WorldWideScience

Sample records for common exchange formats

  1. BioXSD: the common data-exchange format for everyday bioinformatics web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaš, Matúš; Puntervoll, Pæl; Joseph, Alexandre; Bartaševičiūtė, Edita; Töpfer, Armin; Venkataraman, Prabakar; Pettifer, Steve; Bryne, Jan Christian; Ison, Jon; Blanchet, Christophe; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Jonassen, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The world-wide community of life scientists has access to a large number of public bioinformatics databases and tools, which are developed and deployed using diverse technologies and designs. More and more of the resources offer programmatic web-service interface. However, efficient use of the resources is hampered by the lack of widely used, standard data-exchange formats for the basic, everyday bioinformatics data types. Results: BioXSD has been developed as a candidate for standard, canonical exchange format for basic bioinformatics data. BioXSD is represented by a dedicated XML Schema and defines syntax for biological sequences, sequence annotations, alignments and references to resources. We have adapted a set of web services to use BioXSD as the input and output format, and implemented a test-case workflow. This demonstrates that the approach is feasible and provides smooth interoperability. Semantics for BioXSD is provided by annotation with the EDAM ontology. We discuss in a separate section how BioXSD relates to other initiatives and approaches, including existing standards and the Semantic Web. Availability: The BioXSD 1.0 XML Schema is freely available at http://www.bioxsd.org/BioXSD-1.0.xsd under the Creative Commons BY-ND 3.0 license. The http://bioxsd.org web page offers documentation, examples of data in BioXSD format, example workflows with source codes in common programming languages, an updated list of compatible web services and tools and a repository of feature requests from the community. Contact: matus.kalas@bccs.uib.no; developers@bioxsd.org; support@bioxsd.org PMID:20823319

  2. BioXSD: the common data-exchange format for everyday bioinformatics web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalas, Matús; Puntervoll, Pål; Joseph, Alexandre; Bartaseviciūte, Edita; Töpfer, Armin; Venkataraman, Prabakar; Pettifer, Steve; Bryne, Jan Christian; Ison, Jon; Blanchet, Christophe; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Jonassen, Inge

    2010-09-15

    The world-wide community of life scientists has access to a large number of public bioinformatics databases and tools, which are developed and deployed using diverse technologies and designs. More and more of the resources offer programmatic web-service interface. However, efficient use of the resources is hampered by the lack of widely used, standard data-exchange formats for the basic, everyday bioinformatics data types. BioXSD has been developed as a candidate for standard, canonical exchange format for basic bioinformatics data. BioXSD is represented by a dedicated XML Schema and defines syntax for biological sequences, sequence annotations, alignments and references to resources. We have adapted a set of web services to use BioXSD as the input and output format, and implemented a test-case workflow. This demonstrates that the approach is feasible and provides smooth interoperability. Semantics for BioXSD is provided by annotation with the EDAM ontology. We discuss in a separate section how BioXSD relates to other initiatives and approaches, including existing standards and the Semantic Web. The BioXSD 1.0 XML Schema is freely available at http://www.bioxsd.org/BioXSD-1.0.xsd under the Creative Commons BY-ND 3.0 license. The http://bioxsd.org web page offers documentation, examples of data in BioXSD format, example workflows with source codes in common programming languages, an updated list of compatible web services and tools and a repository of feature requests from the community.

  3. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  4. BioXSD: the common data-exchange format for everyday bioinformatics web services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalas, M.; Puntervoll, P.; Joseph, A.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The world-wide community of life scientists has access to a large number of public bioinformatics databases and tools, which are developed and deployed using diverse technologies and designs. More and more of the resources offer programmatic web-service interface. However, efficient use...... and defines syntax for biological sequences, sequence annotations, alignments and references to resources. We have adapted a set of web services to use BioXSD as the input and output format, and implemented a test-case workflow. This demonstrates that the approach is feasible and provides smooth...... interoperability. Semantics for BioXSD is provided by annotation with the EDAM ontology. We discuss in a separate section how BioXSD relates to other initiatives and approaches, including existing standards and the Semantic Web....

  5. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  6. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  7. A formal MIM specification and tools for the common exchange of MIM diagrams: an XML-Based format, an API, and a validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Augustin; Karac, Evrim I; Sunshine, Margot; Chang, Lucas; Nussinov, Ruth; Aladjem, Mirit I; Kohn, Kurt W

    2011-05-17

    The Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) notation offers a standard set of symbols and rules on their usage for the depiction of cellular signaling network diagrams. Such diagrams are essential for disseminating biological information in a concise manner. A lack of software tools for the notation restricts wider usage of the notation. Development of software is facilitated by a more detailed specification regarding software requirements than has previously existed for the MIM notation. A formal implementation of the MIM notation was developed based on a core set of previously defined glyphs. This implementation provides a detailed specification of the properties of the elements of the MIM notation. Building upon this specification, a machine-readable format is provided as a standardized mechanism for the storage and exchange of MIM diagrams. This new format is accompanied by a Java-based application programming interface to help software developers to integrate MIM support into software projects. A validation mechanism is also provided to determine whether MIM datasets are in accordance with syntax rules provided by the new specification. The work presented here provides key foundational components to promote software development for the MIM notation. These components will speed up the development of interoperable tools supporting the MIM notation and will aid in the translation of data stored in MIM diagrams to other standardized formats. Several projects utilizing this implementation of the notation are outlined herein. The MIM specification is available as an additional file to this publication. Source code, libraries, documentation, and examples are available at http://discover.nci.nih.gov/mim.

  8. Design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Heat integration of energy streams is very important for the efficient energy recovery in production systems. Pinch technology is a very useful tool for heat integration and maximizing energy efficiency. Creating of heat exchangers network as a common solution for systems in batch mode that will be applicable in all existing time slices is very difficult. This paper suggests a new methodology for design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes. Heat exchanger network designs were created for all determined repeatable and non-repeatable time periods – time slices. They are the basis for creating the common heat exchanger network. The common heat exchanger network as solution, satisfies all heat-transfer needs for each time period and for every existing combination of selected streams in the production process. This methodology use split of some heat exchangers into two or more heat exchange units or heat exchange zones. The reason for that is the multipurpose use of heat exchangers between different pairs of streams in different time periods. Splitting of large heat exchangers would maximize the total heat transfer usage of heat exchange units. Final solution contains heat exchangers with the minimum heat load as well as the minimum need of heat transfer area. The solution is applicable for all determined time periods and all existing stream combinations. - Highlights: •Methodology for design of energy efficient systems in batch processes. •Common Heat Exchanger Network solution based on designs with Pinch technology. •Multipurpose use of heat exchangers in batch processes

  9. Condensation and frost formation in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The occurence of condensation and of frost formation are considered for air to heat exchangers with emphasis on how such occurrences would affect the performance of such heat exchangers when they are used in ventilating applications. The formulations which predict performance are developed for parallel, counter flow and cross flow with either formation or condensation, and for condensation the consequences for evaporation of condensate and of the effect of longitudinal conduction in the walls of the exchanger are also considered. For the prediction of the exchanger performance with frost formation there must be specified the growth of the frost layer with time and existing theories for this growth are examined, a new method of calculation of the growth is presented and this is shown to give results for the growth that are in accord with available experimental evidence. This new theory for the growth of a frost layer is used to predict the performance of a parallel flow exchanger under conditions in which frost formation occurs, by successively applying the steady state performance calculation for time increments over which the frost layer build-up is calculated for these time increments. The calculation of counter flow exchanger performance by this method, while feasible, is so time consuming that only the general aspects of the calculation are considered

  10. Programming task packages: Peach exchange format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.

    2008-01-01

    Programming education and contests have introduced software to help evaluation by executing submitted taskwork. We present the notion of a task package as a unit for collecting, storing, archiving, and exchanging all information concerning a programming task. We also describe a specific format for

  11. SatisFactory Common Information Data Exchange Model

    OpenAIRE

    CERTH

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable defines the Common Information Data Exchange Model (CIDEM). The aim of CIDEM is to provide a model of information elements (e.g. concepts, even, relations, interfaces) used for information exchange between components as well as for modelling work performed by other tasks (e.g. knowledge models to support human resources optimization). The CIDEM definition is considered as a shared vocabulary that enables to address the information needs for the SatisFactory framework components.

  12. Formative Constructs Implemented via Common Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiblmaier, Horst; Bentler, Peter M.; Mair, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in formative measurement and its role in properly specified models. Formative measurement models are difficult to identify, and hence to estimate and test. Existing solutions to the identification problem are shown to not adequately represent the formative constructs of interest. We propose a new two-step…

  13. A standard format for data exchange - SFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindorp, Ulla; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the issues in making experimental data available for later inspection or reuse. A prototype software system - SFD - that solves the technical problems in data exchange is presented, and early user experience is discussed.......We investigate the issues in making experimental data available for later inspection or reuse. A prototype software system - SFD - that solves the technical problems in data exchange is presented, and early user experience is discussed....

  14. The OXL format for the exchange of integrated datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taubert Jan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A prerequisite for systems biology is the integration and analysis of heterogeneous experimental data stored in hundreds of life-science databases and millions of scientific publications. Several standardised formats for the exchange of specific kinds of biological information exist. Such exchange languages facilitate the integration process; however they are not designed to transport integrated datasets. A format for exchanging integrated datasets needs to i cover data from a broad range of application domains, ii be flexible and extensible to combine many different complex data structures, iii include metadata and semantic definitions, iv include inferred information, v identify the original data source for integrated entities and vi transport large integrated datasets. Unfortunately, none of the exchange formats from the biological domain (e.g. BioPAX, MAGE-ML, PSI-MI, SBML or the generic approaches (RDF, OWL fulfil these requirements in a systematic way.

  15. Exchange rate formation in Ukraine and its impact on macroeconomic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Koroliuk Tatiana Aleksandrovna

    2014-01-01

    The factors of exchange rate formation in Ukraine are analyzes in this paper, the influence of exchange rate on macroeconomic indicators of development and the main priorities of the exchange rate policy are determined exchange.

  16. Neurodata Without Borders: Creating a Common Data Format for Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeters, Jeffery L; Godfrey, Keith; Young, Rob; Dang, Chinh; Friedsam, Claudia; Wark, Barry; Asari, Hiroki; Peron, Simon; Li, Nuo; Peyrache, Adrien; Denisov, Gennady; Siegle, Joshua H; Olsen, Shawn R; Martin, Christopher; Chun, Miyoung; Tripathy, Shreejoy; Blanche, Timothy J; Harris, Kenneth; Buzsáki, György; Koch, Christof; Meister, Markus; Svoboda, Karel; Sommer, Friedrich T

    2015-11-18

    The Neurodata Without Borders (NWB) initiative promotes data standardization in neuroscience to increase research reproducibility and opportunities. In the first NWB pilot project, neurophysiologists and software developers produced a common data format for recordings and metadata of cellular electrophysiology and optical imaging experiments. The format specification, application programming interfaces, and sample datasets have been released. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurodata Without Borders: Creating a Common Data Format for Neurophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Teeters, Jeffery L.; Godfrey, Keith; Young, Rob; Dang, Chinh; Friedsam, Claudia; Wark, Barry; Asari, Hiroki; Peron, Simon; Li, Nuo; Peyrache, Adrien; Denisov, Gennady; Siegle, Joshua H.; Olsen, Shawn R.; Martin, Christopher; Chun, Miyoung

    2015-01-01

    The Neurodata Without Borders (NWB) initiative promotes data standardization in neuroscience to increase research reproducibility and opportunities. In the first NWB pilot project, neurophysiologists and software developers produced a common data format for recordings and metadata of cellular electrophysiology and optical imaging experiments. The format specification, application programming interfaces, and sample datasets have been released.

  18. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine)

  19. EXFOR Systems Manual Nuclear reaction Data Exchange Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    2000-01-01

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format

  20. EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

  1. 47 CFR 54.902 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... filed pursuant to § 54.903(a)(4) shall reflect the transfer of exchanges. All post-transaction... transfer of exchanges. All post-transaction Interstate Common Line Support shall be subject to true up by... for transferred exchanges. 54.902 Section 54.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  2. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-03-14

    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  3. μ+ charge exchange and muonium formation in low pressure gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Mikula, R.J.; Garner, D.M.

    1982-04-01

    Using the basic muon spin rotation technique, the fractions of energetic positive muons thermalizing in diamagnetic environments (fsub(μ)) or as the paramagnetic muonium atom (fsub(Mu)) have been measured in low pressure pure gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H 2 , N 2 , NH 3 , and CH 4 ) as well as in several gas mixtures (Ne/Xe, Ne/Ar, Ne/NH 3 , Ne/CH 4 ). In the pure gases, the muonium fractions fsub(Mu) are generally found to be smaller than expected from analogous proton charge exchange studies, particularly in the molecular gases. This is probably due to hot atom reactions of muonium following the charge exchange regime. Comparisons with monium formation in condensed matter as well as positronium formation in gases are also presented. In the gas mixtures, the addition of only a few hundred ppm of a dopant gas, which is exothermic for muonium formation (e.g. Xe), gives rise to an fsub(Mu) characteristic of the pure dopant gas itself, demonstrating the importance of the neutralization process right down to thermal energies. In all cases, the experimental signal amplitudes are found to be strongly pressure dependent, which is interpreted in terms of the time spent by the muon as neutral muonium in the charge exchange regime: tsub(n) < 0.2 ns. This time is generally shorter in the case of molecular gases than in rare gases

  4. Return Rates for Needle Exchange Programs: A Common Criticism Answered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksobiech Kate

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study searched the available needle exchange program (NEP literature for return rate data. A total of 26 articles were found. The overall worldwide return rate was 90%, although this ranged from a low of 15% to a high of 112%. U.S. NEP return rates were gathered from only eight studies, indicating a clear need for more data, although U.S. return rates were comparable to those from NEPs outside of the U.S. One underlying assumption made by opponents of NEPs is that IDUs will not return needles to the distribution site, thereby potentially increasing the risk of health problems to the surrounding community from exposure to contaminated needles. This study's results suggest that NEPs are relatively successful in taking in used needles, although it is generally unclear where the needles were originally acquired, and if IDUs return their own needles, or are returning needles for a social network. Ways for AIDS Service Organizations to capitalize on these brief encounters with IDUs, as well as public policy implications of the findings, are discussed.

  5. Common Data Format (CDF) and Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candey, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) data browsing system provides plotting, listing and open access v ia FTP, HTTP, and web services (REST, SOAP, OPeNDAP) for data from mo st NASA Heliophysics missions and is heavily used by the community. C ombining data from many instruments and missions enables broad resear ch analysis and correlation and coordination with other experiments a nd missions. Crucial to its effectiveness is the use of a standard se lf-describing data format, in this case, the Common Data Format (CDF) , also developed at the Space Physics Data facility , and the use of metadata standa rds (easily edited with SKTeditor ). CDAweb is based on a set of IDL routines, CDAWlib . . The CDF project also maintains soft ware and services for translating between many standard formats (CDF. netCDF, HDF, FITS, XML) .

  6. Liquidity in the foreign exchange market : Measurement, commonality, and risk premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, Loriano; Ranaldo, Angelo; Wrampelmeyer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first systematic study of liquidity in the foreign exchange market. We find significant variation in liquidity across exchange rates, substantial illiquidity costs, and strong commonality in liquidity across currencies and with equity and bond markets. Analyzing the impact of

  7. Common factors and the exchange rate: results from the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rafael de Oliveira Felício

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the usefulness of factor models in explaining the dynamics of the exchange rate Real / Dollar from January 1999 to August 2011. The paper verifies that the inclusion of factors embedded on the common movements of exchange rates of a set of countries significantly improves the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power of the models comprising only macroeconomic fundamentals commonly used in the literature to forecast the exchange rate. The paper also links the information contained in the factors to global shocks like the demand for dollars - a "dollar effect", volatility and liquidity of global financial markets.

  8. International common-cause failure data exchange. ICDE general coding guidelines - Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Gunnar; Werner, Wolfgang; Concepcion Capote, Marina; Kreuser, Albert; Rasmuson, Dale; Jonsson, Esther; Pereira Pagan, Begona; Tirira, Jorge; Morris, Ian; Morales, Rosa; Oxberry, Anna; Kreuser, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Several Member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) have established the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project (ICDE Project) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to Common-Cause Failure (CCF) events. The objectives of the ICDE Project are to: a) Collect and analyse CCF events over the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes, and their prevention; b) Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences; c) Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with CCF phenomena, including the development of defences against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk based inspections; and d) Record event attributes to facilitate quantification of CCF frequencies when so decided by the Project Working Group. The ICDE Project is envisaged to comprise all possible events of interest, including both complete and partial ICDE events. The ICDE Project will cover the key components of the main safety systems. Presently, the components listed below are included in the ICDE Project. Data have been collected for the six first components in the list: Centrifugal pumps, Diesel generators, Motor operated valves, Safety relief valves/power operated relief valves, Check valves, Batteries, Level measurement, Breakers, Control rod drive assemblies. Others will be added to this list later on. In this component coding guidelines, explanations on the ICDE General coding format are given. The guide reflects present experience with the data format and with the collected data. Further interpretations and clarifications will be added, should they become necessary. For each component analysed in the ICDE project, separate coding guidance is provided in the appendices

  9. International Common Cause Failure Data Exchange (ICDE). General Coding Guidelines - Updated Version, October 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Gunnar; Werner, Wolfgang; Capote, Marina Concepcion; Kreuser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Several OECD/NEA member countries have established the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project ('ICDE Project') to encourage multilateral cooperation in the collection and analysis of data relating to Common-Cause Failure (CCF) events. The objectives of the ICDE Project are to: a) Collect and analyse CCF events over the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes, and their prevention. b) Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences. c) Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with CCF phenomena, including the development of defenses against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk based inspections. d) Record event attributes to facilitate quantification of CCF frequencies when so decided by the Project Working Group. The ICDE Project is envisaged to comprise all possible events of interest, including both complete and partial ICDE events. The ICDE Project will cover the key components of the main safety systems. Presently, the components listed below are included in the ICDE Project. Data have been collected for the six first components in the list: Centrifugal pumps, Diesel generators, Motor operated valves, Safety relief valves/power operated relief valves, Check valves, Batteries, Level measurement, Breakers, Control rod drive assemblies. Others will be added to this list later on. In this component coding guidelines, explanations on the ICDE general coding format are given. The guide reflects present experience with the data format and with the collected data. Further interpretations and clarifications will be added, should they become necessary. For each component analysed in the ICDE project, separate coding guidance is provided in the appendices ICDECG 01-06, specifying details relevant to the respective components

  10. Exchanging grooming, but not tolerance and aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Schino, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the reciprocal exchanges of grooming, tolerance and reduced aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a cooperatively breeding primate whose groups are typically characterized by uniformly high genetic relatedness and high interdependency between group members. Both partner control and partner choice processes played a role in the reciprocal exchanges of grooming. In contrast, we did not find any evidence of reciprocity between grooming and tolerance over a preferred food source or between grooming and reduced aggression. Thus, reciprocity seems to play a variable role in the exchange of cooperative behaviors in marmosets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Common Factor of Bilateral U.S. Exchange Rates: What is it Related to?

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, Natalia; Sheen, Jeffrey; Wang, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We identify a common factor driving a panel of fifteen monthly bilateral exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. We find this factor is closely related to U.S. nominal and real macroeconomic variables, financial market variables and commodity prices. Our results suggest this common factor is broadly related to the macroeconomic fundamentals in the Taylor rule and uncovered interest parity models. However, the set of fundamentals relevant to these models changes over time.

  12. 75 FR 16140 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... FR 45457-45458. Definition of Common Formats The term ``Common Formats'' is used to describe clinical... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  13. Formation of common cultural competence in country studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in country studies classes (based on Turkish language teaching practice) ... the acquisition of common cultural competence in foreign language education. ... analysis of methodological frameworks offered by Russian and foreign specialists.

  14. CERIF: The Common European Research Information Format Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased computing power more data than ever are being and will be produced, stored and (re- used. Data are collected in databases, computed and annotated, or transformed by specific tools. The knowledge from data is documented in research publications, reports, presentations, or other types of files. The management of data and knowledge is difficult, and even more complicated is their re-use, exchange, or integration. To allow for quality analysis or integration across data sets and to ensure access to scientific knowledge, additional information - Research Information - has to be assigned to data and knowledge entities. We present the metadata model CERIF to add information to entities such as Publication, Project, Organisation, Person, Product, Patent, Service, Equipment, and Facility and to manage the semantically enhanced relationships between these entities in a formalized way. CERIF has been released as an EC Recommendation to European Member States in 2000. Here, we refer to the latest version CERIF 2008-1.0.

  15. 75 FR 65359 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Common Formats..., and analyze confidential information regarding the quality and safety of healthcare delivery. The... Information Technology (HIT) Device format and the remaining Common Formats Version 1.1 can be accessed...

  16. Recent insights from the international common-cause failure data exchange project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuser, Albert [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Cologne (Germany); Johanson, Gunner [AF Industry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    Common-cause failure (CCF) events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the International Common Cause Data Exchange (ICDE) project was initiated by several countries in 1994. Since 1997 it has been operated within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) framework and has successfully been operated over six consecutive terms (the current term being 2015–2017). The ICDE project allows multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses, which include CCF modeling. As CCF events are typically rare, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, have yielded sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. The ICDE project has meanwhile published 11 reports on the collection and analysis of CCF events of specific component types (centrifugal pumps, emergency diesel generators, motor operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, circuit breakers, level measurement, control rod drive assemblies, and heat exchangers) and two topical reports. This paper presents recent activities and lessons learnt from the data collection and the results of topical analysis on emergency diesel generator CCF impacting entire exposed population.

  17. Recent Insights from the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kreuser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Common-cause failure (CCF events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the International Common Cause Data Exchange (ICDE project was initiated by several countries in 1994. Since 1997 it has been operated within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA framework and has successfully been operated over six consecutive terms (the current term being 2015–2017. The ICDE project allows multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses, which include CCF modeling. As CCF events are typically rare, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, have yielded sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. The ICDE project has meanwhile published 11 reports on the collection and analysis of CCF events of specific component types (centrifugal pumps, emergency diesel generators, motor operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, circuit breakers, level measurement, control rod drive assemblies, and heat exchangers and two topical reports. This paper presents recent activities and lessons learnt from the data collection and the results of topical analysis on emergency diesel generator CCF impacting entire exposed population.

  18. Control and prevention of ice formation and accretion on heat exchangers for ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In cold climates, the application of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery like are airto-air exchangers is used for reducing energy consumption for heating buildings by transferring heat exhausted air to supply air. However, increase efficiency of heat exchanger results in lower...... exhaust air temperatures and Ice formation on heat exchanger fins, which can cause problem and is not favourable. Therefore, prevention and control of ice formation on heat exchangers is necessary. The existing methods are divided into two different methods: active and passive ice control methods....... The active methods are e.g. bypass, recirculation, preheating. The passive methods relate to the surface characteristics of the heat exchanger fins as they have effect on ice formation in initial phase. All these methods have varying levels of success, cost, and effectiveness, which are depending on the heat...

  19. Method for in situ determination cation exchange capacities of subsurface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.; Welker, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the in situ examination of each subsurface formation penetrated by a borehole to ascertain the cation exchange capacity of such formations within a geological region. Natural γ ray logging is used to develop signals functionally related to the total γ radiation and to the potassium-40, uranium and thorium energy-band radiations. A first borehole is traversed by a potential γ ray spectrometer to provide selected measurements of natural γ radiation. Core samples are taken from the logged formation and laboratory tests performed to determine the cation exchange capacity thereof. The cation exchange capacities thus are developed then correlated with selected parameters provided by the γ ray spectrometer to establish functional relationships. Cation exchange capacities of formations in subsequent boreholes within the region are then determined in situ by use of the natural γ ray spectrometer and these established relationships. (author)

  20. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  1. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  2. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

  3. Looks and linguistics: Impression formation in online exchange marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuchta, Michael P; O'Toole, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This study advances theories of impression formation by focusing on two factors that generate emotional responses: physical attractiveness and positive word use. Although considerable research on impression formation exists, most studies consider factors in isolation and neglect possible interactions. Our theory introduces competing mechanisms regarding possible interaction effects, and we empirically test them in an online marketplace. Results from the analysis of 729 loan requests from a leading online peer-to-peer lending market suggest that physical attractiveness and positive word use work together to influence the likelihood of acquiring resources and establish an important boundary condition to the general "beauty is good" effect.

  4. EXFOR Basics. A short guide to the neutron reaction data exchange format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-01-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969.3 As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: l that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); l that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data

  5. The paredon, Mexico, obsidian source and early formative exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, T H; Grove, D C; Hopke, P K

    1978-09-01

    In 1975, archeological surface surveys of trade routes located again a pre-Hispanic obsidian source in central Mexico first reported in 1902. Initial trace element studies of the Paredón source through an analysis by neutron activation have been compared with similar studies of the obsidian found at Chalcatzingo 150 kilometers from the source. These comparisons indicate that obsidian from Paredón, rather than Otumba, was of primary importance during the Early Formative in central Mexico.

  6. Developing a food exchange list for Middle Eastern appetizers and desserts commonly consumed in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawadi, Hiba A; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M; Tayyem, Reema F; Mekary, Rania; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2009-03-01

    AIM: This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for Middle Eastern foods commonly included in the Jordanian cuisine. Forty types of appetizers and another 40 types of desserts were selected; with five different recipes for each item. Recipes were collected from different housewives and Arabic cookbooks. Ingredients' weight and dish net weight were recorded based on an average recipe, and dishes were prepared accordingly. Dishes were proximately analyzed following the AOAC procedures. Proximate analysis was compared to the WHO-food composition tables (FCT) for the use in the Middle East, and with food analysis software (ESHA). RESULTS: Significant correlations (P desserts and appetizers is now available and ready to be used by dietitians and health care providers in Jordan and Arab World.

  7. OECD/NEA International Common Cause Failure Data Exchange (ICDE) project - insights and lessons learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.; Kreuser, A.; Pyy, P.; Rasmuson, D.; Werner, W.

    2006-01-01

    Events initiated by common-cause-failure (CCF) can significantly affect the availability and reliability of nuclear power plant safety systems. In recognition of this, CCF data are systematically collected and analysed in the International Common-Cause Data Exchange (ICDE) Project, which was initiated in August 1994. Since April 1998, the NEA has formally operated the project. Currently eleven countries participate in the project. The ICDE collects all events where two or more identical, redundant components of a group, fulfilling the same function, have failed or were impaired due to a shared cause (ICDE events). Complete CCFs, i. e. failure of all identical, redundant components in the group due to a shared cause are an important subset of the collected data. Currently, data exchange and analysis covers the following components: centrifugal pumps, diesel generators, motor-operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, reactor protection system components (level measurement, control rod drives, etc), circuit breakers, and batteries. The main findings of the ICDE reports issued by 2005 show averaged over all components that about two thirds of all complete CCF events involve faulty actions by plant personnel and contractors. The single largest contribution is from faulty testing and maintenance work due to deficient and/or incomplete procedures. Other important causes are insufficient testing and requalification of components or systems after maintenance, repair, modifications or backfitting work, as well as operator errors of commission. The probability that a reported ICDE event is a complete CCF decreases strongly with increasing number of redundant components, demonstrating the effectiveness of redundancy as a powerful defence against CCFs. However, complete CCFs cannot be completely prevented by high redundancy only. (orig.)

  8. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format. Revision 97/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1997-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Center Network. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility rather than optimization of data processing in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine)

  9. 77 FR 42736 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... safety problems. The Patient Safety Act and Patient Safety Rule establish a framework by which doctors... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Common Formats... formats, specified by AHRQ, that allow health care providers to collect and submit standardized...

  10. EXFOR basics: A short guide to the nuclear reaction data exchange format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear data compilation centers. This format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data

  11. Comparison of Specialty Medication Use for Common Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Among Health Exchange and Other Commercially Insured Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxue; Gautam, Santosh; Ruggieri, Alexander; Richards, Thomas; Devries, Andrea; Sylwestrzak, Gosia

    2018-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 allows the purchase of health insurance through special marketplaces called "health exchanges." The majority of individuals enrolling in the exchanges were previously uninsured, older, and sicker than other commercially insured members. Early evidence also suggests that exchange plan members use more costly specialty drugs compared with other commercially insured members. To (a) examine patient characteristics and specialty drug use for common chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) among exchange plan members compared with other commercially insured members and (b) explore variations in specialty drug use within exchange plans by metal tiers (bronze, silver, gold, and platinum), as well as across local markets. This analysis included adults aged ≥ 18 years who were enrolled in exchange plans (exchange population) and other commercial health plans (nonexchange population). The primary outcome was the likelihood of using specialty drugs prescribed to treat common CIDs, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis, and psoriasis. The adjusted likelihood of using CID specialty drugs was calculated from logistic regression controlling for prevalence of CIDs and other health risk factors. A total of 931,384 exchange plan members and 2,682,855 nonexchange plan members were included in the analysis. Compared with the nonexchange population, the exchange population was older, more likely to be female, had more comorbid conditions, but filled fewer prescriptions. The 2 groups were similar in terms of CID prevalence. The observed likelihood of CID specialty drug use was 20.0% lower in the exchange versus the nonexchange populations (341 users per 100,000 exchange members vs. 427 users per 100,000 nonexchange members; P exchange population, the observed likelihood of CID specialty drug use was 132 per 100,000 bronze plan members (69.1% lower than nonexchange); 326 per 100

  12. Experimental measurements of the effects of frost formation on heat exchanger performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, A.F.; Siegel, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Frost formation on compact heat exchangers can lead to reductions in heat transfer of the order of 50 to 75% and to substantial increases in pressure drop. These effects are dependent upon the spatial pattern of the frost deposition, the growth history of the frost, and the thicknesses of the frost. This paper describes a series of experiments to measure the effects of frost when cold air (260 - 273 K) is passing through the exchanger. It is found that the thermal performance is a function of time and specific humidity levels while the pressure is function only of the frost thickness and surface roughness

  13. Operational report, Formation of the XXVII reactor core, plan of fuel exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.

    1977-01-01

    Plan for fuel exchange for formation of the reactor core No. XXVII is presented. This report includes: the quantity of 80% enriched fuel which is input in the core, description of the fuel 'transfer' through the core within this fuelling scheme. It covers the review of reactor safety operating with the core No. XXVII related to reactivity change, thermal load of the fuel channels and fuel burnup. These data result from the analysis based on the same correlated calculation method which was applied for planning the first regular fuel exchange with 80% enriched fuel (core No. XXVI configuration), which has been approved in february 1977. Based on the enclosed data and the fuel exchange according to the proposed procedure it is expected that the reactor operation with core No. XXVII configuration will be safe [sr

  14. Proper use of common image file formats in handling radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, N; Perandini, S; Comai, A; D'Onofrio, M; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2009-04-01

    This paper highlights the differences among the most common file formats used for storing digital radiological images. It promotes the proper use of these formats to guarantee easy manipulation in handling the most typical practical applications in daily radiological practice. The authors provide a simple yet exhaustive introduction to the concept of "file format" and describe the algorithms and main features of the most common formats (BMP, JPEG, GIF, DICOM, TIF, PNG) and Portable Network Graphics (PNG).The different formats are compared in terms of dimension, quality, portability and with reference to the following specific needs: electronic communications, publication on the World Wide Web, presentation of electronic posters, video presentations for teaching and manuscript publishing. We also illustrate how to handle the various formats with the programmes supplied with standard software installations.The large number of digital applications of image file formats calls for a simplification in daily radiological practice. We recommend the use of JPEG and PNG for electronic communications; PNG and GIF for publication on the worldwide web; JPEG and PNG for electronic poster presentations; DICOM, PNG and JPEG for teaching presentations; TIF and PNG for printing on paper.

  15. Formation of silver colloids on ion exchanged soda lime silicate glasses by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, E.M.; Okuno, E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation (gamma rays, X-rays and electrons) on soda lime silicate glasses, in which part of the Na + was substituted by Ag + by means of an ionic exchange process, was studied. The techniques of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to follow the formation of silver colloids by irradiation. Also the thermoluminescence (TL) of the samples was measured and three peaks between room temperature and 450 C were observed. The TEM and TSDC results agree that, as expected, ionizing radiation promotes the formation of silver colloids on the ion exchanged surface of soda lime glasses. Soft X-rays are much more efficient in the process than gamma rays and electrons. The correlation with thermoluminescence glow curves indicates that the intensity of a TL peak at 230 C can provide a rapid means of evaluating the presence of silver colloids. TL sensitivities, measured as area under the glow curve per unit mass and unit dose, are very similar for ion exchanged and not exchanged samples submitted to X-ray irradiation, although the peak temperatures differ in about 40 C in the two cases. For both electron and gamma irradiated samples, the TL sensitivity drops about an order of magnitude when compared to the X-ray irradiated ones. (orig.)

  16. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Saul; Philipp Kästli; Fabian Euchner; Danijel Schorlemmer

    2011-01-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments...

  17. EXFOR basics. A short guide to the nuclear reaction data exchange format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the transmission of experimental nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. This report is intended as a guide to data users. For a complete guide to the EXFOR system see: EXFOR Systems Manual, IAEA-NDS-207 (BNL-NCS-63330-00/04-Rev.) (author)

  18. A variational study of the self-trapped magnetic polaron formation in double-exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Feng Mang; Wang Kelin

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in an antiferro/ferromagnetic double-exchange model semi-analytically by variational solutions. It is shown that the Jahn-Teller effect is not essential to the STMP formation and the STMP forms in the antiferromagnetic material within the region of the order of the lattice constant. We also confirm that no ground state STMP exists in the ferromagnetic background, but the ground state bound MP could appear due to the impurity potential

  19. 76 FR 12358 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Common Formats... information regarding the quality and safety of healthcare delivery. The Patient Safety Act (at 42 U.S.C. 299b...: Device or Supply, including Health Information Technology; Fall; Healthcare-Associated Infection...

  20. 77 FR 22322 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... safety reporting systems. This inventory provides an evidence base that informs construction of the Common Formats. The inventory includes many systems from the private sector, including prominent academic... HHS Web site: http://www.PSO.AHRQ.gov/index.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cathryn Niane...

  1. 76 FR 67456 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... information regarding the quality and safety of health care delivery. The Patient Safety Act (at 42 U.S.C... Formats in order to facilitate standardized data collection and improve the safety and quality of health... conjunction with an interagency Federal Patient Safety Work Group (PSWG), revises and refines the Common...

  2. Performance and cost characteristics of multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Sydney M.; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Breault, Tanya M.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Thompson, Levi T.

    2016-09-01

    Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) have recently received considerable attention as promising high energy density, low cost grid-level energy storage technologies. Despite these attractive features, NAqRFBs are still at an early stage of development and innovative design techniques are necessary to improve performance and decrease costs. In this work, we investigate multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange NAqRFBs. Common ion systems decrease the supporting electrolyte requirement, which subsequently improves active material solubility and decreases electrolyte cost. Voltammetric and electrolytic techniques are used to study the electrochemical performance and chemical compatibility of model redox active materials, iron (II) tris(2,2‧-bipyridine) tetrafluoroborate (Fe(bpy)3(BF4)2) and ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Fc1N112-BF4). These results help disentangle complex cycling behavior observed in flow cell experiments. Further, a simple techno-economic model demonstrates the cost benefits of employing common ion exchange NAqRFBs, afforded by decreasing the salt and solvent contributions to total chemical cost. This study highlights two new concepts, common ion exchange and multi-electron transfer, for NAqRFBs through a demonstration flow cell employing model active species. In addition, the compatibility analysis developed for asymmetric chemistries can apply to other promising species, including organics, metal coordination complexes (MCCs) and mixed MCC/organic systems, enabling the design of low cost NAqRFBs.

  3. Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement

  4. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  5. First-principles study of the formation of glycine-producing radicals from common interstellar species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akimasa; Kitazawa, Yuya; Ochi, Toshiro; Shoji, Mitsuo; Komatsu, Yu; Kayanuma, Megumi; Aikawa, Yuri; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2018-03-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, has been intensively searched for in molecular clouds, and the comprehensive clarification of the formation path of interstellar glycine is now imperative. Among all the possible glycine formation pathways, we focused on the radical pathways revealed by Garrod (2013). In the present study, we have precisely investigated all the chemical reaction steps related to the glycine formation processes based on state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We found that two reaction pathways require small activation barriers (ΔE‡ ≤ 7.75 kJ mol-1), which demonstrates the possibility of glycine formation even at low temperatures in interstellar space if the radical species are generated. The origin of carbon and nitrogen in the glycine backbone and their combination patterns are further discussed in relation to the formation mechanisms. According to the clarification of the atomic correspondence between glycine and its potential parental molecules, it is shown that the nitrogen and two carbons in the glycine can originate in three common interstellar molecules, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia, and that the source molecules of glycine can be described by any of their combinations. The glycine formation processes can be categorized into six patterns. Finally, we discussed two other glycine formation pathways expected from the present DFT calculation results.

  6. Inefficient and opaque price formation in the Japan Electric Power Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether the spot prices in the Japan Electric Power Exchange are efficiently formed from April 3, 2006, to March 31, 2012, using the conventional and rank-based variance-ratio tests. The results seem to reject the efficient market hypothesis in the market. Moreover, by applying Granger-causality tests, this paper investigates whether the power price is determined from the information of primary energy and exchange markets that directly affect the cost of power generation. The results indicate no Granger-causality from the prices of oil and gas and the exchange rate to the price of electricity. Finally, this paper discusses the factors that lead to inefficient and mysterious price formation. - Highlights: ► This study examines the wholesale electricity market in Japan. ► Efficient market hypothesis is rejected. ► Prices of imported fuel do not Granger-cause the prices of electricity. ► The WTI prices and the exchange rates do not Granger-cause the power prices

  7. OpenClimateGIS - A Web Service Providing Climate Model Data in Commonly Used Geospatial Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T. A.; Koziol, B. W.; Rood, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the OpenClimateGIS project is to make climate model datasets readily available in commonly used, modern geospatial formats used by GIS software, browser-based mapping tools, and virtual globes.The climate modeling community typically stores climate data in multidimensional gridded formats capable of efficiently storing large volumes of data (such as netCDF, grib) while the geospatial community typically uses flexible vector and raster formats that are capable of storing small volumes of data (relative to the multidimensional gridded formats). OpenClimateGIS seeks to address this difference in data formats by clipping climate data to user-specified vector geometries (i.e. areas of interest) and translating the gridded data on-the-fly into multiple vector formats. The OpenClimateGIS system does not store climate data archives locally, but rather works in conjunction with external climate archives that expose climate data via the OPeNDAP protocol. OpenClimateGIS provides a RESTful API web service for accessing climate data resources via HTTP, allowing a wide range of applications to access the climate data.The OpenClimateGIS system has been developed using open source development practices and the source code is publicly available. The project integrates libraries from several other open source projects (including Django, PostGIS, numpy, Shapely, and netcdf4-python).OpenClimateGIS development is supported by a grant from NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  8. Deterioration of the fuel injection parameters as a result of Common Rail injectors deposit formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes external and internal Common Rail injectors deposits formed in dynamometer engine simulation tests. It discussed not only the key reasons and factors influencing injector deposit formation but also the resulting way of fuel preparation and engine test approaches. The effects of external coking deposit as well as internal deposits two most common form types that is carboxylic soaps and organic amides on deterioration of the fuel injection parameters were assessed. The assessments covered both deposits impacts on quantitative and qualitative changes of the injectors diagnostic parameters and as a result on deterioration of the injector performance. Finally the comparisons between characteristic of dosage of one fuel injector before test and characteristics few injectors after engine tests of simulated deposit formation were made.

  9. Understanding perovskite formation through the intramolecular exchange method in ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rodrigo; Castro, Jhon A. P.; Marques, Adriano S.; Nogueira, Ana F.

    2017-04-01

    Among the methods to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite films, the intramolecular exchange method was the first one that made possible to prepare perovskite solar cells with efficiencies higher than 20%. However, perovskite formation by this method is not completely understood, especially in ambient conditions. In this work, perovskite films were prepared by the intramolecular exchange method in ambient conditions. The spin coating speed and the frequency of the MAI solution dripping onto PbI2(DMSO) were varied during the deposition steps. With the combination of these two parameters, a rigid control of the solvent drying was possible. Thus, depending on the chosen conditions, the intermediate MAPb3I8·2DMSO was formed with residual PbI2. Otherwise, direct formation of perovskite film was attained. A mechanism for the direct formation of bulk perovskite was proposed. We also investigated how the posterior thermal annealing affects the crystallinity and defects in perovskite films. With prolonged thermal annealing, the excess of MAI can be avoided, increasing the efficiency and decreasing the hysteresis of the solar cells. The best perovskite solar cell achieved a stabilized power output of 12.9%. The findings of this work pave the way for realizing the fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere, a very desirable condition for cost-efficient large scale manufacturing of this technology.

  10. The empirical role of the exchange rate on the crude-oil price formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, A.; Wirjanto, T.S.; University of Waterloo, Ont.

    2004-01-01

    This paper adopts a novel empirical approach to the crude-oil price formation for the purpose of understanding the price reactions of OPEC member countries to changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar against other major currencies and prices of other members. The results are broadly consistent with the view of the absence of a unified OPEC determined price in the international crude market literature. In addition, the results also highlight a cross regional dimension of the crude oil market. (author)

  11. EXFOR Manual. Center-to-Center Exchange Format. Version 89-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1989-09-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the transmission of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. EXFOR is a database with several million data records containing the world's experimental nuclear reaction data induced by neutrons, photons or charged particles. Data retrievals can be obtained from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) or from one of the co-operating data centers whose names and addresses can be found inside the manual. Their contributions and co-operative efforts are gratefully acknowledged. (author). Refs

  12. Charge-exchange-induced formation of hollow atoms in high-intensity laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [TU-Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Auguste, T.; D' Oliveira, P.; Hulin, S.; Monot, P. [Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique DSM/DRECAM/SPAM, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Andreev, N.E.; Chegotov, M.V.; Veisman, M.E. [High Energy Density Research Centre, Institute of High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-14

    For the first time registration of high-resolution soft x-ray emission and atomic data calculations of hollow-atom dielectronic satellite spectra of highly charged nitrogen have been performed. Double-electron charge-exchange processes from excited states are proposed for the formation of autoionizing levels nln'l' in high-intensity laser-produced plasmas, when field-ionized ions penetrate into the residual gas. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment. Plasma spectroscopy with hollow ions is proposed and a temperature diagnostic for laser-produced plasmas in the long-lasting recombining regime is developed. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  13. Evaluation of modified stainless steel surfaces targeted to reduce biofilm formation by common milk sporeformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shivali; Anand, Sanjeev; Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie; Metzger, Lloyd; Amamcharla, Jayendra

    2016-12-01

    The development of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel (SS) surfaces poses a great threat to the quality of milk and other dairy products as the biofilm-embedded bacteria can survive thermal processing. Established biofilms offer cleaning challenges because they are resistant to most of the regular cleaning protocols. Sporeforming thermoduric organisms entrapped within biofilm matrix can also form heat-resistant spores, and may result in a long-term persistent contamination. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different nonfouling coatings [AMC 18 (Advanced Materials Components Express, Lemont, PA), Dursan (SilcoTek Corporation, Bellefonte, PA), Ni-P-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Avtec Finishing Systems, New Hope, MN), and Lectrofluor 641 (General Magnaplate Corporation, Linden, NJ)] on SS plate heat exchanger surfaces, to resist the formation of bacterial biofilms. It was hypothesized that modified SS surfaces would promote a lesser amount of deposit buildup and bacterial adhesion as compared with the native SS surface. Vegetative cells of aerobic sporeformers, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 15952), Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 6634), and Bacillus sporothermodurans (DSM 10599), were used to study biofilm development on the modified and native SS surfaces. The adherence of these organisms, though influenced by surface energy and hydrophobicity, exhibited no apparent relation with surface roughness. The Ni-P-PTFE coating exhibited the least bacterial attachment and milk solid deposition, and hence, was the most resistant to biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy, which was used to visualize the extent of biofilm formation on modified and native SS surfaces, also revealed lower bacterial attachment on the Ni-P-PTFE as compared with the native SS surface. This study thus provides evidence of reduced biofilm formation on the modified SS surfaces. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  14. Accretion Disk Assembly During Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Feedback and LIGO Binary Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Antoni, Andrea; Macias, Phillip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); MacLeod, Morgan, E-mail: armurgui@ucsc.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    During a common envelope (CE) episode in a binary system, the engulfed companion spirals to tighter orbital separations under the influence of drag from the surrounding envelope material. As this object sweeps through material with a steep radial gradient of density, net angular momentum is introduced into the flow, potentially leading to the formation of an accretion disk. The presence of a disk would have dramatic consequences for the outcome of the interaction because accretion might be accompanied by strong, polar outflows with enough energy to unbind the entire envelope. Without a detailed understanding of the necessary conditions for disk formation during CE, therefore, it is difficult to accurately predict the population of merging compact binaries. This paper examines the conditions for disk formation around objects embedded within CEs using the “wind tunnel” formalism developed by MacLeod et al. We find that the formation of disks is highly dependent on the compressibility of the envelope material. Disks form only in the most compressible of stellar envelope gas, found in envelopes’ outer layers in zones of partial ionization. These zones are largest in low-mass stellar envelopes, but comprise small portions of the envelope mass and radius in all cases. We conclude that disk formation and associated accretion feedback in CE is rare, and if it occurs, transitory. The implication for LIGO black hole binary assembly is that by avoiding strong accretion feedback, CE interactions should still result in the substantial orbital tightening needed to produce merging binaries.

  15. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  16. A study on the formation of fouling in a heat exchanging system for Han-river water as cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Sun Kyung; Suh, Sang Ho; Rho, Hyung Woon; Cho, Young Il

    2003-01-01

    Scale is formed when hard water is heated or cooled in heat transfer equipments such as heat exchangers, condensers, evaporators, cooling towers, boilers, and pipe walls. When scale deposits in a heat exchanger surface, it is traditionally called fouling. The objective of the present study is to investigate the formation of fouling in a heat exchanging system. A lab-scale heat exchanging system is built-up to observe and measure the formation of fouling experimentally. Water analyses are conducted to obtain the properties of Han river water. In the present study a microscopic observation is conducted to visualize the process of scale formation. Hardness of Han-river water is higher than that of tap water in Seoul

  17. Novel graphical approach as fouling pinch for increasing fouling formation period in heat exchanger network (HEN) state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Abazar Vahdat; Ghaebi, Hadi; Amidpour, Majid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new graphical tool is proposed for investigation of fouling formation period in heat exchanger networks (HEN). The objective of this paper is increasing the time that HEN can perform its desirable heat transfer operation without required cleaning process. In a typical heat exchanger network, fouling formation rate of some streams is more than other ones. The method obtained in this work is based on given more opportunity for fouling formation for streams with high fouling formation rate. In fact high fouling formation rate streams are replaced with low fouling formation rate streams between different heat exchangers so that more fouling formation opportunity may be given for HEN. Therefore the HEN cleaning time decreases in fixed time period and the high fouling formation streams should pass from the path that the low fouling formation rate stream previously has passed, and inversely. As a result, secondly stream with high fouling formation rate mixes with residues of primary stream (low fouling formation rate stream). Therefore we should consider to adoption and conformability of streams structures (for prevention of streams destruction) and thermal considerations (for desirable heat transfer). Outlet temperatures of hot and cold streams should state in predefined temperatures. For satisfying thermal consideration after streams replacement this approach can be used in plants that cleanliness and its operational costs are most important problem.

  18. Merging constitutional and motional covalent dynamics in reversible imine formation and exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-06

    The formation and exchange processes of imines of salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, and benzaldehyde have been studied, showing that the former has features of particular interest for dynamic covalent chemistry, displaying high efficiency and fast rates. The monoimines formed with aliphatic α,ω-diamines display an internal exchange process of self-transimination type, inducing a local motion of either "stepping-in-place" or "single-step" type by bond interchange, whose rate decreases rapidly with the distance of the terminal amino groups. Control of the speed of the process over a wide range may be achieved by substituents, solvent composition, and temperature. These monoimines also undergo intermolecular exchange, thus merging motional and constitutional covalent behavior within the same molecule. With polyamines, the monoimines formed execute internal motions that have been characterized by extensive one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and EXSY proton NMR studies. In particular, with linear polyamines, nondirectional displacement occurs by shifting of the aldehyde residue along the polyamine chain serving as molecular track. Imines thus behave as simple prototypes of systems displaying relative motions of molecular moieties, a subject of high current interest in the investigation of synthetic and biological molecular motors. The motional processes described are of dynamic covalent nature and take place without change in molecular constitution. They thus represent a category of dynamic covalent motions, resulting from reversible covalent bond formation and dissociation. They extend dynamic covalent chemistry into the area of molecular motions. A major further step will be to achieve control of directionality. The results reported here for imines open wide perspectives, together with other chemical groups, for the implementation of such features in multifunctional molecules toward the design of molecular devices presenting a complex combination of

  19. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  1. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org .

  2. How well do commonly used data presentation formats support comparative effectiveness evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G; Qian, Feng; Veazie, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Good decisions depend on an accurate understanding of the comparative effectiveness of decision alternatives. The best way to convey data needed to support these comparisons is unknown. To determine how well 5 commonly used data presentation formats convey comparative effectiveness information. The study was an Internet survey using a factorial design. Participants consisted of 279 members of an online survey panel. Study participants compared outcomes associated with 3 hypothetical screening test options relative to 5 possible outcomes with probabilities ranging from 2 per 5000 (0.04%) to 500 per 1000 (50%). Data presentation formats included a table, a "magnified" bar chart, a risk scale, a frequency diagram, and an icon array. Outcomes included the number of correct ordinal judgments regarding the more likely of 2 outcomes, the ratio of perceived versus actual relative likelihoods of the paired outcomes, the intersubject consistency of responses, and perceived clarity. The mean number of correct ordinal judgments was 12 of 15 (80%), with no differences among data formats. On average, there was a 3.3-fold difference between perceived and actual likelihood ratios (95% confidence interval = 3.0-3.6). Comparative judgments based on flowcharts, icon arrays, and tables were all significantly more accurate and consistent than those based on risk scales and bar charts (P charts, and flow diagrams. None of the data presentation formats studied can reliably provide patients, especially those with low subjective numeracy, with an accurate understanding of comparative effectiveness information.

  3. Effects of commonly used food preservatives on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Follo, Marie; Braun, Gabriele; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit

    2008-08-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium nitrite (SN) are commonly used food preservatives. In this in vitro study, the effects of these substances on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans were analysed. In addition to the microtiter plate test (MPT), a biofilm reactor containing bovine enamel slabs (BES) was used to study the influence of food preservatives on biofilm formation in 5 independent periods of 4 days each. These included one period with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) as a positive control as well as a period with growth medium alone as a negative control. The vitality of the biofilm on BES was detected using live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the number of colony forming units (CFU) was determined. In MPT 0.12% SN significantly reduced the biofilm formation. PS at a concentration of 0.4% tended to inhibit biofilm formation, whereas the inhibition for 0.8% PS was significant. Less inhibition was caused by 0.8% SB. In the biofilm reactor 0.06% of SN, 0.1% of SB and 0.1% PS significantly reduced the covering grade as well as the CFU of the biofilm. Biofilm vitality was reduced significantly by CHX to a level of 32.5% compared to the control. Only SB reduced the vitality to a level of 19.1%. SN and PS showed no influence on biofilm vitality. This study indicates the potential of food preservatives as inhibitory agents in S. mutans biofilm formation, which should be kept in mind when studying the effects of conserved food on dental plaque biofilm in situ.

  4. Investigation of isolation conditions and ion-exchange purification of protein coagulation components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of an extraction procedure of protein coagulants from common bean seed regarding concentration of NaCl and pH was performed. High values of protein concentration and coagulation activity in crude extract (9.19 g/l and 23.9%, respectively were obtained when the extraction was performed using 0.5 mol/l NaCl and water as solvent, which represents an advantage for economic and environmental reasons. Crude extract of common bean seed was purified by precipitation at two different percentages of (NH42SO4 saturation, followed by batch ion-exchange chromatography. The highest obtained coagulation activity, 45%, was determined in fraction that was eluated at 1.75 mol/l NaCl from resin loaded with proteins precipitated upon 80-100% (NH42SO4 saturation. High values of coagulation activity showed by some eluates suggest their application as natural coagulant for water purification. .

  5. Formation of Aqueous MgUO2(CO3)32- Complex and Uranium Anion Exchange Mechanism onto an Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Wenming; Brooks, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    The formation of and stability constants for aqueous Mg-UO2-CO3 complexes were determined using an anion exchange method. Magnesium concentration was varied (up to 20 mmol/L) at constant ionic strength (I = 0.101, 0.202, 0.304, 0.406, and 0.509 mol/kg NaNO3), pH = 8.1, total [U(VI)] = 10.4 mol/L under equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. The results indicate that only the MgUO2(CO3)32- complex is formed. The cumulative formation constant extrapolated to zero ionic strength is similar regardless of the activity correction convention used: log = 25.8 b 0.5 using Davies equation and = 25.02 b 0.08 using specific ion interaction theory (SIT). Uranium sorption onto the exchange resin decreased in the presence of Mg putatively due to the formation of MgUO2(CO3)32- that had a lower affinity for the resin than UO2(CO3)34-. Uranium sorption results are consistent with an equivalent anion exchange reaction between NO3- and UO2(CO3)34- species to retain charge neutrality regardless of Mg concentration. No Mg was associated with the anion exchange resin indicating that the MgUO2(CO3)32- complex did not sorb

  6. Proteomics data exchange and storage: the need for common standards and public repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rafael C; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Both the existence of data standards and public databases or repositories have been key factors behind the development of the existing "omics" approaches. In this book chapter we first review the main existing mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics resources: PRIDE, PeptideAtlas, GPMDB, and Tranche. Second, we report on the current status of the different proteomics data standards developed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI): the formats mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, TraML, and PSI-MI XML are then reviewed. Finally, we present an easy way to query and access MS proteomics data in the PRIDE database, as a representative of the existing repositories, using the workflow management system (WMS) tool Taverna. Two different publicly available workflows are explained and described.

  7. Fragmentation and Thermochemical Exchanges during Planetary Core Formation - an Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, M.; Wacheul, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Telluric planet formation involved the settling of large amounts of liquid iron coming from impacting planetesimals into an ambient viscous magma ocean. The initial state of planets was mostly determined by exchanges of heat and elements during this iron rain. Up to now, most models of planet formation simply assume that the metal rapidly equilibrated with the whole mantle. Other models account for simplified dynamics of the iron rain, involving the settling of single size drops at the Stokes velocity. But the fluid dynamics of iron sedimentation is much more complex, and influenced by the large viscosity ratio between the metal and the ambient fluid, as shown in studies of rising gas bubbles (e.g. Bonometti and Magnaudet 2006). We aim at developing a global understanding of the iron rain dynamics. Our study relies on a model experiment, consisting in popping a balloon of heated metal liquid at the top of a tank filled with viscous liquid. The experiments reach the relevant turbulent planetary regime, and tackle the whole range of expected viscosity ratios. High-speed videos allow determining the dynamics of drop clouds, as well as the statistics of drop sizes, shapes, and velocities. We also develop an analytical model of turbulent diffusion during settling, validated by measuring the temperature decrease of the metal blob. We finally present consequences for models of planet formation.

  8. Harvesting a knowledge commons: collective action, transparency, and innovation at the Portland Fish Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While localist visions of alternative food systems advocate for the expansion of local ecological knowledge through more proximate producer-consumer relationships, globalized seafood supply-demand chains persist. Moving beyond this dichotomy, commons scholars recognize that collective action among resource users at the local level can shape cross-scalar producer relations with government and more capitalized firms operating in regional and global markets. In the case of the New England groundfishery, a quasi-public fish auction not only transformed the scalar, logistical, and financial parameters of harvester-buyer relationships, it altered the production and use of local knowledge among some harvesters, and their technological choices. Resulting markets offer potential benefits that extend to broader publics, by increasing the monetary value and experimental development of a knowledge commons. Qualitative analysis of field data shows that with new market transparency, fish are no longer valued as an undifferentiated commodity, but as a variety of products with individually nuanced price structures. Displacement of local seafood buyers incurred some shoreside job losses, but fishers on smaller, owner-operated boats in multi-generational fishing harbours benefit particularly from new opportunities compared to larger, fleet boats due to different labour relations, allocations of decision-making responsibilities, observational contexts, and associated information flows. Implications for the mobilization of knowledge-action linkages to influence formal resource management arenas merit further research.

  9. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J; Chevone, Boris I

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation.

  11. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  12. QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

    2010-05-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  13. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  14. Regulation of mitotic spindle formation by the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Takaya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10 was originally identified as the product of the gene associated with slowed nerve-conduction velocities of peripheral nerves. However, the function of ARHGEF10 in mammalian cells is totally unknown at a molecular level. ARHGEF10 contains no distinctive functional domains except for tandem Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology and putative transmembrane domains. Results Here we show that RhoA is a substrate for ARHGEF10. In both G1/S and M phases, ARHGEF10 was localized in the centrosome in adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. Furthermore, RNA interference-based knockdown of ARHGEF10 resulted in multipolar spindle formation in M phase. Each spindle pole seems to contain a centrosome consisting of two centrioles and the pericentriolar material. Downregulation of RhoA elicited similar phenotypes, and aberrant mitotic spindle formation following ARHGEF10 knockdown was rescued by ectopic expression of constitutively activated RhoA. Multinucleated cells were not increased upon ARHGEF10 knockdown in contrast to treatment with Y-27632, a specific pharmacological inhibitor for the RhoA effector kinase ROCK, which induced not only multipolar spindle formation, but also multinucleation. Therefore, unregulated centrosome duplication rather than aberration in cytokinesis may be responsible for ARHGEF10 knockdown-dependent multipolar spindle formation. We further isolated the kinesin-like motor protein KIF3B as a binding partner of ARHGEF10. Knockdown of KIF3B again caused multipolar spindle phenotypes. The supernumerary centrosome phenotype was also observed in S phase-arrested osteosarcoma U2OS cells when the expression of ARHGEF10, RhoA or KIF3B was abrogated by RNA interference. Conclusion Collectively, our results suggest that a novel RhoA-dependent signaling pathway under the control of ARHGEF10 has a pivotal role in the regulation of the cell division cycle. This pathway is not involved in

  15. Mismatch repair deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation in Lynch Syndrome-Associated colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Shigeki; Mori, Taisuke; Ogawa, Reiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Takeshi; Sugano, Kokichi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kato, Mamoru; Furukawa, Eisaku; Ochiai, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Lynch syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency is a ubiquitous feature of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenocarcinomas; however, it remains unclear when the MMR-deficient phenotype is acquired during tumorigenesis. To probe this issue, the present study examined genetic alterations and MMR statuses in Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas, in comparison with sporadic adenomas. Among the Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal tumors, 68 of 86 adenomas (79%) and all adenocarcinomas were MMR-deficient, whereas all the sporadic adenomas were MMR-proficient, as determined by microsatellite instability testing and immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins. Sequencing analyses identified APC or CTNNB1 mutations in the majority of sporadic adenomas (58/84, 69%) and MMR-proficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas (13/18, 72%). However, MMR-deficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas had less APC or CTNNB1 mutations (25/68, 37%) and frequent frameshift RNF43 mutations involving mononucleotide repeats (45/68, 66%). Furthermore, frameshift mutations affecting repeat sequences constituted 14 of 26 APC mutations (54%) in MMR-deficient adenomas whereas these frameshift mutations were rare in MMR-proficient adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome (1/12, 8%) and in sporadic adenomas (3/52, 6%). Lynch syndrome-associated adenocarcinomas exhibited mutation profiles similar to those of MMR-deficient adenomas. Considering that WNT pathway activation sufficiently drives colorectal adenoma formation, the distinct mutation profiles of WNT pathway genes in Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas suggest that MMR deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation.

  16. Formation of environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR) in iron(III) cation-exchanged smectite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G; Roy, Amitava; dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Dellinger, Barry; Cook, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found at a number of Superfund sites, with EPFRs being formed via a proposed redox process at ambient environmental conditions. The possibility of such a redox process taking place at ambient environmental conditions is studied utilizing a surrogate soil system of phenol and iron(III)-exchanged calcium montmorillonite clay, Fe(III)CaM. Sorption of phenol by the Fe(III)CaM is demonstrated by Fourier-transformed infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, as evidenced by the peaks between 1345 cm(-1) and 1595 cm(-1), and at lower frequencies between 694 cm(-1) and 806 cm(-1), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, as shown by an increase in interlayer spacing within Fe(III)CaM. The formation and characterization of the EPFRs is determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, showing phenoxyl-type radical with a g-factor of 2.0034 and ΔHP-P of 6.1 G at an average concentration of 7.5 × 10(17) spins per g. EPFRs lifetime data are indicative of oxygen and water molecules being responsible for EPFR decay. The change in the oxidation state of the iron redox center is studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, showing that 23% of the Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm the XANES results. These findings, when combined with the EPFR concentration data, demonstrate that the stoichiometry of the EPFR formation under the conditions of this study is 1.5 × 10(-2) spins per Fe(II) atom.

  17. The Common Gut Microbe Eubacterium hallii also Contributes to Intestinal Propionate Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Christina; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2016-01-01

    Eubacterium hallii is considered an important microbe in regard to intestinal metabolic balance due to its ability to utilize glucose and the fermentation intermediates acetate and lactate, to form butyrate and hydrogen. Recently, we observed that E. hallii is capable of metabolizing glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA, reuterin) with reported antimicrobial properties. The key enzyme for glycerol to 3-HPA conversion is the cobalamin-dependent glycerol/diol dehydratase PduCDE which also utilizes 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) to form propionate. Therefore our primary goal was to investigate glycerol to 3-HPA metabolism and 1,2-PD utilization by E. hallii along with its ability to produce cobalamin. We also investigated the relative abundance of E. hallii in stool of adults using 16S rRNA and pduCDE based gene screening to determine the contribution of E. hallii to intestinal propionate formation. We found that E. hallii utilizes glycerol to produce up to 9 mM 3-HPA but did not further metabolize 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol. Utilization of 1,2-PD in the presence and absence of glucose led to the formation of propanal, propanol and propionate. E. hallii formed cobalamin and was detected in stool of 74% of adults using 16S rRNA gene as marker gene (n = 325). Relative abundance of the E. hallii 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 0.59% with a mean relative abundance of 0.044%. E. hallii PduCDE was detected in 63 to 81% of the metagenomes depending on which subunit was investigated beside other taxons such as Ruminococcus obeum, R. gnavus, Flavonifractor plautii, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Veillonella spp. In conclusion, we identified E. hallii as a common gut microbe with the ability to convert glycerol to 3-HPA, a step that requires the production of cobalamin, and to utilize 1,2-PD to form propionate. Our results along with its ability to use a broad range of substrates point at E. hallii as a key species within the intestinal trophic chain with the potential to

  18. The common gut microbe Eubacterium hallii also contributes to intestinal propionate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eEngels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eubacterium hallii is considered an important microbe in regard to intestinal metabolic balance due to its ability to utilize glucose and the fermentation intermediates acetate and lactate, to form butyrate and hydrogen. Recently, we observed that E. hallii is capable of metabolizing glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA, reuterin with reported antimicrobial properties. The key enzyme for glycerol to 3-HPA conversion is the cobalamin-dependent glycerol/diol dehydratase PduCDE which also utilizes 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD to form propionate. Therefore our primary goal was to investigate glycerol to 3-HPA metabolism and 1,2-PD utilization by E. hallii along with its ability to produce cobalamin. We also investigated the relative abundance of E. hallii in stool of adults using 16S rRNA and pduCDE based gene screening to determine the contribution of E. hallii to intestinal propionate formation. We found that E. hallii utilizes glycerol to produce up to 9 mM 3-HPA but did not further metabolize 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD. Utilization of 1,2-PD in the presence and absence of glucose led to the formation of propanal, propanol and propionate. E. hallii formed cobalamin and was detected in stool of 74% of adults using 16S rRNA gene as marker gene (n = 325. Relative abundance of the E. hallii 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 0.59% with a mean relative abundance of 0.044%. E. hallii PduCDE was detected in 63 to 81% of the metagenomes depending on which subunit was investigated beside other taxons such as Ruminococcus obeum, Ruminococcus gnavus, Flavonifractor prautii, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Veillonella spp. In conclusion, we identified E. hallii as a common gut microbe with the ability to convert glycerol to 3-HPA, a step that requires the production of cobalamin, and to utilize 1,2-PD to form propionate. Our results along with its ability to use a broad range of substrates point at E. hallii as a key species within the intestinal

  19. Hydrogen exchange kinetics changes upon formation of the soybean trypsin inhibitor: trypsin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, C.K.; Ellis, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The hydrogen exchange kinetics of the complex of trypsin--soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) have been compared to the calculated sum of the exchange kinetics for the inhibitor and trypsin measured separately. The exchange rates observed for the complex are substantially less than the sum of the exchange rates in the two individual proteins. These results cannot be accounted for by changes in intermolecular or intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The decrease in exchange rates in the complex are ascribed to changes in solvent accessibility in the component proteins. (U.S.)

  20. Dithiocarbamates have a common toxic effect on zebrafish body axis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, Fred; La Du, Jane K.; Vue, Meng; Alzarban, Noor; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously determined that the dithiocarbamate pesticide sodium metam (NaM) and its active ingredient methylisothiocyanate (MITC) were developmentally toxic causing notochord distortions in the zebrafish. In this study, developing zebrafish were exposed to isothiocyanates (ITCs), dithiocarbamates (DTCs) and several degradation products to determine the teratogenic relationship of these chemical classes at the molecular level. All dithiocarbamates tested elicited notochord distortions with notochord NOELs from 2 ), a common DTC degradate, also caused distortions at concentrations >200 times the DTCs. Whole mount in situ hybridization of developmental markers for collagen (collagen2a1), muscle (myoD), and body axis formation (no tail) was perturbed well after cessation of treatment with pyrolidine-DTC (PDTC), dimethyl-DTC (DMDTC), NaM, MITC, and CS 2 . Therefore, distinct albeit related chemical classes share a common toxic effect on zebrafish notochord development. To test the responsiveness of the distortion to metal perturbation, five metal chelators and 2 metals were studied. The membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine (NCu) was found to cause notochord distortions similar to DTC-related molecules. DMDTC and NCu treated animals were protected with copper, and collagen 2a1 and no tail gene expression patterns were identical to controls in these animals. PDTC, NaM, MITC, and CS 2 were not responsive to copper indicating that the chelation of metals is not the primary means by which these molecules elicit their developmental toxicity. Embryos treated with DMDTC, NaM, and NCu were rescued by adding triciaine (MS-222) which abolishes the spontaneous muscle contractions that begin at 18 hpf. In these animals, only collagen 2a1 expression showed a similar pattern to the other notochord distorting molecules. This indicates that the perturbation of no tail expression is in response to the muscle contractions distorting the notochord, while collagen 2a1 is

  1. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  2. Formation of hydrotalcite in aqueous solutions and intercalation of ATP by anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroki; Chiba, Jun; Ito, Masahiro; Takeda, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi; Mawatari, Yasuteru; Tabata, Masayoshi

    2006-08-15

    The formation reaction and the intercalation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were studied for hydrotalcite (HT), a layered double hydroxide (LDH) of magnesium and aluminum. Hydrotalcite with nitrate ions in the interlayer (HT-NO(3)) was formed (A) by dropwise addition of a solution of magnesium and aluminum nitrates (pH ca. 3) to a sodium hydroxide solution (pH ca. 14) until the pH decreased from 14 to 10 and (B) by dropwise addition of the NaOH solution to the solution of magnesium and aluminum nitrates with pH increasing from 3 to 10. The precipitate obtained with method B was contaminated with aluminum hydroxide and the crystallinity of the product was low, possibly because aluminum hydroxide precipitates at pH 4 or 5 and remains even after HT-NO(3) forms at pH above 8. With method A, however, the precipitate was pure HT-NO(3) with increased crystallinity, since the solubility of aluminum hydroxide at pH above and around 10 is high as dissolved aluminate anions are stable in this high pH region, and there was no aluminum hydroxide contamination. The formed HT-NO(3) had a composition of [Mg(0.71)Al(0.29)(OH)(2)](NO(3))(0.29).0.58H(2)O. To intercalate ATP anions into the HT-NO(3), HT-NO(3) was dispersed in an ATP solution at pH 7. It was found that the interlayer nitrate ions were completely exchanged with ATP anions by ion exchange, and the interlayer distance expanded almost twice with a free space distance of 1.2 nm. The composition of HT-ATP was established as [Mg(0.68)Al(0.32)(OH)(2)](ATP)(0.080)0.88H(2)O. The increased distance could be explained with a calculated molecular configuration of the ATP as follows: An ATP molecule is bound to an interlayer surface with the triphosphate group, the adenosine group bends owing to its bond angles and projects into the interlayer to a height of 1 nm, and the adenosine groups aligned in the interlayer support the interlayer distance.

  3. Lead titanate nanotubes synthesized via ion-exchange method: Characteristics and formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liang; Cao Lixin; Li Jingyu; Liu Wei; Zhang Fen; Zhu Lin; Su Ge

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Lead titanate nanotubes PbTi 3 O 7 were firstly synthesized by ion-exchange method. → Sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability. → Lead titanate nanotubes show a distinct red shift on absorption edge. - Abstract: A two-step method is presented for the synthesis of one dimensional lead titanate (PbTi 3 O 7 ) nanotubes. Firstly, titanate nanotubes were prepared by an alkaline hydrothermal process with TiO 2 nanopowder as precursor, and then lead titanate nanotubes were formed through an ion-exchange reaction. We found that sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability with lead ions, while protonated titanate nanotubes have not. For the first time, we distinguished the difference between sodium titanate nanotubes and protonated titanate nanotubes in the ion-exchange process, which reveals a layer space effect of nanotubes in the ion-exchange reaction. In comparison with sodium titanate, the synthesized lead titanate nanotubes show a narrowed bandgap.

  4. Isolation and molecular analysis of inv dup(15) and construction of a physical map of a common breakpoint in order to elucidate their mechanism of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandstrat, A E; Schwartz, S

    2000-11-01

    An inverted duplication of chromosome 15 [inv dup(15)] is the most common supernumerary marker chromosome, comprising approximately 50% of all chromosomes in this class. Structurally, the inv dup(15) is a mirror image with the central axis defining a distal break within either the heterochromatic alpha-satellite array or along the euchromatin in the long (q) arm of the chromosome. There are several types of inv dup(15), classified by the amount of euchromatic material present. Generally, they are bisatellited, pseudodicentric and have a breakpoint in 15q11-q14. A suggested mechanism of formation of inv dup(15) involves illegitimate recombination between homologous chromosomes followed by nondisjunction and centromere inactivation. The proximal portion of chromosome 15 contains several low-copy repeat sequence families and it has been hypothesized that errors in pairing among these repeats may result in structural rearrangements of this chromosome including the inv dup(15). To test this hypothesis and to determine the mechanism of formation, the inv dup(15) from four cases was isolated in somatic cell hybrids and polymerase chain reaction microsatellite markers were used to determine the origin of exchange. Two appeared to result from interchromosomal and two from intrachromosomal exchange, one of which occurred post-recombination. In addition, a detailed physical map of the breakpoint region in the largest inv dup(15) was constructed placing eight new sequence-tagged sites and ten new bacterial artificial chromosome markers in the region.

  5. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J.; Chevone, Boris I.

    2008-01-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America

  6. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergweiler, Chris [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bergweiler@nre.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chevone, Boris I. [Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America.

  7. A Possible Explanation of the 'Exchange Rate Disconnect Puzzle': A Common Solution to Three Major Macroeconomic Puzzles?

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Yuji, Horioka; Nicholas, Ford

    2016-01-01

    Meese and Rogoff (1983) and subsequent studies find that economic fundamentals are apparently not able to explain exchange rate movements, but we argue that this so‐called “Exchange Rate Disconnect Puzzle” arose because researchers such as Meese and Rogoff (1983) did not use the right fundamentals and because they did not allow for the forward‐looking nature of exchange rate determination. Further, because they apparently were not aware that financial markets by themselves could not equalise ...

  8. A possible explanation of the 'exchange rate disconnect puzzle': A common solution to three major macroeconomic puzzles?

    OpenAIRE

    Horioka, Charles Yuji; Ford, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Meese and Rogoff (1983) and subsequent studies find that economic fundamentals are apparently not able to explain exchange rate movements, but we argue that this so-called "Exchange Rate Disconnect Puzzle" arose because researchers such as Meese and Rogoff (1983) did not use the right fundamentals and because they did not allow for the forward-looking nature of exchange rate determination. Further, because they apparently were not aware that financial markets by themselves could not equalise ...

  9. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Saul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2 is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC, GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC, and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

  10. Correlation and prediction of ion exchange equilibria on weak-acid resins by means of the surface complex formation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, J.

    1988-11-01

    The present work summarizes investigations of the equilibrium of the exchange of protons, copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium and sodium ions on two weak-acid exchange resins in hydrochloric and carbonic acid bearing solutions at 25 0 C. The description of the state of equilibrium between resin and solution is based on the individual chemical equilibria which have to be adjusted simultaneously. The equilibrium in the liquid phase is described by the mass action law and the condition of electroneutrality using activity coefficients calculated according to the theory of Debye and Hueckel. The exchange equilibria are described by means of a surface complex formation model, which was developed by Davis, James and Leckie for activated aluminia and which has been applied to weak-acid resins. The model concept assumes the resin as a plane surface in which the functional groups are distributed uniformly. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Indoor transient SOA formation from ozone + α-pinene reactions: Impacts of air exchange and initial product concentrations, and comparison to limonene ozonolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Somayeh; Waring, Michael S.

    2015-07-01

    The ozonolysis of reactive organic gases (ROG), e.g. terpenes, generates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. The SOA formation strength of such reactions is parameterized by the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. SOA yield, which is the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized ROG. AMFs vary in magnitude both among and for individual ROGs. Here, we quantified dynamic SOA formation from the ozonolysis of α-pinene with 'transient AMFs,' which describe SOA formation due to pulse emission of a ROG in an indoor space with air exchange, as is common when consumer products are intermittently used in ventilated buildings. We performed 19 experiments at low, moderate, and high (0.30, 0.52, and 0.94 h-1, respectively) air exchange rates (AER) at varying concentrations of initial reactants. Transient AMFs as a function of peak SOA concentrations ranged from 0.071 to 0.25, and they tended to increase as the AER and product of the initial reactant concentrations increased. Compared to our similar research on limonene ozonolysis (Youssefi and Waring, 2014), for which formation strength was driven by secondary ozone reactions, the AER impact for α-pinene was opposite in direction and weaker, while the initial reactant product impact was in the same direction but stronger for α-pinene than for limonene. Linear fits of AMFs for α-pinene ozonolysis as a function of the AER and initial reactant concentrations are provided so that future indoor models can predict SOA formation strength.

  12. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  13. Targeting Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage-Induced Overexpression of Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Exchanger Reduces Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Formation in Neonatal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ding, Yan; Krafft, Paul; Wan, Weifeng; Yan, Feng; Wu, Guangyong; Zhang, Yixin; Zhan, Qunling; Zhang, John H

    2018-01-31

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a leading cause of mortality and lifelong morbidity in preterm infants. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is a common complication of GMH. A sodium-coupled bicarbonate exchanger (NCBE) encoded by solute carrier family 4 member 10 gene is expressed on the choroid plexus basolateral membrane and may play a role in cerebrospinal fluid production and the development of PHH. Following GMH, iron degraded from hemoglobin has been linked to PHH. Choroid plexus epithelial cells also contain iron-responsive element-binding proteins (IRPs), IRP1, and IRP2 that bind to mRNA iron-responsive elements. The present study aims to resolve the following issues: (1) whether the expression of NCBE is regulated by IRPs; (2) whether NCBE regulates the formation of GMH-induced hydrocephalus; and (3) whether inhibition of NCBE reduces PHH development. GMH model was established in P7 rat pups by injecting bacterial collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence. Another group received iron trichloride injections instead of collagenase. Deferoxamine was administered intraperitoneally for 3 consecutive days after GMH/iron trichloride. Solute carrier family 4 member 10 small interfering RNA or scrambled small interfering RNA was administered by intracerebroventricular injection 24 hours before GMH and followed with an injection every 7 days over 21 days. NCBE expression increased while IRP2 expression decreased after GMH/iron trichloride. Deferoxamine ameliorated both the GMH-induced and iron trichloride-induced decrease of IRP2 and decreased NCBE expressions. Deferoxamine and solute carrier family 4 member 10 small interfering RNA improved cognitive and motor functions at 21 to 28 days post GMH and reduced cerebrospinal fluid production as well as the degree of hydrocephalus at 28 days after GMH. Targeting iron-induced overexpression of NCBE may be a translatable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PHH following GMH. © 2018 The Authors

  14. Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Christopher C; Sexton, Nicole R; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D; Denison, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types.

  15. Common Genetic Variation and Haplotypes of the Anion Exchanger SLC4A2 in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Brian D.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Larson, Joseph J.; Schlicht, Erik M.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of the anion exchanger SLC4A2 are thought to play a pathogenic role in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), evidenced by decreased expression and activity in PBC patients and development of disease features in SLC4A2 knockout mice. We hypothesized that genetic variation in SLC4A2 might influence this pathogenic contribution. Thus, we aimed to perform a comprehensive assessment of SLC4A2 genetic variation in PBC using a linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based haplotype-tagging approach. Methods Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across SLC4A2 were genotyped in 409 PBC patients and 300 controls and evaluated for association with disease, as well as with prior orthotopic liver transplant and antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) status among the PBC patients, both individually and as inferred haplotypes, using logistic regression. Results All SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. No associations with disease or liver transplantation were detected, but two variants, rs2303929 and rs3793336, were associated with negativity for antimitochondrial antibodies among the PBC patients. Conclusions The common genetic variation of SLC4A2 does not directly affect the risk of PBC or its clinical outcome. Whether the deficiency of SLC4A2 expression and activity observed earlier in PBC patients is an acquired epiphenomenon of underlying disease or is because of heritable factors in unappreciated regulatory regions remains uncertain. Of note, two SLC4A2 variants appear to influence AMA status among PBC patients. The mechanisms behind this finding are unclear. PMID:19491853

  16. "One-Pot" Ion-Exchange and Mesopore Formation During Desilication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2009-01-01

    A desilication protocol using tetramethylammonium hydroxide was applied to zeolite beta. The new route presented here integrates the desilication and ion-exchange post-treatment steps allowing for a subsequent ion-exchange step to be avoided. It is shown that the acidic and highly mesoporous zeol...... zeolite is obtained directly upon calcination. Thus, careful choice of base and post-treatment conditions lead to the fabrication of a hierarchical meso- and microporous structure with completely retained crystallinity. (...

  17. The Common Core State Standards: An Opportunity to Enhance Formative Assessment in History/Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateh, Comfort M.; Wyngowski, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the opportunity that the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present for enhancing formative assessment (FA) in history and social studies classrooms. There is evidence that FA can enhance learning for students if implemented well. Unfortunately, teachers continue to be challenged in implementing FA in their classrooms. We…

  18. Chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1 : 1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1997-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1:1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation has been investigated in an intensively stirred batch reactor: MHCO3(aq) + H2(aq) ↔ MOOCH(aq) + H2O(l) This was accomplished for the sodium (M = Na), potassium (M = K) and ammonium (M

  19. Analysis of events with common cause failures (CCF) from the international common cause failure date exchange (ICDE); Analyse von Ereignissen mit gemeinsam verursachten Ausfaellen (GVA) aus dem internationalen GVA-Datenaustauschprojekt ICDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueck, Benjamin; Kreuser, Albert; Simon, Julia; Stiller, Jan

    2014-08-15

    Common-cause-failure (CCF) events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. In recognition of this, CCF data are systematically being collected and analyzed in several countries. A comprehensive evaluation of CCF events derived only from the operating experience in German nuclear power plants is not sufficient due to the low probability of occurrence of such events. Therefore it is necessary to make use of the operating experience of other countries using similar technology. In order to be able to use the CCF operating experience from other countries in the aim to carry on the development of the bases for evaluation of CCF GRS decisively co-initiated the setting up of an international common-cause failure working group. This working group has elaborated the project ''International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange'' (ICDE). The project's objective is to organize a broad exchange of information concerning observed events with relevance to common-cause failures. The tasks for preparation and evaluation of information of the ICDE working group serve for confirmation and extension of the common-cause failure knowledge with regards to probabilistic safety analyses, the better understanding of causes and mechanisms of common-cause failures and the evaluation of preventive measures against the occurrence of common-cause failures. The objectives of the exchange on a long term basis are to - improve the comprehension of CCF events and their causes and their prevention, - generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive and assess preventive measures against the occurrence of such events or their consequences, - establish an efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with observed common-cause failure phenomena which could be used e.g. for the development of indicators for risk based inspections, - provide quantitative information regarding the

  20. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric ac......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  1. Theory of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A A

    2015-02-21

    This work aims to extend the study of the formation of the electric double layer at the interface defined by a solution and an ion-exchange membrane on the basis of the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations, including different values of the counter-ion diffusion coefficient and the dielectric constant in the solution and membrane phases. The network simulation method is used to obtain the time evolution of the electric potential, the displacement electric vector, the electric charge density and the ionic concentrations at the interface between a binary electrolyte solution and a cation-exchange membrane with total co-ion exclusion. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the interfacial electric potential and the surface electric charge are compared with analytical solutions derived in the limit of the shortest times by considering the Poisson equation for a simple cationic diffusion process. The steady-state results are justified from the Gouy-Chapman theory for the diffuse double layer in the limits of similar and high bathing ionic concentrations with respect to the fixed-charge concentration inside the membrane. Interesting new physical insights arise from the interpretation of the process of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface on the basis of a membrane model with total co-ion exclusion.

  2. Energy expenditure and bone formation share a common sensitivity to AP-1 transcription in the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, Glenn C; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa

    2012-01-01

    ) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ¿FosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass...

  3. Human Motivation in the Digital Commons: Reflections on Robbie McClintock's Conception of Formative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marzio, Derryl; Ignaffo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background & Purpose: According to McClintock, persons and groups exercise formative justice as a strategy of selecting the behaviors, powers, and potentials that ought to receive educational attention to achieve their maximization. We argue that the question of what motivates individuals and collectives to utilize certain capacities to…

  4. Extracellular Trap Formation in Response to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Granulocytes Isolated From Dogs and Common Opossums, Natural Reservoir Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole de Buhr

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytes mediate the first line of defense against infectious diseases in humans as well as animals and they are well known as multitasking cells. They can mediate antimicrobial activity by different strategies depending on the pathogen they encounter. Besides phagocytosis, a key strategy against extracellular pathogens is the formation of extracellular traps (ETs. Those ETs mainly consist of DNA decorated with antimicrobial components and mediate entrapment of various pathogens. In the last years, various studies described ET formation as response to bacteria, viruses and parasites e.g., Trypanosma (T. cruzi. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood, if ET formation helps the immune system to eliminate intracellular parasites. The goal of this study was to analyze ET formation in response to the intracellular parasite Trypanosma (T. cruzi by granulocytes derived from animals that serve as natural reservoir. Thus, we investigated the ET formation in two T. cruzi reservoirs, namely dogs as domestic animal and common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis as wild animal. Granulocytes were harvested from fresh blood by density gradient centrifugation and afterwards incubated with T. cruzi. We conducted the analysis by determination of free DNA and immunofluorescence microscopy. Using both methods, we show that T. cruzi efficiently induces ET formation in granulocytes derived from common opossum as well as dog blood. Most ETs from both animal species as response to T. cruzi are decorated with the protease neutrophil elastase. Since T. cruzi is well known to circulate over years in both analyzed animals as reservoirs, it may be assumed that T. cruzi efficiently evades ET-mediated killing in those animals. Therefore, ETs may not play a major role in efficient elimination of the pathogen from the blood of dogs or common opossums as T. cruzi survives in niches of their body. The characterization of granulocytes in various animals and humans may be helpful

  5. Ultraviolet-induced formation of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, M.; Boehm, A.O.; Oldigs, M.; Weichenthal, M.; Reimers, U.; Schmidt-Preuss, U.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Genetically enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation may play an important role in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). This was studied in cultured fibroblasts of 26 CMM patients and controls by micronucleus (MN) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after UV irradiation (375 J/m2). Sister chromatid exchange and MN formation were used as parameters to detect the UV-induced genotoxic damage in the individual cell strains. We found that the UV-induced level of MN was significantly increased in CMM patients (p = 0.0005), being most pronounced in the familial cases (p = 0.0001). Ultraviolet-induced SCE was also elevated in CMM patients (p = 0.001), but there was no difference between familial and nonfamilial cases. The present findings indicate that genetic predisposition contributes to the development of CMM in a subset of CMM patients and may be due to an enhanced susceptibility to UV light

  6. Heat transfer, condensation and fog formation in crossflow plastic heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer of air-water-vapour mixtures in plastic crossflow heat exchangers is studied theoretically and experimentally. First, a model for heat transfer without condensation is derived, resulting in a set of classical differential equations. Subsequently, heat transfer with wall

  7. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, Libuše; Jeřábek, Karel; Ramírez, E.; Tejero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, MAY (2014), s. 14-22 ISSN 1381-5148 Grant - others:SEURDO(ES) CTQ2010-16047 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : acidic ion - exchange resin * sulfonation degree * ISEC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2014

  8. Unwinding fibril formation of medin, the peptide of the most common form of human amyloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Annika; Soederberg, Linda; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Sletten, Knut; Engstroem, Ulla; Tjernberg, Lars O.; Naeslund, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2007-01-01

    Medin amyloid affects the medial layer of the thoracic aorta of most people above 50 years of age. The consequences of this amyloid are not completely known but the deposits may contribute to diseases such as thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection or to the general diminished elasticity of blood vessels seen in elderly people. We show that the 50-amino acid residue peptide medin forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. With the use of Congo red staining, Thioflavin T fluorescence, electron microscopy, and a solid-phase binding assay on different synthetic peptides, we identified the last 18-19 amino acid residues to constitute the amyloid-promoting region of medin. We also demonstrate that the two C-terminal phenylalanines, previously suggested to be of importance for amyloid formation, are not required for medin amyloid formation

  9. Formation and structural characterization of potassium titanates and the potassium ion exchange property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Guo Zhanhu; Chung, Jong Shik

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, K 2 Ti 2 O 5 , K 2 Ti 4 O 9 and K 2 Ti 6 O 13 are synthesized by solid state method. Their structures and morphologies are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy. The binding energies of K, Ti and O in potassium titanates were then evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared with those in K/TiO 2 . Finally the corresponding K ion exchange properties are investigated by synthesizing NO oxidation catalysts with Co(NO 3 ) 2 precursor. It is found that the binding energy of K in K 2 Ti 2 O 5 is much higher than those in K 2 Ti 4 O 9 and K 2 Ti 6 O 13 , and because of which, it shows quite different catalytic performances. Compared with other potassium titanates, the K in K 2 Ti 2 O 5 is much easier to be exchanged out.

  10. Formation of quantum wires and dots on InP(001) by As/P exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haeyeon; Ballet, P.; Salamo, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the use of in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to study As/P exchange on InP(001) surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy. Results demonstrate that the exchange process can be controlled to selectively produce either quantum wires or quantum dots. 15 nm wide self-assembled nanowires are observed, and they are elongated along the dimer row direction of the InP(001)-2x4 surface with a length of over 1 μm and flat top 2x4 surfaces. In addition, when the nanowires are annealed with no arsenic overpressure, the surface reconstruction transforms from 2x4 to 4x2 and the nanowires transform into dots with a rectangular base and flat top. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. Market Performance and Accounting Information as the Reference of Stocks Portfolio Formation in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Rowland Bismark Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to a stock portfolio formed with composite of companies market (PER, PBV, ROE, EPS, PSR, and B/M, VaR) and accounting performance (ROE, and EPS) also their market capitalization in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2003-2006. Some clarification need to achieved, such as: real difference among variabel refer to their market capitalization and influence of predictor to stock return. Hereinafter, the performance of selected portfolio were evaluated. The evaluation result conclude ...

  12. VolcanoGasML: a format to exchange geochemical volcanic gases data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Reiter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses of volcanic gases consist of: location of sampling, date of sampling, identification of the sampling, etc. Nowadays, these data are generally represented in different formats. All of these formats are inflexible and machine dependent. XML has become the most important method of transferring data between computers. VolcanoGasML is a new format, based on XML, for the chemical analyses of volcanic gases. Its definition is divided into several layers: the first one describes the general information concerning the sample, the second, which is organized in several sublayers, contains the chemical data.

  13. Towards efficient data exchange and sharing for big-data driven materials science: metadata and data formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Carbogno, Christian; Levchenko, Sergey; Mohamed, Fawzi; Huhs, Georg; Lüders, Martin; Oliveira, Micael; Scheffler, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    With big-data driven materials research, the new paradigm of materials science, sharing and wide accessibility of data are becoming crucial aspects. Obviously, a prerequisite for data exchange and big-data analytics is standardization, which means using consistent and unique conventions for, e.g., units, zero base lines, and file formats. There are two main strategies to achieve this goal. One accepts the heterogeneous nature of the community, which comprises scientists from physics, chemistry, bio-physics, and materials science, by complying with the diverse ecosystem of computer codes and thus develops "converters" for the input and output files of all important codes. These converters then translate the data of each code into a standardized, code-independent format. The other strategy is to provide standardized open libraries that code developers can adopt for shaping their inputs, outputs, and restart files, directly into the same code-independent format. In this perspective paper, we present both strategies and argue that they can and should be regarded as complementary, if not even synergetic. The represented appropriate format and conventions were agreed upon by two teams, the Electronic Structure Library (ESL) of the European Center for Atomic and Molecular Computations (CECAM) and the NOvel MAterials Discovery (NOMAD) Laboratory, a European Centre of Excellence (CoE). A key element of this work is the definition of hierarchical metadata describing state-of-the-art electronic-structure calculations.

  14. Increasing of prediction reliability of calcium carbonate scale formation in heat exchanger of secondary coolant circuits of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, O.V.; Kritskij, V.G.; Styazhkin, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium carbonate scale formation in the secondary circuit heat exchanger of thermal and nuclear power plants is investigated. A model of calcium-carbonate scale formation providing quite reliable prediction of process running and the possibility of its control affecting the parameters of hydrochemical regime (HCR) is developed. The results can be used when designing the automatic-control system of HCR

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Fickian Diffusional Mass Exchange of Radioactive Contaminants in Geological Disposal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suzuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes consist of both engineered and natural geologic barriers to isolate the radioactive material from the human environment. Inappropriate repositories of nuclear waste would cause severe contamination to nearby aquifers. In this complex environment, mass transport of radioactive contaminants displays anomalous behaviors and often produces power-law tails in breakthrough curves due to spatial heterogeneities in fractured rocks, velocity dispersion, adsorption, and decay of contaminants, which requires more sophisticated models beyond the typical advection-dispersion equation. In this paper, accounting for the mass exchange between a fracture and a porous matrix of complex geometry, the universal equation of mass transport within a fracture is derived. This equation represents the generalization of the previously used models and accounts for anomalous mass exchange between a fracture and porous blocks through the introduction of the integral term of convolution type and fractional derivatives. This equation can be applied for the variety of processes taking place in the complex fractured porous medium, including the transport of radioactive elements. The Laplace transform method was used to obtain the solution of the fractional diffusion equation with a time-dependent source of radioactive contaminant.

  16. Formation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries. II. Common Envelope Evolution of Primordial Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible

  17. Program ECSX4 (version 78-1): conversion of experimentally measured cross-section data from the four-center-exchange (X-4) format to the Livermore ECSIL format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code called ECSX4 converts experimentally measured cross-section data from the four-center-exchange (X-4) format to the Livermore Experimental Cross-Section Information Library (ECSIL) format. The major advantage of this program is that it converts the variable format and dimensioned data of the X-4 format to the fixed-field format and consistent set of units of the ECSIL format. This consistency greatly simplifies the subsequent use of the data for cross-section evaluations. 2 figures, 3 tables

  18. Formation of vertically aligned carbon nanostructures in plasmas: numerical modelling of growth and energy exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denysenko, I; Azarenkov, N A, E-mail: idenysenko@yahoo.com [School of Physics and Technology, V N Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svobody sq., 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2011-05-04

    Results on modelling of the plasma-assisted growth of vertically aligned carbon nanostructures and of the energy exchange between the plasma and the growing nanostructures are reviewed. Growth of carbon nanofibres and single-walled carbon nanotubes is considered. Focus is made on studies that use the models based on mass balance equations for species, which are adsorbed on catalyst nanoparticles or walls of the nanostructures. It is shown that the models can be effectively used for the study and optimization of nanostructure growth in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The results from these models are in good agreement with the available experimental data on the growth of nanostructures. It is discussed how input parameters for the models may be obtained.

  19. Potential Impact of Rainfall on the Air-Surface Exchange of Total Gaseous Mercury from Two Common Urban Ground Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of rainfall on total gaseous mercury (TGM) flux from pavement and street dirt surfaces was investigated in an effort to determine the influence of wet weather events on mercury transport in urban watersheds. Street dirt and pavement are common urban ground surfaces tha...

  20. The PDZ domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZGEF directs binding to phosphatidic acid during brush border formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Consonni

    Full Text Available PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostacyclin formation and blood pressure homeostasis: targeted exchange of cyclooxygenase isoforms in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Stubbe, Jane; Ibrahim, Salam

    2010-01-01

    pressure. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of COX-2 in blood pressure homeostasis using COX-1>COX-2 mice, in which the COX-1 expression is controlled by COX-2 regulatory elements. METHODS AND RESULTS: COX-1>COX-2 mice developed systolic hypertension relative to wild types (WTs) on a high-salt diet (HSD...... and again the increase in formation of PGI(2) observed in WTs was suppressed in cells derived from both mutants. Intramedullary infusion of the PGI(2) receptor agonist increased urine volume and sodium excretion in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest that dysregulated expression of the COX-2 dependent...

  2. Effective international information exchange as a key element of modern tax systems: promises and pitfalls of the OECD’s common reporting standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Gadzo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global economic environment is characterized by the high mobility of capital and labour across national borders. Against the backdrop of a legal framework governing taxation of cross-border income, this may lead to double taxation on the one hand, as well as provide opportunities for tax evasion and tax avoidance on the other. It is well-established that a prerequisite for effective taxation of foreign-sourced income earned by “domestic taxpayers” (i.e. tax residents is the system of administrative co-operation across national boundaries, mainly in the form of exchange of tax-relevant information between tax authorities. Since the lack of information-exchange mechanisms is linked with tax havens and the proliferation of “harmful tax practices”, the OECD put the issue high on the global political agenda as early as 1998. Further developments strengthened the importance of the exchange of information, leading to the so-called “big bang” of 2009, i.e. to a significant increase in the number of concluded tax information exchange agreements, caused by the growing concern about international tax evasion and avoidance in the post-crisis period.Nowadays the so-called automatic exchange of information (AEOI between tax authorities has emerged as a new global standard. This is mostly due to the development of specific national and international models, aimed at enhancing intergovernmental cooperation in fighting offshore tax evasion. In this regard special attention should be drawn to the 2014 release of the OECD’s Common Reporting Standard (CRS, which is based on the idea that banks and other financial institutions should play a crucial role in providing information on taxpayer’s income and assets to tax authorities around the globe.The aim of this paper is to explore some of the most important implications of the adoption of the CRS as a global AEOI model. While there are marked advantages of the new standard - mainly related

  3. Probing the mechanism of sister chromatid exchange formation with the fluorescent plus Giemsa technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of x rays and light flashes on the SCE formation in BrdUrd-substituted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are examined using the fluorescent plus Giemsa (FPG) technique, which allows SCE's to be visualized with greater precision than 3 H autoradiography does. Near-diploid cells are selected and scoring SCE from every chromosome of near-diploid cells or from chromosome no. 1 is found to give a more accurate measure of the SCE induction. Double synchronous cells are used for the x ray study and asynchronous cells are used for the light flash study. The results indicate that x rays can induce SCE's throughout the cell cycle with S the most sensitive stage and G 2 the least sensitive stage. Light flashes can induce an appreciable amount of SCE's while no appreciable amount of chromosomal aberrations can be detected under conditions used in this study. For x-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations, G 2 is the most sensitive stage with G 1 being slightly more sensitive than S, which is consistent with other observations. Additionally, aberration induction is shown to be a more sensitive indicator of x-ray-induced cell damage than SCE induction, but SCE induction is a potentially good indicator of mutation induction. This study also suggests that symmetrically reunited isochromatid breaks can not be the sole source of SCE's and SCE induction is a different but not independent radiobiological effect from chromosomal aberration induction. SCE formation is proposed to be a consequence of specific type(s) of single strand breaks in DNA

  4. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  5. The conceptualization and measurement of cognitive reserve using common proxy indicators: Testing some tenable reflective and formative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikanga, Jean; Hill, Elizabeth M; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2017-02-01

    The examination of cognitive reserve (CR) literature reveals a lack of consensus regarding conceptualization and pervasive problems with its measurement. This study aimed at examining the conceptual nature of CR through the analysis of reflective and formative models using eight proxies commonly employed in the CR literature. We hypothesized that all CR proxies would significantly contribute to a one-factor reflective model and that educational and occupational attainment would produce the strongest loadings on a single CR factor. The sample consisted of 149 participants (82 male/67 female), with 18.1 average years of education and ages of 45-99 years. Participants were assessed for eight proxies of CR (parent socioeconomic status, intellectual functioning, level of education, health literacy, occupational prestige, life leisure activities, physical activities, and spiritual and religious activities). Primary statistical analyses consisted of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reflective models and structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models. CFA did not produce compelling support for a unitary CR construct when using all eight of our CR proxy variables in a reflective model but fairly cogent evidence for a one-factor model with four variable proxies. A second three-factor reflective model based upon an exploratory principal components analysis of the eight proxies was tested using CFA. Though all eight indicators significantly loaded on their assigned factors, evidence in support of overall model fit was mixed. Based upon the results involving the three-factor reflective model, two alternative formative models were developed and evaluated. While some support was obtained for both, the model in which the formative influences were specified as latent variables appeared to best account for the contributions of all eight proxies to the CR construct. While the findings provide partial support for our

  6. Spot Markets Indices as Benchmarks of Formation of Future Price Trends in the Power Exchanges of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikevych Nataliya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with a theoretical generalization of the use of indices for electric power at the European spot exchanges and elaborating proposals on establishment of a similar spot index for the Ukrainian power exchange. 16 indices that are published daily by the power exchanges BSP Regional Energy Exchange, Power Exchange Central Europe, Polish Power Exchange and Opcom have been analyzed. It has been indicated that these indices are used for electricity price forecasting and monitoring the situation in the power market. The article examines the way spot indices are calculated by power exchanges, based on the value of the arithmetic average of market prices «day ahead». Imperfection of such way of calculation for price index values has been substantiated. The key characteristics of the future price index for Ukrainian spot market as benchmarks within the introduction of futures contracts for electricity have been identified.

  7. Brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from fish reared in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. KLAOUDATOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of brood stock is considered to be one of the most important operations in order to acquire eggs and fry from any promising candidate finfish species for aquaculture production. The sex reversal observed in hermaphrodite species adds to confusion and creates additional complications in forming a brood stock. The present study describes the efforts and the results of the brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from individuals aged between 4 and 5 years (TL>300mm reared in floating cages. Six groups were formed (50 fish/group in all of which females were present comprising 20 to 40% of the population. The presence of females was in contrast to the literature, which reported that sex reversal of the common Pandora is complete in naturally occurring populations with the absence of females in sizes of a total length greater than 220mm, indicating that in captivity sex reversal is not complete for this species. Four of the groups formed spawned under natural environmental conditions without hormonal treatment and the other two groups were administered a different dosage (250 and 500 IU/kg of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG to induce spawning. The reproductive period started in the middle of May and ended at the beginning of July and spontaneous spawning occurred in all groups. Egg release lasted for a mean period of one month for the groups that spawned without hormonal treatment with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between groups. The groups that spawned under hormonal treatment released eggs for a period of six and seven days, for the group that spawned under the high and low hormonal treatment, respectively, with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between them. The hormonal induced spawning resulted in egg release within a short period of time ideal for a hatchery. However, the number of viable eggs produced was significantly lower

  8. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  9. Spontaneous exchange bias formation driven by a structural phase transition in the antiferromagnetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, A; Kuerbanjiang, B; Huminiuc, T; Kepaptsoglou, D; Muñoz, M; Cuñado, J L F; Camarero, J; Aroca, C; Vallejo-Fernández, G; Lazarov, V K; Prieto, J L

    2018-01-01

    Most of the magnetic devices in advanced electronics rely on the exchange bias effect, a magnetic interaction that couples a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic material, resulting in a unidirectional displacement of the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop by an amount called the 'exchange bias field'. Setting and optimizing exchange bias involves cooling through the Néel temperature of the antiferromagnetic material in the presence of a magnetic field. Here we demonstrate an alternative process for the generation of exchange bias. In IrMn/FeCo bilayers, a structural phase transition in the IrMn layer develops at room temperature, exchange biasing the FeCo layer as it propagates. Once the process is completed, the IrMn layer contains very large single-crystal grains, with a large density of structural defects within each grain, which are promoted by the FeCo layer. The magnetic characterization indicates that these structural defects in the antiferromagnetic layer are behind the resulting large value of the exchange bias field and its good thermal stability. This mechanism for establishing the exchange bias in such a system can contribute towards the clarification of fundamental aspects of this exchange interaction.

  10. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics of mineral pairs in closed and open systems: Applications to problems of hydrothermal alteration of igneous rocks and Precambrian iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, R.T.; Criss, R.E.; Taylor, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    heat-balance constraints, we can utilize the 18O 16O data on natural mineral assemblages to calculate the kinetic rate constants (k's) and the effective diffusion constants (D's) for mineral-H2O exchange: these calculated values (kqtz ??? 10-14, kfeld ??? 10-13-10-12) agree with experimental determinations of such constants. In nature, once the driving force or energy source for the external infiltrating fluid phase is removed, the disequilibrium mineral-pair arrays will either: (1) remain "frozen" in their existing state, if the temperatures are low enough, or (2) re-equilibrate along specific closed-system exchange vectors determined solely by the temperature path and the mineral modal proportions. Thus, modal mineralogical information is a particularly important parameter in both the open- and closed-system scenarios, and should in general always be reported in stable-isotopic studies of mineral assemblages. These concepts are applied to an analysis of 18O 16O systematics of gabbros (Plagioclase-clinopyroxene and plagioclase-amphibole pairs), granitic plutons (quartz-feldspar pairs), and Precambrian siliceous iron formations (quartz-magnetite pairs). In all these examples, striking regularities are observed on ??-?? and ??-?? plots, but we point out that ??-?? plots have many advantages over their equivalent ??-?? diagrams, as the latter are more susceptible to misinterpretation. Using the equations developed in this study, these regularities can be interpreted to give semiquantitative information on the exchange histories of these rocks subsequent to their formation. In particular, we present a new interpretation indicating that Precambrian cherty iron formations have in general undergone a complex fluid exchange history in which the iron oxide (magnetite precursor?) has exchanged much faster with low-temperature (< 400??C) fluids than has the relatively inert quartz. ?? 1989.

  11. Classical and quasi-classical trajectory calculations of isotope exchange and ozone formation proceeding through O+O2 collision complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A.; Gellene, Gregory I.

    2002-10-01

    The isotope exchange reaction, and the three-body ozone formation rate proceeding through an ozone complex, have been studied by classical and quasi-classical trajectory techniques. The exchange rate studies indicate that the rate of this reaction is dominantly sensitive to the O+O2 entrance channel characteristics of the potential energy surface. A detailed consideration of the dynamics of the intermediate ozone complex reveals three important classes. In one class, the complex adopts an ozonelike geometry, largely undergoing asymmetric stretchinglike motion until it dissociates. In a second class, the oxygen atom and molecule never visit the ozonelike geometry but rather remain separated by relatively large distances trapped near the angular momentum barrier in the entrance channel of a pseudo-effective potential. These complexes, which cannot undergo exchange, are, nevertheless, found to contribute significantly to ozone formation at high density of the third body suggesting that the association of the high-density effective formation rate constant with twice the exchange rate may not be valid. The third class can be considered a hybrid of the first two, spending some time as an ozonelike complex and some time as a large atom-diatomic complex. This third class provides a mechanism for rearranging atom locations in the complex (e.g., end and middle position swapping) and, consequently, would not be well accounted for by statistical treatments of the ozone complex based on a single ozonelike reference geometry. In general, the survival time distributions of the complexes are found to be nonexponential. However, when the detailed survival time distributions are coupled with a Lennard-Jones collision model for the stabilization step, the experimental ozone formation rate can be adequately modeled over a broad range of temperature and density.

  12. Halogen–Metal Exchange on Bromoheterocyclics with Substituents Containing an Acidic Proton via Formation of a Magnesium Intermediate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqiang Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A selective and practical bromine–metal exchange on bromoheterocyclics bearing substituents with an acidic proton under non-cryogenic conditions was developed by a simple modification of an existing protocol. Our protocol of using a combination of i-PrMgCl and n-BuLi has not only solved the problem of intermolecular quenching that often occurred when using alkyl lithium alone as the reagent for halogen–lithium exchange, but also offered a highly selective method for performing bromo–metal exchange on dibrominated arene compounds through chelation effect.

  13. Dynamic model of counter flow air to air heat exchanger for comfort ventilation with condensation and frost formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    must be calculated under conditions with condensation and freezing. This article presents a dynamic model of a counter flow air to air heat exchanger taking into account condensation and freezing and melting of ice. The model is implemented in Simulink and results are compared to measurements......In cold climates heat recovery in the ventilation system is essential to reduce heating energy demand. Condensation and freezing occur often in efficient heat exchangers used in cold climates. To develop efficient heat exchangers and defrosting strategies for cold climates, heat and mass transfer...

  14. Grapevine species from varied native habitats exhibit differences in embolism formation/repair associated with leaf gas exchange and root pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Eustis, Ashley; Brodersen, Craig; Walker, Andrew M; McElrone, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Drought induces xylem embolism formation, but grapevines can refill non-functional vessels to restore transport capacity. It is unknown whether vulnerability to embolism formation and ability to repair differ among grapevine species. We analysed in vivo embolism formation and repair using x-ray computed microtomography in three wild grapevine species from varied native habitats (Vitis riparia, V. arizonica, V. champinii) and related responses to measurements of leaf gas exchange and root pressure. Vulnerability to embolism formation was greatest in V. riparia, intermediate in V. arizonica and lowest in V. champinii. After re-watering, embolism repair was rapid and pronounced in V. riparia and V. arizonica, but limited or negligible in V. champinii even after numerous days. Similarly, root pressure measured after re-watering was positively correlated with drought stress severity for V. riparia and V. arizonica (species exhibiting embolism repair) but not for V. champinii. Drought-induced reductions in transpiration were greatest for V. riparia and least in V. champinii. Recovery of transpiration after re-watering was delayed for all species, but was greatest for V. champinii and most rapid in V. arizonica. These species exhibit varied responses to drought stress that involve maintenance/recovery of xylem transport capacity coordinated with root pressure and gas exchange responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common...... object definitions are essential for the standards. Technical as well as topographical map information is exchangeable through the Danish developed “Standard for Exchange of Digital Map Information”, known as the DSFL-format....

  16. Nanosecond (ns) laser transfer of silver nanoparticles from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to transparent soda-lime glass and shock waves formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sow, Mohamed Chérif; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Sagot, Nadine; Ollier, Nadège; Tite, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles growth by nanosecond laser irradiation of silver exchanged soda-lime glasses. • Silver nanoparticles transfer. • Nanosecond laser induced shock waves formation on glass. - Abstract: In this contribution, we showed for the first time in our knowledge a single-step process for silver clusters and nanoparticles growth and transfer from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to un-exchanged soda-lime glass (transparent glass in visible and NIR domain) by nanosecond (ns) laser irradiation. The transferred silver nanoparticles in transparent glass are strongly linked to the glass surface. In addition, we point out the formation of shock waves, with selective silver clustering on the top wave. This technique provides an alternative and simple way to obtain metallic nanoparticles in different media which can be traversed by laser wavelength used. Moreover, this experiment is made at room temperature and air environment. It is worth noting that our technique requires a glass previously doped with the corresponding silver ions

  17. Study on scale formation and suppression in heat-exchange systems for simulated geothermal brines. Final report, January 12, 1976-March 5, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; King, J.E.; Bullard, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Control of scale formation in heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters can be achieved by lowering the pH of the water to pH 6 or lower. This does not, however, appear to be an economic approach for highly buffered geothermal brines and would lead to severe corrosion problems. Two commercial scale control agents, Calgon CL-165 and Monsanto Dequest 2060, showed promise of effecting scaling in a minor way and should be tested further on actual geothermal waters. Other scale control methods tested were unsuccessful. These included seeding experiments, turbulence promotin and electostatic and electromagnetic devices reputated to modify scale formation. The experiments were performed with tube-in-shell heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters prepared from a salt dome solution based brine. The scale formed was primarily silica with a small percent of calcium carbonate and traces of magnesium and iron. Physically it was a hydrous soft solid adhering only lightly to the heat exchange surface. This is not typical of geothermal water scales encountered in high temperature brine operations and the results of the scale control expeirments should be evaluated with that in mind.

  18. Performance Improvement Based Authentication Protocol for Intervessel Traffic Service Data Exchange Format Protocol Based on U-Navigation System in WoT Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunggil Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA is developing the standard intersystem VTS exchange format (IVEF protocol for exchange of navigation and vessel information between VTS systems and between VTS and vessels. VTS (vessel traffic system is an important marine traffic monitoring system which is designed to improve the safety and efficiency of navigation and the protection of the marine environment. And the demand of Inter-VTS networking has been increased for realization of e-Navigation as shore side collaboration for maritime safety. And IVEF (inter-VTS data exchange format for inter-VTS network has become a hot research topic of VTS system. Currently, the IVEF developed by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA does not include any highly trusted certification technology for the connectors. The output of standardization is distributed as the IALA recommendation V-145, and the protocol is implemented with an open source. The IVEF open source, however, is the code used to check the functions of standard protocols. It is too slow to be used in the field and requires a large memory. And the vessel traffic information requires high security since it is highly protected by the countries. Therefore, this paper suggests the authentication protocol to increase the security of the VTS systems using the main certification server and IVEF.

  19. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-07-14

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos.

  20. Formation of ZnSe/Bi2Se3 QDs by surface cation exchange and high photothermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhi Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water-dispersed core/shell structure ZnSe/Bi2Se3 quantum dots were synthesized by ultrasonicwave-assisted cation exchange reaction. Only surface Zn ion can be replaced by Bi ion in ZnSe quantum dots, which lead to the ultrathin Bi2Se3 shell layer formed. It is significance to find to change the crystal of QDs due to the acting of ultrasonicwave. Cation exchange mechanism and excellent photothermal conversion properties are discussed in detail.

  1. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio

  2. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Lukovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d, the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning. From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  3. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mladena; Ye, Guang

    2015-12-22

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c). This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  4. Uncovering student thinking about mathematics in the common core, grades 6-8 25 formative assessment probes

    CERN Document Server

    Tobey, Cheryl Rose

    2013-01-01

    Pinpoint and reverse math misconceptions with laser-like accuracyQuickly and reliably uncover common math misconceptions in Grades 6-8 with these convenient and easy-to-implement diagnostic tools! Bestselling authors Cheryl Tobey and Carolyn Arline provide 25 new assessment probes that pinpoint subconcepts within the new Common Core Standards for Mathematics to promote deep learning and expert math instruction--while learning is already underway.Completely CCSM aligned, these grade-specific probes eliminate the guesswork and help teachers: Systematically address conceptual and procedural mistakes Help students better understand areas of struggle Plan targeted instruction that covers Grades 6-8 CCSM mathematical processes and proficiencies.

  5. Development of a Common Format of Questionnaire Tests for a Web-based Platform of Population and Experimental Psychological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulchev Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A web platform for psychological research needs a single format of questionnaire tests to ensure interaction between its components. The study proposes a general test structure, variant questions, variations in response types, and an embedded domain-specific language for computations. The use of JSON is proposed and justified to store the hierarchical structure of the questionnaire test, and JSON Schema is defined as a technology suitable for the formation of the standard. From the considered validation instruments for compliance with the standard described in JSON Schema, ajv was defined as the most applicable to the task. To build the documentation, Doca is relevant, but this tool needs to be modified to meet the requirements of the task.

  6. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Ghazanfarian, Marzieh; Amdjadi, Parisa; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7-100%, 40.6-99.9%, 85.2-86.5%, 66.4-84.4% and 35.5-56.3% respectively. Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting.

  7. A randomized comparison of patients' understanding of number needed to treat and other common risk reduction formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Stacey L; Pignone, Michael P; Lewis, Carmen L

    2003-11-01

    Commentators have suggested that patients may understand quantitative information about treatment benefits better when they are presented as numbers needed to treat (NNT) rather than as absolute or relative risk reductions. To determine whether NNT helps patients interpret treatment benefits better than absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction (RRR), or a combination of all three of these risk reduction presentations (COMBO). Randomized cross-sectional survey. University internal medicine clinic. Three hundred fifty-seven men and women, ages 50 to 80, who presented for health care. Subjects were given written information about the baseline risk of a hypothetical "disease Y" and were asked (1) to compare the benefits of two drug treatments for disease Y, stating which provided more benefit; and (2) to calculate the effect of one of those drug treatments on a given baseline risk of disease. Risk information was presented to each subject in one of four randomly allocated risk formats: NNT, ARR, RRR, or COMBO. When asked to state which of two treatments provided more benefit, subjects who received the RRR format responded correctly most often (60% correct vs 43% for COMBO, 42% for ARR, and 30% for NNT, P =.001). Most subjects were unable to calculate the effect of drug treatment on the given baseline risk of disease, although subjects receiving the RRR and ARR formats responded correctly more often (21% and 17% compared to 7% for COMBO and 6% for NNT, P =.004). Patients are best able to interpret the benefits of treatment when they are presented in an RRR format with a given baseline risk of disease. ARR also is easily interpreted. NNT is often misinterpreted by patients and should not be used alone to communicate risk to patients.

  8. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAHID DASTJERDI, Elahe; ABDOLAZIMI, Zahra; GHAZANFARIAN, Marzieh; AMDJADI, Parisa; KAMALINEJAD, Mohammad; MAHBOUBI, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Methods: Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7–100%, 40.6–99.9%, 85.2–86.5%, 66.4–84.4% and 35.5–56.3% respectively. Conclusion: Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting. PMID:26171362

  9. Fe magnetic moment formation and exchange interaction in Fe{sub 2}P: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.B., E-mail: liuxubo@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ping Liu, J.; Zhang, Qiming [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Altounian, Z. [Center for the Physics of Materials and Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}P have been studied by a first-principles density functional theory calculation. The ground state is ferromagnetic and the calculated magnetic moments for Fe{sub 1} (3f) and Fe{sub 2} (3g) are 0.83 and 2.30μ{sub B}, respectively. The nearest neighbor inter-site magnetic exchange coupling parameter at the Fe{sub 1} layer (0.02 mRy) is much smaller than that at the Fe{sub 2} layer (1.29 mRy). The Fe moment at the 3f site is metastable and sensitive to the inter-site exchange interaction with its magnetic neighbors, which is responsible for the first order magnetic transition and large magneto-caloric effect around T{sub C}.

  10. Synthesis of Prebiotic Caramels Catalyzed by Ion-Exchange Resin Particles: Kinetic Model for the Formation of Di-d-fructose Dianhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Cerda, Imelda-Elizabeth; Thammavong, Phahath; Caqueret, Vincent; Porte, Catherine; Mabille, Isabelle; Garcia Fernandez, José Manuel; Moscosa Santillan, Mario; Havet, Jean-Louis

    2018-02-21

    Caramel enriched in di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs, a family of prebiotic cyclic fructodisaccharides) is a functional food with beneficial properties for health. The aim of this work was to study the conversion of fructose into DFAs catalyzed by acid ion-exchange resin, in order to establish a simplified mechanism of the caramelization reaction and a kinetic model for DFA formation. Batch reactor experiments were carried out in a 250 mL spherical glass flask and afforded up to 50% DFA yields. The mechanism proposed entails order 2 reactions that describe fructose conversion on DFAs or formation of byproducts such as HMF or melanoidines. A third order 1 reaction defines DFA transformation into fructosyl-DFAs or fructo-oligosaccharides. The influence of fructose concentration, resin loading and temperature was studied to calculate the kinetic parameters necessary to scale up the process.

  11. Entropy-driven complex formation of malvidin-3- O-glucoside with common polyphenols in ethanol-water binary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Ortmann, Erika; Kollár, László; Nikfardjam, Martin Pour

    2008-09-01

    The complex formation of malvidin-3- O-glucoside with several polyphenols, the so-called "copigmentation" phenomenon, was studied in aqueous solutions. To simulate the copigmentation process during fermentation, the stability of the formed complexes was examined in dependence of the ethanol content of the aqueous solution. Results indicate that stronger and larger complexes are formed, when the ethanol content exceeds a critical margin of 8 vol.% However, the size of complexes of malvidin/procyanidin and malvidin/epicatechin is drastically reduced above this critical concentration. Fluorescence lifetime and solvent relaxation measurements give insight into the particular processes at molecular level and will help us comprehend the first important steps during winemaking in order to recommend an optimized winemaking technology to ensure extraordinary colour stability in red wines.

  12. Silver nanocluster formation in ion-exchanged glasses by annealing, ion beam and laser beam irradiation: An EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, G.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Polloni, R.; D'Acapito, F.; Colonna, S.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sada, C.; Quaranta, A.; Longo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis is used to determine the silver local environment in silicate glasses doped by the Ag-alkali ion-exchange process, followed by different treatments, namely, ion irradiation, thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere, laser irradiation. The obtained results indicate that metal nanocluster composites with different cluster structures may be formed with these multistep methodologies, pointing out the role of the preparation parameters in giving rise to different features. Lattice parameters and cluster diameter were determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

  13. Common Hemoglobin Variants in Southern Taiwan and Their Effect on the Determination of HbA1c by Ion-exchange High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsun Chu

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: The existence of Hb variants may result in false HbA1c measurement. The possible presence of spuriously low HbA1c levels or abnormal HPLC chromatograms by using ion-exchange methods should be kept in mind.

  14. Solo, a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is critical for hemidesmosome formation and acinar development in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Deguchi, Shinji; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-01-01

    Cell-substrate adhesions are essential for various physiological processes, including embryonic development and maintenance of organ functions. Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are multiprotein complexes that attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Formation and remodeling of HDs are dependent on the surrounding mechanical environment; however, the upstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We recently reported that Solo (also known as ARHGEF40), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor targeting RhoA, binds to keratin8/18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments, and that their interaction is important for force-induced actin and keratin cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, we show that Solo co-precipitates with an HD protein, β4-integrin. Co-precipitation assays revealed that the central region (amino acids 330-1057) of Solo binds to the C-terminal region (1451-1752) of β4-integrin. Knockdown of Solo significantly suppressed HD formation in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Similarly, knockdown of K18 or treatment with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suppressed HD formation. As Solo knockdown or Y-27632 treatment is known to disorganize K8/K18 filaments, these results suggest that Solo is involved in HD formation by regulating K8/K18 filament organization via the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. We also showed that knockdown of Solo impairs acinar formation in MCF10A cells cultured in 3D Matrigel. In addition, Solo accumulated at the site of traction force generation in 2D-cultured MCF10A cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Solo plays a crucial role in HD formation and acinar development in epithelial cells by regulating mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and keratin filament organization.

  15. Formation, cationic site exchange and surface structure of mechanosynthesized EuCrO{sub 3} nanocrystalline particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widatallah, H M; Al-Harthi, S H; Gismelseed, A M; Al-Rawas, A D [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, 123, Muscat (Oman); Johnson, C; Moore, E A [School of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Klencsar, Z [Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest (Hungary); Wynter, C I [Nassau Community College, Garden City, NY 11530-6793 (United States); Brown, D E, E-mail: hishammw@squ.edu.om, E-mail: hisham@ictp.it [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-07-06

    Nanocrystalline EuCrO{sub 3} particles ({approx}25 nm) have been prepared by pre-milling a 1 : 1 molar mixture of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} for 60 h followed by sintering at 700 {sup 0}C (12 h). This temperature is {approx}500-600 {sup 0}C lower than those at which the material, in bulk form, is conventionally prepared. Rietveld analysis of the x-ray powder diffraction pattern of the EuCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles favours a structural model involving a slight degree of cationic exchange where {approx}11% of the Eu{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} ions exchange their normal dodecahedral A- and octahedral B-sites, respectively, in the perovskite-related structure. This cationic site exchange, which is unusual in a perovskite structure, has been well supported by the corresponding room-temperature {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectrum of the nanoparticles that in addition to displaying a distribution in the principal component of the EFG tensor (V{sub zz}) at the usual A-sites of the {sup 151}Eu nuclei, also revealed the presence of a subcomponent with {approx}11% area fraction and a considerably increased |V{sub zz}| value that was associated with Eu{sup 3+} ions at octahedral B-sites. X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopic techniques reveal a complex surface structure where extremely thin layers of un-reacted Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} cover most of the EuCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles' surfaces together with some traces of elemental Cr. The binding energies associated with Eu{sup 3+} 3d{sub 5/2}, Eu{sup 3+} 4d{sub 3/2}, Cr{sup 3+} 2p{sub 3/2} and O{sup 2-} 1s core-level electrons in EuCrO{sub 3} are estimated from the x-ray photoelectron data for the first time.

  16. Formation and decay of the intermediate quasistationary ion N-2 during charge exchange between fast H- ions and nitrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskii, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The detachment of the electron from the H - ion during a collision with the nitrogen molecule at 1--6 keV occurs as a result of charge transfer to an unstable intermediate state of the molecular ion N - 2 and the subsequent decay of the ion. The formation process is described in the impulse approximation, and the motion of nuclei in the ion is treated quasiclassically. Expressions are obtained for the spectrum of emitted electrons and for the energy-loss spectrum of heavy particles. These expressions relate the spectra to the cross sections for the vibrational excitation of N 2 by electron impact. A convenient expression for the amplitude for the formation of the intermediate state is obtained in the ''boomerang'' model, and it is shown that one of the parameters, considered to be adjustable in traditional theory, can be calculated

  17. Formation of carbon nanosheets via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization of macroporous anion-exchange resin for supercapacitors application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Ma, Guofu; Sun, Kanjun; Mu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-12-10

    Two-dimensional mesoporous carbon nanosheets (CNSs) have been prepared via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization route using macroporous anion-exchange resin (AER) as carbon precursor and ZnCl2 and FeCl3 as activating agent and catalyst, respectively. The iron catalyst in the skeleton of the AER may lead to carburization to form a sheetlike structure during the carbonization process. The obtained CNSs have a large number of mesopores, a maximum specific surface area of 1764.9 m(2) g(-1), and large pore volume of 1.38 cm(3) g(-1). As an electrode material for supercapacitors application, the CNSs electrode possesses a large specific capacitance of 283 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability (64% retention ratio even at 50 A g(-1)) in 6 mol L(-1) KOH. Furthermore, CNSs symmetric supercapacitor exhibits specific energies of 17.2 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 224 W kg(-1) operated in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 0.5 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, and outstanding cyclability (retains about 96% initial capacitance after 5000 cycles).

  18. Formation of hydroxyl groups and exchange with deuterium on NaHX and NaHY zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubelkova, L.; Novakova, J.

    1976-01-01

    Deammoniation and dehydroxylation of Na(NH 4 )X and Na(NH 4 )Y zeolites were compared. With the X type, both processes overlapped and proceeded more easily than with the Y type. Both H forms contained structural OH groups and hydroxyls denoted as SiOH, to which the 3740 cm -1 band in the IR spectrum was assigned. In addition, the NaHX zeolite contained OH groups characterized by the 3700 and 3600 cm -1 bands. Certain differences in the behaviour of NaHX and NaHY zeolites during deammoniation and dehydroxylation might be attributed to the presence of ''non-localizable'' H atoms. The active sites for the D 2 -OH exchange were probably formed during dehydroxylation. Hydrogen in SiOH groups was replaced by deuterium in both zeolite types more slowly than H atoms in other OH groups, which influenced the kinetic variations in the gaseous phase. The presence of water in the gaseous phase affected the kinetics and could distort the determination of the number of H atoms bound in the zeolites. (author)

  19. Iminium-ion formation and deuterium exchange by acetone in the presence of pyrrolidine, pyrazolidine, isoxazolidine, and their acyclic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, J.; Evangelista, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Equilibrium constants for iminium-ion-formation in the reaction of in acetone in aqueous solution at 35 0 C with pyrazolidinium, isoxazolidinium, O,N-dimethylhydroxylammonium, and N,N'-dimethylhydrazinium ions were found to be 9.33, 8.96, 0.117, and 0.057 M -1 , respectively. The kinetics of hydrolysis of the iminium ions were studied in every case except that of the N-isopropylidene-O,N-dimethylhydroxylammonium ion, whose hydrolysis is too fast to follow by the techniques used with the other iminium ions. The rate of hydrolysis of the N-isopropylidenepyrazolidinium ion is independent of the pH from about pH 3 to 6; it is hydrogen ion catalyzed at lower pHs and hydroxide ion catalyzed at higher pHs. The rate of hydrolysis of N-isopropylidenisoxazolidinium ions is Ph independent from pH 0.5 to about 2, increases until about pH 4, remains pH independent until pH 6.5, and has become too fast to measure above pH 8. Both reactions are general base catalyzed in all the buffers studied. A mechanism is described to fit the kinetics of each of these reactions. The dedeuteration of acetone-d 6 was studied pyridine buffers in the presence of each of the four hydrazine and hydroxylamine derivatives and also in the presence of the dimethylammonium and pyrrolidinium ion. All six of these secondary ammonium ions catalyze the dedeuteration by transforming the acetone-d 6 to an iminium ion that is dedeuterated by pyridine more rapidly than the ketone is. The iminium-ion formation is a relatively rapid equilibrium in all cases except that of pyrrolidinium ions, where the intermediate iminium ion loses deuterium and hydrolyzes at comparable rates, and possibly the case of dimethylammonium ions, where the amount of catalysis via iminium-ion formation is too small to reveal mechanistic details. The effect of structure on the efficiency of catalysis of dedeuteration via iminium-ion formation is discussed. 3 figures, 7 tables

  20. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  1. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase from methanogenic archaea: isotope effects on label exchange and ethane formation with the homologous substrate ethyl-coenzyme M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Silvan; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Jaun, Bernhard

    2013-10-09

    Ethyl-coenzyme M (CH3CH2-S-CH2CH2-SO3(-), Et-S-CoM) serves as a homologous substrate for the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) resulting in the product ethane instead of methane. The catalytic reaction proceeds via an intermediate that already contains all six C-H bonds of the product. Because product release occurs after a second, rate-limiting step, many cycles of intermediate formation and reconversion to substrate occur before a substantial amount of ethane is released. In deuterated buffer, the intermediate becomes labeled, and C-H activation in the back reaction rapidly leads to labeled Et-S-CoM, which enables intermediate formation to be detected. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of this pre-equilibrium. (2)H- and (13)C-labeled isotopologues of Et-S-CoM were used as the substrates, and the time course of each isotopologue was followed by NMR spectroscopy. A kinetic simulation including kinetic isotope effects allowed determination of the primary and α- and β-secondary isotope effects for intermediate formation and for the C-H/C-D bond activation in the ethane-containing intermediate. The values obtained are in accordance with those found for the native substrate Me-S-CoM (see preceding publication, Scheller, S.; Goenrich, M.; Thauer, R. K.; Jaun, B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, DOI: 10.1021/ja406485z) and thus imply the same catalytic mechanism for both substrates. The experiment by Floss and co-workers, demonstrating a net inversion of configuration to chiral ethane with CH3CDT-S-CoM as the substrate, is compatible with the observed rapid isotope exchange if the isotope effects measured here are taken into account.

  2. Formation of the black-hole binary M33 X-7 through mass exchange in a tight massive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Glebbeek, Evert; Farr, Will M; Fragos, Tassos; Willems, Bart; Orosz, Jerome A; Liu, Jifeng; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2010-11-04

    The X-ray source M33 X-7 in the nearby galaxy Messier 33 is among the most massive X-ray binary stellar systems known, hosting a rapidly spinning, 15.65M(⊙) black hole orbiting an underluminous, 70M(⊙) main-sequence companion in a slightly eccentric 3.45-day orbit (M(⊙), solar mass). Although post-main-sequence mass transfer explains the masses and tight orbit, it leaves unexplained the observed X-ray luminosity, the star's underluminosity, the black hole's spin and the orbital eccentricity. A common envelope phase, or rotational mixing, could explain the orbit, but the former would lead to a merger and the latter to an overluminous companion. A merger would also ensue if mass transfer to the black hole were invoked for its spin-up. Here we report simulations of evolutionary tracks which reveal that if M33 X-7 started as a primary body of 85M(⊙)-99M(⊙) and a secondary body of 28M(⊙)-32M(⊙), in a 2.8-3.1-d orbit, its observed properties can be consistently explained. In this model, the main-sequence primary transfers part of its envelope to the secondary and loses the rest in a wind; it ends its life as a ∼16M(⊙) helium star with an iron-nickel core that collapses to a black hole (with or without an accompanying supernova). The release of binding energy, and possibly collapse asymmetries, 'kick' the nascent black hole into an eccentric orbit. Wind accretion explains the X-ray luminosity, and the black-hole spin can be natal.

  3. Maxwell-Stefan based modelling of ion exchange systems containing common species (Cd"2"+, Na"+) and distinct sorbents (ETS-4, ETS-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lito, P. F.; Aniceto, J. P. S.; Silva, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium(II) is a toxic hazardous cation, whose presence in the environment causes great concern because of its bioaccumulation in organisms and bio amplification along food chain. Hence, the removal of cadmium compounds from industrial waters and wastewaters is particularly essential, which requires intensive experimental and modelling studies to deal with the problem. In this work, the ion exchange of Cd"2"+ ions from aqueous solution using microporous titanosilicates (ETS-4 and ETS-10) has been modelled using adapted Maxwell-Stefan equations for the ions transport inside the sorbent particles. The fundamentals of the Maxwell-Stefan equations along with correlations for the convective mass transfer coefficients have been used with advantage to reduce the number of model parameters. In the whole, the model was able to represent successfully the kinetic behaviour of 11 independent and very distinct curves of both studied systems (Cd2"+"/Na"+/ETS-4 and Cd"2"+/Na"+/ ETS-10). The predictive capability of the model has been also shown, since several uptake curves were accurately predicted with parameters fitted previously to different sets of experimental data.

  4. Designing a Common Interchange Format for Unit Data Using the Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (C2IEDM) and XSLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Required> </Equipment> <Equipment code="L44680"> <Description>LAUNCHER GRENADE SMOKE: SCREENING RP M250 </Description> <Required...EquipmentPiecesOnHand> </UnitEquipment> <UnitEquipment> <EquipmentDescription>LAUNCHER GRENADE SMOKE: SCREENING RP M250 </EquipmentDescription

  5. Exchange of natural enemies for biological control: is it a rocky road?-the road in the Euro-Mediterranean region and the South American common market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinot, D; Briano, J; Parra, J R P; de Sá, L A N; Cônsoli, F L

    2013-02-01

    The access and benefit sharing (ABS) regulations from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for the use of natural resources became an important issue because the biodiversity of developing countries was heavily accessed and unilaterally exploited by pharmaceutical and seed companies. However, natural enemies used for biological control are living and unmodified genetic resources which cannot be patented and have been treated as resources such as drugs, seeds, or other commercial products. Consequently, the ABS requirements have limited not only the use of natural enemies but also the positive effects that scientifically supported biological control strategies have on the society, the environment, and the economy, reducing problems of pesticide residues, water and soil contamination, and non-target effects. During the last several years, the biological control scientific community has faced new and extremely complicated legislation dictated by a high and diverse number of governmental agencies at different levels, making the access to natural resources for biocontrol purposes a rocky road. Society at large should be aware of how the strict ABS regulations affect the use of natural enemies as biological resources to secure food production, food safety, and global environmental protection. We discuss in here the current difficulties derived from CBD for the exchange of natural enemies taking as example the Euro-Mediterranean region, Argentina, and Brazil to demonstrate how long and diverse are the steps to be followed to obtain the required permits for access and exportation/importation of natural enemies. We then argue that the public visibility of biocontrol strategies should be increased and their benefits highlighted in order to persuade legislators for the development of a less bureaucratic, more expedient, and more centralized regulatory frame, greatly favoring the practice and benefits of biological control. We finally propose a general framework in

  6. A new approach for generating bispecific antibodies based on a common light chain format and the stable architecture of human immunoglobulin G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardis, Camilla; Hendriks, Linda J A; Poirier, Emilie; Arvinte, Tudor; Gros, Piet; Bakker, Alexander B H; de Kruif, John

    2017-09-01

    Bispecific antibodies combine two different antigen-binding sites in a single molecule, enabling more specific targeting, novel mechanisms of action, and higher clinical efficacies. Although they have the potential to outperform conventional monoclonal antibodies, many bispecific antibodies have issues regarding production, stability, and pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we describe a new approach for generating bispecific antibodies using a common light chain format and exploiting the stable architecture of human immunoglobulin G 1 We used iterative experimental validation and computational modeling to identify multiple Fc variant pairs that drive efficient heterodimerization of the antibody heavy chains. Accelerated stability studies enabled selection of one Fc variant pair dubbed "DEKK" consisting of substitutions L351D and L368E in one heavy chain combined with L351K and T366K in the other. Solving the crystal structure of the DEKK Fc region at a resolution of 2.3 Å enabled detailed analysis of the interactions inducing CH3 interface heterodimerization. Local shifts in the IgG backbone accommodate the introduction of lysine side chains that form stabilizing salt-bridge interactions with substituted and native residues in the opposite chain. Overall, the CH3 domain adapted to these shifts at the interface, yielding a stable Fc conformation very similar to that in wild-type IgG. Using the DEKK format, we generated the bispecific antibody MCLA-128, targeting human EGF receptors 2 and 3. MCLA-128 could be readily produced and purified at industrial scale with a standard mammalian cell culture platform and a routine purification protocol. Long-term accelerated stability assays confirmed that MCLA-128 is highly stable and has excellent biophysical characteristics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. A software program for exchanging MR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, P B; Jensen, J A; Henriksen, O

    1993-01-01

    of digital MR images of the human brain. Because there was no common data format, software package was developed for data exchange. This article describes the basic features of the developed software. The software package was written in the language of C and was successfully tested on an IBM-6150 UNIX...... workstation. The software is currently being tested on the following series of UNIX workstations: SUN SPARC, IBM RS6000, and HP 9000/700....

  8. International exchange of radiological information in emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; De Vries, G.; Breitenbach, L.; Fraser, G.; Vade, S.

    1998-01-01

    Description of the current system, experience gained, and expected future developments is given for the ECURIE system and, in particular, the EURDEP European-wide radiological information exchange system. It is concluded that the existing situation continues to be inhomogeneous. Although EURDEP foresees a common format for data exchange, which has been successfully implemented in 9 European countries, and regular exercises for data have been performed for a few years, important efforts will still have to be made to come to a more homogeneous and consistent European system for radiological information exchange. (P.A.)

  9. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 2. Formation, bioaccumulation and elimination of hydroxylated metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munschy, C.; Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C.; Pacepavicius, G.; Alaee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake, elimination and transformation of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, and then depurated over a five-month period. Methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) PBDEs were determined in fish plasma exposed to PBDEs and compared to those obtained in control fish. While all MeO- and some OH- congeners identified in fish plasma were found to originate from non-metabolic sources, several OH- congeners, i.e., OH-tetraBDEs and OH-pentaBDEs, were found to originate from fish metabolism. Among these, 4'-OH-BDE-49 was identified as a BDE-47 metabolite. Congener 4'-OH-BDE-101, identified here for the first time, may be the result of BDE-99 metabolic transformation. Our results unequivocally showed that PBDEs are metabolised in juvenile sole via the formation of OH- metabolites. However, this was not a major biotransformation route compared to biotransformation through debromination. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food showed the ability to biotransform PBDEs into hydroxylated metabolites; these meta-bolites accumulated in fish.

  10. Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length and Composition of Common-Item Set, and Group Ability Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-format tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) items and constructed-response (CR) items are now widely used in many testing programs. Mixed-format tests often are considered to be superior to tests containing only MC items although the use of multiple item formats leads to measurement challenges in the context of equating conducted under…

  11. Time resolved native ion-mobility mass spectrometry to monitor dynamics of IgG4 Fab arm exchange and "bispecific" monoclonal antibody formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaene, François; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Colas, Olivier; Ayoub, Daniel; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Beck, Alain; Cianférani, Sarah

    2013-10-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and derivatives such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) and bispecific antibodies (bsAb), are the fastest growing class of human therapeutics. Most of the therapeutic antibodies currently on the market and in clinical trials are chimeric, humanized, and human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). An increasing number of IgG2s and IgG4s that have distinct structural and functional properties are also investigated to develop products that lack or have diminished antibody effector functions compared to IgG1. Importantly, wild type IgG4 has been shown to form half molecules (one heavy chain and one light chain) that lack interheavy chain disulfide bonds and form intrachain disulfide bonds. Moreover, IgG4 undergoes a process of Fab-arm exchange (FAE) in which the heavy chains of antibodies of different specificities can dissociate and recombine in bispecific antibodies both in vitro and in vivo. Here, native mass spectrometry (MS) and time-resolved traveling wave ion mobility MS (TWIM-MS) were used for the first time for online monitoring of FAE and bsAb formation using Hz6F4-2v3 and natalizumab, two humanized IgG4s which bind to human Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) and alpha4 integrin, respectively. In addition, native MS analysis of bsAb/JAM-A immune complexes revealed that bsAb can bind up to two antigen molecules, confirming that the Hz6F4 family preferentially binds dimeric JAM-A. Our results illustrate how IM-MS can rapidly assess bsAb structural heterogeneity and be easily implemented into MS workflows for bsAb production follow up and bsAb/antigen complex characterization. Altogether, these results provide new MS-based methodologies for in-depth FAE and bsAb formation monitoring. Native MS and IM-MS will play an increasing role in next generation biopharmaceutical product characterization like bsAbs, antibody mixtures, and antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) as well as for biosimilar and biobetter antibodies.

  12. The European Union radiological data exchange platform (EURDEP). Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; De Vries, G.

    1998-01-01

    The technical feasibility for exchanging radiological data was decided within the EU. The JRC-Ispra provides the data exchange platform EURDEP (data capture and transmission) and co-ordinate the communication test exercises. In a first phase a common data format, based on the existing national data formats, is established by which radiological data (gamma dose rate and continuous aerosol measurements) will be exchanged. The 'European network' that will provide the information consists of existing automatic monitoring stations on a 100 x 100 km grid. Various contact points have been successively contacted to exchange radiological data with the JRC. Besides an introduction to the background and objectives of EURDEP, also the experience gained so far in using different communication procedures is discussed. (author)

  13. Investigations on the formation of frost on lamella heat-exchangers used in heat pumps; LOREF: Luftkuehler-Optimierung mit Reduktion von Eis- und Frostbildung. Untersuchung der Frostbildung fuer Lamellenluftkuehler von Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinagic, R.; Imholz, M.; Berlinger, L.; Huber, H.; Hilfiker, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur (HTA) Lucerne, Institut fuer Produktentwicklung, Thermische Verfahren und Anlagen (TVA), Horw (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of the LOREF project carried out at the University of Applied Science in Horw, Switzerland, on the formation of frost on lamella air-coolers used in heat pumps. The report presents the results of extensive tests on the formation of frost on the lamella of the heat exchangers used in air-water heat pumps. The mathematical relationships and the theory behind the formation of frost on cooled surfaces are discussed in detail. The results of numerical simulations and practical tests are presented. The practical tests involved the observation of ice and frost formation on various surface forms. The results of the physical tests and observations are quoted in detail. The mathematical modelling method used and the associated results are discussed. The report is rounded off with an appendix containing tables, diagrams and photos.

  14. The effect of surface modification on initial ice formation on aluminum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza; Fojan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    material of heat exchanger fins is aluminum, this paper focuses on the effect of aluminum wettability on the initial stages of ice formation. The ice growth was studied on bare as well as hydrophilically and hydrophobically modified surfaces of aluminum (8011A) sheets, commonly used in heat exchangers...

  15. The NeXus data format

    OpenAIRE

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamlin...

  16. Energy performance of an innovative liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a counter-flow heat and mass exchanger using potassium formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, Muhyiddine; Riffat, Saffa

    2014-01-01

    An innovative micro-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system is numerically investigated. The liquid desiccant dehumidification unit employs a counter-flow low-cost and efficient heat and mass exchange core, improving the thermal performance and eliminating desiccant carryover...... that the dehumidifier effectiveness is directly proportional to the intake air temperature, intake air relative humidity and liquid desiccant flow rate where the effectiveness is inversely proportional to the intake air velocity and the heat exchanger air channel height....

  17. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  18. Classroom Observations: Documenting Shifts in Instruction for Districtwide Improvement. Formative Evaluation Cycle Report for the Math in Common Initiative, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rebecca R.; Seago, Nanette M.; Burr, Elizabeth; Broek, Marie; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Math in Common® (MiC) is a five-year initiative that supports a formal network of 10 California school districts as they implement the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSS-M) across grades K-8. This research brief explores how best to select or develop and use classroom observation systems in order to document instructional shifts and…

  19. Ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography with dual detection of the conductivity and spectrophotometry for the simultaneous determination of common inorganic anionic species and cations in river and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of common inorganic anionic species (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), phosphate and silicate) and cations (Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) were conducted using an ion-chromatography system with dual detection of conductivity and spectrophotometry in tandem. The separation of ionic species on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was accomplished using a mixture of 100 mM ascorbic acid and 4 mM 18-crown-6 as an acidic eluent (pH 2.6), after which the ions were detected using a conductivity detector. Subsequently, phosphate and silicate were analyzed based on derivatization with molybdate and spectrophotometry at 700 nm. The detection limits at S/N = 3 ranged from 0.11 to 2.9 µM for analyte ionic species. This method was applied to practical river water and wastewater with acceptable criteria for the anion-cation balance and comparisons of the measured and calculated electrical conductivity, demonstrating the usefulness of the present method for water quality monitoring.

  20. Use of an exchange method to estimate the association and dissociation rate constants of cadmium complexes formed with low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids released from plant roots can form complexes with cadmium (Cd) in the soil solution and influence metal bioavailability not only due to the nature and concentration of the complexes but also due to their lability. The lability of a complex influences its ability to buffer changes in the concentration of free ions (Cd); it depends on the association (, m mol s) and dissociation (, s) rate constants. A resin exchange method was used to estimate and (m mol s), which is the conditional estimate of depending on the calcium (Ca) concentration in solution. The constants were estimated for oxalate, citrate, and malate, three low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots and expected to strongly influence Cd uptake by plants. For all three organic acids, the and estimates were around 2.5 10 m mol s and 1.3 × 10 s, respectively. Based on the literature, these values indicate that the Cd- low-molecular-weight organic acids complexes formed between Cd and low-molecular-weight organic acids may be less labile than complexes formed with soil soluble organic matter but more labile than those formed with aminopolycarboxylic chelates. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Use of frontal analysis in ion exchange chromatography for the study of reactions of formation of complexes in solution. Application to hydrochloric complexes of nickel (II), cobalt (II) and copper (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremillon, Bernard

    1959-01-01

    The ion exchanger column frontal analysis method provides a convenient way to study complex formation reactions when they are very unstable. It has the advantage of being much more sensitive and precise than the method (already used by other authors) of simple equilibrium between a solution and an ion exchanger. As an illustration of this method, the hydrochloric acid complexes NiCl + , CoCl + and CuCl + , have been studied, and their dissociation constants were determined (respectively 4.6 ± 0.1; 4.0 ± 0.1 and 2.5 ± 0.1, at an ionic strength substantially equal to 1.5). Reprint of a paper published in Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1958, p. 1483-1487 [fr

  2. Reversible formation of intermediates during H3O+-catalyzed hydrolysis of amides. Observation of substantial 18O exchange accompanying the hydrolysis of acetanilide and N-cyclohexylacetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slebocka-Tilk, H.; Brown, R.S.; Olekszyk, J.

    1987-01-01

    Careful mass spectrometric analysis of the 18 O content of ∼ 50% enriched acetanilide (2) and N-cyclohexylacetamide (3) recovered from acidic media during the course of hydrolysis reveals that both species suffer 18 O loss. The percent of 18 O exchange per t/sub 1/2/ of hydrolysis increases as [H 3 O + ] decreases. For 2 at 72 0 C the amount of exchange increases from 0.5 +/- 0.5% (per t/sub 1/2/) in 1 M HCl to 9.4 +/- 0.5% in glycine buffer, [H 3 O + ] = 0.003 M. For 3 at 100 0 C the exchange is 1.05 +/- 0.3% (per t/sub 1/2/) at 1 M HCl and 9.0 +/- 0.4% in 0.01 M HCl. When these data are used to compute k/sub ex/ (the exchange rate constant), it shows a first-order dependence on [H 3 O + ] followed by a plateau at high [H 3 O + ] for both 2 and 3

  3. The NeXus data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  4. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  5. The mzTab data exchange format: communicating mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and metabolomics experimental results to a wider audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes; Jones, Andrew R; Sachsenberg, Timo; Walzer, Mathias; Gatto, Laurent; Hartler, Jürgen; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph; Neuhauser, Nadin; Cox, Jürgen; Neumann, Steffen; Fan, Jun; Reisinger, Florian; Xu, Qing-Wei; Del Toro, Noemi; Pérez-Riverol, Yasset; Ghali, Fawaz; Bandeira, Nuno; Xenarios, Ioannis; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning

    2014-10-01

    The HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed several standardized data formats to facilitate data sharing in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. These allow researchers to report their complete results in a unified way. However, at present, there is no format to describe the final qualitative and quantitative results for proteomics and metabolomics experiments in a simple tabular format. Many downstream analysis use cases are only concerned with the final results of an experiment and require an easily accessible format, compatible with tools such as Microsoft Excel or R. We developed the mzTab file format for MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results to meet this need. mzTab is intended as a lightweight supplement to the existing standard XML-based file formats (mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML), providing a comprehensive summary, similar in concept to the supplemental material of a scientific publication. mzTab files can contain protein, peptide, and small molecule identifications together with experimental metadata and basic quantitative information. The format is not intended to store the complete experimental evidence but provides mechanisms to report results at different levels of detail. These range from a simple summary of the final results to a representation of the results including the experimental design. This format is ideally suited to make MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results available to a wider biological community outside the field of MS. Several software tools for proteomics and metabolomics have already adapted the format as an output format. The comprehensive mzTab specification document and extensive additional documentation can be found online. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The mzTab Data Exchange Format: Communicating Mass-spectrometry-based Proteomics and Metabolomics Experimental Results to a Wider Audience*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes; Jones, Andrew R.; Sachsenberg, Timo; Walzer, Mathias; Gatto, Laurent; Hartler, Jürgen; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Salek, Reza M.; Steinbeck, Christoph; Neuhauser, Nadin; Cox, Jürgen; Neumann, Steffen; Fan, Jun; Reisinger, Florian; Xu, Qing-Wei; del Toro, Noemi; Pérez-Riverol, Yasset; Ghali, Fawaz; Bandeira, Nuno; Xenarios, Ioannis; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed several standardized data formats to facilitate data sharing in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. These allow researchers to report their complete results in a unified way. However, at present, there is no format to describe the final qualitative and quantitative results for proteomics and metabolomics experiments in a simple tabular format. Many downstream analysis use cases are only concerned with the final results of an experiment and require an easily accessible format, compatible with tools such as Microsoft Excel or R. We developed the mzTab file format for MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results to meet this need. mzTab is intended as a lightweight supplement to the existing standard XML-based file formats (mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML), providing a comprehensive summary, similar in concept to the supplemental material of a scientific publication. mzTab files can contain protein, peptide, and small molecule identifications together with experimental metadata and basic quantitative information. The format is not intended to store the complete experimental evidence but provides mechanisms to report results at different levels of detail. These range from a simple summary of the final results to a representation of the results including the experimental design. This format is ideally suited to make MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results available to a wider biological community outside the field of MS. Several software tools for proteomics and metabolomics have already adapted the format as an output format. The comprehensive mzTab specification document and extensive additional documentation can be found online. PMID:24980485

  7. A Comparison of national CCS strategies for Northwest Europe, with a focus on the potential of common CO2 storage at the Utsira formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Andrea; Hoefnagels, Ric; van den Broek, Machteld

    2011-01-01

    Mega structures for CO2 storage, such as the Utsira formation in the North Sea, could theoretically supply CO2 storage capacity for several countries for a period of several decades. Their use could increase the cost-effectiveness of CCS in a region while minimizing opposition from the public to CO...... region Pan European TIMES model (PET). In the models scenarios, assumptions and parameters that are not country dependent (e.g. costs related with CO2 capture technology development) have been harmonized. The results indicate that with stringent climate targets, CCS appears as a key mitigation option...... in the national portfolio of measures. Within the CCS portfolio, storage of CO2 in the Utsira formation can indeed be a cost effective option for North Europe and it represents a valuable CO2 storage option at the regional level. For instance, the United Kingdom will profit from the comparably short transport...

  8. Effects of As/P exchange on InAs/lnP (100) quantum dots formation by metalorganic chemical vapor Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Tan, H H; Jagadish, C [The Australian National University, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Department of Electronic Materials Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Self-assembled InAs/lnP quantum dots (QDs) are very promising active materials for QD lasers and semiconductor amplifiers for optical fiber communications (1.3-1.55 mm). However the main challenge associated with this material system is the As/P exchange reaction which degrades the structural and optical properties of the QDs. In this talk, we will show the effect of growing a thin spacer layer of GaAs or InGaAs prior to the deposition of the InAs QDs by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Not only the effect of As/P exchange is suppressed or minimized but the bandgap of the QDs could be tuned too. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics.

  9. The development of MML (Medical Markup Language) version 3.0 as a medical document exchange format for HL7 messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2004-12-01

    Medical Markup Language (MML), as a set of standards, has been developed over the last 8 years to allow the exchange of medical data between different medical information providers. MML Version 2.21 used XML as a metalanguage and was announced in 1999. In 2001, MML was updated to Version 2.3, which contained 12 modules. The latest version--Version 3.0--is based on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). During the development of this new version, the structure of MML Version 2.3 was analyzed, subdivided into several categories, and redefined so the information defined in MML could be described in HL7 CDA Level One. As a result of this development, it has become possible to exchange MML Version 3.0 medical documents via HL7 messages.

  10. A revised glossary of terms most commonly used by clinical electroencephalographers and updated proposal for the report format of the EEG findings : Revision 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Nick; Acharya, Jayant; Benickzy, Sandor; Caboclo, Luis; Finnigan, Simon; Kaplan, Peter W.; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Pressler, Ronit; van Putten, Michel J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This glossary includes the terms most commonly used in clinical EEG. It is based on the previous proposals (Chatrian et al., 1974; Noachtar et al., 1999) and includes terms necessary to describe the EEG and to generate the EEG report. All EEG phenomena should be described as precisely as possible in

  11. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  12. Testing common classical LTE and NLTE model atmosphere and line-formation codes for quantitative spectroscopy of early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, Norbert; Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; Butler, Keith

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the atmospheres of cool/lukewarm stars of spectral types A and later are described well by LTE model atmospheres, while the O-type stars require a detailed treatment of NLTE effects. Here model atmosphere structures, spectral energy distributions and synthetic spectra computed with ATLAS9/SYNTHE and TLUSTY/SYNSPEC, and results from a hybrid method combining LTE atmospheres and NLTE line-formation with DETAIL/SURFACE are compared. Their ability to reproduce observations for effective temperatures between 15 000 and 35 000 K are verified. Strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches are identified. Recommendations are made as to how to improve the models in order to derive unbiased stellar parameters and chemical abundances in future applications, with special emphasis on Gaia science.

  13. The Exchange Program of the Belgian American Educational Foundation 1920-1940 : An Institutional Perspective on Persona Formation (1920-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huistra, P.A.; Wils, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF) that sent

  14. A Phenomenological Model for Prediction Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation of Turbulent Diffusion Combustion in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new phenomenological model, the TP (Temperature Phase model, is presented to carry out optimization calculations for turbulent diffusion combustion in a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature is the most important parameter in the TP model, which includes two parts: an auto-ignition and a soot model. In the auto-ignition phase, different reaction mechanisms are built for different zones. For the soot model, different methods are used for different temperatures. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimization. The results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP model, KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed. The results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and CFD (computational fluid dynamics and can be a useful tool to study turbulent diffusion combustion.

  15. Isotopically sensitive branching in the formation of cyclic monoterpenes: proof that (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene are synthesized by the same monoterpene cyclase via deprotonation of a common intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wheeler, C.J.; Cane, D.E.; Ebert, R.; Ha, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether the bicyclic monoterpene olefins (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene arise biosynthetically from the same monoterpene cyclase by alternate deprotonations of a common carbocationic intermediate, the product distributions arising from the acyclic precursor [10- 2 H 3 ,1- 3 H]geranyl pyrophosphate were compared with those resulting from incubation of [1-3H]geranyl pyrophosphate with (-)-pinene cyclase from Salvia officinalis. Alteration in proportions of the olefinic products generated by the partially purified pinene cyclase resulted from the suppression of the formation of (-)-beta-pinene (C10 deprotonation) by a primary deuterium isotope effect with a compensating stimulation of the formation of (-)-alpha-pinene (C4 deprotonation). (-)-Pinene cyclase as well as (+)-pinene cyclase also exhibited a decrease in the proportion of the acyclic olefin myrcene generated from the deuteriated substrate, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the commitment to cyclized products. The observation of isotopically sensitive branching, in conjunction with quantitation of the magnitude of the secondary deuterium isotope effect on the overall rate of product formation by the (+)- and (-)-pinene cyclases as well as two other monoterpene cyclases from the same tissue, supports the biosynthetic origin of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene by alternative deprotonations of a common enzymatic intermediate. A biogenetic scheme consistent with these results is presented, and alternate proposals for the origin of the pinenes are addressed

  16. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows an IgG-isotype-specific defect in ABO blood group antibody formation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bernhard Fischer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common clinically severe primary immunodeficiency and comprises a heterogeneous group of patients with recurrent severe bacterial infections due to the failure to produce IgG antibodies after exposure to infectious agents and immunization. Diagnostic recommendations for antibody failure include assessment of isoagglutinins. We have readdressed this four decades old but still accepted recommendation with up to date methodology.Methods: Anti-A/B IgM- and IgG-antibodies were measured by Diamed-ID Micro Typing, surface plasmon resonance (SPR using the Biacore® device and flow cytometry.Results: When Diamed-ID Micro Typing was used, CVID patients (n=34 showed IgG- and IgM-isoagglutinins that were comparable to healthy volunteers (n=28, while all XLA patients (n=8 had none. Anti-A/B IgM-antibodies were present in more than 2/3 of the CVID patients and showed binding kinetics comparable to anti-A/B IgM-antibodies from healthy individuals. A correlation could be found in CVID patients between levels of anti-A/B IgM-antibodies and levels of serum IgM and PnP-IgM-antibodies. In contrast in CVID patients as a group ABO antibodies were significantly decreased when assessed by SPR, which correlated with levels of switched memory, non-switched memory and naïve B cells, but all CVID patients had low/undetectable anti-A/B IgG-antibodies.Conclusion: These results indicate that conventional isoagglutinin assessment and assessment of anti-A/B IgM antibodies are not suited for the diagnosis of impaired antibody production in CVID. Examination of anti-A/B IgG antibodies by SPR provides a useful method for the diagnosis of IgG antibody failure in all CVID patients studied, thus indicating an important additional rationale to start immunoglobulin replacement therapy early in these patients, before post-infectious sequelae develop.

  17. Effect of the gamma radiation and common antioxidants on some aspects of osteoblast differentiation during the formation of bone tissue in an in-vivo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones O, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation is the emission of energy through short electromagnetic waves to a higher level of frequency with respect to ultraviolet light. This type of energy in the medical application is used as a tool to kill cancer cells in humans, however, adverse damages to its exposure can produce secondary effects in the short and long term depending on the damage in cells and tissues nearby to the irradiation zone, the human body will present various injuries and conditions. In bone tissue, secondary effects that have been observed, is an alteration of the architecture and integrity of bone extracellular matrix of cortical and trabecular tissue, which causes loss of bone density. However, the reason that the bone tissue is affected is not clear, but is believed to be related to the formation of free radicals, which generate oxidative damage in biomolecules of the cells, damaging the tissue structure, organs and systems of the human body. The studies to identify the main reasons that will affect bone tissue as a result of radiotherapy have been carried out by models In-vitro and some In-vivo. In most studies in-vitro with cells with osteoblast phenotype, the results suggest alterations in proliferation and differentiation of these cells. However, the etiology and the role of these changes in disorders and bone injuries as adverse secondary effects of the radiotherapy are very poorly understood to date. In the present study an In-vivo model was used, that are ectopic bone plates which are developed by endochondral ossification, after having implanted demineralized bone particles at 16 days of development, at which time they are constituted by bone tissue. Ectopic bone plates were used with the aim of knowing as gamma radiation indirectly modifies to cellular level the osteoblast differentiation, cells that are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone extracellular matrix. One of the well known effects of gamma radiation is the generation of free radicals

  18. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  19. Purine alkaloid formation and CO2 gas exchange in dependence of development and of environmental factors in leaves of Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, P M; Eller, B M; Baumann, T W

    1982-12-01

    In the leaves of Coffea arabica L., purine alkaloid formation was estimated by analyzing the theobromine and caffeine content and by measuring the methylation rate of [2-(14)C]theobromine to [2-(14)C]caffeine in short-term experiments (6-24 h). At the same time, growth (in terms of dry weight and area), net photosynthesis (NPS), and dark respiration were determined. During leaf development, which was considered to be terminated when NPS was at a maximum (60-80 μmol g(-1) s(-1)) and dark respiration at a minimum (5-7.5 μmol g(-1) s(-1)), the content of theobromine and the velocity of caffeine formation were both found to decrease by a factor of more than 100. The close correlation between the theobromine content and the methylation rate is suspended when purine alkaloid formation is influenced by factors other than leaf development. Among these factors, temperature is the most effective: the velocity of caffeine biosynthesis is increased by raising the temperature and vice versa. Although the plants were well irrigated, a drastic decrease of NPS in the afternoon was observed under all environmental conditions tested. Light saturation was reached between 170-360 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The temperature optimum of NPS was shown to be very broad (24-33°C)m provided the adaptation time was sufficiently long.

  20. Influence of Nafion film on oxygen reduction reaction and hydrogen peroxide formation on Pt electrode for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohma, Atsushi; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi; Okazaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The influence of Nafion film on ORR kinetics and H 2 O 2 formation on a Pt electrode was investigated using RRDE in 0.1 M HClO 4 . It was found that the Nafion-coated Pt system showed lower apparent ORR activity and more H 2 O 2 production than the bare Pt electrode system. From the temperature sensitivity, it was revealed that the apparent activation energies of ORR in the Nafion-coated Pt system were lower than the bare Pt electrode system, and the H 2 O 2 formation was suppressed with the increase of the temperature. In order to analyze the results furthermore, other systems (0.1/1.0 M, HClO 4 /CF 3 SO 3 H) with the bare Pt electrodes were also examined as references. It was exhibited that the ORR kinetic current, the H 2 O 2 formation, and the apparent activation energies of 1.0 M CF 3 SO 3 H system were close to those of the Nafion-coated Pt system. We concluded that the orientation of anion species of Nafion and CF 3 SO 3 H to the Pt surface via water molecules, as well as a fluorocarbon polymer network of Nafion, might block O 2 adsorption, resulting in the smaller effective surface area of the Pt electrode for ORR, the smaller ORR kinetic current, and the more H 2 O 2 production.

  1. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, MJ; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, SM; Kristensen, NR; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, MK; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, AC; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, JN; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, HB; Parra-Guillen, ZP; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, IF; Yvon, F; Milligan, PA; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  2. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  3. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  4. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  5. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  6. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  7. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  8. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  9. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  10. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  11. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  12. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  13. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  14. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  15. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  16. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  17. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  18. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  19. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  20. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  1. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  3. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  4. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  5. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  6. Exchangers man the pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-01-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca2+ transporters encoded by cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca2+ into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca2+ release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H+-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca2+/H+ exchangers and H+ pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca2+ flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca2+/H+ exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca2+ or H+ transport. PMID:19841670

  7. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  8. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  9. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  10. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  11. Information Exchange Automation in Maritime Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of maritime transport the access to information must be provided through a commonly used services. However, an equally important task is to determine or agree on interpretation of incoming data and assessment of a current and predicted navigational situation and, in further step, intentions of the participants in the transport process. Thanks to the standardization of information format, automatic information exchange gets increasingly wider. Another step ahead is automatic interpretation of information and automation of negotiation processes - intelligent communication. Rapid development of IT and ICT technologies creates such opportunities. This article presents the results of research on a system of automatic communication and co-operation in maritime transport.

  12. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Rahmani, Amirreza

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation-flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are proposed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms rely on a local information exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. Distributed space systems rely on a signal transmission network among multiple spacecraft for their operation. Control and coordination among multiple spacecraft in a formation is facilitated via a network of relative sensing and interspacecraft communications. Guidance, navigation, and control rely on the sensing network. This network becomes more complex the more spacecraft are added, or as mission requirements become more complex. The observability of a formation state was observed by a set of local observations from a particular node in the formation. Formation observability can be parameterized in terms of the matrices appearing in the formation dynamics and observation matrices. An agreement protocol was used as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. An agreement protocol is essentially an unforced dynamic system whose trajectory is governed by the interconnection geometry and initial condition of each node, with a goal of reaching a common value of interest. The observability of the interconnected system depends on the geometry of the network, as well as the position of the observer relative to the topology. For the first time, critical GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control estimation) subsystems are synthesized by bringing the contribution of the spacecraft information-exchange network to the forefront of algorithmic analysis and design. The result is a

  13. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  14. The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate Volatility in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    magnitude of exchange rate volatility while the federal government exercises control of ... objectives in the area of price stability and economic growth. Volatile real ..... Exchange rate shocks and instability is a common feature of emerging.

  15. Commonalities and differences between MDSplus and HDF5 data systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.i [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    MDSplus is a data acquisition system widely used in nuclear fusion experiments. It defines a file format for pulse files and provides a set of tools for data acquisition and management. The whole MDSplus package is used in several fusion experiments to set up and supervise the data acquisition process. Other experiments use only the data management layer of MDSplus to provide a common format for data exchange between plasma fusion laboratories. HDF5 is a file format and a data access library used by a larger community, mainly outside fusion. HDF5 is used, for example, in earth science research, defence applications and weather services. HDF5 allows managing large and complex data sets and provides a common data format among heterogeneous applications. Both MDSplus and HDF5 support a rich set of data types and a hierarchical data organization, as well as multi-language data access libraries. There are however several significant differences between the two system architectures, making each system better suited in different application contexts. The paper provides a brief overview of the data architectures of MDSplus and HDF5 and analyzes in detail the peculiar aspects of the two systems.

  16. Commonalities and differences between MDSplus and HDF5 data systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.

    2010-01-01

    MDSplus is a data acquisition system widely used in nuclear fusion experiments. It defines a file format for pulse files and provides a set of tools for data acquisition and management. The whole MDSplus package is used in several fusion experiments to set up and supervise the data acquisition process. Other experiments use only the data management layer of MDSplus to provide a common format for data exchange between plasma fusion laboratories. HDF5 is a file format and a data access library used by a larger community, mainly outside fusion. HDF5 is used, for example, in earth science research, defence applications and weather services. HDF5 allows managing large and complex data sets and provides a common data format among heterogeneous applications. Both MDSplus and HDF5 support a rich set of data types and a hierarchical data organization, as well as multi-language data access libraries. There are however several significant differences between the two system architectures, making each system better suited in different application contexts. The paper provides a brief overview of the data architectures of MDSplus and HDF5 and analyzes in detail the peculiar aspects of the two systems.

  17. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  18. Research of thermal stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Srnkova, J.

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the fixation of radioactive ion exchangers into bitumen these exchangers have to be dried. The resulting gaseous products may generate explosive mixtures. An analysis was made of the thermal stability of two types of ion exchangers, the cation exchanger KU-2-8 cS and the anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS which are used in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The thermal stability of the anion exchangers was monitored using gas chromatography at temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC and by measuring weight loss by kiln-drying at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC. The ion exchanger was heated for 6 hours and samples were taken continuously at one hour intervals. The thermal stability of the cation exchanger was monitored by measuring the weight loss. Gas chromatography showed the release of trimethylamine from the anion exchanger in direct dependence on temperature. The measurement of weight losses, however, only showed higher losses of released products which are explained by the release of other thermally unstable products. The analysis of the thermal stability of the cation exchanger showed the release of SO 2 and the weight loss (following correction for water content) was found only after the fourth hour of decomposition. The experiment showed that the drying of anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS may cause the formation of explosive mixtures. (J.P.)

  19. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  20. 47 CFR 22.880 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 22.880 Section 22.880 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.880 Information exchange. (a...

  1. 47 CFR 22.973 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 22.973 Section 22.973 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.973 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public safety/CII...

  2. The state of the NeXus data format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, Mark

    2006-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange format for neutron, muon and X-ray scattering. NeXus has six levels: a physical file format, a file structure, rules for storing individual data items in a file, a dictionary of names, instrument definitions and an application programming interface (API) to NeXus files. The authors will present the large steps forward which have been made both with instrument definitions and the NeXus-API

  3. CytometryML and other data formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    Cytology automation and research will be enhanced by the creation of a common data format. This data format would provide the pathology and research communities with a uniform way for annotating and exchanging images, flow cytometry, and associated data. This specification and/or standard will include descriptions of the acquisition device, staining, the binary representations of the image and list-mode data, the measurements derived from the image and/or the list-mode data, and descriptors for clinical/pathology and research. An international, vendor-supported, non-proprietary specification will allow pathologists, researchers, and companies to develop and use image capture/analysis software, as well as list-mode analysis software, without worrying about incompatibilities between proprietary vendor formats. Presently, efforts to create specifications and/or descriptions of these formats include the Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification; extensions to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM); Open Microscopy Environment (OME); Flowcyt, an extension to the present Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS); and CytometryML. The feasibility of creating a common data specification for digital microscopy and flow cytometry in a manner consistent with its use for medical devices and interoperability with both hospital information and picture archiving systems has been demonstrated by the creation of the CytometryML schemas. The feasibility of creating a software system for digital microscopy has been demonstrated by the OME. CytometryML consists of schemas that describe instruments and their measurements. These instruments include digital microscopes and flow cytometers. Optical components including the instruments' excitation and emission parts are described. The description of the measurements made by these instruments includes the tagged molecule, data acquisition subsystem, and the format of the list-mode and/or image data. Many

  4. What are sister chromatid exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of new staining techniques to visualise sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in cells exposed to mutagens has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of such exchanges. SCE are induced by a wide variety of different physical and chemical agents and their incidence provides a sensitive indicator of DNA damage in proliferating mammalian cells. It is shown that lesions which affect one or both strands of the DNA can result in the development of SCE, but only when damaged DNA undergoes replication. The nature of the lesions, the frequency and distribution of SEC in mammalian cells; the sensitivity of the cells to their induction by X-radiation, ultraviolet radiation and chemical mutagens, are discussed and possible mechanisms involved in the formation of SCE during replication considered. (Auth.)

  5. SCIFIO: an extensible framework to support scientific image formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Mark C; Rueden, Curtis T; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2016-12-07

    No gold standard exists in the world of scientific image acquisition; a proliferation of instruments each with its own proprietary data format has made out-of-the-box sharing of that data nearly impossible. In the field of light microscopy, the Bio-Formats library was designed to translate such proprietary data formats to a common, open-source schema, enabling sharing and reproduction of scientific results. While Bio-Formats has proved successful for microscopy images, the greater scientific community was lacking a domain-independent framework for format translation. SCIFIO (SCientific Image Format Input and Output) is presented as a freely available, open-source library unifying the mechanisms of reading and writing image data. The core of SCIFIO is its modular definition of formats, the design of which clearly outlines the components of image I/O to encourage extensibility, facilitated by the dynamic discovery of the SciJava plugin framework. SCIFIO is structured to support coexistence of multiple domain-specific open exchange formats, such as Bio-Formats' OME-TIFF, within a unified environment. SCIFIO is a freely available software library developed to standardize the process of reading and writing scientific image formats.

  6. Foreign Exchange Exposures of Korean Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbin Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measure foreign exchange exposures as sensitivity of firm's value to FX premium in the CAPM plus FX premium model, and try to find determinants of the exposures; using data of non-financial companies listed in the Korea Exchange from the year 2007 to 2008. Main findings are as follows. If Korean won depreciates, only a small number of firms is benefitted while majority of firms are harmed to the contrary of common knowledge. As a firm's export increases, the foreign exchange exposure increases up to a certain level and after that it declines. And, smaller firms of negative foreign exchange exposures are more sensitive to foreign exchange changes. These suggest heterogeneous effects of foreign exchange rates on industries and firms.

  7. 47 CFR 64.1903 - Obligations of all incumbent independent local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... existing offices of its affiliated exchange companies, and use its affiliated exchange companies' marketing...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Separate Affiliate... affiliate that satisfies the following requirements: (1) The affiliate shall maintain separate books of...

  8. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  9. Common Developmental Tasks in Forming Reconstituted Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Developmental tasks common to the formation of a reconstituted family are described, particularly the continued mourning of the old family; the formation of a solid marital relationship despite the difficulties presented by past failures and the presence of children; and the formation of sibling alliances across family lines. (Author)

  10. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  11. Ion exchange process: History, evolution and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoldi, P.; Carturan, S.; Sada, C.; Quaranta, A.; Sglavo, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review on some aspects and applications of ion exchange process in glasses, ferroelectric and polymers in the fields of optics, nanotechnology, gas sensors and chemical strengthening. The formation of nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses, as effect of ion or laser irradiation, is discussed. A discussion on the potentialities of ion exchange process in comparison to ion implantation in optical devices and nanotechnology is also introduced. Analytical techniques applied to the study of the ion exchange process are illustrated. The studies of ion exchange process in “Natural materials” constitute the content of a specific paragraph, for applications in water cleaning. Some initial considerations on the “old age” of this technique are introduced.

  12. Political pressures and exchange rate stability in emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Faia; Massimo Giuliodori; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of exchange rate policy. The theory is based on a common agency approach with rational expectations. Financial and exporter lobbies exert political pressures to influence the government’s choice of exchange rate policy, before shocks to the economy are realized. The model shows that political pressures affect exchange rate policy and create an over-commitment to exchange rate stability. This helps to rationalize the empirical evidence on fear of l...

  13. The case for regional exchange rate arrangement in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Kinkyo

    2004-01-01

    The Asian crisis highlighted the difficulties for developing countries to actively manage exchange rates in an environment of high capital mobility. Now it became fashionable to argue that the exchange rate should be either allowed to float freely or irrevocably fixed. This paper examines the case for regional exchange rate arrangements as an instrument to enhance the manageability of exchange rates and discusses the options in East Asia. It critically assess the existing proposal of common b...

  14. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for deuterium isotopic enrichment (suitable for use in heavy water production) by amine-hydrogen exchange in which the exchange catalyst comprises a mixture of alkyl amides of two metals selected from the group consisting of the alkali metals. Catalyst mixtures comprising at least one of the alkali amides of lithium and potassium are preferred. At least one of the following benefits are obtained: decreased hydride formation, decreased thermal decomposition of alkyl amide, increased catalyst solubility in the amine phase, and increased exchange efficiency. 11 claims

  15. [The effects of anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral inversions of the lateral mesoblast of the neurula on the formation of the mesonephric, medullary, and adrenal anlage of the common toad, Bufo bufo L. (Amphibia, Anoura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipouloux, J D; Hakim, J

    1975-10-13

    The experimental results of cranio-caudal reversal and dorso-ventral reversal of the lateral mesoblast of the toad early neurula prove that, at this stage, the cranio-caudal polarity of this tissue is fixed but not the dorso-ventral one. External factors are responsible for the formation of mesonephric, adrenal and gonadal medullary anlage by the lateral mesoblast.

  16. Iatrogenic Bowel Injury at Exchange of Supra-Pubic Catheter

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foran, AT

    2018-04-01

    Suprapubic catheter insertion and exchange is a common urological procedure, but it is not without risks and complications. While bowel perforation is a recognised complication at suprapubic catheter insertion, it is not commonly reported at suprapubic catheter exchange. We report our experience of recognition, diagnosis and subsequent successful management of the most important complication related to suprapubic catheters.

  17. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  19. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  20. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  1. Incentive compatibility in kidney exchange problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Silvia; Patrone, Fioravante

    2009-12-01

    The problem of kidney exchanges shares common features with the classical problem of exchange of indivisible goods studied in the mechanism design literature, while presenting additional constraints on the size of feasible exchanges. The solution of a kidney exchange problem can be summarized in a mapping from the relevant underlying characteristics of the players (patients and their donors) to the set of matchings. The goal is to select only matchings maximizing a chosen welfare function. Since the final outcome heavily depends on the private information in possess of the players, a basic requirement in order to reach efficiency is the truthful revelation of this information. We show that for the kidney exchange problem, a class of (in principle) efficient mechanisms does not enjoy the incentive compatibility property and therefore is subject to possible manipulations made by the players in order to profit of the misrepresentation of their private information.

  2. A community standard format for the representation of protein affinity reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Orchard, Sandra; Bertinetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Protein affinity reagents (PARs), most commonly antibodies, are essential reagents for protein characterization in basic research, biotechnology, and diagnostics as well as the fastest growing class of therapeutics. Large numbers of PARs are available commercially; however, their quality is often...... that facilitates easy comparison of their cost and quality. However, in contrast to, for example, nucleotide databases among which data are synchronized between the major data providers, current PAR producers, quality control centers, and commercial companies all use incompatible formats, hindering data exchange....... Here we propose Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI)-PAR as a global community standard format for the representation and exchange of protein affinity reagent data. The PSI-PAR format is maintained by the Human Proteome Organisation PSI and was developed within the context of Proteome...

  3. Efficient stereoscopic contents file format on the basis of ISO base media file format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuheon; Lee, Jangwon; Suh, Doug Young; Park, Gwang Hoon

    2009-02-01

    A lot of 3D contents haven been widely used for multimedia services, however, real 3D video contents have been adopted for a limited applications such as a specially designed 3D cinema. This is because of the difficulty of capturing real 3D video contents and the limitation of display devices available in a market. However, diverse types of display devices for stereoscopic video contents for real 3D video contents have been recently released in a market. Especially, a mobile phone with a stereoscopic camera has been released in a market, which provides a user as a consumer to have more realistic experiences without glasses, and also, as a content creator to take stereoscopic images or record the stereoscopic video contents. However, a user can only store and display these acquired stereoscopic contents with his/her own devices due to the non-existence of a common file format for these contents. This limitation causes a user not share his/her contents with any other users, which makes it difficult the relevant market to stereoscopic contents is getting expanded. Therefore, this paper proposes the common file format on the basis of ISO base media file format for stereoscopic contents, which enables users to store and exchange pure stereoscopic contents. This technology is also currently under development for an international standard of MPEG as being called as a stereoscopic video application format.

  4. High-capacity cation-exchange column for enhanced resolution of adjacent peaks of cations in ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, M A

    2001-06-22

    One of the advantages of ion chromatography [Anal Chem. 47 (1975) 1801] as compared to other analytical techniques is that several ions may be analyzed simultaneously. One of the most important contributions of cation-exchange chromatography is its sensitivity to ammonium ion, which is difficult to analyze by other techniques [J. Weiss, in: E.L. Johnson (Ed.), Handbook of Ion Chromatography, Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA]. The determination of low concentrations of ammonium ion in the presence of high concentrations of sodium poses a challenge in cation-exchange chromatography [J. Weiss, Ion Chromatography, VCH, 2nd Edition, Weinheim, 1995], as both cations have similar selectivities for the common stationary phases containing either sulfonate or carboxylate functional groups. The task was to develop a new cation-exchange stationary phase (for diverse concentration ratios of adjacent peaks) to overcome limitations experienced in previous trails. Various cation-exchange capacities and column body formats were investigated to optimize this application and others. The advantages and disadvantages of two carboxylic acid columns of different cation-exchange capacities and different column formats will be discussed.

  5. Radiative transfer configuration factor catalog: A listing of relations for common geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, John R.; Menguec, M. Pinar

    2011-01-01

    An on-line compilation of radiation configuration factors for over 300 common geometries is provided as a supplementary material from the JQSRT web site at doi: (10.1016/j.jqsrt.2010.10.002). The factors are gathered from references across the radiative transfer and illumination engineering literature, as well as from applications in such diverse fields from combustion systems to human factors engineering. These factors are useful in standard surface-surface radiation exchange calculations, and are based on the assumptions that the surfaces exchanging radiation are diffuse, and that the radiosity from each surface is uniform across that surface. The catalog is updated annually, and can be downloaded from JQSRT in .PDF format.

  6. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  7. Water oxidation by photosystem II: H(2)O-D(2)O exchange and the influence of pH support formation of an intermediate by removal of a proton before dioxygen creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerencsér, László; Dau, Holger

    2010-11-30

    Understanding the chemistry of photosynthetic water oxidation requires deeper insight into the interrelation between electron transfer (ET) and proton relocations. In photosystem II membrane particles, the redox transitions of the water-oxidizing Mn complex were initiated by nanosecond laser flashes and monitored by absorption spectroscopy at 360 nm (A(360)). In the oxygen evolution transition (S(3) + hν → S(0) + O(2)), an exponential decrease in A(360) (τ(O(2)) = 1.6 ms) can be assigned to Mn reduction and O(2) formation. The corresponding rate-determining step is the ET from the Mn complex to a tyrosine radical (Y(Z)(ox)). We find that this A(360) decrease is preceded by a lag phase with a duration of 170 ± 40 μs (τ(lag) at pH 6.2), indicating formation of an intermediate before ET and O-O bond formation and corroborating results obtained by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Whereas τ(O(2)) exhibits a minor kinetic isotope effect and negligible pH dependence, formation of the intermediate is slowed significantly both in D(2)O (τ(lag) increase of ∼140% in D(2)O) and at low pH (τ(lag) of 30 ± 20 μs at pH 7.0 vs τ(lag) of 470 ± 80 μs at pH 5.5). These findings support the fact that in the oxygen evolution transition an intermediate is created by deprotonation and removal of a proton from the Mn complex, after Y(Z)(ox) formation but before the onset of electron transfer and O-O bond formation.

  8. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  9. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed dose estimations for

  10. Modem: data exchange among decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, S.; Zaehringer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the European Research and Development project MODEM (Monitoring Data and Information Exchange Among Decision Support Systems) is to achieve practical improvements for data exchange among decision support systems (DSS). Hence, the results of model calculations become comparable. This is a precondition for harmonised decision making. Based on the analysis of existing procedures, it was decided to use the PUSH-PULL concept. Notifications are actively and automatically sent by the DSS (PUSH). The data can then be downloaded form an in-formation server (PULL). The format of the data is defined in XML (extended markup language). Participants of the project are the DSS: RODOS, ARGOS and RECASS. First, the data is comprised of the source term and meteorological information. Results of the prognoses and measurement data are also to be exchanged. Exercises testing and improving the pro-cedures form an integral part of the project. (orig.)

  11. Information exchange - DOE oversight programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbs, D.C.; Field, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Oversight programs are conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to review activities carried out by field and contractor organizations. Two of these oversight programs focus on safeguards and security and on safety and health activities. These two programs are independent, but share many common objectives and review techniques. The mutual potential benefit was recognized from an exchange of information on review techniques. The first step in this exchange was the participation by an Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) staff member with the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) during their planning, conduct and reporting of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA). This paper briefly describes the OSE and ONS programs. It also identifies and analyzes the similarities and differences of the two programs. The purpose of this paper is to provide perspectives on the approach taken, the techniques used and the differences between two oversight programs conducted by the Department of Energy

  12. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  13. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  14. Development of a common data model for scientific simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosiano, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Butler, D.M. [Limit Point Systems, Inc. (United States); Matarazzo, C.; Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schoof, L. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The problem of sharing data among scientific simulation models is a difficult and persistent one. Computational scientists employ an enormous variety of discrete approximations in modeling physical processes on computers. Problems occur when models based on different representations are required to exchange data with one another, or with some other software package. Within the DOE`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), a cross-disciplinary group called the Data Models and Formats (DMF) group, has been working to develop a common data model. The current model is comprised of several layers of increasing semantic complexity. One of these layers is an abstract model based on set theory and topology called the fiber bundle kernel (FBK). This layer provides the flexibility needed to describe a wide range of mesh-approximated functions as well as other entities. This paper briefly describes the ASCI common data model, its mathematical basis, and ASCI prototype development. These prototypes include an object-oriented data management library developed at Los Alamos called the Common Data Model Library or CDMlib, the Vector Bundle API from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the DMF API from Sandia National Laboratory.

  15. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  16. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveevsky, Sergey N; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Maret M Acaeva; Oxana L Kolomiets

    2012-01-01

    Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids) of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in Sorex araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow - Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  17. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Matveevsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in S. araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow – Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  18. Humanitarianism and Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Swamy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.

  19. ENDF/B-5 formats manual 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, R; Magurno, B A

    1986-09-01

    The ENDF-5 Format, originally the format of the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-5, was internationally recommended for the computer storage, processing and exchange of evaluated neutron nuclear data. The present document contains the original Formats Manual of 1979, updated with revisions of Nov. 1983. (author) Figs, tabs

  20. A Transparent Translation from Legacy System Model into Common Information Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-27

    Advance in smart grid is forcing utilities towards better monitoring, control and analysis of distribution systems, and requires extensive cyber-based intelligent systems and applications to realize various functionalities. The ability of systems, or components within systems, to interact and exchange services or information with each other is the key to the success of smart grid technologies, and it requires efficient information exchanging and data sharing infrastructure. The Common Information Model (CIM) is a standard that allows different applications to exchange information about an electrical system, and it has become a widely accepted solution for information exchange among different platforms and applications. However, most existing legacy systems are not developed using CIM, but using their own languages. Integrating such legacy systems is a challenge for utilities, and the appropriate utilization of the integrated legacy systems is even more intricate. Thus, this paper has developed an approach and open-source tool in order to translate legacy system models into CIM format. The developed tool is tested for a commercial distribution management system and simulation results have proved its effectiveness.

  1. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  2. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  3. 78 FR 75435 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... controversy alleging employment discrimination, including sexual harassment. The Exchange may, however, make... has considered the proposed rule change's impact on efficiency, competition, and capital formation...

  4. Reactor fuel exchanging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shin-ichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable operation of an emergency manual operating mechanism for a fuel exchanger with all operatorless trucks and remote operation of a manipulator even if the exchanger fails during the fuel exchanging operation. Constitution: When a fuel exchanging system fails while connected to a pressure tube of a nuclear reactor during a fuel exchanging operation, a stand-by self-travelling truck automatically runs along a guide line to the position corresponding to the stopping position at that time of the fuel exchanger based on a command from a central control chamber. At this time the truck is switched to manual operation, and approaches the exchanger while being monitored through a television camera and then stops. Then, a manipurator is connected to the emergency manual operating mechanism of the exchanger, and is operated through necessary emergency steps by driving the snout, the magazine, the grab or the like in the exchanger in response to the problem, and necessary operations for the emergency treatment are thus performed. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  6. Enabling global exchange of groundwater data: GroundWaterML2 (GWML2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Boisvert, Eric; Chery, Laurence; Dahlhaus, Peter; Grellet, Sylvain; Kmoch, Alexander; Létourneau, François; Lucido, Jessica; Simons, Bruce; Wagner, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    GWML2 is an international standard for the online exchange of groundwater data that addresses the problem of data heterogeneity. This problem makes groundwater data hard to find and use because the data are diversely structured and fragmented into numerous data silos. Overcoming data heterogeneity requires a common data format; however, until the development of GWML2, an appropriate international standard has been lacking. GWML2 represents key hydrogeological entities such as aquifers and water wells, as well as related measurements and groundwater flows. It is developed and tested by an international consortium of groundwater data providers from North America, Europe, and Australasia, and facilitates many forms of data exchange, information representation, and the development of online web portals and tools.

  7. Enabling global exchange of groundwater data: GroundWaterML2 (GWML2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Boisvert, Eric; Chery, Laurence; Dahlhaus, Peter; Grellet, Sylvain; Kmoch, Alexander; Létourneau, François; Lucido, Jessica; Simons, Bruce; Wagner, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    GWML2 is an international standard for the online exchange of groundwater data that addresses the problem of data heterogeneity. This problem makes groundwater data hard to find and use because the data are diversely structured and fragmented into numerous data silos. Overcoming data heterogeneity requires a common data format; however, until the development of GWML2, an appropriate international standard has been lacking. GWML2 represents key hydrogeological entities such as aquifers and water wells, as well as related measurements and groundwater flows. It is developed and tested by an international consortium of groundwater data providers from North America, Europe, and Australasia, and facilitates many forms of data exchange, information representation, and the development of online web portals and tools.

  8. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  9. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  10. Exotic baryonium exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolescu, B.

    1978-05-01

    The prominent effects supposed to be associated with the exchange of exotic baryonium Regge trajectories are reviewed. The experimental presence of all expected effects leads to suggest that the baryonium exchange mechanism is a correct phenomenological picture and that mesons with isospin 2 or 3/2 or with strangeness 2, strongly coupled to the baryon-antibaryon channels, must be observed

  11. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  12. Quasi-steady-state model of a counter flow air-to-air heat exchanger with phase change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Kragh, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    -exchanger. Developing highly efficient heat-exchangers and strategies to avoid/remove frost formation implies the use of detailed models to predict and evaluate different heat-exchanger designs and strategies. This paper presents a quasi-steady-state model of a counter-flow air-to-air heat-exchanger that takes...

  13. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  14. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  15. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  16. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  17. Reflections and meditations upon complex chromosomal exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, John R K

    2002-12-01

    The application of FISH chromosome painting techniques, especially the recent mFISH (and its equivalents) where all 23 human chromosome pairs can be distinguished, has demonstrated that many chromosome-type structural exchanges are much more complicated (involving more "break-rejoins" and arms) than has hitherto been assumed. It is clear that we have been greatly under-estimating the damage produced in chromatin by such agents as ionising radiation. This article gives a brief historical summary of observations leading up to this conclusion, and after outlining some of the problems surrounding the formation of complex chromosomes exchanges, speculates about possible solutions currently being proposed.

  18. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  19. Loneliness, exchange orientation, and reciprocity in friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Prins, K.S.

    Guided by equity theory this study among 185 Dutch students explored the effects of exchange orientation and reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend upon loneliness. Reciprocity was in general more common in this relationship than feeling advantaged or deprived. The association between

  20. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  1. Common Law and Un-common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  2. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  3. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  4. Peer exchange for Southwestern states, May 7-10, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the peer exchange were the following: : Create networks and open lines of communication. : Develop an understanding of product evaluation programs in other states. : Seek commonalities in research being done and challeng...

  5. Exchanges in boundary layer and low troposphere and consequences on pollution of Fos-Berre-Marseille area (ESCOMPTE experiment); Les aerosols: emissions, formation d'aerosols organiques secondaires, transport longue distance. Zoom sur les aerosols carbones en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, B

    2006-01-15

    There are two types of 'carbonaceous aerosols': 'black carbon' (BC) and 'organic carbon'(OC). BC is directly emitted in the atmosphere while OC is either directly emitted (primary OC, OCp) or secondarily formed through oxidation processes in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosols, SOA). Complexity of carbonaceous aerosols is still poorly represented in existing aerosol models and uncertainties appear mainly both in their emission inventories and in their complex atmospheric evolution (transport, gas-particle interactions, dry/wet deposition), making difficult the estimation of their radiative impact. In this framework, I developed during my PhD at Laboratoire d'Aerologie, a new approach to deal with this complexity, with implementation of both a new carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory and a new aerosol modelling tool at global scale. My work is divided in 5 different tasks: - better characterisation of BC and OCp emissions, achieved through the development of a new emission inventory from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion sources (industrial, domestic and mobile sources). This inventory provides BC and OCp emissions for Europe at 25 km * 25 km resolution for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, with two additional regional zooms: on France, at 10 km * 10 km resolution for the years 2000 and 2010 with improved road traffic, and in Marseille region (Escompte campaign, 1999,-2001) at 1 km * 1 km resolution for the year 1999; - better modelling of carbonaceous aerosol complex atmospheric evolution, through coupling of a global scale gas transport/chemistry model (TM4) with an aerosol module (ORISAM) featuring size-distributed aerosols (on 8 diameter sections from 40 nm to 10 {mu}m) organic/inorganic chemical composition and explicit treatment of SOA formation; - simulations with this new aerosol model ORISAM-TM4 and model/measurements comparisons to study BC and OC long-range transport; - sensitivity tests on SOA

  6. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  7. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  8. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  9. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  10. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  11. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  12. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  13. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  14. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  15. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  16. Heat exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  17. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  18. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  19. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  20. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  1. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  2. The Deuterator: software for the determination of backbone amide deuterium levels from H/D exchange MS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinoremas NF

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of mass spectrometry and solution phase amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/D exchange experiments is an effective method for characterizing protein dynamics, and protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions. Despite methodological advancements and improvements in instrumentation and automation, data analysis and display remains a tedious process. The factors that contribute to this bottleneck are the large number of data points produced in a typical experiment, each requiring manual curation and validation, and then calculation of the level of backbone amide exchange. Tools have become available that address some of these issues, but lack sufficient integration, functionality, and accessibility required to address the needs of the H/D exchange community. To date there is no software for the analysis of H/D exchange data that comprehensively addresses these issues. Results We have developed an integrated software system for the automated analysis and representation of H/D exchange data that has been titled "The Deuterator". Novel approaches have been implemented that enable high throughput analysis, automated determination of deuterium incorporation, and deconvolution of overlapping peptides. This has been achieved by using methods involving iterative theoretical envelope fitting, and consideration of peak data within expected m/z ranges. Existing common file formats have been leveraged to allow compatibility with the output from the myriad of MS instrument platforms and peptide sequence database search engines. A web-based interface is used to integrate the components of The Deuterator that are able to analyze and present mass spectral data from instruments with varying resolving powers. The results, if necessary, can then be confirmed, adjusted, re-calculated and saved. Additional tools synchronize the curated calculation parameters with replicate time points, increasing throughput. Saved results can then

  3. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  4. 78 FR 50396 - Common Format for Federal Entity Transition Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... to facilitate the relocation of, and spectrum sharing with, U.S. Government stations in spectrum... Job Creation Act of 2012 (Tax Relief Act) amended the NTIA Organization Act to expand the types of... sharing costs associated with engineering, equipment, software, site acquisition, and construction...

  5. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  6. Cardioplegia heat exchanger design modelling using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, M R

    2000-11-01

    A new cardioplegia heat exchanger has been developed by Sorin Biomedica. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. CFD optimization techniques have commonly been applied to velocity flow field analysis, but CFD analysis was also used in this study to predict the heat exchange performance of the design before prototype fabrication. The iterative results of the optimization and the actual heat exchange performance of the final configuration are presented in this paper. Based on the behaviour of this model, both the water and blood fluid flow paths of the heat exchanger were optimized. The simulation predicted superior heat exchange performance using an optimal amount of energy exchange surface area, reducing the total contact surface area, the device priming volume and the material costs. Experimental results confirm the empirical results predicted by the CFD analysis.

  7. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  8. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Building on focusing and

  9. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and

  10. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  11. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  12. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  13. Common data model access; a unified layer to access data from data analysis point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, S.; Buteau, A.; Ounsy, M.; Rodriguez, C.; Hauser, N.; Lam, T.; Xiong, N.

    2012-01-01

    For almost 20 years, the scientific community of neutron and synchrotron institutes have been dreaming of a common data format for exchanging experimental results and applications for reducing and analyzing the data. Using HDF5 as a data container has become the standard in many facilities. The big issue is the standardization of the data organization (schema) within the HDF5 container. By introducing a new level of indirection for data access, the Common-Data-Model-Access (CDMA) framework proposes a solution and allows separation of responsibilities between data reduction developers and the institute. Data reduction developers are responsible for data reduction code; the institute provides a plug-in to access the data. The CDMA is a core API that accesses data through a data format plug-in mechanism and scientific application definitions (sets of keywords) coming from a consensus between scientists and institutes. Using a innovative 'mapping' system between application definitions and physical data organizations, the CDMA allows data reduction application development independent of the data file container AND schema. Each institute develops a data access plug-in for its own data file formats along with the mapping between application definitions and its data files. Thus data reduction applications can be developed from a strictly scientific point of view and are immediately able to process data acquired from several institutes. (authors)

  14. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  15. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  16. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  17. Common symptoms during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  18. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  19. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  20. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  1. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  2. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and framing research we predict that defection is omnipresent in exchange dilemmas, which is corroborated in to very different experiments. Our results suggest that the fundamental problem of cooperation in...

  3. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  4. Tubular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Owen; Willby, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a heat exchanger of which the tubes, placed in a long casing, cross the casing cover in a sealed manner. These tubes are fixed to the tube plate forming this cover or to the branch tubes it comprises by means of compression joints. These joints make it possible to do away with welds that are sources of defects and to improve the operational safety of the apparatus. An advantageous form of the heat exchanger under the invention includes a manifold for each thermal exchange fluid, and one end of each tube is connected to this manifold by a pipe that is itself connected to the tube by a threaded connection. The latter provides for easy disconnection of the pipe in order to introduce a probe for inspecting the state of the tubes [fr

  5. Back-exchange: a novel approach to quantifying oxygen diffusion and surface exchange in ambient atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Samuel J; Niania, Mathew; Hoffmann, Franca; Kilner, John A

    2017-05-17

    A novel two-step Isotopic Exchange (IE) technique has been developed to investigate the influence of oxygen containing components of ambient air (such as H 2 O and CO 2 ) on the effective surface exchange coefficient (k*) of a common mixed ionic electronic conductor material. The two step 'back-exchange' technique was used to introduce a tracer diffusion profile, which was subsequently measured using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The isotopic fraction of oxygen in a dense sample as a function of distance from the surface, before and after the second exchange step, could then be used to determine the surface exchange coefficient in each atmosphere. A new analytical solution was found to the diffusion equation in a semi-infinite domain with a variable surface exchange boundary, for the special case where D* and k* are constant for all exchange steps. This solution validated the results of a numerical, Crank-Nicolson type finite-difference simulation, which was used to extract the parameters from the experimental data. When modelling electrodes, D* and k* are important input parameters, which significantly impact performance. In this study La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-δ (LSCF6428) was investigated and it was found that the rate of exchange was increased by around 250% in ambient air compared to high purity oxygen at the same pO 2 . The three experiments performed in this study were used to validate the back-exchange approach and show its utility.

  6. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  7. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  8. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  9. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  10. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  11. Isotopic exchange of cyclic ethers with deuterium over metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchet, J.C.; Cornet, D.

    1976-01-01

    The exchange reaction between deuterium and cyclic ethers (oxolane and α-methyl derivatives) has been investigated using rhodium and palladium catalysts. The first hydrogen undergoing exchange has been found to be located on a β-carbon. This fact, and the poisoning of the exchange of cyclopentane in the presence of ether, suggest that the O atom participates in the exchange mechanism of ethers. It appears, however, that the oxygen--metal bonding occurs only during this simple exchange process; simultaneous adsorption of oxygen and a vicinal carbon causes hydrogenolysis of the O--C bond. In each case multiple exchange is important. In the oxolane molecule two sets of exchangeable hydrogens are distinguished according to their reactivities, as could be expected by analogy with cycloalkanes. However, this distinction is not so clear in the exchange patterns of substituted oxolanes, since intermediate maxima are observed in these cases. It is suggested that the conformational properties of the substituted rings cause a constraint in the formation of 3,4-diadsorbed oxolanes. Thus, multiple exchange, based on α,β-process, and epimerization via the ''roll-over'' mechanism occur preferentially in certain parts of the molecules

  12. Proton channels and exchangers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Sonveaux, Pierre; Stock, Christian; Perez-Sayans, Mario; De Milito, Angelo; Avnet, Sofia; Garcìa, Abel Garcìa; Harguindey, Salvador; Fais, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Although cancer is characterized by an intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, a totally deranged pH control is a common feature of most cancer histotypes. Major determinants of aberrant pH gradient in cancer are proton exchangers and transporters, including V-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Thanks to the activity of these proton transporters and exchangers, cancer becomes isolated and/or protected not only from the body reaction against the growing tumor, but also from the vast majority of drugs that when protonated into the acidic tumor microenvironment do not enter into cancer cells. Proton transporters and exchangers represent a key feature tumor cells use to survive in the very hostile microenvironmental conditions that they create and maintain. Detoxifying mechanisms may thus represent both a key survival option and a selection outcome for cells that behave as unicellular microorganisms rather than belonging to an organ, compartment or body. It is, in fact, typical of malignant tumors that, after a clinically measurable yet transient initial response to a therapy, resistant tumor clones emerge and proliferate, thus bursting a more malignant behavior and rapid tumor progression. This review critically presents the background of a novel and efficient approach that aims to fight cancer through blocking or inhibiting well characterized proton exchangers and transporters active in human cancer cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous measurement of air-water gas exchange by underwater eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Pace, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of gases, such as O2, CO2, and CH4, over the air-water interface is an important component in aquatic ecosystem studies, but exchange rates are typically measured or estimated with substantial uncertainties. This diminishes the precision of common ecosystem assessments associated with gas exchanges such as primary production, respiration, and greenhouse gas emission. Here, we used the aquatic eddy covariance technique - originally developed for benthic O2 flux measurements - right below the air-water interface (˜ 4 cm) to determine gas exchange rates and coefficients. Using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a fast-responding dual O2-temperature sensor mounted on a floating platform the 3-D water velocity, O2 concentration, and temperature were measured at high-speed (64 Hz). By combining these data, concurrent vertical fluxes of O2 and heat across the air-water interface were derived, and gas exchange coefficients were calculated from the former. Proof-of-concept deployments at different river sites gave standard gas exchange coefficients (k600) in the range of published values. A 40 h long deployment revealed a distinct diurnal pattern in air-water exchange of O2 that was controlled largely by physical processes (e.g., diurnal variations in air temperature and associated air-water heat fluxes) and not by biological activity (primary production and respiration). This physical control of gas exchange can be prevalent in lotic systems and adds uncertainty to assessments of biological activity that are based on measured water column O2 concentration changes. For example, in the 40 h deployment, there was near-constant river flow and insignificant winds - two main drivers of lotic gas exchange - but we found gas exchange coefficients that varied by several fold. This was presumably caused by the formation and erosion of vertical temperature-density gradients in the surface water driven by the heat flux into or out of the river that affected the turbulent

  14. Continuous measurement of air–water gas exchange by underwater eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Berg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of gases, such as O2, CO2, and CH4, over the air–water interface is an important component in aquatic ecosystem studies, but exchange rates are typically measured or estimated with substantial uncertainties. This diminishes the precision of common ecosystem assessments associated with gas exchanges such as primary production, respiration, and greenhouse gas emission. Here, we used the aquatic eddy covariance technique – originally developed for benthic O2 flux measurements – right below the air–water interface (∼ 4 cm to determine gas exchange rates and coefficients. Using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a fast-responding dual O2–temperature sensor mounted on a floating platform the 3-D water velocity, O2 concentration, and temperature were measured at high-speed (64 Hz. By combining these data, concurrent vertical fluxes of O2 and heat across the air–water interface were derived, and gas exchange coefficients were calculated from the former. Proof-of-concept deployments at different river sites gave standard gas exchange coefficients (k600 in the range of published values. A 40 h long deployment revealed a distinct diurnal pattern in air–water exchange of O2 that was controlled largely by physical processes (e.g., diurnal variations in air temperature and associated air–water heat fluxes and not by biological activity (primary production and respiration. This physical control of gas exchange can be prevalent in lotic systems and adds uncertainty to assessments of biological activity that are based on measured water column O2 concentration changes. For example, in the 40 h deployment, there was near-constant river flow and insignificant winds – two main drivers of lotic gas exchange – but we found gas exchange coefficients that varied by several fold. This was presumably caused by the formation and erosion of vertical temperature–density gradients in the surface water driven by the heat flux into or

  15. Left ventricular assist device exchange: the Toronto General Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Hideki; Ribeiro, Roberto V P; Billia, Filio; Cusimano, Robert J; Yau, Terrence M; Badiwala, Mitesh V; Stansfield, William E; Rao, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    As support times for left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) become longer, several complications requiring device exchange may occur. To our knowledge, this is the first Canadian report regarding implantable LVAD exchange. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive, unique patients implanted with an LVAD between June 2006 and October 2015 at Toronto General Hospital. In total, 122 patients were impanted with an LVAD during the study period. Eight patients required LVAD exchange, and 1 patient had 2 replacements (9 of 122, 7.3%). There were 7 HeartMate II (HMII), 1 HVAD and 1 DuraHeart pumps exchanged. Two of these exchanges occurred early at the time of initial implant, whereas 7 occurred late (range 8-623 d). Six exchanges were made owing to pump thrombosis. Of the 3 exchanges made for other causes, 1 HMII exchange was owing to a driveline fracture, 1 DuraHeart patient had early inflow obstruction requiring exchange to HMII at the initial implant, and the third had a suspected inflow obstruction with no evidence of thrombosis at the time of the procedure. The mean support time before exchange was 225 days, and time from exchange to transplant, death or ongoing support was 245 days. Three patients were successfully bridged to transplant, and at the time of data collection 2 were supported awaiting transplant. Three patients died after a mean duration of 394.3 days (range 78-673 d) of support postreplacement. Four cases were successfully performed using a subcostal approach. Pump thrombosis is the most common cause for LVAD exchange, which can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality. The subcostal approach may be the preferred procedure for an HMII exchange when indicated.

  16. Ringshaped grid for supporting of pipes of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This heat exchanger furnishes a ring-shaped grid in which pipes can be ordered in a circular formation, as opposed to the conventional triangular ordering. In this structure the pipes are arranged in concentric circles. This means that each new row of pipes has an equal number of more pipes than the row directly inside, meaning that all the pipes in each row are equidistant from the center and form an equal surface for better heat exchange

  17. EXCHANGE CONTROL AS A FORM STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shevchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates ways to improve the effectiveness of exchange control as an indispensable element of creating systems of financial control. S definition proposed exchange control, interpretation of its functional purpose, the isolation of areas and currency control. Proved that only the presence of effective interconnected and interdependent budget, tax, customs and currency control ensure formation of an effective integrated system of financial control.

  18. No effect of steroids on seroma formation after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Mette; Axelsson, Christen Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Seroma formation is a common problem after breast surgery. Studies indicate that seroma formation is a result of the postoperative inflammatory process. Glucocorticoid inhibits the inflammatory response....

  19. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  20. Improvements in or relating to heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    According to the present invention there is provided a method of producing superheated steam by use of the heat in liquid sodium, in which liquid sodium is caused to flow through a space having boundaries of which no part is common with the boundaries of a space in which vapour is produced, a fluid that is inert to sodium is heated by heat exchange at the boundaries of the space through which the liquid sodium flows and serves as the heating medium for the production of vapour, and the vapour is subsequently heated to the final degree of superheat by heat exchange with liquid sodium in a space that has a common boundary with a space through which liquid sodium is passed. (U.K.)

  1. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  2. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  3. Innovative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Scholl, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This accessible book presents unconventional technologies in heat exchanger design that have the capacity to provide solutions to major concerns within the process and power-generating industries. Demonstrating the advantages and limits of these innovative heat exchangers, it also discusses micro- and nanostructure surfaces and micro-scale equipment, and introduces pillow-plate, helical and expanded metal baffle concepts. It offers step-by-step worked examples, which provide instructions for developing an initial configuration and are supported by clear, detailed drawings and pictures. Various types of heat exchangers are available, and they are widely used in all fields of industry for cooling or heating purposes, including in combustion engines. The market in 2012 was estimated to be U$ 42.7 billion and the global demand for heat exchangers is experiencing an annual growth of about 7.8 %. The market value is expected to reach U$ 57.9 billion in 2016, and approach U$ 78.16 billion in 2020. Providing a valua...

  4. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  5. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  6. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  7. Method for exchanging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the

  8. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  9. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  10. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  11. Fuel exchanger control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabayashi, Masaharu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the stability and the operationability of the fuel exchanging work by checking the validity of the data before the initiation of the work. Constitution: A floppy disc stores the initial charging state data showing the arrangement of fuel assemblies in the reactor core pool, data showing the working procedures for the fuel exchange and a final charged state data upon completion of the work. The initial data and the procedure data are read from the disk and stored once into a memory. Then, the initial data are sequentially performed on the memory in accordance with the procedure data and, thereafter, they were compared with the final data read from the disk. After confirming that there are no errors in the working data, the procedure data are orderly instructed to the fuel exchanger for performing fuel replacement. Accordingly, since the data are checked before the initiation of the work, the fuel exchange can be performed automatically thereby improving the operationability thereof. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Upright heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.

    1988-01-01

    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  13. Common Group Problems: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  14. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, H. Arthur; Smith, Jennifer N.

    2010-01-01

    For terrestrial animals and plants, a fundamental cost of living is water vapor lost to the atmosphere during exchange of metabolic gases. Here, by bringing together previously developed models for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model of water loss. The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface t...

  15. Standardized structure of electronic records for information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabova, Sevdalina; Trencheva, Tereza; Trenchev, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper is presented the structure of the electronic record whose form is standardized in ISO 2709:2008. This International Standard describes a generalized structure, a framework designed specially for communications between data processing systems and not for use as a processing format within systems.Basic terms are defined as follows: character, data field, directory, directory map, field, field separator etc. It’s presented the general structure of a record. The application analysis of this structure shows the effective information exchange in the widest range.The purpose of this research is to find out advantages and structure of the information exchange format standardized in ISO 2709:2008. Key words: Standardized structure, electronic records, exchange formats, data field, directory, directory map, indicators, identifiers

  16. Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook-style format and provides practical, immediately usable task-based recipes that show you how to manage and maintain your Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 environment with Windows PowerShell 3. Each chapter of the book is written so that it can be used as a desktop reference, or it can be read from beginning to end, allowing you to build a solid foundation for building scripts in your Exchange environment.This Cookbook is for messaging professionals who want to learn how to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 3 and the Exchange Management Shell. If

  17. Optimal model of radiocarbon residence time in exchange reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergachev, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Radiocarbon content variations in the earth atmosphere were studied using a mathematical model. The so-called exchange reservoir was considered consisting of layers, and the radiocarbon exchange rate at the interfaces between these layers was supposed to be constant. The process of 14 C mixing and exchange in a dynamic system is described by a system of nonhomogeneous 1st order differential equations. The model also accounts for the change in rate of radiocarbon formation in the earth atmosphere due to cosmic and geophysical effects (solar activity, solar cycle, etc.). (J.P.)

  18. Updating and using the international non-neutron experimental nuclear data base in ''Generalized EXFOR'' format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, G.M.; Chukreev, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    A software system for the automatic preparation of non-formalized textual information for the international exchange of nuclear data in the ''Generalized Exchange Format (EXFOR)'' is described. The ''Generalized EXFOR'' format is briefly outlined and data are given on the size of the international non-neutron experimental data base in this format. (author)

  19. ERES--a PC software for nuclear data compilation in EXFOR format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shubing; Liang Qichang; Liu Tingjin

    1993-01-01

    The major functions and implementation of the software ERES (EXFOR Edit System) are introduced. The ERES is developed for nuclear data compilation in EXFOR (EXchange FORmat) format, running on IBM-PC/XT or IBM-PC/AT. EXFOR is the format for the exchange of experimental neutron data accepted by four neutron data centers in the world

  20. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  1. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  2. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  3. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  4. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  5. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A

    2015-05-07

    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 °C are -74.50 ± 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 ± 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water.

  6. New Trends in Magnetic Exchange Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Alexandra; Mangin, Stéphane; Bobo, Jean-Francois; Loidl, Alois

    2005-05-01

    -of-plane exchange bias, depending on the field cooling direction. This is of particular interest since it allows probing of the three-dimensional spin structure of the AF layer. The interface magnetic configuration is extremely important in the perpendicular geometry, as the short-range exchange coupling competes with a long-range dipolar interaction; the induced uniaxial anisotropy must overcome the demagnetization energy to establish perpendicular anisotropy films. Those new studies are of primary importance for the magnetic media industry as perpendicular recording exhibits potential for strongly increased storage densities. 3. Parameters tuning exchange bias in polycrystalline samples and magnetic configurations: Different parameters can be used to tune the exchange bias coupling in polycrystalline samples similar to those used in devices. Particularly fascinating aspects are the questions of the appearance of exchange bias or coercivity in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet heterostructures, and its relation to magnetic configurations formed on either side of the interface. Several papers report on either growth choices or post preparation treatments that enable tuning of the exchange bias in bilayers. The additional complexity and novel features of the exchange coupled interface make the problem particularly rich. 4. Dynamics and magnetization reversal: Linear response experiments, such as ferromagnetic resonance, have been used with great success to identify interface, surface anisotropies and interlayer exchange in multilayer systems. The exchange bias structure is particularly well suited to study because interface driven changes in the spin wave frequencies in the ferromagnet can be readily related to interlayer exchange and anisotropy parameters associated with the antiferromagnet. Because the exchange bias is intimately connected with details of the magnetization process during reversal and the subsequent formation of hysteresis, considerations of time dependence and

  7. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico

    2015-10-27

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  8. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico; Striccoli, Marinella; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Brescia, Rosaria; Falqui, Andrea; Comparelli, Roberto; Corricelli, Michela; Tommasi, Raffaele; Agostiano, Angela; Curri, M Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  9. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  10. On the ENDF Formats and Data Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The ENDF formats have served the community of nuclear data users from different fields of applications quite well for decades. Enormous effort has been devoted to the development and validation of the processing codes. Although there is no urgent need for a rapid transition to something completely new, there are signs that the current ENDF format is being pushed close to its limits. The time is right to look for a modern replacement, with due consideration for the following: - Development of data processing capabilities, starting from the data in the new format. - Backward compatibility through robust translation codes between the new and the old format until the majority of processing tools have been adequately validated. - Standardisation of the format features on the international level to maintain the possibility of easy data comparison and exchange. The NJOY Data Processing System is the most versatile and widely used code system for generating application libraries. The AMPX system is mainly used for generating libraries for codes from Oak Ridge. The Pre-Pro codes are found to be very robust, but their main purpose is data verification, validation and display. These codes do a good job for the present scope of applications, but current trend rely heavily on Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Further developments in the data processing tools should reflect these trends, focusing on the following: - Further verification and validation of covariance processing methods. - Development of a common tool for generating a global covariance matrix of nuclear data, including all available cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. - Consider if we can move away from histogram covariance representation into a piecewise linear domain. - Having a 'global' covariance matrix (that can include the covariance matrix of the resonance parameters), pursue the development of a common tool for statistical sampling of the cross sections and other

  11. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references

  12. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references.

  13. Common sense and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Since the dawn of the nuclear age nearly four decades ago, the United States has been firmly commited to the objective of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. That principle is embodied in the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), support for which has been a basic tenet of US foreign policy and a basic security interest of the world at large ever since. The Reagan administration remains firmly committed to the goal of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Such proliferation could trigger new and grave dangers for America's security and well-being and indeed for that of all the world's peoples. Desperate leaders in future high-stakes conflicts might not shrink from nuclear blackmail or even from the use of nuclear weapons if they were available. A conventional clash between nuclear-armed states in a conflict-prone region might escalate by accident or miscalculation to a local nuclear exchange. It cannot be discounted that such a nuclear clash might threaten to involve the superpowers themselves. With proliferation, also, terrorist groups could more easily acquire nuclear weapons to extort concessions. Preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, then, is not solely of interest to the superpowers: it is vital to all countries and regions. The security of the countries in those regions to which nuclear weapons might spread would be most immediately and seriously affected. By their adherence to the NPT, more than 100 countries have recognized this fact

  14. Exchange of parametric bridge models using a neutral data format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Y.; Borrmann, André; Beetz, J.; Obergrießer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Parametric modeling is a well-established methodology in the field of mechanical engineering. It allows the creation of flexible geometric models using parameters for dimensions and makes it possible to define numeric relationships between these parameters by means of mathematical formulas and

  15. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  16. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  17. Health information exchange: national and international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE), the process of electronically moving patient-level information between different organizations, is viewed as a solution to the fragmentation of data in health care. This review provides a description of the current state of HIE in seven nations, as well was three international HIE efforts, with a particular focus on the relation of exchange efforts to national health care systems, common challenges, and the implications of cross-border information sharing. National and international efforts highlighted in English language informatics journals, professional associations, and government reports are described. Fully functioning HIE is not yet a common phenomenon worldwide. However, multiple nations see the potential benefits of HIE and that has led to national and international efforts of varying scope, scale, and purview. National efforts continue to work to overcome the challenges of interoperability, record linking, insufficient infrastructures, governance, and interorganizational relationships, but have created architectural strategies, oversight agencies, and incentives to foster exchange. The three international HIE efforts reviewed represent very different approaches to the same problem of ensuring the availability of health information across borders. The potential of HIE to address many cost and quality issues will ensure HIE remains on many national agendas. In many instances, health care executives and leaders have opportunities to work within national programs to help shape local exchange governance and decide technology partners. Furthermore, HIE raises policy questions concerning the role of centralized planning, national identifiers, standards, and types of information exchanged, each of which are vital issues to individual health organizations and worthy of their attention.

  18. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  19. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  20. Isotope exchange in oxide-containing catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Hess, Robert V. (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Sidney, Barry D. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Hoyt, Ronald F. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of exchanging rare-isotope oxygen for common-isotope oxygen in the top several layers of an oxide-containing catalyst is disclosed. A sample of an oxide-containing catalyst is exposed to a flowing stream of reducing gas in an inert carrier gas at a temperature suitable for the removal of the reactive common-isotope oxygen atoms from the surface layer or layers of the catalyst without damaging the catalyst structure. The reduction temperature must be higher than any at which the catalyst will subsequently operate. Sufficient reducing gas is used to allow removal of all the reactive common-isotope oxygen atoms in the top several layers of the catalyst. The catalyst is then reoxidized with the desired rare-isotope oxygen in sufficient quantity to replace all of the common-isotope oxygen that was removed.

  1. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  2. Automatic fuel exchanging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to designate the identification number of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel thereby surely exchanging the designated assembly within a short time. Constitution: Identification number (or letter) pressed on a grip of a fuel assembly is to be detected by a two-dimensional ultrasonic probe of a pull-up mechanism. When the detected number corresponds with the designated number, a control signal is outputted, whereby the pull-up drive control mechanism or pull-up mechanism responds to pull-up and exchange the fuel assembly of the identified number. With such a constitution, the fuel assembly can rapidly and surely be recognized even if pressed letters deviate to the left or right of the probe, and further, the hinge portion and the signal processing portion can be simplified. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  4. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  5. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  6. Avoiding Sanctions at the E-Discovery Meet-And- Confer in Common Law Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rules of civil procedure in common law countries have been amended to better deal with the requirements of electronic discovery. One of the key changes in case management is the scheduling of a meet-and-confer session where the parties to litigation must meet early in the case before any discovery procedures have begun to exchange information regarding the nature, location, formats, and pertinent facts regarding custody and control of a party’s electronically stored information (ESI. Failure to abide by the rules and participate in good faith at the meet-and-confer session can have dire consequences for the parties and lawyers involved. The authors discuss the importance of creating and maintaining an ESI data map as a means to demonstrate good faith and effectively comply with the requirements of the meet-and-confer.

  7. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  8. A study on frost formation

    OpenAIRE

    青木, 和夫

    1986-01-01

    When humid air is exposed to a cold surface whose temperature is below 0 \\C\\, frost deposition occurs and continues to accumulate on the surface. Frost deposition is an important phenomenon in cryogenic industries for use in air conditioners, refrigerators and freeze-out purification, because it causes the drop of thermal efficiency on heat exchangers.This paper presented a review of our previous studies on frost formation with emphasis on the frost growth process, the frost structure, the gr...

  9. Reversible Guest Exchange Mechanisms in Supramolecular Host-GuestAssemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2006-09-01

    Synthetic chemists have provided a wide array of supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules. The scope of this tutorial review focuses on supramolecular host molecules capable of reversibly encapsulating polyatomic guests. Much work has been done to determine the mechanism of guest encapsulation and guest release. This review covers common methods of monitoring and characterizing guest exchange such as NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and calorimetry and also presents representative examples of guest exchange mechanisms. The guest exchange mechanisms of hemicarcerands, cucurbiturils, hydrogen-bonded assemblies, and metal-ligand assemblies are discussed. Special attention is given to systems which exhibit constrictive binding, a motif common in supramolecular guest exchange systems.

  10. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  11. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  12. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  13. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  14. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  15. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  16. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  17. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  18. Spatio-Temporal Data Exchange Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    We believe that research that concerns aspects of spatio-temporal data management may benefit from taking into account the various standards for spatio-temporal data formats. For example, this may contribute to rendering prototype software “open” and more readily useful. This paper thus identifies...... and briefly surveys standardization in relation to primarily the exchange and integration of spatio-temporal data. An overview of several data exchange languages is offered, along with reviews their potential for facilitating the collection of test data and the leveraging of prototypes. The standards, most...... of which are XML-based, lend themselves to the integration of prototypes into middleware architectures, e.g., as Web services....

  19. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  20. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than ......-demand, is very efficient in practice, incurring only slightly higher I/O cost than the theoretical lower bound cost for the problem....

  1. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  2. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...... policy in the European Union is constructed and the categories and themes that are discussed. I will look also at the discourse strategies to show the linguistic representations of the social actors, who are excluded from or include in such representations. I will analysis a European Commission’s policy...

  3. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  4. Rejuvenation processes applied to 'poisoned' anion exchangers in uranium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, A.J.

    1979-11-01

    The removal of 'poisons' from anion exchangers in uranium processing of Canadian radioactive ores is commonly called rejuvenation or regeneration. The cost of the ion exchange recovery of uranium is adversely affected by a decrease in the capacity and efficiency of the anion exchangers, due to their being 'poisoned' by silica, elemental sulphur, molybdenum and tetrathionates. These 'poisons' have a high affinity for the anion exchangers, are adsorbed in preference to the uranyl complex, and do not desorb with the reagents used normally in the uranyl desorption phase. The frequency of rejuvenation and the reagents required for rejuvenation are determined by the severity of the 'poisoning' accumulated by the exchanger in contact with the uranium leach liquor. Caustic soda (NaOH) at approximately equal to 18 cents/lb is commonly used to remove uranium anion exchangers of tetrathionate ((S 4 0 6 )/-/-) 'poisons'. A potential saving in operating cost would be of consequence if other reagents, e.g. sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) at approximately equal to 3.6 cents/lb or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) at approximately equal to 1.9 cents/lb, were effective in removing (S 4 0 6 )/-/-) from a 'poisoned' exchanger. A rejuvenation process for a test program was adopted after a perusal of the literature

  5. Two-phase exchangers with small temperature differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moracchioli, R.; Marie, G.; Lallee, J. de.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility in using heat available at low temperature level is shown (industrial wastes, solar energy, geothermal energy, heat power from seas). Special emphasis is put on the importance of heat exchangers that commonly should be evaporators and condensors working with small temperature differences (20 to 100 deg C). The expansion of the so-called ''new'' energies or recovery processes will depend on the physical performance of exchangers (Rankine two-phase cycles) and cost of the elementary exchange interfaces and assembling technics [fr

  6. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  7. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  8. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  9. Breakdown of the Arrhenius Law in Describing Vacancy Formation Energies: The Importance of Local Anharmonicity Revealed by Ab initio Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Glensk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of vacancy formation in Al and Cu from T=0  K up to the melting temperature, fully taking into account anharmonic contributions. Our results show that the formation entropy of vacancies is not constant as often assumed but increases almost linearly with temperature. The resulting highly nonlinear temperature dependence in the Gibbs formation energy naturally explains the differences between positron annihilation spectroscopy and differential dilatometry data and shows that nonlinear thermal corrections are crucial to extrapolate high-temperature experimental data to T=0  K. Employing these corrections—rather than the linear Arrhenius extrapolation that is commonly assumed in analyzing experimental data—revised formation enthalpies are obtained that differ up to 20% from the previously accepted ones. Using the revised experimental formation enthalpies, we show that a large part of the discrepancies between DFT-GGA and unrevised experimental vacancy formation energies disappears. The substantial shift between previously accepted and the newly revised T=0  K formation enthalpies also has severe consequences in benchmarking ab initio methods against experiments, e.g., in deriving corrections that go beyond commonly used LDA and GGA exchange-correlation functionals such as the AM05 functional.

  10. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  11. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  12. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  13. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  14. The Life Science Exchange: a case study of a sectoral and sub-sectoral knowledge exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Brian Lee; Garlick, Rob; Wren, Jodie; Smart, Jon; Kennedy, Julie; Stephens, Phil; Tudor, Gwyn; Bisson, Jonathan; Ford, David V

    2016-04-27

    Local and national governments have implemented sector-specific policies to support economic development through innovation, entrepreneurship and knowledge exchange. Supported by the Welsh Government through the European Regional Development Fund, The Life Science Exchange® project was created with the aim to increase interaction between stakeholders, to develop more effective knowledge exchange mechanisms, and to stimulate the formation and maintenance of long-term collaborative relationships within the Welsh life sciences ecosystem. The Life Science Exchange allowed participants to interact with other stakeholder communities (clinical, academic, business, governmental), exchange perspectives and discover new opportunities. Six sub-sector focus groups comprising over 200 senior stakeholders from academia, industry, the Welsh Government and National Health Service were established. Over 18 months, each focus group provided input to inform healthcare innovation policy and knowledge mapping exercises of their respective sub-sectors. Collaborative projects identified during the focus groups and stakeholder engagement were further developed through sandpit events and bespoke support. Each sub-sector focus group produced a report outlining the significant strengths and opportunities in their respective areas of focus, made recommendations to overcome any 'system failures', and identified the stakeholder groups which needed to take action. A second outcome was a stakeholder-driven knowledge mapping exercise for each area of focus. Finally, the sandpit events and bespoke support resulted in participants generating more than £1.66 million in grant funding and inward investment. This article outlines four separate outcomes from the Life Science Exchange programme. The Life Science Exchange process has resulted in a multitude of collaborations, projects, inward investment opportunities and special interest group formations, in addition to securing over ten times its own

  15. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  16. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  17. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology; Die Stromboerse. Ueber Form und latente Funktionen des boerslichen Stromhandels aus marktsoziologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  18. Disscusion on the common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Negri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this interview taken shortly after the launch of the Italian translation of the Commonwealth, Antonio Negri, besides discussing details of his collaboration with Michael Hardt, addresses the most important topics of the book, which could remain unclear for the readers. He gives a wide range of answers for the questions on, for example, importance of revision and revitalization of seventeenth century’s categories, what does it mean to be a communist today, elaboration of the thesis of real subsumption. He also stresses the significance of the struggle over the common and processes of its institutionalization for contemporary revolutionary politics and faces criticism of the conception of immaterial and biopolitical labour.

  19. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  20. 47 CFR 11.42 - Participation by communications common carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may, without charge, connect: (1) An originating source from the nearest service area to a selected... Emergency Action Termination, the common carriers shall disconnect the originating source and the... charge, connect an originating source from the nearest exchange to a selected Test Center and then to any...

  1. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  2. Summary of JRC activities related to European-wide exchange of radiological information during nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Court, M.; Vries de, G.; Galmarini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The large transboundary effects of the radioactive release during the Chernobyl accident evidenced the need for international provisions for data and Information exchange. The JRC, in its EC support activity to DG TREN H.4, called REM (Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring), has more than 10 years experience in developing systems to make early notification and reliable radiological information exchange available to the EU member states in case of nuclear accidents. The aim and status of these systems are described: 1.)ECURIE: The legal basis for the EC systems is the Council Decision 87/600 of 14 December 1987. It resulted in the ECURIE network which allows the EU Member States and Switzerland to notify an accident and to subsequently exchange the radiological information as required by this Council decision. The underlying information exchange code (C.1. structure) does not only provide radiological measurements, but also predicted values, site meteorological data and decisions taken. Software was developed to facilitate coding and decoding of the messages. Initially the messages were transmitted by telex. The latest software (CoDecS, in use since the beginning of 2001) uses ISDN and Internet for the Information exchange. lt runs an the Windows NT and 2000 platforms. Regular exercises test the communication system and the software. In view of improving the efficiency of data and Information transfer for their common Member States, the IAEA and the EC are harmonizing ECURIE and the ENATOM early notification system. A first result has been the definition of an enhanced CIS format. Modifications will be made to the CoDecs software and to the IAEA - ENAC website so that information can be exchanged between the two systems in an automated manner. The EC wishes to extend the ECURIE network to the EU candidate countries. The official agreements are in an advanced state and participation of many candidate countries is foreseen by the end of 2003. It is

  3. Tunneled dialysis catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption is not associated with increased rate of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.

  4. Reconstitution of DNA strand exchange mediated by Rhp51 recombinase and two mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kurokawa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, genetic evidence suggests that two mediators, Rad22 (the S. pombe Rad52 homolog and the Swi5-Sfr1 complex, participate in a common pathway of Rhp51 (the S. pombe Rad51 homolog-mediated homologous recombination (HR and HR repair. Here, we have demonstrated an in vitro reconstitution of the central step of DNA strand exchange during HR. Our system consists entirely of homogeneously purified proteins, including Rhp51, the two mediators, and replication protein A (RPA, which reflects genetic requirements in vivo. Using this system, we present the first robust biochemical evidence that concerted action of the two mediators directs the loading of Rhp51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA precoated with RPA. Dissection of the reaction reveals that Rad22 overcomes the inhibitory effect of RPA on Rhp51-Swi5-Sfr1-mediated strand exchange. In addition, Rad22 negates the requirement for a strict order of protein addition to the in vitro system. However, despite the presence of Rad22, Swi5-Sfr1 is still essential for strand exchange. Importantly, Rhp51, but neither Rad22 nor the Swi5-Sfr1 mediator, is the factor that displaces RPA from ssDNA. Swi5-Sfr1 stabilizes Rhp51-ssDNA filaments in an ATP-dependent manner, and this stabilization is correlated with activation of Rhp51 for the strand exchange reaction. Rad22 alone cannot activate the Rhp51 presynaptic filament. AMP-PNP, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, induces a similar stabilization of Rhp51, but this stabilization is independent of Swi5-Sfr1. However, hydrolysis of ATP is required for processive strand transfer, which results in the formation of a long heteroduplex. Our in vitro reconstitution system has revealed that the two mediators have indispensable, but distinct, roles for mediating Rhp51 loading onto RPA-precoated ssDNA.

  5. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

    2009-03-26

    C materials are much lower due to phonon scattering by impurities (e.g., sintering aids located at the grain boundaries of these materials). The thermal conductivity of our SiC was determined using the laser flash method and it is 214 W/mK at 373 K and 64 W/mK at 1273 K. These values are very close to those of pure SiC and are much higher than those of SiC materials made by industrial processes. This SiC made by our LSI process meets the thermal properties required for use in high temperature heat exchanger. Cellulose and phenolic resin carbons lack the well-defined atomic structures associated with common carbon allotropes. Atomic-scale structure was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen gas adsorption and helium gas pycnometry. These studies revealed that cellulose carbon exhibits a very high degree of atomic disorder and angstrom-scale porosity. It has a density of only 93% of that of pure graphite, with primarily sp2 bonding character and a low concentration of graphene clusters. Phenolic resin carbon shows more structural order and substantially less angstrom-scale porosity. Its density is 98% of that of pure graphite, and Fourier transform analysis of its TEM micrographs has revealed high concentrations of sp3 diamond and sp2 graphene nano-clusters. This is the first time that diamond nano-clusters have been observed in carbons produced from phenolic resin. AC and DC electrical measurements were made to follow the thermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to carbon. This study identifies five regions of electrical conductivity that can be directly correlated to the chemical decomposition and microstructural evolution during carbonization. In Region I, a decrease in overall AC conductivity occurs due to the initial loss of the polar groups from cellulose molecules. In Region II, the AC conductivity starts to increase with heat treatment temperature due to the formation and growth of conducting carbon clusters. In Region

  6. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, Dennis; Zhang, Dajie

    2009-01-01

    C materials are much lower due to phonon scattering by impurities (e.g., sintering aids located at the grain boundaries of these materials). The thermal conductivity of our SiC was determined using the laser flash method and it is 214 W/mK at 373 K and 64 W/mK at 1273 K. These values are very close to those of pure SiC and are much higher than those of SiC materials made by industrial processes. This SiC made by our LSI process meets the thermal properties required for use in high temperature heat exchanger. Cellulose and phenolic resin carbons lack the well-defined atomic structures associated with common carbon allotropes. Atomic-scale structure was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen gas adsorption and helium gas pycnometry. These studies revealed that cellulose carbon exhibits a very high degree of atomic disorder and angstrom-scale porosity. It has a density of only 93% of that of pure graphite, with primarily sp2 bonding character and a low concentration of graphene clusters. Phenolic resin carbon shows more structural order and substantially less angstrom-scale porosity. Its density is 98% of that of pure graphite, and Fourier transform analysis of its TEM micrographs has revealed high concentrations of sp3 diamond and sp2 graphene nano-clusters. This is the first time that diamond nano-clusters have been observed in carbons produced from phenolic resin. AC and DC electrical measurements were made to follow the thermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to carbon. This study identifies five regions of electrical conductivity that can be directly correlated to the chemical decomposition and microstructural evolution during carbonization. In Region I, a decrease in overall AC conductivity occurs due to the initial loss of the polar groups from cellulose molecules. In Region II, the AC conductivity starts to increase with heat treatment temperature due to the formation and growth of conducting carbon clusters. In Region

  7. Exchange functional by a range-separated exchange hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    An approximation to the exchange-hole density is proposed for the evaluation of the exact exchange energy in electronic structure calculations within the density-functional theory and the Kohn-Sham scheme. Based on the localized nature of density matrix, the exchange hole is divided into the short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts by using an adequate filter function, where the LR part is deduced by matching of moments with the exactly calculated SR counterpart, ensuring the correct asymptotic -1/r behavior of the exchange potential. With this division, the time-consuming integration is truncated at a certain interaction range, largely reducing the computation cost. The total energies, exchange energies, exchange potentials, and eigenvalues of the highest-occupied orbitals are calculated for the noble-gas atoms. The close agreement of the results with the exact values suggests the validity of the approximation.

  8. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  9. Isotopic exchange in mixed valence compounds in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Valverde, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work aims at the determination of isotopic exchange kinetics and mechanism in two mixed valence compounds: Cs 10 (Sbsup(V)Cl 6 ) (Sbsup(III)Cl 6 ) 3 and Tl 3 sup(I)(Tlsup(III)Cl 6 ). The synthesis of the first compound is very difficult because in most of the cases mixtures of chloroantimoniates are obtained. Exchange in Tl 4 Cl 6 labelled on Tlsup(III) is studied in detail by radiochemical analysis and physical techniques: ionic conductivity and positon annihilation. Cation vacancies are easily created in the lattice with formation enthalpy of 0.35 eV and migration enthalpy of 0.52 eV. Isochronic and isothermal exchange curves are described by a kinetic based on species diffusion. Models are given. Exchange is increased by grinding probably because extrinseque defects are introduced [fr

  10. eBgateway : a solution to reduce document exchange expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demers, D. [ElectroBusiness, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides a description of electroBusiness, a document exchange company based in Calgary. Details of the company's exchange methods in servicing multiple companies were presented. A mapping of internal systems and the different formats available for information sharing were outlined. An outdated supply exchange agreement with 10 partners was presented as the basis for a critique of earlier communications technologies and their ineffectiveness and costliness. An industry business solution, including proof-of-concept architecture and security. Advantages of the electroBusiness model included significant cost reductions and effective and up to date secure private community trading data. A list of e-Business utility exchanges was presented, including producers, technology companies as well as suppliers, contractors and distributors. Contact information was given at the end of the presentation. tabs, figs.

  11. Exchange of deuterium with hydrogen of zeolite catalyst surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minachev, Kh.M.; Dmitriev, R.V.; Penchev, V.; Kanazirev, V.; Minchev, Kh.; Kasimov, Ch.K.; Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Obshta i Organichna Khimiya; AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Neftekhimicheskikh Protsessov)

    1981-01-01

    Isotope heteromolecular exchange of hydrogen on the reduced nickel-containing zeolites takes places at the temperatures above 100 deg and it is controlled by activated hydrogen transfer from metal particles on the substrate surface. High-temperature redox treatment of nickel-containing zeolites results in the formation of large nickel crystallites on zeolite external faces. The rest part of nickel remains in zeolite pores and conditions a high promoting effect in the exchange reaction. Catalytic activity of reduced zeolites NiCaNaY in toluene disproportionation increases considerably only in the cases when nickel is introduced into zeolite by means of ion exchange. Close spatial location of nickel particles and OH groups promotes the procedure of both isotope exchange and disproportionation of toluene [ru

  12. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  13. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  14. Fuel exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko; Sato, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a centripetal device, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of a telescope mast, on a mast fixing device mounted on a body of fuel exchanging apparatus so that the telescope mast may be secured quickly returning to a predetermined initial position. Structure: When the body of fuel exchanging apparatus is stopped at a predetermined position, a tension spring, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of the telescope mast, causes a lug to be forced by means of a push rod to position a sliding base plate to its original position. At the same time, a device of similar structure causes an operating arm to be positioned to the original position, and a lock pin urged by a cylinder is inserted into a through hole in the sliding base plate and operating arm so that the telescope mast may be fixed and retained. (Hanada, M.)

  15. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  16. WaterML, an Information Standard for the Exchange of in-situ hydrological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, D.; Taylor, P.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2012-04-01

    The WaterML 2.0 Standards Working Group (SWG), working within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in cooperation with the joint OGC-World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), has developed an open standard for the exchange of water observation data; WaterML 2.0. The focus of the standard is time-series data, commonly generated from in-situ style monitoring. This is high value data for hydrological applications such as flood forecasting, environmental reporting and supporting hydrological infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems), which is commonly exchanged, but a lack of standards inhibits efficient reuse and automation. The process of developing WaterML required doing a harmonization analysis of existing standards to identify overlapping concepts and come to agreement on a harmonized definition. Generally the formats captured similar requirements, all with subtle differences, such as how time-series point metadata was handled. The in-progress standard WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, and is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. WaterML2.0 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: exchange of data for operational hydrological monitoring programs; supporting operation of infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems); cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting The first phase of WaterML2.0 focused on structural definitions allowing for the transfer of time-series, with less work on harmonization of vocabulary items such as quality codes. Vocabularies from various organizations tend to be specific and take time to

  17. APME launches common method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A common approach for carrying out ecological balances for commodity thermoplastics is due to be launched by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME; Brussels) and its affiliate, The European Centre for Plastics in the Environment (PWMI) this week. The methodology report is the latest stage of a program started in 1990 that aims to describe all operations up to the production of polymer powder or granules at the plant gate. Information gathered will be made freely available to companies considering the use of polymers. An industry task force, headed by PWMI executive director Vince Matthews, has gathered information on the plastics production processes from oil to granule, and an independent panel of specialists, chaired by Ian Boustead of the U.K.'s Open University, devised the methodology and analysis. The methodology report stresses the need to define the system being analyzed and discusses how complex chemical processes can be analyzed in terms of consumption of fuels, energy, and raw materials, as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions

  18. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  19. Studies on indigenous ion exchange resins: alkali metal ions-hydrogen ion exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, S.; Kumar, Surender; Venkataramani, B.

    2001-01-01

    With a view to select a suitable ion exchange resin for the removal of radionuclides (such as cesium, strontium etc.) from low level radioactive effluents, alkali metal ion -H' exchanges on nine indigenous gel- and macroporous-type and nuclear grade resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm .3 (in the case ofCs' -H' exchange it was 0.05 mol dm .3 ). The expected theoretical capacities were not attained by all the resins for the alkali metal ions. The water content (moles/equiv.) of the fully swollen resins for different alkali metal ionic forms do not follow the usual sequence of greater the tendency of the cation to hydrate the higher the water uptake, but a reverse trend. The ion exchange isotherms (plots of equivalent fractions of the ion in resin phase, N M1 to that in solution, N M ) were not satisfactory and sorption of cations, for most of the resins, was possible only when the acidity of the solution was lowered. The variations of the selectivity coefficient, K, with N M show that the resins are highly cross linked and the selectivity sequence: Cs + >K + >Na + >Li + , obtained for all the resins indicate that hydrated ions were involved in the exchange process. However, the increase in the selectivity was not accompanied by the release of water, but unusual uptake of water, during the exchange process. The characteristics of macroporous resins were not significantly different from those of the gel-type resins. The results are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in the polymer net work, improper sulphonation process resulting in the formation of functional groups at inaccessible sites with weak acidic character and the overall lack of control in the preparation of different resins. (author)

  20. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  1. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatami S.F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newborn blood type A or B, rising indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two days of life, positive immunohematologic test for newborns and exchange transfusion. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete information, other accompanying diseases that induce hyperbilirubinemia. All newborn infants received phototherapy before and after exchange transfusion. We did not use intravenous immunoglobulin, hemoxygenase inhibitor drugs and blood products before exchange transfusion.Results: Double-volume exchange transfusion via umbilical cord catheter was performed in 96 patients, 19 (20% of whom suffered from ABO incompatibility. Of these 19 newborns, two-thirds (13 were preterm infants. The minimum level of serum bilirubin was 10 mg/dl and the maximum serum bilirubin level was 35 mg/dl. In six patients (32% serum bilirubin levels were >25mg/dl. The most common blood group was type A for newborns. Immunohematologic tests were positive in 84% of the mothers. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease was the fourth and second most common reasons for blood exchange transfusion in preterm and term infants, respectively. Laboratory complications were more common than clinical complications. The etiology of 48% of the alloimmunization and 42% of the hemolytic disease in these newborns was ABO incompatibility.Conclusions: Mothers with blood group O and newborns with blood group A or B with positive immunohematologic tests in first hours of life are at high risk for hemolytic disease

  2. 78 FR 12655 - Federal-State Unemployment Insurance (UI) Program; Data Exchange Standardization as Required by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... elimination of the need to create and mail hard copy documents; Increasing accuracy and reducing errors (in... formatting requirements for the data exchanges of various UI applications that may impose a burden under the...

  3. Integrating semantic web and software agents : Exchanging RIF and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software agents and rules are both used for creating flexibility. Exchanging rules between Semantic Web and agents can ensure consistency in rules and support easy updating and changing of rules. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation Semantic Web standard for exchanging rules

  4. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  5. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  6. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  7. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  8. Hierarchic modeling of heat exchanger thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, A.; Koncar, B.

    2002-01-01

    Volume Averaging Technique (VAT) is employed in order to model the heat exchanger cross-flow as a porous media flow. As the averaging of the transport equations lead to a closure problem, separate relations are introduced to model interphase momentum and heat transfer between fluid flow and the solid structure. The hierarchic modeling is used to calculate the local drag coefficient C d as a function of Reynolds number Re h . For that purpose a separate model of REV is built and DNS of flow through REV is performed. The local values of heat transfer coefficient h are obtained from available literature. The geometry of the simulation domain and boundary conditions follow the geometry of the experimental test section used at U.C.L.A. The calculated temperature fields reveal that the geometry with denser pin-fins arrangement (HX1) heats fluid flow faster. The temperature field in the HX2 exhibits the formation of thermal boundary layer between pin-fins, which has a significant role in overall thermal performance of the heat exchanger. Although presented discrepancies of the whole-section drag coefficient C d are large, we believe that hierarchic modeling is an appropriate strategy for calculation of complex transport phenomena in heat exchanger geometries.(author)

  9. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  10. Can Exchange Rates Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwutiset, Trin

    2007-01-01

    Foreign exchange rates produce significant impacts on both the macroeconomic and microeconomic scale. Countries� government and multinational companies have been seeking ways to stabilize the exchange rates for a few decades. However, there is no perfect consensus on methods to control and stabilize the exchange rates. In fact, there are several occasions in history where turbulence movements caused crisis in the economies. There are several factors that are identified by economis...

  11. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  12. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  13. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  14. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  15. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  16. Common Data Analysis Pipeline | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPTAC supports analyses of the mass spectrometry raw data (mapping of spectra to peptide sequences and protein identification) for the public using a Common Data Analysis Pipeline (CDAP). The data types available on the public portal are described below. A general overview of this pipeline can be downloaded here. Mass Spectrometry Data Formats RAW (Vendor) Format

  17. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties of albumin-binding and gold nanoparticle-bound Eu (III) chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Milleo Dalmacio

    CEST agents derived from paramagnetic complexes, commonly referred to as PARACEST agents represent a new class of MRI contrast agents that respond to biological information such as pH, temperature, redox, and metabolite levels. In this work, CEST properties of two novel PARACEST agents were investigated upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and conjugation to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). CEST properties of [EuDOTA(O-Et-Tyr)4] -when bound to HSA was studied to address the effect of proteins on CEST. The interaction of this Eu3+ complex to HSA was investigated by performing fluorescent probe displacement studies and it was found to bind HSA at two different binding pockets, the normal warfarin and dansyl glycine binding sites. The lipophilic pendant arms and the negative charge of this complex contribute to the favorable protein binding. However, the CEST signal was reduced 2-fold upon binding to HSA. The exchangeable protons on HSA provide a large proton pool that can exchange with the bound H 2O, competing for the exchange between bulk and bound water. Au NPs coated with [EuDOTA(CAM)4]3+ were prepared using the Brust method and characterized by measuring the CEST properties. The water residence lifetime for the Au-Eu NP conjugates increased 2-fold compared to the free Eu3+ complex presumably, as a result of the formation of hindered structure between the particle and the Eu3+ complex. Sensitivity enhancement in CEST was achieved by slowing down water exchange and increasing the number of exchangeable groups on the agent using Au-Eu NP conjugates. The CEST properties of small molecule PARACEST agents were shown to vary depending on the platform used in assembling larger adducts.

  18. Scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions. Workshop and establishment of a common knowledge base for nuclear safety and security. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-technischer Erfahrungsaustausch Deutschlands mit der GUS, den Baltischen und den MOE-Staaten sowie Laendern Zentralasiens und anderer Regionen. Arbeitstreffen und Schaffung gemeinsamer Wissensbasen fuer nukleare Sicherheit und Sicherung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The report on the workshop concerning scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions includes the following issues: Results an d success of know-how transfer from West to East, topical issues for mutual exchange of experience, scope of the project, concept of the realization of mutual exchange of experiences. The emphasis of the workshop covered the following issues: emergency preparedness, international requirements concerning nuclear safety and radiation protection, transport of radioactive wastes and communication in nuclear technology.

  19. HIV cohort collaborations: proposal for harmonization of data exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jesper; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    than can be achieved with the individual studies. This requires each cohort to map data into a standard format before merging. Until recently, this standard format has differed for each such collaborative analysis. We have therefore developed the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP), which...... is freely available at http://www.cphiv.dk/HICDEP.pdf. Once individual cohorts have set up a means of transfering data into this format, as and when required, this should greatly facilitate data merging for future joint analyses. The HICDEP incorporates data from HIV drug resistance tests, which have been...

  20. LMFBR intermediate-heat-exchanger experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Beaver, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents developmental and operating experience of large Intermediate Heat Exchangers (IHX's) in US from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) to the Large Development Plant (LDP). Design commonalities and deviations among these IHX's are synopsized. Various developmental tests that were conducted in the areas of hydraulic, structural and mechanical design are also presented. The FFTF is currently operating. Performance data of the FFTF IHXs are reviewed, and comparisons between actual and predicted performances are made. The results are used to assess the adequacy of IHX designs