Rongming [University of Colorado; Gill, Ryan T. [University of Colorado; Gilhespy, Michelle [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Skoufa, Zinovia [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Fruchey, O. Stanley [MATRIC; Cywar, Robin M. [Formerly NREL

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 +/- 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements.

  16. Renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twidell, J.; Weir, T.

    1985-01-01

    Every country in the world is seeking new energy sources as alternatives to fossil fuels. For the best use of such resources we need to know how much is available, what the limitations are and how to make efficient devices which will harness the energy in a practical cost-effective way. Contents: Preface; Acknowledgements; List of symbols; Principles of renewable energy; Essentials of fluid mechanics; Heat transfer; Solar radiation; Soalr water heating; Other uses for solar heat; Photoelectric generation; Hydro power; Power from the wind; The photosynthetic process; Biofuels; Wave energy; Tidal power; Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC); Geothermal energy; Energy storage and distribution; Appendix A: Units; Appendix B: Data; Appendix C: Some heat transfer formulas; Index.

  17. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  18. Renewable acrylonitrile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Eric M; Eaton, Todd R; Sànchez I Nogué, Violeta; Vorotnikov, Vassili; Biddy, Mary J; Tan, Eric C D; Brandner, David G; Cywar, Robin M; Liu, Rongming; Manker, Lorenz P; Michener, William E; Gilhespy, Michelle; Skoufa, Zinovia; Watson, Michael J; Fruchey, O Stanley; Vardon, Derek R; Gill, Ryan T; Bratis, Adam D; Beckham, Gregg T

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 ± 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. RE Data Explorer: Informing Variable Renewable Energy Grid Integration for Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The RE Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based analysis tool that utilizes geospatial and spatiotemporal renewable energy data to visualize, execute, and support analysis of renewable energy potential under various user-defined scenarios. This analysis can inform high-level prospecting, integrated planning, and policy making to enable low emission development.

  20. Renewable energy: past trends and future growth in 2 degrees scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crijns-Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015

    2016-01-01

    This study explores past growth rates of renewable energy sources (1971-2012) and required future ones in 2 degrees scenarios. Results show that in spite of comparatively high growth of renewable energy in the period 2000-2012, the share of renewable energy in total energy use stayed the same (13%).

  1. The Potential of Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospective of renewable energy in the process of sustainable development in China. Along with the high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand...... as well as reduce environmental pollution. To ensure energy security and mitigate climate changes the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable possibility....... This paper analyses the current status and programming of renewable energy utilization in China and compares the potential of renewable energy sources and energy demand between China and Denmark. It proposes and discusses a forward-looking issue that is the perspective of a 100% renewable energy system...

  2. Renewal Processes and Repairable Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss the following topics: 1. Renewal reward processes The marginal distributions of renewal reward processes and its version, which we call in this thesis instantaneous reward processes, are derived. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson

  3. Business development in renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Visa, Ion

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how to foster development of renewable energy business. Factors that impede or enhance renewable energy in the EU 27 member states in the period 1998–2008 are analyzed. Nine factors are considered: population density, production output and energy sector output to indicate market

  4. Renewable Energy Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  5. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  6. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    This addition to the ISOR series addresses the analytics of the operations of electric energy systems with increasing penetration of stochastic renewable production facilities, such as wind- and solar-based generation units. As stochastic renewable production units become ubiquitous throughout el...

  7. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  8. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  9. Multi-objective optimal design of hybrid renewable energy systems using PSO-simulation based approach

    OpenAIRE

    M Sharafi; ElMekkawy, Tarek Y.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the increasing energy demand has caused dramatic consumption of fossil fuels and unavoidable raising energy prices. Moreover, environmental effect of fossil fuel led to the need of using renewable energy (RE) to meet the rising energy demand. Unpredictability and the high cost of the renewable energy technologies are the main challenges of renewable energy usage. In this context, the integration of renewable energy sources to meet the energy demand of a given area is a promising sce...

  10. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  11. Lack of renewal effect in extinction of naturally acquired conditioned eyeblink responses, but possible dependency on physical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, J; Mazilescu, L; Thieme, A; Bracha, V; Timmann, D

    2016-01-01

    Context dependency of extinction is well known and has extensively been studied in fear conditioning, but has rarely been assessed in eyeblink conditioning. One way to demonstrate context dependency of extinction is the renewal effect. ABA paradigms are most commonly used to show the renewal effect of extinguished learned fear: if acquisition takes place in context A, and extinction takes place in context B (extinction phase), learned responses will recover in subsequent extinction trials presented in context A (renewal phase). The renewal effect of the visual threat eyeblink response (VTER), a conditioned eyeblink response, which is naturally acquired in early infancy, was examined in a total of 48 young and healthy participants with two experiments using an ABA paradigm. Twenty paired trials were performed in context A (baseline trials), followed by 50 extinction trials in context B (extinction phase) and 50 extinction trials in context A (renewal phase). In 24 participants, contexts A and B were two different rooms, and in the other 24 participants, two different background colors (orange and blue) and noises were used. To rule out spontaneous recovery, an AAA design was used for comparison. There were significant effects of extinction in both experiments. No significant renewal effects were observed. In experiment 2, however, extinction was significantly less using orange background during extinction compared to the blue background. The present findings suggest that extinction of conditioned eyeblinks depends on the physical context. Findings add to the animal literature that context can play a role in the acquisition of classically conditioned eyeblink responses. Future studies, however, need to be performed to confirm the present findings. Lack of renewal effect may be explained by the highly overlearned character of the VTER.

  12. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  13. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  14. Renewable Microgrid STEM Education & Colonias Outreach Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-04-01

    To provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) outreach and education to secondary students to encourage them to select science and engineering as a career by providing an engineering-based problem-solving experience involving renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV) panels or wind turbines. All public and private schools, community colleges, and vocational training programs would be eligible for participation. The Power Microgrids High School Engineering Experience used renewable energy systems (PV and wind) to provide a design capstone experience to secondary students. The objective for each student team was to design a microgrid for the student’s school using renewable energy sources under cost, schedule, performance, and risk constraints. The students then implemented their designs in a laboratory environment to evaluate the completeness of the proposed design, which is a unique experience even for undergraduate college students. This application-based program was marketed to secondary schools in the 28th Congressional District through the Texas Education Agency’s (TEA) Regional Service Centers. Upon application, TEES identified regionally available engineers to act as mentors and supervisors for the projects. Existing curriculum was modified to include microgrid and additional renewable technologies and was made available to the schools.

  15. Renewable resources: development at the crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, B.; Cummings, J.

    1981-12-01

    The era of fossil fuel alternatives began with no clear definition or consensus on which energy supplies are alternatives or renewables. It also brought a technological search for diverse solutions, with solar getting the most adherents. Debate centered on how much solar and other renewables can realistically contribute to the total energy demand, what that contribution means in terms of barrels of oil and tons of coal, and how to attract the political and financial support necessary to develop new energy industries. The current status of renewable energy technologies underscores the critical juncture facing research because of inflation, budget cuts, the dismantlement of DOE, and a philosophical opposition to government participation. Some solar technologies can continue commercial development, but fusion is unique in its classification as a high-risk venture justifying government support. If research on renewable and synthetic energy sources is to progress, American industry must regroup and organize in support of technical, institutional, and social innovation. A timetable of development and commercialization for those technologies expected to be making a significant contribution by 2030 follows the article. (DCK)

  16. RENEW. Renewable Fuels for Advanced Powertrains. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, Frank (Volkswagen AG (DE)) (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The Integrated European Project 'Renewable Fuels for Advanced Powertrains (RENEW)' has brought together 32 European partners, among them automotive manufacturers, mineral oil industry, plant developers and RandD institutes to cooperate in a four year project to develop/improve several production routes for renewable biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuels and to undertake a technical, economic and environmental assessment. The whole chain from biomass potential assessment up to fuel application in today's and future combustion engines has been investigated. The common interface was a synthesis gas (H{sub 2}+CO) which was produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass (wood, straw, energy plants and black liquor) via gasification. Fischer-Tropsch-diesel, HCCI-fuel and Ethanol have been synthesised. Engine tests proved the suitability and sustainability of BTL FT-diesel, naphtha and DME as motor fuels. All RENEW fuels showed considerably improved emission behaviour. This is particularly pronounced and important for FT-diesel and DME. They exhibit less or equal fuel consumption than conventional fuels when compared on an energy base. Together with future engine concepts the improved combustion process can also lead to better efficiency and thus reduced fuel consumption. A first fuel specification has been derived. Investigations into the biomass potential in EU-25 revealed: in 2005 the biomass potential available for the production of biofuels without affecting that of food, fodder and fibre production was approximately 4 EJ, or 95 million tons oil equivalent (MtOE) per year. In 2020 the potential will be between 4.7 EJ/a (112 MtOE) and 7.2 EJ/a (172 MtOE). The RENEW approach was to show the energy density (bioenergy potential divided by land surface) on a resolution of NUTS 2 provinces. The total straw energy in provinces of the highest category amounts to 380 PJ. In Europe's most promising provinces, technically sufficient residue biomass is available today to

  17. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Notável: a medium-early-maturing, disease-resistant Carioca common bean cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Prucoli Posse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BRS Notável is a common bean cultivar with carioca grain, suitable for cultivation in 20 Brazilian states. It is a mediumearly-maturing cultivar, with an average yield of 2,261 kg ha-1, 8.5% higher than the controls, a high yield potential (4,472 kg ha-1, lodging tolerance and resistance to anthracnose, fusarium wilt, common bacterial blight, and curtobacterium wilt.

  18. Starr Ranch Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr Ranch Renewable Energy success story is the summary of a renewable energy study by U.S. EPA Region 6. This publication summarizes the analyses to determine appropriate renewable energy options in Starr Ranch.

  19. High density mapping and haplotype analysis of the major stem-solidness locus SSt1 in durum and common wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby T Nilsen

    Full Text Available Breeding for solid-stemmed durum (Triticum turgidum L. var durum and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars is one strategy to minimize yield losses caused by the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton. Major stem-solidness QTL have been localized to the long arm of chromosome 3B in both wheat species, but it is unclear if these QTL span a common genetic interval. In this study, we have improved the resolution of the QTL on chromosome 3B in a durum (Kofa/W9262-260D3 and common wheat (Lillian/Vesper mapping population. Coincident QTL (LOD = 94-127, R2 = 78-92% were localized near the telomere of chromosome 3BL in both mapping populations, which we designate SSt1. We further examined the SSt1 interval by using available consensus maps for durum and common wheat and compared genetic to physical intervals by anchoring markers to the current version of the wild emmer wheat (WEW reference sequence. These results suggest that the SSt1 interval spans a physical distance of 1.6 Mb in WEW (positions 833.4-835.0 Mb. In addition, minor QTL were identified on chromosomes 2A, 2D, 4A, and 5A that were found to synergistically enhance expression of SSt1 to increase stem-solidness. These results suggest that developing new wheat cultivars with improved stem-solidness is possible by combining SSt1 with favorable alleles at minor loci within both wheat species.

  20. Women with HIV are more commonly infected with non-16 and -18 high-risk HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Nathalie Dauphin; Kobetz, Erin N; Hnatyszyn, James; Twiggs, Leo B; Lucci, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    To review and summarize evidence from clinical, translational and epidemiologic studies which have examined the clinically relevant aspects of HPV type prevalence and cervical dysplasia in HIV-infected women. Relevant studies were identified through a MEDLINE search. References of identified reports were also used to identify additional published articles for review. HIV-infected women in different geographic regions (such as Zambia, Brazil, Rochester NY) appear to be infected with less prevalent types of HR-HPV as compared to the general population who, across all continents, are more commonly infected with types 16 and 18. Secondly, integration of HPV DNA into the host genome is no longer thought to be a necessary cause of malignant transformation of cervical cells. However, rate of integration appears to differ by the type of HPV. In fact, the types of HPV which appear to be more common in cervical dysplasia of HIV-infected women are the same types which are more likely to require integration for malignant transformation. Finally, HPV types found in HIV-infected women are relatively common and likely to persist. The most common among these types belong to the alpha-9 and -7 species which are the most carcinogenic species. Given that current vaccines target HR-HPV-16/18, the findings from the above mentioned studies may have important implications for the design of HPV vaccines that target the types of HPV associated with disease risk in HIV-infected women. HPV typing and assessment of the physical state (whether it is integrated or episomal) appear to be two valuable parameters for the prognostic evaluation of dysplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. This, however, has not yet been assessed in HIV-infected women. Recent data about the immune response in HPV/HIV co-infection may lead to understanding potential mechanisms for less virulent HPV causing malignant transformation in HIV-infected women.

  1. Changes in self-renewal potential of human leukemic cells (K562): a bidirectional stochastic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mechner, H; Höffken, K

    1985-05-01

    Daughter cells arising from a single cell division in the leukemic cell line K562 have equivalent self-renewal potential with respect to their ability to form clones in semisolid medium. However, individual cells isolated from these clones in sequence have vastly different abilities in their self-renewal potentials. Thus, cells originating from a clone with any particular self-renewal potential exhibit the full range of self-renewal potentials--from highly renewing to none renewing, cells. These results show that self-renewal potential in the K562 cell line is a random, reversible and partially noninherited characteristic. It is suggested that the stochastic variability of the intraclonal self-renewal potential of K562 progeny cells either reflects the initial expression of a differentiation program or the expression of the predeterministic portion of the normal myelopoietic differentiation pathway.

  2. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from spreading Common warts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  4. Renewables 2013. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J.L. (ed.) [and others

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy markets, industries, and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by many contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecasts. This latest Renewables Global Status Report saw: a shift in investment patterns that led to a global decrease in clean energy investment; continuing growth in installed capacity due to significant technology cost reductions and increased investment in developing countries; renewables progressively supplementing established electricity systems, demonstrating that the implementation of suitable policies can enable the successful integration of higher shares of variable renewables; and the emergence of integrated policy approaches that link energy efficiency measures with the implementation of renewable energy technologies.

  5. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  6. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  7. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigeant, Paul [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Miller, John [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Howes, Brian [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Baldwin, Kenneth [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Grilli, Annette [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Terray, Eugene [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  8. Nonparametric Estimation in Renewal Theory I : The Empirical Renewal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubel, R.; Pitts, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    We introduce a nonparametric estimator for the renewal function and discuss its properties, including consistency, asymptotic normality and asymptotic validity of bootstrap confidence regions. The underlying theme is that stochastic models can be regarded as functionals or nonlinear operators. This

  9. Role of Renewable Energy Certificates in Developing New Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-06-01

    For more than a decade, renewable energy certificates (RECs) have grown in use, becoming a common way to track ownership of the renewable and environmental attributes of renewable electricity generation. In recent years, however, questions have risen about the role RECs play in the decision to build new renewable energy projects. Information from a variety of market participants suggests that the importance of RECs in building new projects varies depending on a number of factors, including electricity market prices, the cost-competitiveness of the project, the presence or absence of public policies supportive of new projects, contract duration, and the perspective of different market participants. While there is no single answer to the role that RECs play, there are situations in which REC revenues are essential to project economics, as well as some where REC revenues may have little impact. To strengthen the role RECs play in both compliance and voluntary markets, there are a number of options that could be considered. In compliance markets, lawmakers or regulators would have to adopt measures that strengthen the role of RECs in the development of new projects, while in voluntary markets, it would be up to program leaders and market participants themselves to implement measures.

  10. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a demand to double the power capacity within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be set up....... Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production...

  11. Role of renewable energy for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, J.C. [World Affairs Journal, New Delhi (India)

    1999-01-01

    The present high energy paradigm of consumerism and armament is almost entirely structured on non-renewable fossil fuels. This commitment is now being further extended through massive new infrastructures and life styles to the emerging new nations. Arising out of the energy concentration and constraints of the economic parameters, movement towards low density sun-based sources of energy will be slow and halting. In the final analysis the factors, which will determine the timescale and speed of shift to renewable sources of energy, would include:- the declining economic availability and increasing conflicts in the acquisition of non renewable resources, crossing of he threshold of environmental sustainability of parameters such as doubling of Carbon dioxide, ozone layer depletion and health endangering pollution, and nuclear wastes etc., the available times scale for substitution with renewables, movement away from high energy, high technology consumerist life style and their armament support system. (Author)

  12. Renewables 2005. Global status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2005. It covers markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy in developing countries. By design, the report does not provide analysis, recommendations, or conclusions. An extensive research and review process over several months involving more than 100 researchers and contributors has kept inaccuracies to a minimum. REN21 sees this report as the beginning of an active exchange of views and information. This report reveals some surprising facts about renewable energy, many reflecting strong growth trends and increasing significance relative to conventional energy. (au)

  13. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production......—which is crucial for the cost reduction and spread use of renewable energies, because their fluctuated and unpredicted features are un-preferred for the operation of the power grid. Meanwhile there are also some emerging challenges and considerations in the renewable energy conversion system, calling for more...

  14. Renewable energy resources in Serbia and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Larisa; Ermakov, Vadim; Čajka, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Energy Policy of the Republic of Serbia and Russia is entirely based on the principles of sustainable development and the Kyoto Protocol. This paper reviews in details the characteristics of energy policy in Serbia and Russia and provides examples of certain kinds of energy. Serbia and Russia are rich in renewable energy resources. The explorations of mineral and thermal mineral water sources carried out in Serbia have shown high quality mineral waters that can be used for medical purposes. M...

  15. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  16. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  17. Sustainable Elastomers from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-07-18

    further explored to enhance the overall sustainability. Isoprene polymers were grafted from a cellulosic backbone to afford Cell-g-polyisoprene copolymers. Via cross-linking of these graft copolymers, human-skin-mimic elastomers and high resilient elastomers with a well-defined network structure were achieved. The mechanical properties of these resilient elastomers could be finely controlled by tuning the cellulose content. As isoprene can be produced by engineering of microorganisms, these elastomers could be a renewable alternative to petroleum products. In summary, triblock copolymer and graft copolymer TPEs with biomass components, skin-mimic elastomers, high resilient biobased elastomers, and engineering of macromolecular architectures for elastomers are discussed. These approaches and design provide us knowledge on the potential to make sustainable elastomers for various applications to compete with petroleum-based counterparts.

  18. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  19. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Geothermal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  20. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  1. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Hydroelectric

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  2. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  3. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  4. GRENADA. Renewables Readiness Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Grenada, like many Caribbean islands, is dependent on costly oil imports for its energy needs, including the generation of electricity. The transition to renewable energy could potentially support price reductions and improve the overall competitiveness of key sectors of the economy, particularly tourism. This report provides facts and analysis to support the country's discussion on ways to move forward with the renewable energy agenda. IRENA is ready to provide support in the implementation of the actions identified in this report.

  5. Renewable Energy Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bajpai Shrish; Kidwai Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India’s plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India’s plans to move towards green technology and address environmental concerns associated with the country and the world have been characterized. The peculiarities of the ren...

  6. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  7. Common variant in myocilin gene is associated with high myopia in isolated population of Korcula Island, Croatia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vatavuk, Zoran

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To study the association between genetic variants in myocilin and collagen type I alpha 1 genes and high myopia in an isolated island population. METHODS: A total of 944 examinees from the genetic epidemiology study conducted on the island of Korcula, Croatia, were included in the study. We selected 2 short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) available in our genome-wide scan set of SNPs that were previously associated with high myopia and used them to replicate previous claims of possible association. RESULTS: Nineteen cases of high myopia, defined as the refraction of <\\/=-6.00 diopters, were identified and included in the analysis. We showed that rs2075555 in the COL1A1 gene was not associated with high myopia. In contrast, rs2421853 in the myocilin gene was significantly associated in both bivariate (P=0.006) and age- and sex-adjusted analysis (P=0.049). CONCLUSION: Myocilin seems to be a very strong candidate for explaining some of the pathophysiological pathways leading to the development of both glaucoma and high myopia. As our finding was obtained in a relatively under-powered sample, further research and replication of these results is needed.

  8. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  9. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  10. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  11. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  12. Self-renewal of acute lymphocytic leukemia cells is limited by the Hedgehog pathway inhibitors cyclopamine and IPI-926.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L Lin

    Full Text Available Conserved embryonic signaling pathways such as Hedgehog (Hh, Wingless and Notch have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. Recent data suggests that Hh signaling plays a role in normal B-cell development, and we hypothesized that Hh signaling may be important in precursor B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL. We found that the expression of Hh pathway components was common in human B-ALL cell lines and clinical samples. Moreover, pathway activity could be modulated by Hh ligand or several pathway inhibitors including cyclopamine and the novel SMOOTHENED (SMO inhibitor IPI-926. The inhibition of pathway activity primarily impacted highly clonogenic B-ALL cells expressing aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH by limiting their self-renewal potential both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that Hh pathway activation is common in B-ALL and represents a novel therapeutic target regulating self-renewal and persistence of the malignant clone.

  13. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Landis, Florian [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Tovar Reanos, Miguel Angel [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be ameliorated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms which achieve the same level of electricity generation from renewable energy sources.

  14. Step by Step Design of a High Order Power Filter for Three-Phase Three-Wire Grid-connected Inverter in Renewable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, when designing an LCL-filter, a three-phase inverter is simplified as a single-phase inverter for analysis and the output phase voltage is used to calculate the inverter-side current harmonics and to design inverter-side inductor. However, for a three-phase three-wire grid-tied sys...... method of the high order power filter is introduced. Simulations are carried out to verify the accuracy and the validity of the proposed methods through a 6 kW, 380V/50 Hz grid-connected inverter model with three different types of high order power filters....

  15. DNA barcoding common non-native freshwater fish species in Turkey: low genetic diversity but high population structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre; Ağdamar, Sevan; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2013-06-01

    Negative impacts of introduced non-native freshwater species on native species have been increasingly recognized in the world as well as in Turkey. However, there has been relatively little attention on genetic characterization of alien freshwater fishes in their non-native distribution range and virtually no study has been conducted in Turkey despite its crucial importance in invasion biology. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genetic diversity of common non-native freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Gambusia holbrooki, Lepomis gibbosus, and Pseudorasbora parva) using mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences; known as DNA barcodes. Through the whole dataset, seventeen haplotypes (haplotype diversity = 0.8908) were found containing 145 COI sequences. Mean Kimura two-parameter genetic distances were calculated as 0.209 for interspecific distance and 0.009 for intraspecific variation. COI barcode diversity among populations of the same species was found to be low, especially for C. gibelio, G. holbrooki, and L. gibbosus populations which were 0.5%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Our results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the DNA barcoding approach both for identifications at species level and revealing intraspecific variation among populations, which could be used for effective management measures for invasive species and conservation strategies for indigenous and endemic species.

  16. Adaptation to High Temperature and Water Deficit in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. during the Reproductive Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hide Omae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the adaption to heat and drought stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain and vegetable crop widely grown in both the Old and New World. Substantial genotypic differences are found in morphophysiological characteristics such as phenology, partitioning, plant-water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and shoot growth, which are related to reproductive responses. The associations between (a days to podding and leaf water content and (b the number of pods per plant and seed yield are consistent across different environments and experiments. Leaf water content is maintained by reductions in leaf water potential and shoot extension in response to heat and drought stress. Heat-tolerant cultivars have higher biomass allocation to pods and higher pod set in branches. These traits can be used as a marker to screen germplasm for heat and drought tolerance. In this paper, we briefly review the results of our studies carried out on heat and drought tolerance in the common bean at the Tropical Agriculture Research Front, Ishigaki, Japan.

  17. All you can eat: high performance capacity and plasticity in the common big-eared bat, Micronycteris microtis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene E Santana

    Full Text Available Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards, which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.

  18. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The "Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning" experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization…

  19. Smart grid and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    conventional, fossil based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discus trends of the future grid infrastructure as well as the most emerging renewable energy......The electrical energy consumption continues growing and more applications relay on electricity. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. Therefore, it is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy are done...... as efficient as possible. Further, the recent challenges with nuclear power plants are arguing to find more sustainable energy generation solutions. Of many options, two major technologies will play important roles to solve parts of those future challenges. One is to change the electrical power production from...

  20. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, G.; R Deshmukh; Ndhlukula, K; Radojicic, T; Reilly, J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmenta...

  1. International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, L; Dash, Subhransu; Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in Proceedings of International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems (ICPERES 2014) held at Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of Power Electronics and Renewable Energy. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  2. Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Sera, Dezso

    2007-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  3. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  4. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  5. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  6. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  7. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  8. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  9. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Jondiko, Tom O; Tilley, Michael; Awika, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    Steamed bread is a popular staple food in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties and Chinese steamed bread quality using 16 wheat lines grown in Texas. Although similar in protein content (134-140 mg g⁻¹), gluten composition and dough properties differed widely among the lines. Compared with non-deletion lines, deletion lines had lower (P bread quality (score, 60.8-65.0) with good elasticity and crumb structure. Deletion at Glu-B1y and/or Glu-D1y loci in high-strength hard wheat produced good dough properties for steamed bread. This suggests that wheat functionality for steamed bread can be improved by manipulating HMW-GS composition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Growth pattern of a common feather moss, Hylocomium splendens, from contrasting water regimes in a high Arctic tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ueno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hylocomium splendens, a widespread feather moss, is one of the major plant species found in high-Arctic tundra. It occupies a variety of habitats ranging from exposed dry ground to swampy areas. To clarify the effect of the water regime on the growth pattern of H. splendens, the shoot morphology of H. splendens growing in contrasting water regimes, i.e. hydric, mesic and xeric sites, was investigated using retrospective analyses of growth. The derived growth parameters for H. splendens differed considerably among the sites. The growing period at the hydric, mesic and xeric sites was 1 year, 2 years and 3 years, respectively. The annual increments in segment length and biomass were higher with increasing water availability. These results suggest that water regime has a strong influence on the growth pattern of H. splendens in high-Arctic tundra.

  11. [Municipal distribution of the incidence of the most common tumours in an area with high cancer mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas Casasola, Manuel Jesús; Fernández Navarro, Pablo; Fajardo Rivas, María Luisa; Gurucelain Raposo, José Luis; Alguacil Ojeda, Juan

    To describe the geographic distribution patterns of the municipal incidence of the most common tumours in the Huelva province (Spain) as compared to the estimated incidence for all of Spain. Relative risk (RR) was computed based on the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié by applying the INLA tool to the cancer data for 2007-2011 for the following tumour locations: colon, rectum and anus (men and women); trachea, bronchia, and lungs, prostate and bladder in men; and breasts in women. The RR was presented in in choropleth and isopleth (with kriging interpolation) risk maps. RR for bladder cancer in men was greater than 1.0 in all municipalities, with confidence intervals over 1.0 in four municipalities; Madrid having a 1.56 RR (95%CI 1.30-1.67). For prostate cancer, a posteriori probabilities were below 0.1 in 68 of the 79 municipalities. For lung cancer, nine municipalities had confidence limits below 1.0, almost all of them in western Spain. For women, the RR for breast cancer was significantly higher in the capital of province area. The cancer incidence rates for the Huelva province were, in general, similar to those estimated for Spain, standing out bladder cancer in men (35% higher) and prostate cancer (30% lower). In the Huelva province, there is a geographical municipal distribution of cancer incidence with well-defined patterns for some specific tumour locations, with overall incidence rates very similar to those in the rest of Spain. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Common variants in the CRP promoter are associated with a high C-reactive protein level in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Jung; Yun, Sin Weon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kil, Hong-Ryang; Kim, Gi Beom; Han, Myung Ki; Song, Min Seob; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Byeon, Jung Hye; Sohn, Saejung; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Lee, Jong-Keuk

    2015-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limiting form of vasculitis that afflicts infants and children and manifests as fever and signs of mucocutaneous inflammation. Children with KD show various laboratory inflammatory abnormalities, such as elevations in their white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). We here performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 178 KD patients to identify the genetic loci that influence 10 important KD laboratory markers: WBC count, neutrophil count, platelet count, CRP, ESR, hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, and total protein. A total of 165 loci passed our arbitrary stage 1 threshold for replication (p SNP located at the CRP locus (rs12068753) demonstrated the most significant association with CRP in KD patients (beta = 4.73 and p = 1.20 × 10(-6) according to the stage 1 GWAS; beta = 3.65 and p = 1.35 × 10(-8) according to the replication study; beta = 3.97 and p = 1.11 × 10(-13) according to combined analysis) and explained 8.1% of the phenotypic variation observed. However, this SNP did not demonstrate any significant association with CRP in the general population (beta = 0.37 and p = 0.1732) and only explained 0.1% of the phenotypic variation in this instance. Furthermore, rs12068753 did not affect the development of coronary artery lesions or intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in KD patients. These results indicate that common variants in the CRP promoter can play an important role in the CRP levels in KD.

  13. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating standards-based visual arts, math and literacy in high-poverty urban classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization Studio in a School (STUDIO), in partnership with the New York City Department of Education, the Framing Student Success curriculum was designed by e...

  14. A study of the very high order natural user language (with AI capabilities) for the NASA space station common module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, E. N.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements are identified for a very high order natural language to be used by crew members on board the Space Station. The hardware facilities, databases, realtime processes, and software support are discussed. The operations and capabilities that will be required in both normal (routine) and abnormal (nonroutine) situations are evaluated. A structure and syntax for an interface (front-end) language to satisfy the above requirements are recommended.

  15. Sister Earth, Our Common Home: Toward a Sustainable, Planet Friendly Approach to Dialysis, a Paradigm of High Technology Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Mery, David

    2017-11-01

    In our high-technology, highly polluted world, medicine plays an important role balancing saving lives with the expenses of growing amounts of waste products, not only biologically dangerous (the potentially "contaminated" or "hazardous" waste) but also potentially harmful for the planet (nonrecyclable, plastic waste). Dialysis, the prototype of high-technology medicine, is central to these problems, as the present treatment of about 2 million patients produces an enormous quantity of waste (considering hazardous waste only about 2 kg per session, with 160 sessions per year, that is 320 kg per patient, or about 640,000 tons of hazardous waste per year for 2 million patients, roughly corresponding to 6 nuclear aircraft carriers). Furthermore, obsolete dialysis machines, and water treatments are discharged, adding to the "technological waste." Water produced by the reverse osmosis is also discharged; this is the only nonhazardous, nonpolluting waste, but in particular in dry areas, wasting water is a great ecologic concern. The present review is aimed at discussing strategies already in place and to be further implemented for reducing this particular "uremic toxin" for the earth: dialysis waste, including dialysis disposables, water, and dialysis machines. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements and analyses for active distribution grids with high penetration of renewables and electric vehicles; Messungen und Analysen fuer aktive Verteilnetze mit hohem Anteil regenerativer Energien und Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, Robert; Fiedeldey, Michael; Brennauer, Bernd [Allgaeuer Ueberlandwerk GmbH, Kempten (Germany); Meyer, Ernst-Peter [Hochschule Kempten (Germany); Metzger, Michael; Szabo, Andrei; Bamberger, Joachim [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Krengel, Stefan; Wippenbeck, Tilman [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives an overview on results and methodologies which have been found in the research project IRENE investigating a rural supply area. Faced with new challenges due to high penetration rates of photovoltaics, long distribution lines and electric vehicles one medium voltage and some low voltage networks have been equipped with high resolution measurement and control technologies. Centrally controlled charging experiments with electric vehicles have shown the potential of electric mobility to balance generation peaks from photovoltaics and thus contribute to keeping the voltage within the required bandwidth. As an additional possibility for influencing the voltage on low voltage level, controllable distribution transformers have been identified and several control strategies applied in field tests are evaluated. The assessment of the strategies will be carried out using a three-phase load flow model which will be used as control path for examinations with asymmmetric loads. (orig.)

  17. Birds of Rishi Valley, and Renewal of their Habitats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nehru Memorial Museum Library. New Delhi, 1993, pp. 235. At a time when environmental concerns are commonly identified with lost causes and battles fought against heavy odds, it is a delight to come across a story of hope. Rishi. Valley's is a tale of ecological renewal in more ways than one. Rayalaseema, in Andhra.

  18. Performance analysis of a hybrid renewable microgeneration system in load sharing applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, L; Entchev, E; Ghorab, M; Lee, E J

    2013-01-01

    .... Microgeneration utilizing renewable energy is a suitable approach to reduce energy consumption and carbon emission by offering high efficiency performance, offsetting the need for centrally-generated...

  19. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  20. Highly variable population-based prevalence rates of unilateral hearing loss after the application of common case definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Danielle S; Visser, Susanna N; Holstrum, W June; Qin, Tielin; Kenneson, Aileen

    2010-02-01

    This study shows how population-based estimates of the prevalence of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) in children aged 6 to 19 yrs can differ considerably with various applications of commonly accepted case definitions. It also examines demographic variables and risk factors related to UHL. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, is a national population-based, cross-sectional survey. This study examined results of audiometric testing at 0.5 to 8 kHz and demographic data from in-person examination interviews. Three definitions of UHL were used: (1) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz > or = 15 dB pure-tone average (PTA); (2) 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz > or = 15 dB PTA; and (3) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz > or = 20 dB or PTA >25 dB at two or more frequencies above 2 kHz (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz). Case definitions 2 and 3 are not merely subsets of case definition 1. Some overlap exists between the groups, but each case definition classifies a proportion of children who fall uniquely under that case definition. Inclusion of participants based on tympanometry results (test of middle ear function) was also examined as were demographic characteristics and risk factors associated with UHL. Overall, the weighted proportion of children with UHL using case definition 1 was 6.3% (approximately 3,213,000 children nationally); using case definition 2, it was 5.8% (approximately 2,958,000 nationally); using case definition 3, it was 3.0% (approximately 1,530,000 nationally). For all three case definitions, children who failed tympanometry were at higher risk for UHL than children who passed. For case definition 2, children from rural areas were at higher risk for UHL than were children from urban areas. This study demonstrates that different applications of well-accepted case definitions of UHL can influence population-based prevalence estimates, in this study by as much as a factor of 2. These findings highlight the importance of controlling for tympanometry status as a

  1. Headache in a high school student ? a reminder of fundamental principles of clinical medicine and common pitfalls of cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Afghan, Zakira; Hussain, Abid; Asim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Primary headache disorders account for the majority of the cases of headache. Nevertheless, the primary objective of a physician, when encountered with a patient with headache is to rule out a secondary cause the headache. This entails a search for specific associated red-flag symptoms or signs that may indicate a serious condition, as well as a heightened suspicion of and evaluation for a don't miss diagnosis. We present a case of a high-school student whose first manifestation of systemic l...

  2. Renewal processes with costs and rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasiou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We review the theory of renewal reward processes, which describes renewal processes that have some cost or reward associated with each cycle. We present a new simplified proof of the renewal reward theorem that mimics the proof of the elementary renewal theorem and avoids the technicalities in the proof that is presented in most textbooks. Moreover, we mention briefly the extension of the theory to partial rewards, where it is assumed that rewards are not accrued only at renewal epochs but al...

  3. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos; Gligor Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical mo...

  4. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Characterization of Aqueous Photochemistry Products of Common Types of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romonosky, Dian E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2015-03-19

    A significant fraction of atmospheric organic compounds is predominantly found in condensed phases, such as aerosol particles and cloud droplets. Many of these compounds are photolabile and can degrade through direct photolysis or indirect photooxidation processes on time scales that are comparable to the typical lifetimes of aqueous droplets (hours) and particles (days). This paper presents a systematic investigation of the molecular level composition and the extent of aqueous photochemical processing in different types of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors including α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, d- limonene, α-humulene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, and guaiacol, oxidized by ozone (to simulate a remote atmosphere) or by OH in the presence of NOx (to simulate an urban atmosphere). Chamber- and flow tube-generated SOA samples were collected, extracted in a methanol/water solution, and photolyzed for 1 h under identical irradiation conditions. In these experiments, the irradiation was equivalent to about 3-8 h of exposure to the sun in its zenith. The molecular level composition of the dissolved SOA was probed before and after photolysis with direct-infusion electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-MS). The mass spectra of unphotolyzed SOA generated by ozone oxidation of monoterpenes showed qualitatively similar features, and contained largely overlapping subsets of identified compounds. The mass spectra of OH/NOx generated SOA had more unique visual appearance, and indicated a lower extent of products overlap. Furthermore, the fraction of nitrogen containing species (organonitrates and nitroaromatics) was highly sensitive to the SOA precursor. These observations suggest that attribution of high-resolution mass spectra in field SOA samples to specific SOA precursors should be more straightforward under OH/NOx oxidation conditions compared to the ozone driven oxidation. Comparison of the SOA constituents

  5. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  6. Trends in Practitioner Training for the Renewable Energy Trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Latham, NY (United States); Laflin, Kirk [Partnership for Environmental Technology Education, South Portland, ME (United States)

    2006-07-01

    As workforce development becomes more of a critical component for an expanding renewable energy economy, new training opportunities are on the increase for practitioners interested in either getting into the renewable energy trades or upgrading their professional skills. This paper will report on the new trends in training and show how the instruction has become more highly developed. In many cases, curricula are now designed to provide teaching that leads to defined workplace knowledge, skills, and abilities. Private and academic training programs are becoming accredited specifically to renewable energy standards. Community colleges and technical schools are responding to local jobs by offering more and more renewable energy trades courses. And classes are expanding from 3 to 5 day workshops to semester-long courses resulting in one-year certificate and two-year associate degree programs at Community Colleges.

  7. Renewable energy plan of action for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shupe, J.W. (USDOE San Francisco Operations Office, Honolulu, HI (USA). Pacific Site Office); Stevens, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    American Samoa has no indigenous fossil fuels and is almost totally dependent for energy on seaborne petroleum. However, the seven Pacific Islands located at 14 degrees south latitude that constitute American Samoa have a wide variety of renewable resources with the potential for substituting for imported oil. Included as possible renewable energy conversion technologies are solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal, and waste-to-energy recovery. This report evaluates the potential of each of these renewable energy alternatives and establishes recommended priorities for their development in American Samoa. Rough cost estimates are also included. Although renewable energy planning is highly site specific, information in this report should find some general application to other tropical insular areas.

  8. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  9. MENA Renewables Status Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The MENA Renewables Status Report is an outcome of ADIREC, the Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference. The report provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends in the region, drawing on the most recent data available. It is produced in cooperation with over 50 contributors and researchers in the region and reveals massive growth in the renewable energy markets of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Regional investment topped US$2.9 billion in 2012, up 40% from 2011 and 650% from 2004. With over 100 projects under development, the region could see a 450% increase in non-hydro renewable energy generating capacity in the next few years. For the report, the 21 MENA countries were clustered into two sub-groups: Net Oil-Exporting Countries (NOEC) -- Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; and Net Oil-Importing Countries (NOIC) -- Djibouti, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, and Tunisia.

  10. Candidate high myopia loci on chromosomes 18p and 12q do not play a major role in susceptibility to common myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibay, Grace; Doan, Betty; Reider, Lauren; Dana, Debra; Schlifka, Melissa; Hu, Heping; Holmes, Taura; O'Neill, Jennifer; Owens, Robert; Ciner, Elise; Bailey–Wilson, Joan E; Stambolian, Dwight

    2004-01-01

    Background To determine whether previously reported loci predisposing to nonsyndromic high myopia show linkage to common myopia in pedigrees from two ethnic groups: Ashkenazi Jewish and Amish. We hypothesized that these high myopia loci might exhibit allelic heterogeneity and be responsible for moderate /mild or common myopia. Methods Cycloplegic and manifest refraction were performed on 38 Jewish and 40 Amish families. Individuals with at least -1.00 D in each meridian of both eyes were classified as myopic. Genomic DNA was genotyped with 12 markers on chromosomes 12q21-23 and 18p11.3. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses were conducted to determine whether susceptibility alleles at these loci are important in families with less severe, clinical forms of myopia. Results There was no strong evidence of linkage of common myopia to these candidate regions: all two-point and multipoint heterogeneity LOD scores were .0 and non-parametric linkage p-values were > 0.01. However, one Amish family showed slight evidence of linkage (LOD>1.0) on 12q; another 3 Amish families each gave LOD >1.0 on 18p; and 3 Jewish families each gave LOD >1.0 on 12q. Conclusions Significant evidence of linkage (LOD> 3) of myopia was not found on chromosome 18p or 12q loci in these families. These results suggest that these loci do not play a major role in the causation of common myopia in our families studied. PMID:15291966

  11. Candidate high myopia loci on chromosomes 18p and 12q do not play a major role in susceptibility to common myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciner Elise

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether previously reported loci predisposing to nonsyndromic high myopia show linkage to common myopia in pedigrees from two ethnic groups: Ashkenazi Jewish and Amish. We hypothesized that these high myopia loci might exhibit allelic heterogeneity and be responsible for moderate /mild or common myopia. Methods Cycloplegic and manifest refraction were performed on 38 Jewish and 40 Amish families. Individuals with at least -1.00 D in each meridian of both eyes were classified as myopic. Genomic DNA was genotyped with 12 markers on chromosomes 12q21-23 and 18p11.3. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses were conducted to determine whether susceptibility alleles at these loci are important in families with less severe, clinical forms of myopia. Results There was no strong evidence of linkage of common myopia to these candidate regions: all two-point and multipoint heterogeneity LOD scores were 0.01. However, one Amish family showed slight evidence of linkage (LOD>1.0 on 12q; another 3 Amish families each gave LOD >1.0 on 18p; and 3 Jewish families each gave LOD >1.0 on 12q. Conclusions Significant evidence of linkage (LOD> 3 of myopia was not found on chromosome 18p or 12q loci in these families. These results suggest that these loci do not play a major role in the causation of common myopia in our families studied.

  12. PECULIARITIES OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY BUSINESS MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLOI Ionut-Cosmin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By exploring the competitiveness of industries and companies, we could identify the factors whose importance is likely to generate competitive advantage. An inventory of content elements of the business model summarizes the clearest opportunities and prospects. The objectives developed throughout the paper want to identify the pillars of a renewable business model and to describe the strategic dimensions of their capitalisation in regional and national energy entrepreneurship. The trend of increasing the renewable energy business volume is driven by the entrepreneurs and company’s availability to try new markets, with many unpredictable implications and the willingness of these players or their creditors to spend their savings, in various forms, for the concerned projects. There is no alternative to intensive investment strategies, given that the small projects are not able to create high value and competitiveness for interested entrepreneurs. For this reason, the international practice shows that the business models in energy production are supported by partnerships and networks of entrepreneurs who are involved in the development of large projects. The most important feature of renewable business initiatives is on attracting the latest clean emerging technologies, and obviously the investors who can assume the risk of such great projects. The benefits of a well developed business model recommend a prudent approach in the launching in the investment strategies, because the competitive contexts hide always some dissatisfaction of the partners that endanger the business concept’s success. The small firms can develop a profitable business model by exploring the opportunity of the alliances, namely the particular joint ventures (association between Romanian and foreign firms. The advantages of joint venture's partners are considerable; they include access to expertise, resources and other assets that the partners could not achieve on their own

  13. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  14. Common attributes of high/low performing general surgery programs as they relate to QE/CE pass rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead-Kendall, Brittany; Slama, Eliza; Truitt, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    This comparative study aims to identify the differences between high and low performing programs as defined by their ABS board pass rates. We identified programs in the top 5% (TP) and lower 5% (LP) for 1st time QE/CE pass rates during the study period with resident and program related variables. All data was pooled and analyzed. TP had more U.S. graduates, higher average USMLE Step 1/2 scores, and all residents took the exam within a year of graduation. TP were more likely to rotate at a Level 1 trauma center, spent more time with simulation, and had numerous fellowship programs. They ascribed their success to mock oral exams, mature curricula, and group educational activities. Graduates of TP chose general surgery twice as often (40% vs 19%). Program related factors (Level 1 trauma, excellent didactics, higher number of fellowships, increased group educational activities, higher percentage of graduates into general surgery) are associated with TP. Our data suggests there may be modifiable program related variables that positively impact QE/CE pass rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Headache in a high school student – a reminder of fundamental principles of clinical medicine and common pitfalls of cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afghan, Zakira; Hussain, Abid; Asim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Primary headache disorders account for the majority of the cases of headache. Nevertheless, the primary objective of a physician, when encountered with a patient with headache is to rule out a secondary cause the headache. This entails a search for specific associated red-flag symptoms or signs that may indicate a serious condition, as well as a heightened suspicion of and evaluation for a don't miss diagnosis. We present a case of a high-school student whose first manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was a headache due to cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis, initially misdiagnosed as tension-headache and ‘ophthalmoplegic migraine’ (now known as ‘recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy’). The patient made a complete neurological and radiological recovery after systemic anticoagulation and treatment of SLE. An analysis of the clinical errors and cognitive biases leading to delayed referral to hospital is presented. We highlight the fact that adherence to the fundamental principles of clinical medicine and enhancement of cognitive awareness is required to reduce diagnostic errors. PMID:26835410

  16. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2005 Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.; Gwinner, D.; Miller, M.; Pitchford, P.

    2006-06-01

    Science and technology are at the heart of everything we do at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as we pursue innovative, robust, and sustainable ways to produce energy--and as we seek to understand and illuminate the physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering behind alternative energy technologies. This year's Research Review highlights the Lab's work in the areas of alternatives fuels and vehicles, high-performing commercial buildings, and high-efficiency inverted, semi-mismatched solar cells.

  17. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  18. Financing Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Hillman, D.; Busche, S.

    2013-04-01

    This technical report provides an overview of existing and potential financing structures for renewable energy project development in Alaska with a focus on four primary sources of project funding: government financed or supported (the most commonly used structure in Alaska today), developer equity capital, commercial debt, and third-party tax-equity investment. While privately funded options currently have limited application in Alaska, their implementation is theoretically possible based on successful execution in similar circumstances elsewhere. This report concludes that while tax status is a key consideration in determining appropriate financing structure, there are opportunities for both taxable and tax-exempt entities to participate in renewable energy project development.

  19. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    In Denmark new issues in urban renewal are being introduced. Legislation on urban renewal now demands that residents be invited to take an active part in the development of their urban area. And urban renewal is increasingly taking place in inner suburbs which are recently built, complex...... and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...... of urban architecture be developed? This research project attempts to answer these questions through a discourse on theories and methods and the development of "dialogue methods" by which professionals can learn about residents' perception of the urban architecture of their area, thus achieving a better...

  20. Financing investments in renewable energy: The role of policy design and restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1997-03-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilizing renewable energy technologies are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on project financing. This report describes the power plant financing process and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and finance. A cash-flow model is used to estimate the impact of various financing variables on renewable energy costs. Past and current renewable energy policies are then evaluated to demonstrate the influence of policy design on the financing process and on financing costs. The possible impacts of electricity restructuring on power plant financing are discussed and key design issues are identified for three specific renewable energy programs being considered in the restructuring process: (1) surcharge-funded policies; (2) renewables portfolio standards; and (3) green marketing programs. Finally, several policies that are intended to directly reduce financing costs and barriers are analyzed. The authors find that one of the key reasons that renewables policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy incentives. A policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums.

  1. ETHOS 1: a high-latitude planetary nebula with jets forged by a post-common-envelope binary central star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, B.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jones, D.; Sabin, L.; Santander-García, M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the discovery of ETHOS 1 (PN G068.1+11.0), the first spectroscopically confirmed planetary nebula (PN) from a survey of the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive for high-latitude PNe. ETHOS 1 stands out as one of the few PNe to have both polar outflows (jets) travelling at 120 ± 10 km s-1 and a close binary central star. The light curve observed with the Mercator Telescope reveals an orbital period of 0.535 d and an extremely large amplitude (0.816 mag) due to irradiation of the companion by a very hot pre-white dwarf. ETHOS 1 further strengthens the long-suspected link between binary central stars of PNe (CSPN) and jets. The Isaac Newton Telescope/Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and Very Large Telescope (VLT) FORS spectroscopy of the CSPN reveals weak N III, C III and C IV emission lines seen in other close binary CSPN and suggests that many CSPN with these weak emission lines are misclassified close binaries. We present VLT FORS imaging and Manchester Echelle Spectrometer long-slit observations from which a kinematic model of the nebula is built. An unusual combination of bipolar outflows and a spherical nebula conspires to produce an X-shaped appearance. The kinematic age of the jets (1750 ± 250 yr kpc-1) is found to be more than that of the inner nebula (900 ± 100 yr kpc-1), consistent with previous studies of similar PNe. Emission-line ratios of the jets are found to be consistent with that of reverse-shock models for fast low-ionization emitting regions (FLIERs) in PNe. Further large-scale surveys for close binary CSPN will be required to securely establish whether FLIERs are launched by close binaries. Based on observations made with the Flemish Mercator Telescope and Isaac Newton Telescope of the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos and the VLT at the Paranal Observatory under programs 083.D-0654(A) and 085.D-0629(A).

  2. Top-down chemoenzymatic approach to a high-mannose-type glycan library: synthesis of a common precursor and its enzymatic trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Akihiko; Matsuo, Ichiro; Takatani, Maki; Seko, Akira; Hachisu, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoichi; Ito, Yukishige

    2013-07-15

    From the stacks: A novel method for construction of a high-mannose-type glycan library by systematic enzymatic trimming of a single synthetic Man9-based precursor was developed. Efficient chemical synthesis of the tetradecasaccharide common precursor and orthogonal enzymatic trimming to obtain all M(8-9) and G(1)M(8-9) derivatives was demonstrated. G = glucose, M = mannose. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Second world renewable energy assembly (WREA) 2007; 2. Weltversammlung fuer Erneuerbare Energien (WREA) 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the Second World Renewable Energy Assembly at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) How to motivate common people, scientists, companies and policy makers for renewable energy (Volker Thomsen); (2) Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Eric Martinot); (3) Renewable Energy in Africa (Ibrahim Togola); (4) Legislation, the great challenge for renewable energies in Latin America (Mauro Passos); (5) Building Strategic North American Alliances to Maximize the Implementation of Renewable Energy (Jose Etcheverry); (6) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development (Shi DingHuan); (7) Renewable Energies in EU27 (Wolfgang Palz); (8) The health costs of conventional energies (Susanne Weber-Mosdorf); (9) The need for a EU-wide Moratorium on Incentives for Agrofuels and Imports of Agrofuels (Sergio Oceransky); (10) The nuclear power is no solution (Eike Schwarz); (11) Carbon Trading - a critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power (Jutta Kil); (12) The culminating energy insecurity (Joerg Schindler); (13) 100 % Renewables Scenarios an Overview (Harry Lehmann); (14) ICLEI's Local Renewables Initiative What local governments can do to promote the generation and use of renewable energy (Monika Zimmermann); (15) 100 % Projects for cities, countries and regions - an overview (Michael Stoehr); (16) Conceptualizing RE Strategies (Heinz-Wolfgang Boehnke); (17) Negawatts and Micropower: The Coming Electrical Revolution (Amory Lovins); (18) Renewable Energies, Sustainability and World Trade - Overcoming the double standard (Doerte Fouquet); (19) Financing strategies for Renewable Energies in Latin America and The Caribbean (Pablo Rosenthal); (20) Overcoming the Double-Standards: Subsidies for Nuclear and Fossil Energy (Doug Koplow); (21) The prepossession of international institutions for energy (Hans-Josef Fell); (22) The bias of the international energy institutions: The case of IAEO

  4. Inventor networks in renewable energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Technological change and gains in efficiency of renewable power generation technologies are to a large extent driven by governmental support. Various policy instruments that can broadly be categorized as technology push, demand pull or systemic constitute part of the policy mix for renewable...... energies. Our goal is to gain insights into the influence of this policy mix on the intensity and organization of inventive activities for wind power and photovoltaics in Germany since the 1980s. We examine the effect of different instruments on the size and structure of co-inventor networks based...

  5. Renewables 2012. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J.L. (ed.) [and others

    2012-08-15

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future.

  6. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  7. Renewable energy prospects for implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Renewable Energy: Prospects for Implementation contains papers that were originally commissioned by the journal Energy Policy for a series on renewable energy appearing between January 1991 to September 1992. In view of the fast-changing demands on conventional energy supply to meet environmental imperatives, it seemed timely to reproduce here a selection of those papers with a new introduction and a revised concluding chapter by the Editor of the series, Dr Tim Jackson, a research fellow with the Stockholm Environment Institute. The book is organized into four parts. The papers in Part I

  8. Equilibrium Transitions from Non Renewable Energy to Renewable Energy under Capacity Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We study the transition between non renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  9. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Claire W. Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  10. Social sustainability in urban renewal: An assessment of community aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chi Wing Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a proper building care culture has led to serious problems of urban decay in most developed cities, threatening community health and safety. To arrest urban decay, redevelopment is a commonly adopted approach for regenerating rundown areas. Redevelopment often results in negative outcomes such as disturbances to existing social networks and burgeoning construction and demolition waste. On the other hand, building rehabilitation is a more socially and environmentally friendly alternative to redevelopment, but its success depends much on residents’ active participation. With a view towards a sustainable strategy for urban renewal, it is necessary to balance the interests of different stakeholders regarding the choice between these two mainstream approaches to renewal. Although economic and physical issues are important decision making considerations, this study explores the aspirations and preferences of local residents in relation to the two options through a structured survey. The findings are conducive to the development of a balanced and socially sustainable strategy of urban renewal.

  11. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  12. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  13. Soft computing in green and renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Iowa Bioeconomy Inst.; US Department of Energy, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab; Kalogirou, Soteris [Cyprus Univ. of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences and Engineering; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar (eds.) [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems provides a practical introduction to the application of soft computing techniques and hybrid intelligent systems for designing, modeling, characterizing, optimizing, forecasting, and performance prediction of green and renewable energy systems. Research is proceeding at jet speed on renewable energy (energy derived from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides, rain, geothermal heat, biomass, hydrogen, etc.) as policy makers, researchers, economists, and world agencies have joined forces in finding alternative sustainable energy solutions to current critical environmental, economic, and social issues. The innovative models, environmentally benign processes, data analytics, etc. employed in renewable energy systems are computationally-intensive, non-linear and complex as well as involve a high degree of uncertainty. Soft computing technologies, such as fuzzy sets and systems, neural science and systems, evolutionary algorithms and genetic programming, and machine learning, are ideal in handling the noise, imprecision, and uncertainty in the data, and yet achieve robust, low-cost solutions. As a result, intelligent and soft computing paradigms are finding increasing applications in the study of renewable energy systems. Researchers, practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students engaged in the study of renewable energy systems will find this book very useful. (orig.)

  14. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and the identification of commonly expressed haplotypes using sequence specific low- and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Jungersen, Gregers

    individual. Therefore analyses of the prevalence of SLA alleles in a population are fundamental to employ pathogen-specific subunits or peptides in novel vaccines or immune diagnostics. In this study we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly...... expressed SLA class I alleles in Danish outbred swine. A total of 108 animals from eight different production herds were tested, and with low resolution sequence specific primer (SSP)-PCR typing the top five most commonly expressed SLA class I allele groups were found to be SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-1......*07XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-1*04XX, respectively. Furthermore, customized high resolution primers were designed and used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups and within the SLA-2*05XX group. In conclusion our studies suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs...

  15. Analysis of renewable portfolio standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Dougherty, W.; Duckworth, M.

    1997-12-31

    A national RPS would increase the fraction of U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies at least cost. It would help ensure that the cost and performance of these technologies would improve with manufacturing experience, scale economies, and learning-by-doing from their integration into electric systems. Thus, their economic, environmental, energy security, and sustainability benefits would be realized.

  16. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  18. Issues in Renewable Energy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Lloyd, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy education is evolving rapidly in response to drivers such as oil depletion and global warming. There is a rapidly increasing level of student interest in these topics and a growing demand from industry and government for skilled personnel to develop sustainable energy systems and greenhouse solutions. Several Australian and New…

  19. Production of Renewable Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oils have been investigated as a way to provide a renewable source for diesel fuel. A successful approach to using : vegetable oils in diesel engines has been transesterification of the oils with simple alcohols to produce mono-alkyl esters...

  20. Renewable energy from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass potential from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, OK and to estimate the potential biomas...

  1. The Self-Renewing Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard-Williams, P.; Gilman, Anne

    1978-01-01

    The concept of a self-renewing library (a library of limited size in which, beyond a certain point, material would be reduced at a rate related to the rate of acquisitions) is described as a possible solution to meet Britain's future needs for university library development. Reactions to and problems with implementing such libraries are discussed.…

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  3. Renewable Energy for Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Antonio C.; Lawand, Tom

    Although education in rural communities is an important priority, in many cases, electricity is not available to support rural educational activities. Renewable energy systems present a reasonable solution to support activities such as lighting, computers, telecommunications, and distance learning. There are certain factors and criteria that need…

  4. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Heliodromus : Renewable energy from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates

  6. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  7. A renewal theory approach to IBD sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Shai; Wilton, Peter R; Wakeley, John; Pe'er, Itsik

    2014-11-01

    A long genomic segment inherited by a pair of individuals from a single, recent common ancestor is said to be identical-by-descent (IBD). Shared IBD segments have numerous applications in genetics, from demographic inference to phasing, imputation, pedigree reconstruction, and disease mapping. Here, we provide a theoretical analysis of IBD sharing under Markovian approximations of the coalescent with recombination. We describe a general framework for the IBD process along the chromosome under the Markovian models (SMC/SMC'), as well as introduce and justify a new model, which we term the renewal approximation, under which lengths of successive segments are independent. Then, considering the infinite-chromosome limit of the IBD process, we recover previous results (for SMC) and derive new results (for SMC') for the mean number of shared segments longer than a cutoff and the fraction of the chromosome found in such segments. We then use renewal theory to derive an expression (in Laplace space) for the distribution of the number of shared segments and demonstrate implications for demographic inference. We also compute (again, in Laplace space) the distribution of the fraction of the chromosome in shared segments, from which we obtain explicit expressions for the first two moments. Finally, we generalize all results to populations with a variable effective size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ., and engineering products in dynamic applications such as springs, antivibration moldings, brushings and so forth. High fatigue resistance, good strength, and durability are other points in favor of NR. NR is now accepted as suitable for use in bridge bearings... segments and groups. Most polypeptides and proteins are water-soluble or water swellable. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze all chemical reactions of biological origin. Enzyme functions include oxygen transport, muscle movement, nerve response, nutrient...

  9. Conservation and genetic characterisation of common bean landraces from Cilento region (southern Italy): high differentiation in spite of low genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Cennamo, Paola; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Di Novella, Riccardo; Caputo, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction. The analysis conducted using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci in 140 individuals revealed a high degree of homozygosity within each landrace and a strong genetic differentiation that was reflected in the success in assigning individuals to the source landrace. On the contrary, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, analysed in one individual per landrace, were highly similar among common bean landraces but allowed the identification of a cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata Walp.), a crop largely cultivated in the Old World before the arrival of common bean from Americas. In conclusion, our study highlighted that conservation of landraces is important not only for the cultural and socio-economic value that they have for local communities, but also because the time and conditions in which they have been selected have led to that genetic distinctiveness that is at the basis of many potential agronomical applications and dietary benefits.

  10. Renewable energy in Indian country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  11. Renewable energy resources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker; Naumann, Karin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    Although the need to decarbonise our global economy and thus in particular the supply of energy to limit the global temperature increase is internationally undisputed the German politics in 2014 has significantly contributed less compared to previous years in order to attain this objective. The expansion of renewable energies in the electricity sector has decelerated significantly; and in the heating and mobility area no new impulses were set in relation to renewable energies. In addition, a dramatic fallen oil price makes it difficult to increase the use of renewable energy supply. Based on these deteriorated framework conditions compared to conditions of the previous years, the developments in Germany of 2014 are shown in the electricity, heat and transport sector in the field of renewable energy. For this purpose - in addition to a discussion of the current energy economic framework - for each option to use renewable energies the state and looming trends are analyzed. [German] Obwohl die Notwendigkeit zur Dekarbonisierung unserer globalen Wirtschaft und damit insbesondere der Energiebereitstellung zur Begrenzung des globalen Temperaturanstiegs international unstrittig ist, hat die deutsche Politik im Jahr 2014 im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren deutlich weniger zur Erreichung dieses Zieles beigetragen. Der Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Stromsektor wurde deutlich verlangsamt; und im Waerme- und Mobilitaetsbereich wurden keine neuen Impulse in Bezug auf regenerative Energien gesetzt. Zusaetzlich erschwert ein drastisch gefallener Rohoelpreis die verstaerkte Nutzung des erneuerbaren Energieangebots. Ausgehend von diesen im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren verschlechterten Rahmenbedingungen werden nachfolgend die Entwicklungen in Deutschland des Jahres 2014 im Strom-, Waerme- und Transportsektor fuer den Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien aufgezeigt. Dazu werden - neben einer Diskussion des derzeitigen energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmens - fuer die

  12. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  13. Renewables for sustainable village power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

  14. Preparative isolation of osthol and xanthotoxol from Common Cnidium Fruit (Chinese traditional herb) using stepwise elution by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2004-04-16

    Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for isolation and purification of osthol and xanthotoxol from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson (Common Cnidium Fruit) using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v), and (5:5:6:4, v/v), which had been selected by analytical high-speed counter-current chromatography. Using a preparative unit of the HSCCC centrifuge, about a 308 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 88.3 mg of osthol and 19.4 mg of xanthotoxol at a high purity of over 98%.

  15. [Analysis of nursing-related content portrayed in middle and high school textbooks under the national common basic curriculum in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myun Sook; Choi, Hyeong Wook; Li, Dong Mei

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nursing-related content in middle, and high school textbooks under the National Common Basic Curriculum in Korea. Nursing-related content from 43 middle school textbooks and 13 high school textbooks was analyzed. There were 28 items of nursing-related content in the selected textbooks. Among them, 13 items were in the 'nursing activity' area, 6 items were in the 'nurse as an occupation' area, 2 items were in the 'major and career choice' area, 6 items were 'just one word' and 1 item in 'others'. The main nursing related content which portrayed in the middle and high school textbooks were caring for patients (7 items accounting for 46.5%), nurses working in hospitals (6 items accounting for 21.4%). In terms of gender perspective, female nurses (15 items accounting for 53.6%) were most prevalent.

  16. High-resolution mapping reveals linkage between genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giseli; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Cregan, Perry B; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-08-01

    Co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping using SNP, SSR, and KASP markers demonstrated genetic linkage between Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 loci conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot diseases of common bean. Rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot are major diseases of common bean in the Americas and Africa. The cultivar Ouro Negro has the Ur-14 gene that confers broad spectrum resistance to rust and the gene cluster Co-3 4 /Phg-3 containing two tightly linked genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, respectively. We used co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping of 179 F2:3 families from the Rudá (susceptible) × Ouro Negro (resistant) cross-phenotyped separately with races of the rust and anthracnose pathogens. The results confirmed that Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster in Ouro Negro conferred resistance to rust and anthracnose, respectively, and that Ur-14 and the Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster were closely linked. Genotyping the F2:3 families, first with 5398 SNPs on the Illumina BeadChip BARCBEAN6K_3 and with 15 SSR, and eight KASP markers, specifically designed for the candidate region containing Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3, permitted the creation of a high-resolution genetic linkage map which revealed that Ur-14 was positioned at 2.2 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3 on the short arm of chromosome Pv04 of the common bean genome. Five flanking SSR markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.2 cM from Ur-14, and two flanking KASP markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3. Many other SSR, SNP, and KASP markers were also linked to these genes. These markers will be useful for the development of common bean cultivars combining the important Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 genes conferring resistance to three of the most destructive diseases of common bean.

  17. Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2015-01-01

    Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  18. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  3. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  4. Renewable Energy Potential for New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RE-Powering America's Land: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Land and Mining Sites was presented by Penelope McDaniel, during the 2008 Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop.

  5. Fuels from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

    Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

  6. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Landis, Florian; Tovar Reaños, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The ip side arevery high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effect...

  7. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Landis, Florian; Tovar Reaños, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of r...

  8. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Landis, Florian; Tovar Reaños, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of r...

  9. Recent advances in renewable energy research special topic volume with invited peer reviewed papers only

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Ahmed, Amir; Afzaal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The renewable energy sector has been the focus of worldwide effort to find sustainable and environmental friendly technologies for continuously increasing energy demands at low costs. Contributors of this book have extensive experience at various facets of renewable energy including materials chemistry, polymer physics, device fabrication, and nanotechnology. The book has fourteen high quality articles covering general aspects of renewable energy, regional policies, thin film solar cells, solar thermal, hydrogen production, energy conversion and storage. This book is a result of collaborations

  10. Renewal of the separate type pool gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohhashi, Nobuyoshi; Izumo, Hironobu; Kameyama, Iwao; Isaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Monden, Yoshihiro; Tazura, Akio

    1999-10-01

    As a part of the modification of JRR-4, the pool gate was renewed. The pool gate is separated into two parts with packing on the both contact faces, and holds the pool water by the pressure caused by a difference of the water levels. The structure and the principle are so simple that treatment of the pool gate is easy. However, it is very difficult to secure the watertight performance of this gate type. Because the uneven and meandering easily occurred in the surface of the packing, in the former pool gate leakage of the pool water from the separate parts of the gate often occurred. Besides, the selection width of rubber material to conform was very small. In renewal of the pool gate, the mock-up experiment of the packing parts was performed. Based on the results, the new pool gate was designed and installed. The new seal structure developed for the new gate was confirmed to have a high watertight performance even under the condition of very low pool water level. And the loads which hung on the packing is decreased in the new developed packing structure. High watertight performance of the new pool gate was confirmed by the leak tests after installation. This report gives the development of the new pool gate with high watertight performance and the construction of it. (author)

  11. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    In opposition to positivism the so called postpositivism reject the emphasis on the empirical truth and proposes an interpretative approach to the social world (Fischer, 1993). Policy analysis begins to address the sense-making constructions and the competing discourses on social meanings whilst ...... on migration as positive for economy (and demography) and its realistic acceptation (the immigration flows will not decrease) is partly based on its reduction to an economic (as legal) or security (as illegal) issue that can be managed with appropriate means....... a wider social approach based on Maarten Hayer’s (1995) discourse analysis of policy making and the more linguistic one, specifically Ruth Wodak’s (Reisigl & Wodak, 2001; Wodak & Weiss, 2005) Historic Discourse Approach (HDA). Thus I will be able to identify which discursive structure on immigration...... document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...

  12. Renewable energy, energy security and resilient societies

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Abstract in Undetermined Sometimes energy security is used as an advocacy for renewable energy systems. Although renewable energy systems can surely have such characteristics they will not per se solve all types of security problems, and new problems will most certainly arise. In this paper, energy security aspects of renewable energy systems are analysed taking the starting point in a broad typology on energy security. Various renewable energy systems will be discussed from an EU perspective...

  13. Nuclear fusion and renewable energy forms: Are they compatible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamacher, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.hamacher@tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Energiewirtchaft und Anwendungstechnik der Technischen Universität München, Arcissstrasse 21, 80333 München (Germany); Huber, Matthias; Dorfner, Johannes; Schaber, Katrin [Lehrstuhl für Energiewirtchaft und Anwendungstechnik der Technischen Universität München, Arcissstrasse 21, 80333 München (Germany); Bradshaw, Alex M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Association IPP-Euratom, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85741 Garching (Germany); Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The integration of intermittent renewable power sources like wind and PV is in a powerful European power grid much simpler due to smoothing effects. ► The often quoted incompatibility between intermittent and base-load technologies is also much less pronounced in large scale power grids. ► Nuclear fusion in combination with renewable power sources could simplify to reach ambitious greenhouse gas reduction goals. -- Abstract: Nuclear fusion can be considered as a base-load power plant technology: High investment costs and limited operational flexibility require continuous operation. Wind and solar, on the other hand, as the putative main pillars of a future renewable energy system, are intermittent power sources. The resulting variations that occur on many different time scales require at first sight a rather flexible back-up system to balance this stochastic behavior. Fusion would appear not to be well suited for this task. The situation changes, however, if a large-scale renewable energy system is envisaged based on a transnational, or even transcontinental power grid. The present paper discusses a possible European power system in the year 2050 and beyond. A high percentage share of renewable energies and a strong power grid spanning the whole of Europe and involving neighboring countries, in particular those in North Africa, are assumed. The linear programming model URBS is used to describe the power system. The model optimizes the overall system costs and simulates power plant operation with an hourly resolution for one whole year. The geographical resolution is at least at the country level. The renewable technologies are modeled first on a more local level and then summed together at the country or regional level. The results indicate that the smoothing effects of the large-scale power grid transform the intermittent renewable supply, which is then more compatible with base-load power plants such as fusion reactors.

  14. Cost and benefit of renewable energy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    An assessment is made as to whether renewable energy use for electricity generation in the EU was beneficial throughout the cycle of high and low oil prices. Costs and benefits are calculated with the EU statistics for the period of low oil prices 1998–2002 and high oil prices 2003–2009. The share

  15. Renewable Energy Research & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jicarilla Apache Tribe

    2003-04-01

    The Jicarilla Apache Nation is in Rio Arriba County in North Central New Mexico. The photovoltaic project was installed at the Dulce High School in the town of Dulce. Dulce is in the most northern part of the reservation near the New Mexico/Colorado boundary and can be reached from the New Mexico State Capitol in Santa Fe, hence to the town of Chama along U.S. Highway 84 to the junction of U.S. Highway 64. Dulce is about 12 miles west of the junction along U.S. Highway 64. Dulce community is in the mountainous part of the Nation with a population of about 4000. No industry exists in the community, however, a few commercial sites do exist such as a motel, restaurants, gas stations, food and liquor stores.

  16. Transcriptionally Active High-Risk Human Papillomavirus is Not a Common Etiologic Agent in the Malignant Transformation of Inverted Schneiderian Papillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Lisa M; Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2017-09-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiologic and transformational agent in inverted Schneiderian papilloma (ISP) is unclear. Indeed, reported detection rates of HPV in ISPs range from 0 to 100%. The true incidence has been confounded by a tendency to conflate high- and low-risk HPV types and by the inability to discern biologically relevant from irrelevant HPV infections. The recent development of RNA in situ hybridization for high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA now allows the direct visualization of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in ISP, providing an opportunity to more definitively assess its role in the development and progression of ISPs. We performed p16 immunohistochemistry and high-risk HPV RNA in situ hybridization on 30 benign ISPs, 7 ISPs with dysplasia, 16 ISPs with carcinomatous transformation, and 7 non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) with inverted growth that were unassociated with ISP. Transcriptionally active HPV was not detected in any of the 52 ISPs including those that had undergone carcinomatous transformation, but it was detected in two of seven (29%) non-keratinizing SCCs that showed inverted growth. There was a strong correlation between high-risk HPV RNA in situ hybridization and p16 immunohistochemistry (97%; p < 0.01). These results indicate that transcriptionally active high-risk HPV does not play a common role in either the development of ISP or in its transformation into carcinoma.

  17. Generalized Fibonacci Numbers and Blackwell's Renewal Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sören

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a connection between generalized Fibonacci numbers and renewal theory for stochastic processes. Using Blackwell's renewal theorem we find an approximation to the generalized Fibonacci numbers. With the help of error estimates in the renewal theorem we figure out an explicit representation.

  18. A multi-sample based method for identifying common CNVs in normal human genomic structure using high-resolution aCGH data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihyun Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is difficult to identify copy number variations (CNV in normal human genomic data due to noise and non-linear relationships between different genomic regions and signal intensity. A high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH containing 42 million probes, which is very large compared to previous arrays, was recently published. Most existing CNV detection algorithms do not work well because of noise associated with the large amount of input data and because most of the current methods were not designed to analyze normal human samples. Normal human genome analysis often requires a joint approach across multiple samples. However, the majority of existing methods can only identify CNVs from a single sample. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a multi-sample-based genomic variations detector (MGVD that uses segmentation to identify common breakpoints across multiple samples and a k-means-based clustering strategy. Unlike previous methods, MGVD simultaneously considers multiple samples with different genomic intensities and identifies CNVs and CNV zones (CNVZs; CNVZ is a more precise measure of the location of a genomic variant than the CNV region (CNVR. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We designed a specialized algorithm to detect common CNVs from extremely high-resolution multi-sample aCGH data. MGVD showed high sensitivity and a low false discovery rate for a simulated data set, and outperformed most current methods when real, high-resolution HapMap datasets were analyzed. MGVD also had the fastest runtime compared to the other algorithms evaluated when actual, high-resolution aCGH data were analyzed. The CNVZs identified by MGVD can be used in association studies for revealing relationships between phenotypes and genomic aberrations. Our algorithm was developed with standard C++ and is available in Linux and MS Windows format in the STL library. It is freely available at: http://embio.yonsei.ac.kr/~Park/mgvd.php.

  19. In-depth genome characterization of a Brazilian common bean core collection using DArTseq high-density SNP genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdisser, Paula A M R; Pereira, Wendell J; Almeida Filho, Jâneo E; Müller, Bárbara S F; Coelho, Gesimária R C; de Menezes, Ivandilson P P; Vianna, João P G; Zucchi, Maria I; Lanna, Anna C; Coelho, Alexandre S G; de Oliveira, Jaison P; Moraes, Alessandra da Cunha; Brondani, Claudio; Vianello, Rosana P

    2017-05-30

    linkage equilibrium, providing high genome coverage. This SNP set could be used in genotyping platforms with many applications, such as population genetics, phylogeny relation between common bean varieties and support to molecular breeding approaches.

  20. Renewal of KENS TMRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, M.; Furusaka, M.; Ino, T.; Torikai, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yasui, S.; Kiyanagi, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The sub-cadmium neutron flux of the cold-neutron moderator of KENS was reduced into about 30% of the nominal design value because the cadmium liner was ragged due to heavy swelling through a 20-years operation. Since it seemed to be very difficult to repair the liner under the high radiation level and possible hazards due to chemical poisoning of beryllium compounds because of not having proper remote-handling equipment, we decided to replace the whole target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). Neutronics designs were made by using the LCS-2.7 code system in order to not only reduce amount of beryllium, but also to improve the neutron characteristics, such as the source intensity and the pulse shape. The new TMRA has a gadolinium-poisoned ambient moderator and composite reflectors of graphite and beryllium. The tantalum target has been replaced with a tantalum-clad tungsten target, which was fabricated by the HIP process. The first neutron pulse from the new TMRA was ejected on November 1, 2000. (author)

  1. High-grade MRI bone oedema is common within the surgical field in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing joint replacement and is associated with osteitis in subchondral bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, F M; Gao, A; Ostergaard, M

    2007-01-01

    was observed at 60% of surgical sites vs 38% of non-surgical sites. High-grade bone oedema (score >/=50% maximum) was strongly associated with the surgical field (OR 9.3 (3.5 to 24.2), p... in resected bone. METHODS: Preoperative contrast-enhanced MRI scans were obtained in 11 RA patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery to the hands/wrists or feet. In 9, MRI scans were scored by 2 readers for bone oedema (RAMRIS system). Its distribution with respect to surgical site was investigated. In 4...... samples, there was concordance between bone oedema and subchondral osteitis. In 3, there was no MRI bone oedema, and osteitis was "slight". CONCLUSION: High-grade MRI bone oedema was common within the field of intended surgery and associated with pain. There was concordance between the presence...

  2. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2014-01-01

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition...... of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly...... occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular...

  3. Photon Science for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

    2010-03-31

    Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

  4. Renewable energy resources in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mohamad, Ali [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syria)

    2001-11-01

    Renewable energy resources in the Syrian Arab Republic are surveyed. Potential of solar, wind and bio-mass resources and their promising applications are analyzed. The annual average long-term solar radiation on a horizontal plane is measured and found to be 5.2 kWh/m{sup 2} per day. Wind speed measurements were conducted in more than twenty stations spread all over the country. The prospects of these measurements indicate that wind is another promising source of renewable energy in Syria. The registered annual mean daily wind speed in some regions of the country reaches more than 13 m/sec. Theoretical study estimates that the bio-gas production of the daily wastes of humans, animals and agriculture is higher than 300 million cubic meters per year. (Author)

  5. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... applications are provided. Fuel cells, solar thermal, wave generators, and energy storage systems are also briefly presented and illustrated. Challenges and future trends for 2025 are summarized in a table for on-shore and off-shore wind energy, solar power, including photovoltaic and concentering, wave energy...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial...

  6. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  7. Haemopoietic cell renewal in radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, T. M.; Nothdurft, W.; Tibken, B.; Hofer, E.; Weiss, M.; Kindler, H.

    1994-10-01

    Space flight activities are inevitably associated with a chronic exposure of astronauts to a complex mixture of ionising radiation. Although no acute radiation consequences are to be expected as a rule, the possibility of Solar Particle Events (SPE) associated with relatively high doses of radiation (1 or more Gray) cannot be excluded. It is the responsibility of physicians in charge of the health of astronauts to evaluate before, during and after space flight activities the functional status of haemopoietic cell renewal. Chronic low level exposure of dogs indicate that daily gamma-exposure doses below about 2 cGy are tolerated for several years as far as blood cell concentrations are concerned. However, the stem cell pool may be severely affected. The maintenance of sufficient blood cell counts is possible only through increased cell production to compensate for the radiation inflicted excess cell loss. This behaviour of haemopoietic cell renewal during chronic low level exposure can be simulated by bioengineering models of granulocytopoiesis. It is possible to define a ``turbulence region'' for cell loss rates, below which an prolonged adaptation to increased radiation fields can be expected to be tolerated. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended to develop new biological indicators to monitor haemopoietic cell renewal at the level of the stem cell pool using blood stem cells in addition to the determination of cytokine concentrations in the serum (and other novel approaches). To prepare for unexpected haemopoietic effects during prolonged space missions, research should be increased to modify the radiation sensitivity of haemopoietic stem cells (for instance by the application of certain regulatory molecules). In addition, a ``blood stem cell bank'' might be established for the autologous storage of stem cells and for use in space activities keeping them in a radiation protected container.

  8. Journal of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Gaber Dessouky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the basic needs of humanity and, for ages, the sun seemed to be the main source ofall energy in the universe and that is why the ancient Egyptians used to venerate it. Many wastes andcorpses – under pressure and heat – have been converted throughout the years inside the earth intothe oil on which recent development is totally based to support humans’ life, particularly intransportation and power generation. As time passes, it has been proven that oil will vanish. For thefirst moment, it seemed like mankind will certainly suffer due to such a hard situation and some peoplethought that we will get back to stone ages when oil no longer exists. Thanks for the Renewable Energy scientist who has looked at the issue from a different prospective,that is, even if oil vanishes, the main reason of its existence is still there, that is the sun . The sun has the capability to still make people enjoy their life not only by enjoying the sunny weatherin many places of the world and having good times on the beach for those who live by the sea but alsothe sun can still provide man with required energy and cause the wind to blow, the waves to raise, theplants to be converted to biomass, and the earth to store its geothermal energy. As long as life goes on, the sun will always rise and will always grant its energy to mankind. It is theclean, renewable and sustainable energy, which guarantees sustainable development. Because of the high correlation between renewable energy and sustainable development, the editorialteam of this journal thought of offering a hub to researchers interested in these two important fields topresent their work and share it with others who have the same interest in such a wide area ofresearch . Thanks to the Academy Publishing Center, ‘APC’ owned by the Arab Academy for Science,Technology and Maritime Transport ‘AASTMT’ for hosting this international journal .

  9. Towards a European renewable-based energy system enabled by smart grid: status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the future energy framework of the European Union. The European Union will reach a 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption and increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. Smart grids will be the backbone of the future electricity network...... for integrating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. The plans and status of renewable energy resources development and energy policy in Europe are introduced in this paper. The development of smart grid technologies in the European Union is also discussed. The role of Denmark, one of the leading...... countries for developing renewable energy technologies and using renewable energy resources has been emphasized in this paper. ©2011 State Grid Electric Power Research Institute Press....

  10. Renewable Energy Development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.M.

    2007-07-01

    India has done a significant progress in the power generation in the country. The installed generation capacity was 1300 megawatt (MW) at the time of Independence i.e. about 60 years back. The total generating capacity anticipated at the end of the Tenth Plan on 31-03-2007, is 1, 44,520 MW which includes the generation through various sectors like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear. Emphasis is given to the renewable energy programme towards gradual commercialization. This programme is looked after by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of energy. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline therefore, in this backdrop the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. The main items under RSE are as follows: (i) Hydro Power (ii) Solar Power (iii) Wind Power (iv) Bio-mass Power (v) Energy from waste (vi) Ocean energy, and (vii) Alternative fuel for surface transportation. Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. Renewable energy is very much promoted by the Chinese Government. At the same time as the law was passed, the Chinese Government set a target for renewable energy to contribute 10% of the country's gross energy consumption by 2020, a huge increase from the current 1%. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 2.5 billion Chinese and Indians. Both these countries have large coal dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. (auth)

  11. Renewables for Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This timely report examines the technologies, current markets and relative costs for heat and cold production using biomass, geothermal and solar-assisted systems. It evaluates a range of national case studies and relevant policies. Should the successful and more cost-effective policies be implemented by other countries, then the relatively untapped economic potential of renewable energy heating and cooling systems could be better realised, resulting in potential doubling of the present market within the next few years.

  12. Customer choice and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on political and social factors affecting the U.S. market for wind power are presented in this paper. The position of and activities taken by U.S. Congressman Dan Schaefer as Chairman of the House Energy and Power Subcommittee are outlined. Background information used as input to subcommittee hearings is summarized. The formation and activities of the House Renewable Energy Caucus are very briefly described.

  13. Renewable Energy CSOPs in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lowitzsch, Jens; Goebel, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The Energy-CSOP facilitates broad equity participation of citizens without assets or savings in a regulated public energy utility. As the CSOP is designed for regulated markets with guaranteed prices, regulated market access and long-term relationships between producer and consumer, the energy market is predestined. A CSOP trust can be set up for a renewable energy plant (e.g., a biogas reactor, a solar panel, a windmill or a geothermic drill). European states have set an ambitious target to ...

  14. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  15. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  16. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  17. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  18. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  19. Renewable energy research at GE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, R.; Kolwalkar, A. [GE Global Research, Bangalore (India)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and distributed generation will play a key role in transforming the power grid of the future. This presentation discussed some of the key renewable sources that General Electric (GE) is involved in, including wind, solar and biomass. Distributed generation has become an efficient and clean alternative to traditional power generation systems. It reduces transmission and distribution system losses while providing enhanced service reliability and quality, improved voltage regulation, and transmission and distribution system congestion relief. This presentation focused on some of the technical challenges and grid interconnection issues that could affect the penetration of such distributed generation systems. GE is developing a controller that manages the complex interactions in a micro grid. The controller combines on-site power generation and stored energy, allowing the micro grid to both function as an isolated unit, making and using its own energy, or interacting with the larger-scale grid to which it is connected. The presentation also made reference to some of the renewable energy demonstration programs that GE was actively pursuing.

  20. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    a discrete choice experiment to infer consumers' preferences when the share of renewable energy increases. The study results indicate that consumers are generally willing to pay extra for an increasing share of renewable energy, but the renewable energy should come from a mixture of renewable energy sources......While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use....... We also found that consumers prefer to trade with their current supplier rather than another well-known supplier. This study contributes to the energy portfolio theories and the theory of energy diversification in a consumer perspective. The managerial implications of this study are also discussed....