WorldWideScience

Sample records for common exchange formats

  1. Common communication format for bibliographic data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, N. B.; Hughes, T. E.; Matiushin, G. D.; Turtanov, N. V.

    Development of a format for use in the exchange of machine-readable bibliographic information between the USA and the USSR is discussed. ISO standards will be used, where relevant, for carrier format and character codes. Extensions to UNIMARC are proposed for content designators to accommodate the needs of abstracting and indexing services. A common listing format, including a transliteration scheme, was developed for test and check purposes. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Common communication format for bibliographic data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, N.B.; Hughes, T.E.; Matiushin, G.D.; Turtanov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Development of a format for use in the exchange of machine-readable bibliographic information between the USA and the USSR is discussed. ISO standards will be used, where relevant, for carrier format and character codes. Extensions to UNIMARC have been proposed for content designators to accommodate the needs of abstracting and indexing services. A common listing format, including a transliteration scheme, has been developed for test and check purposes.

  3. BioXSD: the common data-exchange format for everyday bioinformatics web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaš, Matúš; Puntervoll, Pæl; Joseph, Alexandre; Bartaševičiūtė, Edita; Töpfer, Armin; Venkataraman, Prabakar; Pettifer, Steve; Bryne, Jan Christian; Ison, Jon; Blanchet, Christophe; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Jonassen, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The world-wide community of life scientists has access to a large number of public bioinformatics databases and tools, which are developed and deployed using diverse technologies and designs. More and more of the resources offer programmatic web-service interface. However, efficient use of the resources is hampered by the lack of widely used, standard data-exchange formats for the basic, everyday bioinformatics data types. Results: BioXSD has been developed as a candidate for standard, canonical exchange format for basic bioinformatics data. BioXSD is represented by a dedicated XML Schema and defines syntax for biological sequences, sequence annotations, alignments and references to resources. We have adapted a set of web services to use BioXSD as the input and output format, and implemented a test-case workflow. This demonstrates that the approach is feasible and provides smooth interoperability. Semantics for BioXSD is provided by annotation with the EDAM ontology. We discuss in a separate section how BioXSD relates to other initiatives and approaches, including existing standards and the Semantic Web. Availability: The BioXSD 1.0 XML Schema is freely available at http://www.bioxsd.org/BioXSD-1.0.xsd under the Creative Commons BY-ND 3.0 license. The http://bioxsd.org web page offers documentation, examples of data in BioXSD format, example workflows with source codes in common programming languages, an updated list of compatible web services and tools and a repository of feature requests from the community. Contact: matus.kalas@bccs.uib.no; developers@bioxsd.org; support@bioxsd.org PMID:20823319

  4. BioXSD: the common data-exchange format for everyday bioinformatics web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalas, Matús; Puntervoll, Pål; Joseph, Alexandre; Bartaseviciūte, Edita; Töpfer, Armin; Venkataraman, Prabakar; Pettifer, Steve; Bryne, Jan Christian; Ison, Jon; Blanchet, Christophe; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Jonassen, Inge

    2010-09-15

    The world-wide community of life scientists has access to a large number of public bioinformatics databases and tools, which are developed and deployed using diverse technologies and designs. More and more of the resources offer programmatic web-service interface. However, efficient use of the resources is hampered by the lack of widely used, standard data-exchange formats for the basic, everyday bioinformatics data types. BioXSD has been developed as a candidate for standard, canonical exchange format for basic bioinformatics data. BioXSD is represented by a dedicated XML Schema and defines syntax for biological sequences, sequence annotations, alignments and references to resources. We have adapted a set of web services to use BioXSD as the input and output format, and implemented a test-case workflow. This demonstrates that the approach is feasible and provides smooth interoperability. Semantics for BioXSD is provided by annotation with the EDAM ontology. We discuss in a separate section how BioXSD relates to other initiatives and approaches, including existing standards and the Semantic Web. The BioXSD 1.0 XML Schema is freely available at http://www.bioxsd.org/BioXSD-1.0.xsd under the Creative Commons BY-ND 3.0 license. The http://bioxsd.org web page offers documentation, examples of data in BioXSD format, example workflows with source codes in common programming languages, an updated list of compatible web services and tools and a repository of feature requests from the community.

  5. BioXSD: the common data-exchange format for everyday bioinformatics web services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalas, M.; Puntervoll, P.; Joseph, A.;

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The world-wide community of life scientists has access to a large number of public bioinformatics databases and tools, which are developed and deployed using diverse technologies and designs. More and more of the resources offer programmatic web-service interface. However, efficient use...... and defines syntax for biological sequences, sequence annotations, alignments and references to resources. We have adapted a set of web services to use BioXSD as the input and output format, and implemented a test-case workflow. This demonstrates that the approach is feasible and provides smooth...... interoperability. Semantics for BioXSD is provided by annotation with the EDAM ontology. We discuss in a separate section how BioXSD relates to other initiatives and approaches, including existing standards and the Semantic Web....

  6. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  7. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    CERN Document Server

    Sietsma, Floor

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to determine when a group of agents acquires common knowledge of the formula expressing that an email was sent. We also show that in our framework from the epistemic point of view the BCC feature of emails cannot be simulated using messages without BCC recipients. Finally, we clarify the notion of a causal relationship between emails using the concept of properly terminating email exchanges.

  8. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.; van Eijck, D.J.N.; Verbrugge, R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  9. Kinetic exchange models for social opinion formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lallouache, Mehdi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2010-01-01

    We propose a minimal model for the collective dynamics of opinion formation in the society, by modifying kinetic exchange dynamics studied in the context of income, money or wealth distributions in a society.

  10. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  11. Microbiological Common Language (MCL): a standard for electronic information exchange in the Microbial Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslyppe, Bert; Kottmann, Renzo; De Smet, Wim; De Baets, Bernard; De Vos, Paul; Dawyndt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although Biological Resource Centers (BRCs) traditionally have open catalogs of their holdings, it is quite cumbersome to access meta-information about microorganisms electronically due to the variety of access methods used by those catalogs. Therefore, we propose Microbiological Common Language (MCL), aimed at standardizing the electronic exchange of meta-information about microorganisms. Its application ranges from representing the online catalog of a single collection to accessing the results of StrainInfo integration and ad hoc use in other contexts. The abstract model of the standard precisely defines the elements of the standard, which enables implementation using a variety of representation technologies. Currently, XML and RDF/XML implementations are readily available. MCL is an open standard, and therefore greatly encourages input from the microbiological community.

  12. Exchange rate formation in Ukraine and its impact on macroeconomic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The factors of exchange rate formation in Ukraine are analyzes in this paper, the influence of exchange rate on macroeconomic indicators of development and the main priorities of the exchange rate policy are determined exchange.

  13. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V. [ed.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  14. EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

  15. Common Data Model for Neuroscience Data and Data Model Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Daniel; Kevin H. Knuth; Abato, Michael; Erde, Steven M.; White, Thomas; DeBellis, Robert; Gardner, Esther P

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Generalizing the data models underlying two prototype neurophysiology databases, the authors describe and propose the Common Data Model (CDM) as a framework for federating a broad spectrum of disparate neuroscience information resources.

  16. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-03-14

    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  17. Formation of cobalt hydrotalcite by cation exchange of Co2+-substitued zeolite X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    Zeolite has been utilized to sequester heavy metals and nuclides due to the high cation exchange capacity. However, once-immobilized cations by zeolite tend to be re-exchanged by other cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, etc) present in groundwater. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanism associated with re-exchange reactions to predict the environmental fate and behavior of the metal cations sequestered by zeolite. In this study, we performed a series of cation exchange experiments using Co2+-substituted zeolite X (Co-X) in concentrated CaCl2 solutions. The radioactive isotope of cobalt (60Co2+), commonly found in low-to-intermediate level nuclear wastes, undergoes radioactive decay, likely altering the physicochemical properties of zeolite by generating heat and irradiation. To simulate such effects, Co-X was thermally treated at 400 and 600oC before re-exchange experiments. At the higher treatment temperature, the re-exchanged amount of Co2+ in Co-X by Ca2+ was found to decrease. According to X-ray diffraction, the re-exchange led to little change in the zeolite crystallinity for thermally untreated samples, but the significantly decreased crystallinity was noted for re-exchanged, thermally treated samples. Nonetheless, 27Al MAS NMR spectra of all re-exchanged samples revealed that the peaks corresponding to 4-fold coordinated Al became broader with their position shifting as a result of the re-exchange, suggesting that the re-exchange caused a short-range order structural distortion for both thermally untreated and treated samples. Also, Co-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to examine the mechanism(s) involved in the re-exchange. By comparison of XAS spectra between re-exchanged samples and model compounds, Co2+ was likely to be either present as an extraframwork cation within zeolite or incorporated into a cobalt hydrotalcite (Co6Al2(OH)16(An-)2/n where An- is an interlayer anion) phase. The relative contribution of an extraframwork Co2

  18. Formation of the organic-inorganic proton exchange membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Maizelis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of electrolyzers for the low-temperature water electrolysis with the solid polymer membrane is perspective for production of hydrogen using renewable energy sources. However, the high cost of membrane materials obstructs the mass commissioning of such electrolyzers. Most of the researches devoted to the technologies of membranes formation, alternative to Nafion®, deal only with organic materials. Aim: The aim of this research is to develop the method for formation of the competitive proton exchange membrane based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and inorganic hydrates. Materials and Methods: The hydrated oxide of tin was added to the 2...10% PVA solution, mixed and applied to inert base layer by layer for formation of the membrane. Then the membrane was separated from the base. The reinforcing mesh was used to improve mechanical properties of the membrane. The hydrated tin oxide was prepared by reaction of tin chloride and ammonium hydroxide solutions. Results: The conditions of formation of proton-exchange membranes based on polyvinyl alcohol and hydrated oxide of tin were investigated. The series of membranes containing 30, 50, 70, 80 and 90% of hydrated tin oxide are obtained. It is shown that a solid membrane film with the thickness over 100 μm can be obtained if the content of PVA exceeds 30%. It is shown that it is necessary to crosslink the chains of PVA in the resulting film. The structure of the obtained proton exchange membrane consists of PVA chains crosslinked by aldehyde, between which the globules of hydrated tin oxide are situated. The membrane conductivity is provided by both proton mobility of hydroxyl group of PVA and H3O+/H2O and OH–/H2O groups that are formed due to the partial dissociation of hydrated oxide on the surface of the globules.

  19. Common factors and the exchange rate: results from the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rafael de Oliveira Felício

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the usefulness of factor models in explaining the dynamics of the exchange rate Real / Dollar from January 1999 to August 2011. The paper verifies that the inclusion of factors embedded on the common movements of exchange rates of a set of countries significantly improves the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power of the models comprising only macroeconomic fundamentals commonly used in the literature to forecast the exchange rate. The paper also links the information contained in the factors to global shocks like the demand for dollars - a "dollar effect", volatility and liquidity of global financial markets.

  20. Common Data Format (CDF) and Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candey, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) data browsing system provides plotting, listing and open access v ia FTP, HTTP, and web services (REST, SOAP, OPeNDAP) for data from mo st NASA Heliophysics missions and is heavily used by the community. C ombining data from many instruments and missions enables broad resear ch analysis and correlation and coordination with other experiments a nd missions. Crucial to its effectiveness is the use of a standard se lf-describing data format, in this case, the Common Data Format (CDF) , also developed at the Space Physics Data facility , and the use of metadata standa rds (easily edited with SKTeditor ). CDAweb is based on a set of IDL routines, CDAWlib . . The CDF project also maintains soft ware and services for translating between many standard formats (CDF. netCDF, HDF, FITS, XML) .

  1. Common Data Format (CDF) and Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candey, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) data browsing system provides plotting, listing and open access v ia FTP, HTTP, and web services (REST, SOAP, OPeNDAP) for data from mo st NASA Heliophysics missions and is heavily used by the community. C ombining data from many instruments and missions enables broad resear ch analysis and correlation and coordination with other experiments a nd missions. Crucial to its effectiveness is the use of a standard se lf-describing data format, in this case, the Common Data Format (CDF) , also developed at the Space Physics Data facility , and the use of metadata standa rds (easily edited with SKTeditor ). CDAweb is based on a set of IDL routines, CDAWlib . . The CDF project also maintains soft ware and services for translating between many standard formats (CDF. netCDF, HDF, FITS, XML) .

  2. Exchanging grooming, but not tolerance and aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Schino, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the reciprocal exchanges of grooming, tolerance and reduced aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a cooperatively breeding primate whose groups are typically characterized by uniformly high genetic relatedness and high interdependency between group members. Both partner control and partner choice processes played a role in the reciprocal exchanges of grooming. In contrast, we did not find any evidence of reciprocity between grooming and tolerance over a preferred food source or between grooming and reduced aggression. Thus, reciprocity seems to play a variable role in the exchange of cooperative behaviors in marmosets.

  3. Effects of ion-exchange treatment on bromate formation and oxidation efficiency during ozonation

    OpenAIRE

    Echigo, S.; Itoh, S.; Niwa, A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-exchange treatment is a promising technique for removing hydrophilic compounds during drinking water treatment. In this study, we applied several different ion exchangers (i.e., anion exchange resins and a hydrotalcite compound) to bromide removal to minimize bromate formation during ozonation. It was found that ion-exchange treatment affected ozone and hydroxyl radical concentration profiles as well as bromate ion concentration after ozonation. Selecting an appropriate ion exchanger is i...

  4. Planet formation from the ejecta of common envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Schleicher, Dominik R G

    2013-01-01

    The close binary system NN Serpentis must have gone through a common envelope phase before the formation of its white dwarf. During this phase, a substantial amount of mass was lost from the envelope. The recently detected orbits of circumbinary planets were suggested to be inconsistent with planet formation before the mass loss. We explore whether new planets may have formed from the ejecta of the common envelope, and derive the expected planetary mass as a function of radius. We employ the model of \\citet{Kashi11} to estimate the amount of mass that is retained during the ejection event, and infer the properties of the resulting disk from the conservation of mass and angular momentum. The resulting planetary masses are estimated from models with and without radiative feedback. We show that the observed planetary masses can be reproduced for appropriate model parameters. Photoheating can stabilize the disks in the interior, potentially explaining the observed planetary orbits on scales of a few AU. We compar...

  5. What Is Its Purpose?——"Advancing RMB Exchange Rate Formation Mechanism"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yujie; You Zhixin; Wang Tao

    2010-01-01

    Spokesperson from People's Bank of China said on June 19th, "further advance the reform in RMB exchange rate formation mechanism, and strengthen the flex-ibility of RMB exchange rate." This is the first time for China central bank give a clear attitude on reform in RMB exchange rate, which attracts great attention for global market. Does strengthening the flexibility of RMB exchange rate mean that RMB will appreciate again? Why the central bank announces the news at this moment? How to choose the time for the reform in RMB exchange rate formation mechanism?

  6. Planet formation in post-common-envelope binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Schleicher, Dominik; Völschow, Marcel; Banerjee, Robi; Hessman, Frederic V

    2015-01-01

    To understand the evolution of planetary systems, it is important to investigate planets in highly evolved stellar systems, and to explore the implications of their observed properties with respect to potential formation scenarios. Observations suggest the presence of giant planets in post-common-envelope binaries (PCEBs). A particularly well-studied system with planetary masses of 1.7 M_J and 7.0 M_J is NN Ser. We show here that a pure first-generation scenario where the planets form before the common envelope (CE) phase and the orbits evolve due to the changes in the gravitational potential is inconsistent with the current data. We propose a second-generation scenario where the planets are formed from the material that is ejected during the CE, which may naturally explain the observed planetary masses. In addition, hybrid scenarios where the planets form before the CE and evolve due to the accretion of the ejected gas appear as a realistic possibility.

  7. On markets and culture : object exchange and subject formation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Misael Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings that have led me to develop an artistic practice rooted in interventions in the form/function/ exchange of commodities to create micro-political renegotiations of subordination--using the act of exchange as a way of reflecting on the greater ideological order of social, cultural, and economic structures that maintain current relations of power

  8. Recent Insights from the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kreuser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Common-cause failure (CCF events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the International Common Cause Data Exchange (ICDE project was initiated by several countries in 1994. Since 1997 it has been operated within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA framework and has successfully been operated over six consecutive terms (the current term being 2015–2017. The ICDE project allows multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses, which include CCF modeling. As CCF events are typically rare, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, have yielded sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. The ICDE project has meanwhile published 11 reports on the collection and analysis of CCF events of specific component types (centrifugal pumps, emergency diesel generators, motor operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, circuit breakers, level measurement, control rod drive assemblies, and heat exchangers and two topical reports. This paper presents recent activities and lessons learnt from the data collection and the results of topical analysis on emergency diesel generator CCF impacting entire exposed population.

  9. Recent insights from the international common-cause failure data exchange project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuser, Albert [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Cologne (Germany); Johanson, Gunner [AF Industry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    Common-cause failure (CCF) events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the International Common Cause Data Exchange (ICDE) project was initiated by several countries in 1994. Since 1997 it has been operated within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) framework and has successfully been operated over six consecutive terms (the current term being 2015–2017). The ICDE project allows multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses, which include CCF modeling. As CCF events are typically rare, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, have yielded sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. The ICDE project has meanwhile published 11 reports on the collection and analysis of CCF events of specific component types (centrifugal pumps, emergency diesel generators, motor operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, circuit breakers, level measurement, control rod drive assemblies, and heat exchangers) and two topical reports. This paper presents recent activities and lessons learnt from the data collection and the results of topical analysis on emergency diesel generator CCF impacting entire exposed population.

  10. Control and prevention of ice formation and accretion on heat exchangers for ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In cold climates, the application of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery like are airto-air exchangers is used for reducing energy consumption for heating buildings by transferring heat exhausted air to supply air. However, increase efficiency of heat exchanger results in lower...... exhaust air temperatures and Ice formation on heat exchanger fins, which can cause problem and is not favourable. Therefore, prevention and control of ice formation on heat exchangers is necessary. The existing methods are divided into two different methods: active and passive ice control methods....... The active methods are e.g. bypass, recirculation, preheating. The passive methods relate to the surface characteristics of the heat exchanger fins as they have effect on ice formation in initial phase. All these methods have varying levels of success, cost, and effectiveness, which are depending on the heat...

  11. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

  12. Common atlas format and 3D brain atlas reconstructor: infrastructure for constructing 3D brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Kublik, Ewa; Furga, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Daniel Krzysztof

    2012-04-01

    One of the challenges of modern neuroscience is integrating voluminous data of diferent modalities derived from a variety of specimens. This task requires a common spatial framework that can be provided by brain atlases. The first atlases were limited to two-dimentional presentation of structural data. Recently, attempts at creating 3D atlases have been made to offer navigation within non-standard anatomical planes and improve capability of localization of different types of data within the brain volume. The 3D atlases available so far have been created using frameworks which make it difficult for other researchers to replicate the results. To facilitate reproducible research and data sharing in the field we propose an SVG-based Common Atlas Format (CAF) to store 2D atlas delineations or other compatible data and 3D Brain Atlas Reconstructor (3dBAR), software dedicated to automated reconstruction of three-dimensional brain structures from 2D atlas data. The basic functionality is provided by (1) a set of parsers which translate various atlases from a number of formats into the CAF, and (2) a module generating 3D models from CAF datasets. The whole reconstruction process is reproducible and can easily be configured, tracked and reviewed, which facilitates fixing errors. Manual corrections can be made when automatic reconstruction is not sufficient. The software was designed to simplify interoperability with other neuroinformatics tools by using open file formats. The content can easily be exchanged at any stage of data processing. The framework allows for the addition of new public or proprietary content.

  13. FORMATION OF LUMINESCENT OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES IN SILICATE GLASS MATRIX BY THE ION-EXCHANGE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dyomichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present spectra of the alkali-silicate glasses with copper ions in near-surface area, introduced by ion exchange of different temperature and duration. It is shown that the reduction of Cu2+ in the near-surface area causes existence of Cu+ and neutral atoms in glass after the ion-exchange in divalent salt. The ion-exchange itself involves only Cu+ and Na+ ions. The formation of subnanometer clusters Cun is due to neutral copper atoms staying in near-surface zone. We have shown that the waveguide layer in near-surface area, made by ion-exchange, has а visible luminescence with the excitation by UVradiation. At the same time, the contribution to luminescence is made by Cu+ ions, molecular clusters Cun and by dimers Cu+ - Cu+ . During the high-temperature ion-exchange at 600 °С the formation and destruction equilibrium shift of molecular clusters Cun can be seen. An hour ion-exchange leads to molecular clusters Cun destruction, while at time periods less than 30 min and around 18 hours it leads to the formation of Cun. The sample turns green after 18,5 hours ion-exchange showing formation of a considerable amount of divalent copper ions Cu2+ therein.

  14. CERIF: The Common European Research Information Format Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased computing power more data than ever are being and will be produced, stored and (re- used. Data are collected in databases, computed and annotated, or transformed by specific tools. The knowledge from data is documented in research publications, reports, presentations, or other types of files. The management of data and knowledge is difficult, and even more complicated is their re-use, exchange, or integration. To allow for quality analysis or integration across data sets and to ensure access to scientific knowledge, additional information - Research Information - has to be assigned to data and knowledge entities. We present the metadata model CERIF to add information to entities such as Publication, Project, Organisation, Person, Product, Patent, Service, Equipment, and Facility and to manage the semantically enhanced relationships between these entities in a formalized way. CERIF has been released as an EC Recommendation to European Member States in 2000. Here, we refer to the latest version CERIF 2008-1.0.

  15. The Impact of Test Dimensionality, Common-Item Set Format, and Scale Linking Methods on Mixed-Format Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk-Gübes, Nese; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of dimensionality, common-item set format, and different scale linking methods on preserving equity property with mixed-format test equating. Item response theory (IRT) true-score equating (TSE) and IRT observed-score equating (OSE) methods were used under common-item nonequivalent groups design.…

  16. Developing a food exchange list for Middle Eastern appetizers and desserts commonly consumed in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAWADI, Hiba A.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.; TAYYEM, Reema F.; MEKARY, Rania; TUURI, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for Middle Eastern foods commonly included in the Jordanian cuisine. Forty types of appetizers and another 40 types of desserts were selected; with five different recipes for each item. Recipes were collected from different housewives and Arabic cookbooks. Ingredients’ weight and dish net weight were recorded based on an average recipe, and dishes were prepared accordingly. Dishes were proximately analyzed following the AOAC procedures. Proximate analysis was compared to the WHO-food composition tables (FCT) for the use in the Middle East, and with food analysis software (ESHA). Results Significant correlations (P < 0.001) were found between macronutrient content obtained from proximate analysis and those obtained from ESHA. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.92 for carbohydrate, 0.86 for protein, and 0.86 for fat. Strong correlations were also detected between proximate analysis FCT for carbohydrate (r=0.91, P<0.001) and protein (r=0.81; P<0.001) contents. However, this significant correlation was not found as strong, yet significant for fat (r=0. 62, P<0.001). Conclusion A valid exchange system for traditional desserts and appetizers is now available and ready to be used by dietitians and health care providers in Jordan and Arab World. PMID:21841913

  17. Looks and linguistics: Impression formation in online exchange marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuchta, Michael P; O'Toole, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This study advances theories of impression formation by focusing on two factors that generate emotional responses: physical attractiveness and positive word use. Although considerable research on impression formation exists, most studies consider factors in isolation and neglect possible interactions. Our theory introduces competing mechanisms regarding possible interaction effects, and we empirically test them in an online marketplace. Results from the analysis of 729 loan requests from a leading online peer-to-peer lending market suggest that physical attractiveness and positive word use work together to influence the likelihood of acquiring resources and establish an important boundary condition to the general "beauty is good" effect.

  18. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969. As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  19. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, L. (Libuše); Jeřábek, K.; E Ramírez; Tejero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl octyl ether (EOE) can be obtained by the ethylation of 1-octanol by means of ethanol or diethyl carbonate over acidic ion-exchange resins. However, EOE formation has to compete with the less steric demanding formation of diethyl ether, by-product obtained from ethanol dehydration or diethyl carbonate decomposition. In the present work, the influence of the resin functionalization degree on EOE formation has been evaluated. A series of partially sulfonated resins were prepared by the sul...

  20. The paredon, Mexico, obsidian source and early formative exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, T H; Grove, D C; Hopke, P K

    1978-09-01

    In 1975, archeological surface surveys of trade routes located again a pre-Hispanic obsidian source in central Mexico first reported in 1902. Initial trace element studies of the Paredón source through an analysis by neutron activation have been compared with similar studies of the obsidian found at Chalcatzingo 150 kilometers from the source. These comparisons indicate that obsidian from Paredón, rather than Otumba, was of primary importance during the Early Formative in central Mexico.

  1. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format. Revision 97/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.

    1997-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Center Network. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility rather than optimization of data processing in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  2. Kinetics of DSB rejoining and formation of simple chromosome exchange aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; O'Neill, P.; Goodhead, D. T.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the role of kinetics in the processing of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), and the formation of simple chromosome exchange aberrations following X-ray exposures to mammalian cells based on an enzymatic approach. METHODS: Using computer simulations based on a biochemical approach, rate-equations that describe the processing of DSB through the formation of a DNA-enzyme complex were formulated. A second model that allows for competition between two processing pathways was also formulated. The formation of simple exchange aberrations was modelled as misrepair during the recombination of single DSB with undamaged DNA. Non-linear coupled differential equations corresponding to biochemical pathways were solved numerically by fitting to experimental data. RESULTS: When mediated by a DSB repair enzyme complex, the processing of single DSB showed a complex behaviour that gives the appearance of fast and slow components of rejoining. This is due to the time-delay caused by the action time of enzymes in biomolecular reactions. It is shown that the kinetic- and dose-responses of simple chromosome exchange aberrations are well described by a recombination model of DSB interacting with undamaged DNA when aberration formation increases with linear dose-dependence. Competition between two or more recombination processes is shown to lead to the formation of simple exchange aberrations with a dose-dependence similar to that of a linear quadratic model. CONCLUSIONS: Using a minimal number of assumptions, the kinetics and dose response observed experimentally for DSB rejoining and the formation of simple chromosome exchange aberrations are shown to be consistent with kinetic models based on enzymatic reaction approaches. A non-linear dose response for simple exchange aberrations is possible in a model of recombination of DNA containing a DSB with undamaged DNA when two or more pathways compete for DSB repair.

  3. 78 FR 12063 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Meeting for Software Developers on the... development of a set of common definitions and reporting formats (Common Formats) that allow health care... interactive forum where PSOs and software developers can provide input on these technical specifications. AHRQ...

  4. 77 FR 9252 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Meeting for Software Developers on the... development of a set of common definitions and reporting formats (Common Formats) that allow health care... interactive forum where PSOs and software developers can provide input on these technical specifications. AHRQ...

  5. The formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Yuri; Galam, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique "true value" and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

  6. Formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Yuri; Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Galam, Serge

    2012-11-01

    Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique “true value” and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

  7. Characterizing formation of interfacial domain wall and exchange coupling strength in laminated exchange coupled composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H.-C.; Kirby, B. J.; Gao, K. Z.; Lai, C.-H.

    2013-04-01

    We have studied the N-dependent switching behavior of composite magnets, comprised of a hard CoPtCr-SiO2 (CPCS) film and a laminated soft [Pt/CPCS]N multilayer. First order reversal curve magnetometry provides evidence of interfacial domain wall (iDW) assisted reversal for N ≥ 5. The magnetic depth profiles determined from polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) explicitly demonstrate that the composite magnets are more rigidly coupled for N = 3 than for N = 7, and suggest that for N = 7 reversal occurs via formation of iDW. By fitting the PNR profile into the energy surface calculations, we can further deduce the vertical coupling strength in the laminated soft layer.

  8. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-02-14

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  9. EFFECT OF BILLS OF EXCHANGE (PROMISSORY NOTES) AND EXCHANGE LAW TO THE APPEARANCE, FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF OTHER TYPES OF SECURITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author sets the task to trace how the bill of exchange (promissory note) and ex-change law could affect the formation and development of other types of securities, and disclose the results of the possible impact on their legal peculiarity, economic func-tions and meaning for the commerce.

  10. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  11. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969.3 As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: l that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); l that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  12. EXFOR basics: A short guide to the nuclear reaction data exchange format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear data compilation centers. This format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  13. EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, J.C. (ed.)

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  14. The direct formate fuel cell with an alkaline anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrom, Amy M.; Haan, John L.

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an operating Direct Formate Fuel Cell employing formate salts as the anode fuel, air or oxygen as the oxidant, a polymer anion exchange membrane, and metal catalysts at the anode and cathode. Operation of the DFFC at 60 °C using 1 M KOOCH and 2 M KOH as the anode fuel and electrolyte and oxygen gas at the cathode produces 144 mW cm-2 of peak power density, 181 mA cm-2 current density at 0.6 V, and an open circuit voltage of 0.931 V. This performance is competitive with alkaline Direct Liquid Fuel Cells (DLFCs) previously reported in the literature and demonstrates that formate fuel is a legitimate contender with alcohol fuels for alkaline DLFCs. A survey of the literature shows that a formate-oxygen fuel cell has a high theoretical potential, and the safe, renewable formate fuel does not poison the anode catalyst.

  15. The HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative Meeting: Towards Common Standards for Exchanging Proteomics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Apweiler

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI aims to define community standards for data representation in proteomics and to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification. Initially the fields of protein–protein interactions (PPI and mass spectroscopy have been targeted and the inaugural meeting of the PSI addressed the questions of data storage and exchange in both of these areas. The PPI group rapidly reached consensus as to the minimum requirements for a data exchange model; an XML draft is now being produced. The mass spectroscopy group have achieved major advances in the definition of a required data model and working groups are currently taking these discussions further. A further meeting is planned in January 2003 to advance both these projects.

  16. Performance and cost characteristics of multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Sydney M.; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Breault, Tanya M.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Thompson, Levi T.

    2016-09-01

    Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) have recently received considerable attention as promising high energy density, low cost grid-level energy storage technologies. Despite these attractive features, NAqRFBs are still at an early stage of development and innovative design techniques are necessary to improve performance and decrease costs. In this work, we investigate multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange NAqRFBs. Common ion systems decrease the supporting electrolyte requirement, which subsequently improves active material solubility and decreases electrolyte cost. Voltammetric and electrolytic techniques are used to study the electrochemical performance and chemical compatibility of model redox active materials, iron (II) tris(2,2‧-bipyridine) tetrafluoroborate (Fe(bpy)3(BF4)2) and ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Fc1N112-BF4). These results help disentangle complex cycling behavior observed in flow cell experiments. Further, a simple techno-economic model demonstrates the cost benefits of employing common ion exchange NAqRFBs, afforded by decreasing the salt and solvent contributions to total chemical cost. This study highlights two new concepts, common ion exchange and multi-electron transfer, for NAqRFBs through a demonstration flow cell employing model active species. In addition, the compatibility analysis developed for asymmetric chemistries can apply to other promising species, including organics, metal coordination complexes (MCCs) and mixed MCC/organic systems, enabling the design of low cost NAqRFBs.

  17. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  18. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  19. BIOFILMS FORMATION IN HEAT EXCHANGERS AND ITS EFFECTS ON MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Michele Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient surface cleaning of equipments such as heat exchangers results in the accumulation of mineral residue that can form fouling which are difficult to remove. It can represent one of the biggest problems for the equipment operation decreasing its efficiency and impairing the functioning which can either involve greater spending on chemicals to be carried out the cleaning process. Moreover, due to the presence of mineral in poorly sanitized surface, there may be the adhesion and biofilm formation by microorganisms which can compromises the quality and the shelf-life of milk and dairy products and can bring risks to the consumer health. This review aims to address relevant aspects of biofilm formation in heat exchangers surfaces, the process of fouling and its negative aspects for the dairy industry.

  20. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments...

  1. The arc of Mass Spectrometry Exchange Formats is long, but it bends toward HDF5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Manor; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Graumann, Johannes

    2016-10-14

    The evolution of data exchange in Mass Spectrometry spans decades and has ranged from human-readable text files representing individual scans or collections thereof (McDonald et al., 2004) through the official standard XML-based (Harold, Means, & Udemadu, 2005) data interchange standard (Deutsch, 2012), to increasingly compressed (Teleman et al., 2014) variants of this standard sometimes requiring purely binary adjunct files (Römpp et al., 2011). While the desire to maintain even partial human readability is understandable, the inherent mismatch between XML's textual and irregular format relative to the numeric and highly regular nature of actual spectral data, along with the explosive growth in dataset scales and the resulting need for efficient (binary and indexed) access has led to a phenomenon referred to as "technical drift" (Davis, 2013). While the drift is being continuously corrected using adjunct formats, compression schemes, and programs (Röst et al., 2015), we propose that the future of Mass Spectrometry Exchange Formats lies in the continued reliance and development of the PSI-MS (Mayer et al., 2014) controlled vocabulary, along with an expedited shift to an alternative, thriving and well-supported ecosystem for scientific data-exchange, storage, and access in binary form, namely that of HDF5 (Koranne, 2011). Indeed, pioneering efforts to leverage this universal, binary, and hierarchical data-format have already been published (Wilhelm et al., 2012; Rübel et al., 2013) though they have under-utilized self-description, a key property shared by HDF5 and XML. We demonstrate that a straightforward usage of plain ("vanilla") HDF5 yields immediate returns including, but not limited to, highly efficient data access, platform independent data viewers, a variety of libraries (Collette, 2014) for data retrieval and manipulation in many programming languages and remote data access through comprehensive RESTful data-servers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass

  2. Developing a common health information exchange platform to implement a nationwide health information network in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho; Heo, Eunyoung; Lim, Heesook; Lee, Jun Young; Weon, Sangho; Chae, Hoseok; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to develop a common health information exchange (HIE) platform that can provide integrated services for implementing the HIE infrastructure in addition to guidelines for participating in an HIE network in South Korea. By exploiting the Health Level 7 (HL7) Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Cross-enterprise Document Sharing-b (XDS.b) profile, we defined the architectural model, exchanging data items and their standardization, messaging standards, and privacy and security guidelines, for a secure, nationwide, interoperable HIE. We then developed a service-oriented common HIE platform to minimize the effort and difficulty of fulfilling the standard requirements for participating in the HIE network. The common platform supports open application program interfaces (APIs) for implementing a document registry, a document repository, a document consumer, and a master patient index. It could also be used for testing environments for the implementation of standard requirements. As the initial phase of implementing a nationwide HIE network in South Korea, we built a regional network for workers' compensation (WC) hospitals and their collaborating clinics to share referral and care record summaries to ensure the continuity of care for industrially injured workers, using the common HIE platform and verifying the feasibility of our technologies. We expect to expand the HIE network on a national scale with rapid support for implementing HL7 and IHE standards in South Korea.

  3. HPLC enantioseparation of racemic bupropion, baclofen and etodolac: modification of conventional ligand exchange approach by pre-column formation of chiral ligand exchange complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Bhushan, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Separation of racemic mixture of (RS)-bupropion, (RS)-baclofen and (RS)-etodolac, commonly marketed racemic drugs, has been achieved by modifying the conventional ligand exchange approach. The Cu(II) complexes were first prepared with a few l-amino acids, namely, l-proline, l-histidine, l-phenylalanine and l-tryptophan, and to these was introduced a mixture of the enantiomer pair of (RS)-bupropion, or (RS)-baclofen or (RS)-etodolac. As a result, formation of a pair of diastereomeric complexes occurred by 'chiral ligand exchange' via the competition between the chelating l-amino acid and each of the two enantiomers from a given pair. The diastereomeric mixture formed in the pre-column process was loaded onto HPLC column. Thus, both the phases during chromatographic separation process were achiral (i.e. neither the stationary phase had any chiral structural feature of its own nor did the mobile phase have any chiral additive). Separation of diastereomers was successful using a C18 column and a binary mixture of MeCN and TEAP buffer of pH 4.0 (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV detection at 230 nm for (RS)-Bup, 220 nm for (RS)-Bac and 223 nm for (RS)-Etd. Baseline separation of the two enantiomers was obtained with a resolution of 6.63 in <15 min. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Role of University Branches in the Formation of Common Cultural Competences of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Marina Albertovna; Rimskaya, Tatyana Grigoryevna

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the capabilities and potential of educational institutions in the formation of common cultural competences of students studying at regional municipalities of the Russian Far East. The study offers the directions and methods of interaction between government and local self-government authorities and training institutions…

  5. 75 FR 16817 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Meeting for Software Developers on the... by the Secretary of HHS, AHRQ coordinates the development of the Common Formats that allow healthcare... comparable. This meeting is designed as an interactive forum where PSOs and software developers can...

  6. Using Common Formative Assessments to Promote Student Achievement: A Case Study of Practice, Leadership, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Patricia T. C.

    2012-01-01

    It is the moral responsibility of educators to work diligently to provide every student with rich, challenging coursework in efforts to prepare them for post high school careers and education. The use of common formative assessments provides teachers with the valuable, timely information they need to make instructional decisions that will better…

  7. Understanding perovskite formation through the intramolecular exchange method in ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rodrigo; Castro, Jhon A. P.; Marques, Adriano S.; Nogueira, Ana F.

    2017-04-01

    Among the methods to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite films, the intramolecular exchange method was the first one that made possible to prepare perovskite solar cells with efficiencies higher than 20%. However, perovskite formation by this method is not completely understood, especially in ambient conditions. In this work, perovskite films were prepared by the intramolecular exchange method in ambient conditions. The spin coating speed and the frequency of the MAI solution dripping onto PbI2(DMSO) were varied during the deposition steps. With the combination of these two parameters, a rigid control of the solvent drying was possible. Thus, depending on the chosen conditions, the intermediate MAPb3I8·2DMSO was formed with residual PbI2. Otherwise, direct formation of perovskite film was attained. A mechanism for the direct formation of bulk perovskite was proposed. We also investigated how the posterior thermal annealing affects the crystallinity and defects in perovskite films. With prolonged thermal annealing, the excess of MAI can be avoided, increasing the efficiency and decreasing the hysteresis of the solar cells. The best perovskite solar cell achieved a stabilized power output of 12.9%. The findings of this work pave the way for realizing the fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere, a very desirable condition for cost-efficient large scale manufacturing of this technology.

  8. 47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... telephone company. (j) No charge shall be assessed for any WATS access line. (k)(1) Beginning on July 1... support and Study Area Above Benchmark Revenues, first from Zone 1 until the End User Common Line charges... purposes of this part, “Study Area Above Benchmark Revenues” is the sum of all Zone Above...

  9. Investigation of isolation conditions and ion-exchange purification of protein coagulation components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of an extraction procedure of protein coagulants from common bean seed regarding concentration of NaCl and pH was performed. High values of protein concentration and coagulation activity in crude extract (9.19 g/l and 23.9%, respectively were obtained when the extraction was performed using 0.5 mol/l NaCl and water as solvent, which represents an advantage for economic and environmental reasons. Crude extract of common bean seed was purified by precipitation at two different percentages of (NH42SO4 saturation, followed by batch ion-exchange chromatography. The highest obtained coagulation activity, 45%, was determined in fraction that was eluated at 1.75 mol/l NaCl from resin loaded with proteins precipitated upon 80-100% (NH42SO4 saturation. High values of coagulation activity showed by some eluates suggest their application as natural coagulant for water purification. .

  10. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  11. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Proteomics data exchange and storage: the need for common standards and public repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rafael C; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Both the existence of data standards and public databases or repositories have been key factors behind the development of the existing "omics" approaches. In this book chapter we first review the main existing mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics resources: PRIDE, PeptideAtlas, GPMDB, and Tranche. Second, we report on the current status of the different proteomics data standards developed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI): the formats mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, TraML, and PSI-MI XML are then reviewed. Finally, we present an easy way to query and access MS proteomics data in the PRIDE database, as a representative of the existing repositories, using the workflow management system (WMS) tool Taverna. Two different publicly available workflows are explained and described.

  13. Harvesting a knowledge commons: collective action, transparency, and innovation at the Portland Fish Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While localist visions of alternative food systems advocate for the expansion of local ecological knowledge through more proximate producer-consumer relationships, globalized seafood supply-demand chains persist. Moving beyond this dichotomy, commons scholars recognize that collective action among resource users at the local level can shape cross-scalar producer relations with government and more capitalized firms operating in regional and global markets. In the case of the New England groundfishery, a quasi-public fish auction not only transformed the scalar, logistical, and financial parameters of harvester-buyer relationships, it altered the production and use of local knowledge among some harvesters, and their technological choices. Resulting markets offer potential benefits that extend to broader publics, by increasing the monetary value and experimental development of a knowledge commons. Qualitative analysis of field data shows that with new market transparency, fish are no longer valued as an undifferentiated commodity, but as a variety of products with individually nuanced price structures. Displacement of local seafood buyers incurred some shoreside job losses, but fishers on smaller, owner-operated boats in multi-generational fishing harbours benefit particularly from new opportunities compared to larger, fleet boats due to different labour relations, allocations of decision-making responsibilities, observational contexts, and associated information flows. Implications for the mobilization of knowledge-action linkages to influence formal resource management arenas merit further research.

  14. Tropopause inversion layer formation and stratosphere-troposphere exchange during idealized baroclinic wave life cycle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Daniel; Wirth, Volkmar; Hoor, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Recent simulations of baroclinic wave life cycles revealed that the tropopause inversion layer (TIL), commonly situated just above the thermal tropopause, is evident in such experiments and emerges after the onset of wave breaking. Furthermore, bidirectional stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) occurs during this non-linear stage of the wave evolution and might be affected by the appearance of the TIL. We study the evolution and the impact of the TIL on STE by using the COSMO model in an idealized mid-latitude channel geometry configuration without physical sub-grid scale parameterizations. We initialize the model with a geostrophically balanced upper level jet stream which is disturbed by an anomaly of potential vorticity to trigger the evolution of the baroclinic waves. Moreover, we use passive tracers of tropospheric or stratospheric origin to identify regions of potential STE. Our results show that the static stability is low in regions of stratosphere to troposphere exchange (STT), while it is high in regions dominated by exchange in the opposite direction (TST). Furthermore, inertia gravity waves, originating from regions with strong ageostrophic wind components, modulate the static stability as well as the vertical shear of the horizontal wind near and above the tropopause. While propagating away from their source, the inertia gravity waves lead to large values of the squared Brunt Vaisala frequency in regions which are simultaneously characterized by low bulk Richardson numbers. Thus, these regions are statically stable and turbulent at the same time and might be crucial for TST, thereby explaining tropospheric mixing ratio changes of e.g. CO across the tropopause which commonly change from tropospheric to stratospheric values a few hundred meters above the local thermal tropopause.

  15. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Indirect UV detection-ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography of common inorganic ions with sulfosalicylic acid eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Nakatani, Nobutake; Arai, Kaori; Masuno, Tomoe; Koseki, Masakazu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe indirect UV detection-ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) using sulfosalicylic acid as the eluent. The goal of the study was to characterize the peaks detected by UV detector. The peak directions of analyte ions in UV at 315 nm were negative because the molar absorbance coefficients of analyte anions and cations were lower than that of the sulfosalicylic acid eluent. Good chromatographic resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios of analyte ions were obtained for the separations performed using 1.1 mM sulfosalicylic acid and 1.5 mM 18-crown-6 as the eluent. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas ranged from 0.6 to 4.9%. Lower detection limits of the analytes were achieved using indirect UV detection at 315 nm (0.23 - 0.98 μM) than those obtained with conductometric detection (CD) (0.61 - 2.1 μM) under the optimized elution conditions. The calibration curves were linear in the range from 0.01 to 1.0 mM except for Cl(-), which was from 0.02 to 2.0 mM. The present method was successfully applied to determine common inorganic ions in a pond water sample.

  17. Tri-Lab data models and format (DMF) project: parallel I/O and data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, L. M.; Matarazzo, C. M.; Rathkopf, J.

    1998-10-01

    A central goal of the ASCI program is to push simulation and modeling for Science-based Stockpile Stewardship to unprecedented levels. ASCI applications will use extremely high-fidelity models, on the order of one billion cells, to generate terabytes of raw data. Such vast amounts of data produced by these supercomputing applications will overwhelm scientists, whose efforts to understand their results are hindered by inadequate visualization and data management tools. Much of the Scientific Data Management (SDM) effort concerns managing the large and complex data emerging from these simulation codes. One particular area for which commercial and scalable solutions do not exist is in Parallel I/O and data exchange between simulations. To address these needs, the Tri-lab Data Models and Formats effort of the SDM project is developing capabilities to enable the capturing and sharing of simulation data.

  18. Photon exchange and entanglement formation during transmission through a rectangular quantum barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulyok, Georg, E-mail: gsulyok@ati.ac.at; Durstberger-Rennhofer, Katharina; Summhammer, Johann

    2015-09-04

    When a quantum particle traverses a rectangular potential created by a quantum field both photon exchange and entanglement between particle and field take place. We present the full analytic solution of the Schrödinger equation of the composite particle–field system allowing investigation of these phenomena in detail and comparison to the results of a classical field treatment. Besides entanglement formation, remarkable differences also appear with respect to the symmetry between energy emission and absorption, resonance effects and if the field initially occupies the vacuum state. - Highlights: • Full analytic solution for the transmission through a rectangular quantum barrier. • Transition from classical to quantum field is illustrated. • Entanglement as a unique feature of the quantized field treatment is emphasized. • Non-trivial entanglement between position and photon number for coherent fields. • Interaction with vacuum state peculiar to the quantized field treatment.

  19. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J; Chevone, Boris I

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation.

  20. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  1. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org .

  2. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  3. QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

    2010-05-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  4. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  5. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergweiler, Chris [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bergweiler@nre.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chevone, Boris I. [Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America.

  6. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation.

  7. The formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Nordhaus, J; Spiegel, D S; Metzger, B D; Blackman, E G

    2010-01-01

    The origin of highly-magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, the hydrodynamic drag in the envelope of the giant leads to a reduction of the companion's orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute...

  8. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S; Metzger, Brian D; Blackman, Eric G

    2011-02-22

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion's orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields.

  9. Formation of hydrotalcite in aqueous solutions and intercalation of ATP by anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroki; Chiba, Jun; Ito, Masahiro; Takeda, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi; Mawatari, Yasuteru; Tabata, Masayoshi

    2006-08-15

    The formation reaction and the intercalation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were studied for hydrotalcite (HT), a layered double hydroxide (LDH) of magnesium and aluminum. Hydrotalcite with nitrate ions in the interlayer (HT-NO(3)) was formed (A) by dropwise addition of a solution of magnesium and aluminum nitrates (pH ca. 3) to a sodium hydroxide solution (pH ca. 14) until the pH decreased from 14 to 10 and (B) by dropwise addition of the NaOH solution to the solution of magnesium and aluminum nitrates with pH increasing from 3 to 10. The precipitate obtained with method B was contaminated with aluminum hydroxide and the crystallinity of the product was low, possibly because aluminum hydroxide precipitates at pH 4 or 5 and remains even after HT-NO(3) forms at pH above 8. With method A, however, the precipitate was pure HT-NO(3) with increased crystallinity, since the solubility of aluminum hydroxide at pH above and around 10 is high as dissolved aluminate anions are stable in this high pH region, and there was no aluminum hydroxide contamination. The formed HT-NO(3) had a composition of [Mg(0.71)Al(0.29)(OH)(2)](NO(3))(0.29).0.58H(2)O. To intercalate ATP anions into the HT-NO(3), HT-NO(3) was dispersed in an ATP solution at pH 7. It was found that the interlayer nitrate ions were completely exchanged with ATP anions by ion exchange, and the interlayer distance expanded almost twice with a free space distance of 1.2 nm. The composition of HT-ATP was established as [Mg(0.68)Al(0.32)(OH)(2)](ATP)(0.080)0.88H(2)O. The increased distance could be explained with a calculated molecular configuration of the ATP as follows: An ATP molecule is bound to an interlayer surface with the triphosphate group, the adenosine group bends owing to its bond angles and projects into the interlayer to a height of 1 nm, and the adenosine groups aligned in the interlayer support the interlayer distance.

  10. Standard Guide for Investigation/Study/Assay Tab-Delimited Format for Nanotechnologies (ISA-TAB-Nano): Standard File Format for the Submission and Exchange of Data on Nanomaterials and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    Standard Guide for Investigation/Study/Assay Tab-Delimited Format for Nanotechnologies (ISA-TAB-Nano): Standard File Format for the Submission and Exchange of Data on Nanomaterials and Characterizations

  11. ARTD1-induced poly-ADP-ribose formation enhances PPARγ ligand binding and co-factor exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Mareike; Pirinen, Eija; Mirsaidi, Ali; Kunze, Friedrich A; Richards, Peter J; Auwerx, Johan; Hottiger, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    PPARγ-dependent gene expression during adipogenesis is facilitated by ADP-ribosyltransferase D-type 1 (ARTD1; PARP1)-catalyzed poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) formation. Adipogenesis is accompanied by a dynamic modulation of the chromatin landscape at PPARγ target genes by ligand-dependent co-factor exchange. However, how endogenous PPARγ ligands, which have a low affinity for the receptor and are present at low levels in the cell, can induce sufficient co-factor exchange is unknown. Moreover, the significance of PAR formation in PPARγ-regulated adipose tissue function is also unknown. Here, we show that inhibition of PAR formation in mice on a high-fat diet reduces weight gain and cell size of adipocytes, as well as PPARγ target gene expression in white adipose tissue. Mechanistically, topoisomerase II activity induces ARTD1 recruitment to PPARγ target genes, and ARTD1 automodification enhances ligand binding to PPARγ, thus promoting sufficient transcriptional co-factor exchange in adipocytes. Thus, ARTD1-mediated PAR formation during adipogenesis is necessary to adequately convey the low signal of endogenous PPARγ ligand to effective gene expression. These results uncover a new regulatory mechanism of ARTD1-induced ADP-ribosylation and highlight its importance for nuclear factor-regulated gene expression. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Border to Beltway: A Formative Field Exchange Program between Two Community Colleges for Non-Traditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, J. I.; Bentley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Community College students account for over 40% of all undergraduates in the US as well as the majority of minority students attending undergraduate courses. With issues in the geosciences such as; being the least diverse of all major STEM fields, an increasing number of retiring geoscientists, and a projected geoscience job growth not matching the number of geoscience graduates, the geoscience community needs to look at community colleges as a solution to these issues. A key factor for students entering and excelling in the geoscience is the opportunity for formative undergraduate field experiences. Formative field experiences go beyond one-day field excursions by incorporating field projects, interactive learning, and community building between participants in regions students are unfamiliar with. Unfortunately, these types of formative experiences often require logistics and resources that are not available or known to community college faculty. In order to build a framework for implementing formative field experiences by community colleges a two-week "field exchange" between two community colleges with different geological, social, and cultural settings was conducted. Supported with a supplemental grant from NSF, the "Border to Beltway" program provided 11 students from El Paso Community College and another 13 from Northern Virginia Community College with two one-week regional geology field trips: First, to West Texas in March 2014, and second, to the mid-Atlantic region in May 2014. Students were selected based on academic standing, non-traditional (minority, female, over 35, veteran) status, and interest in geology. Qualitative data collected from participants regarding the implementation of the field exchange include; student perception of geology before and after exchange, challenges students faced in the field or traveling for the first time, quantity and quality of projects given, and working with others from different backgrounds. Data regarding planning

  13. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Saul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2 is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC, GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC, and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

  14. The common gut microbe Eubacterium hallii also contributes to intestinal propionate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eEngels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eubacterium hallii is considered an important microbe in regard to intestinal metabolic balance due to its ability to utilize glucose and the fermentation intermediates acetate and lactate, to form butyrate and hydrogen. Recently, we observed that E. hallii is capable of metabolizing glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA, reuterin with reported antimicrobial properties. The key enzyme for glycerol to 3-HPA conversion is the cobalamin-dependent glycerol/diol dehydratase PduCDE which also utilizes 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD to form propionate. Therefore our primary goal was to investigate glycerol to 3-HPA metabolism and 1,2-PD utilization by E. hallii along with its ability to produce cobalamin. We also investigated the relative abundance of E. hallii in stool of adults using 16S rRNA and pduCDE based gene screening to determine the contribution of E. hallii to intestinal propionate formation. We found that E. hallii utilizes glycerol to produce up to 9 mM 3-HPA but did not further metabolize 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD. Utilization of 1,2-PD in the presence and absence of glucose led to the formation of propanal, propanol and propionate. E. hallii formed cobalamin and was detected in stool of 74% of adults using 16S rRNA gene as marker gene (n = 325. Relative abundance of the E. hallii 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 0.59% with a mean relative abundance of 0.044%. E. hallii PduCDE was detected in 63 to 81% of the metagenomes depending on which subunit was investigated beside other taxons such as Ruminococcus obeum, Ruminococcus gnavus, Flavonifractor prautii, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Veillonella spp. In conclusion, we identified E. hallii as a common gut microbe with the ability to convert glycerol to 3-HPA, a step that requires the production of cobalamin, and to utilize 1,2-PD to form propionate. Our results along with its ability to use a broad range of substrates point at E. hallii as a key species within the intestinal

  15. GAMA/H-ATLAS: common star formation rate indicators and their dependence on galaxy physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Norberg, P.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Heinis, S.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Cooray, A.; da Cunha, E.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Grootes, M. W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Lacey, C.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Owers, M. S.; Popescu, C. C.; Smith, D. J. B.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-09-01

    We compare common star formation rate (SFR) indicators in the local Universe in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) equatorial fields (˜160 deg2), using ultraviolet (UV) photometry from GALEX, far-infrared and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) photometry from Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey, and Hα spectroscopy from the GAMA survey. With a high-quality sample of 745 galaxies (median redshift = 0.08), we consider three SFR tracers: UV luminosity corrected for dust attenuation using the UV spectral slope β (SFRUV, corr), Hα line luminosity corrected for dust using the Balmer decrement (BD) (SFRH α, corr), and the combination of UV and infrared (IR) emission (SFRUV + IR). We demonstrate that SFRUV, corr can be reconciled with the other two tracers after applying attenuation corrections by calibrating Infrared excess (IRX; i.e. the IR to UV luminosity ratio) and attenuation in the Hα (derived from BD) against β. However, β, on its own, is very unlikely to be a reliable attenuation indicator. We find that attenuation correction factors depend on parameters such as stellar mass (M*), z and dust temperature (Tdust), but not on Hα equivalent width or Sérsic index. Due to the large scatter in the IRX versus β correlation, when compared to SFRUV + IR, the β-corrected SFRUV, corr exhibits systematic deviations as a function of IRX, BD and Tdust.

  16. Common Objectives of the Formation of Mixed-Use City Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Bučys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Common objectives of the formation of mixed-use city centres are discussed, mostly focusing on local centres of residential districts. Vitality and viability are the main features of mixed-use city centres influencing the potential to encourage investment and adapt to changing needs of society. Seeking to improve vitality and competitiveness of local centres, in comparison with shopping and entertainment centres, there should be ensured sufficient density and flexibility to respond to the changing conditions, increased diversity of uses, enhanced environmental quality, maximized accessibility by public transport and by walking, reducing the need to travel by car. The largest part of residential district centres of Lithuanian cities were formed using the principle of separating pedestrian and vehicle flows and ignoring the integration of movement and social interaction, the historic function of streets. To improve accessibility there could be introduced, where appropriate, new streets inside a residential district. Another way to improve the structure of existing centres is to use undeveloped sites, orientating the new buildings so that they front the street and providing multistorey or underground car parking .Article in Lithuanian

  17. Oxygen isotope variations in granulite-grade iron formations: constraints on oxygen diffusion and retrograde isotopic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Z.D.; O'Neil, J.R.; Essene, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    The oxygen isotope ratios of various minerals were measured in a granulite-grade iron formation in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Estimates of temperature and pressure for the terrane using well calibrated geothermometers and geobarometers are 730??50?? C and 5.5??0.5 kbar. The mineral constraints on fluid compositions in the iron formation during retrogression require either very CO2-rich fluids or no fluid at all. In the iron formation, isotopic temperature estimates from quartz-magnetite fractionations are controlled by the proximity to the enclosing granitic gneiss, and range from 500?? C (??qz - mt=10.0???) within 2-3 meters of the orthogneiss contact to 600?? C (??qz - mt=8.0???) farther from the contact. Temperature estimates from other isotopic thermometers are in good agreement with those derived from the quartz-magnetite fractionations. During prograde metamorphism, the isotopic composition of the iron formation was lowered by the infiltration of an external fluid. Equilibrium was achieved over tens of meters. Closed-system retrograde exchange is consistent with the nearly constant whole-rock ??18Owr value of 8.0??0.6???. The greater ??qz-mt values in the iron formation near the orthogneiss contact are most likely due to a lower oxygen blocking temperature related to greater exchange-ability of deformed minerals at the contact. Cooling rates required to preserve the quartz-magnetite fractionations in the central portion of the iron formation are unreasonably high (???800?? C/Ma). In order to preserve the 600?? C isotopic temperature, the diffusion coefficient D (for ??-quartz) should be two orders of magnitude lower than the experimentally determined value of 2.5??10-16 cm2/s at 833 K. There are no values for the activation energy (Q) and pre-exponential diffusion coefficient (D0), consistent with the experimentally determined values, that will result in reasonable cooling rates for the Wind River iron formation. The discrepancy between the diffusion

  18. An integrated healthcare information system for end-to-end standardized exchange and homogeneous management of digital ECG formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Martínez, Ignacio; Alesanco, Alvaro; Kollmann, Alexander; Escayola, Javier; Hayn, Dieter; Schreier, Günter; García, José

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the application of the enterprise information system (EIS) paradigm to standardized cardiovascular condition monitoring. There are many specifications in cardiology, particularly in the ECG standardization arena. The existence of ECG formats, however, does not guarantee the implementation of homogeneous, standardized solutions for ECG management. In fact, hospital management services need to cope with various ECG formats and, moreover, several different visualization applications. This heterogeneity hampers the normalization of integrated, standardized healthcare information systems, hence the need for finding an appropriate combination of ECG formats and a suitable EIS-based software architecture that enables standardized exchange and homogeneous management of ECG formats. Determining such a combination is one objective of this paper. The second aim is to design and develop the integrated healthcare information system that satisfies the requirements posed by the previous determination. The ECG formats selected include ISO/IEEE11073, Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted Electrocardiography, and an ECG ontology. The EIS-enabling techniques and technologies selected include web services, simple object access protocol, extensible markup language, or business process execution language. Such a selection ensures the standardized exchange of ECGs within, or across, healthcare information systems while providing modularity and accessibility.

  19. Analysis of events with common cause failures (CCF) from the international common cause failure date exchange (ICDE); Analyse von Ereignissen mit gemeinsam verursachten Ausfaellen (GVA) aus dem internationalen GVA-Datenaustauschprojekt ICDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueck, Benjamin; Kreuser, Albert; Simon, Julia; Stiller, Jan

    2014-08-15

    Common-cause-failure (CCF) events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. In recognition of this, CCF data are systematically being collected and analyzed in several countries. A comprehensive evaluation of CCF events derived only from the operating experience in German nuclear power plants is not sufficient due to the low probability of occurrence of such events. Therefore it is necessary to make use of the operating experience of other countries using similar technology. In order to be able to use the CCF operating experience from other countries in the aim to carry on the development of the bases for evaluation of CCF GRS decisively co-initiated the setting up of an international common-cause failure working group. This working group has elaborated the project ''International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange'' (ICDE). The project's objective is to organize a broad exchange of information concerning observed events with relevance to common-cause failures. The tasks for preparation and evaluation of information of the ICDE working group serve for confirmation and extension of the common-cause failure knowledge with regards to probabilistic safety analyses, the better understanding of causes and mechanisms of common-cause failures and the evaluation of preventive measures against the occurrence of common-cause failures. The objectives of the exchange on a long term basis are to - improve the comprehension of CCF events and their causes and their prevention, - generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive and assess preventive measures against the occurrence of such events or their consequences, - establish an efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with observed common-cause failure phenomena which could be used e.g. for the development of indicators for risk based inspections, - provide quantitative information regarding the

  20. "One-Pot" Ion-Exchange and Mesopore Formation During Desilication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2009-01-01

    A desilication protocol using tetramethylammonium hydroxide was applied to zeolite beta. The new route presented here integrates the desilication and ion-exchange post-treatment steps allowing for a subsequent ion-exchange step to be avoided. It is shown that the acidic and highly mesoporous zeol...... zeolite is obtained directly upon calcination. Thus, careful choice of base and post-treatment conditions lead to the fabrication of a hierarchical meso- and microporous structure with completely retained crystallinity. (...

  1. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  2. Formation of periodic interfacial misfit dislocation array at the InSb/GaAs interface via surface anion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Bo Wen; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-07-21

    The relationship between growth temperature and the formation of periodic interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocations via the anion exchange process in InSb/GaAs heteroepitaxy was systematically investigated. The microstructural and electrical properties of the epitaxial layer were characterized using atomic force microscope, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall resistance measurement. The formation of interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocation arrays depended on growth temperature. A uniformly distributed IMF array was found in a sample grown at 310 °C, which also exhibited the lowest threading dislocation density. The analysis suggested that an incomplete As-for-Sb anion exchange process impeded the formation of IMF on sample grown above 310 °C. At growth temperature below 310 °C, island coalescence led to the formation of 60° dislocations and the disruption of periodic IMF array. All samples showed higher electron mobility at 300 K than at 77 K.

  3. Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) Blended with Poly (vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene for the Formation of Anion Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    documentation. 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Anion ...functionalization reached high conversion as characterized by ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements. The PPO blend anion exchange membranes (AEMs...vinylbenzyl chloride)‑b‑polystyrene for the Formation of Anion Exchange Membranes Yifan Li,† Aaron C. Jackson,‡ Frederick L. Beyer,‡ and Daniel M

  4. 47 CFR 69.104 - End user common line for non-price cap incumbent local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) of this section for Basic Rate Interface integrated services digital network (ISDN) service. (2) No... assessed upon end users that subscribe to local exchange telephone service or Centrex service to the extent... per month shall be assessed upon providers of public telephones. Such charges shall be assessed...

  5. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (♂) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0 became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A1). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A1 fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A1, there were 85% tetraploids (A1-4n), 10% triploids (A1-3n) and 5% diploids (A1-2n), suggesting that diploid A0 could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A0 was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A1, only A1-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A1-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A1-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A1-4n developed well and mainly contained Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ-stage oocytes. The Ⅳ-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of Ⅳ-stage oocytes. Because A1-2n and A1-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A1-4n fish not

  6. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with

  7. Heat transfer, condensation and fog formation in crossflow plastic heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer of air-water-vapour mixtures in plastic crossflow heat exchangers is studied theoretically and experimentally. First, a model for heat transfer without condensation is derived, resulting in a set of classical differential equations. Subsequently, heat transfer with wall c

  8. Heat transfer, condensation and fog formation in crossflow plastic heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; van der Geld, C.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer of air-water-vapour mixtures in plastic crossflow heat exchangers is studied theoretically and experimentally. First, a model for heat transfer without condensation is derived, resulting in a set of classical differential equations. Subsequently, heat transfer with wall

  9. Chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1 : 1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1997-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1:1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation has been investigated in an intensively stirred batch reactor: MHCO3(aq) + H2(aq) ↔ MOOCH(aq) + H2O(l) This was accomplished for the sodium (M = Na), potassium (M = K) and ammonium (M

  10. Chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1 : 1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1997-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1:1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation has been investigated in an intensively stirred batch reactor: MHCO3(aq) + H2(aq) ↔ MOOCH(aq) + H2O(l) This was accomplished for the sodium (M = Na), potassium (M = K) and ammonium (M

  11. Diversity of Gender and Formation of Ingroup: a Contribution of Leader - Member Exchange Theory - LMX

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Derly Jardim do; Godoy, Arilda Schimidt; César,Ana Maria Roux Valentini Coelho; Silva,Adilson Aderito da

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between the Leader and Member Exchange Theory - LMX´s assumptions and the diversity of genders. To accomplish it, a questionnaire named LMX-MDM developed by Liden and Maslyn (1998) was used. The instrument is composed by 11 propositions that measures the multidimensionality of LMX. The questionnaire was submitted to a reversed translation process and was applied on a sample of students from Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, lo...

  12. 对继续完善人民币汇率形成机制的思考%Thinking on RMB Exchange Rate Formation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玮

    2012-01-01

    本文试图解决以下问题:人民币汇率形成机制存在哪些问题;人民币汇率形成机制的缺陷对于我国的宏观经济和微观经济主体造成哪些影响;针对人民币汇率形成机制的缺陷,我国应该如何继续推进汇改。认清人民币汇率形成机制的缺陷以及对我国经济的影响,对于继续推进人民币汇率形成机制改革,保证我国经济平稳、持续增长具有现实意义。%This thesis will define the formation mechanism of RMB exchange rate as macro, meso and micro three levels. The macro level refers to the basic theory of the exchange rate, the meso level refers to the choice theory of ex- change rate and the micro level refers to the adjustment theory of exchange rate. After the definition of the RMB ex- change rate formation mechanism, this paper attempts to address the following issues: the problems the current RMB exchange rate formation mechanism; the impact on China' s macroeconomic and microeconomic main bodies because of the defect of the formation mechanism of RMB exchange rate; how to reform on the issues of the defect of the current RMB exchange rate formation mechanism. Having a clear awareness on the deficiencies of the current exchange rate formation mechanism and the influence on our nations' economy has the practical significance on promoting the reform of RMB exchange rate formation mechanism, and ensuring the stable and sustained growth of the economy.

  13. An Experimental Analysis of Price Formation on the Polish Power Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drabik Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polish energy market gained its competitive character in late 1990s. At that time in majority of European countries a new law was enacted (in Poland – in 1987, which enabled the creation of internal energy markets. The Polish Power Exchange has been functioning since the end of 1999. However, from the very onset it has constituted a vital component of under grounding liberalization of electricity market. Since it was created the Polish Power Exchange has served as a market mechanism for setting objective energy market price. Support and control of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority guarantee the security of concluded transactions. The spot energy market was created as the first one and has functioned according to the rule of the double auction. The model of Sadrieh will be used for the description of the auction rules applied to the spot energy trade on the Polish Power Exchange. Furthermore, an algorithm on the basis of which it is possible to forecast transaction prices is presented. The effectiveness of this algorithm will be compared with other traditional methods of forecasting transaction prices.

  14. Production of 61Cu using natural cobalt target and its separation using ascorbic acid and common anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujata Saha; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; Das, Malay Kanti

    2012-02-01

    (61)Cu was produced by (nat)Co(α, xn)(61)Cu reaction. (61)Cu production yield was 89.5 MBq/μAh (2.42 mCi/μAh) at the end of irradiation (EOI). A simple radiochemical separation method using anion exchange resin and ascorbic acid has been employed to separate the product radionuclide from inactive target material and co-produced non-isotopic impurities. The radiochemical separation yield was about 90%. Radiochemical purity of (61)Cu was >99% 1 h after EOI. Final product was suitable for making complex with N(2)S(2) type of ligands.

  15. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric ac......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  16. Production of {sup 61}Cu using natural cobalt target and its separation using ascorbic acid and common anion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujata Saha; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna [Radiopharmaceuticals Laboratory, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata 700064 (India); Das, Malay Kanti, E-mail: mkdas@vecc.gov.in [Radiopharmaceuticals Laboratory, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2012-02-15

    {sup 61}Cu was produced by {sup nat}Co({alpha}, xn){sup 61}Cu reaction. {sup 61}Cu production yield was 89.5 MBq/{mu}Ah (2.42 mCi/{mu}Ah) at the end of irradiation (EOI). A simple radiochemical separation method using anion exchange resin and ascorbic acid has been employed to separate the product radionuclide from inactive target material and co-produced non-isotopic impurities. The radiochemical separation yield was about 90%. Radiochemical purity of {sup 61}Cu was >99% 1 h after EOI. Final product was suitable for making complex with N{sub 2}S{sub 2} type of ligands. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High purity, no-carrier added {sup 61}Cu produced from natural cobalt target. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 61}Cu separated from impurities using anion exchange resin and ascorbic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 61}Cu preparation was successfully used to label N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-type of ligand.

  17. Human Motivation in the Digital Commons: Reflections on Robbie McClintock's Conception of Formative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marzio, Derryl; Ignaffo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background & Purpose: According to McClintock, persons and groups exercise formative justice as a strategy of selecting the behaviors, powers, and potentials that ought to receive educational attention to achieve their maximization. We argue that the question of what motivates individuals and collectives to utilize certain capacities to…

  18. Most Common Teacher Characteristics Related to Intentionality in Student Spiritual Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Teachers have the important commission of guiding students in their spiritual formation, which is the process through which an individual accepts Jesus Christ as Savior and continually becomes more like Him. Given this task, Christian teachers are able to be intentional within classroom management, through instruction, and by modeling. Teachers…

  19. System Consolidation During Sleep - A Common Principle Underlying Psychological and Immunological Memory Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, Jürgen; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conv

  20. System consolidation during sleep - a common principle underlying psychological and immunological memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, J.; Lange, T.; Textor, J.C.; Born, J. van den

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conv

  1. 77 FR 22322 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .../recording system; rather the formats are intended to enhance the ability of health care providers to report... international reporting systems (e.g., from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Australia). In addition... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration--as well as the DoD and VA. When developing...

  2. 76 FR 12358 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Formats will be developed for ambulatory settings, such as ambulatory surgery centers and physician and... health agencies within the HHS--CDC, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, FDA, Health Resources and... of Public Health and Science, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration--as...

  3. 75 FR 16140 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Formats Version 1.1 can be accessed electronically at the following HHS Web site: http://www.PSO.AHRQ.gov... electronically at http://www.PSO.AHRQ.gov/regulations/regulations.htm . In order to facilitate standardized data... Information Technology, the Office of Public Health and Science, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health...

  4. Formation and Characterization of Hydrogen Boride Sheets Derived from MgB2 by Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hiroaki; Fujita, Takeshi; Cuong, Nguyen Thanh; Tominaka, Satoshi; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Iimura, Soshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Umezawa, Naoto; Okada, Susumu; Nishibori, Eiji; Fujino, Asahi; Fujimori, Tomohiro; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Junji; Hosono, Hideo; Kondo, Takahiro

    2017-10-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising for applications in a wide range of fields because of their unique properties. Hydrogen boride sheets, a new 2D material recently predicted from theory, exhibit intriguing electronic and mechanical properties as well as hydrogen storage capacity. Here, we report the experimental realization of 2D hydrogen boride sheets with an empirical formula of H1B1, produced by exfoliation and complete ion-exchange between protons and magnesium cations in magnesium diboride (MgB2) with an average yield of 42.3% at room temperature. The sheets feature an sp(2)-bonded boron planar structure without any long-range order. A hexagonal boron network with bridge hydrogens is suggested as the possible local structure, where the absence of long-range order was ascribed to the presence of three different anisotropic domains originating from the 2-fold symmetry of the hydrogen positions against the 6-fold symmetry of the boron networks, based on X-ray diffraction, X-ray atomic pair distribution functions, electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photo absorption, core-level binding energy data, infrared absorption, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. The established cation-exchange method for metal diboride opens new avenues for the mass production of several types of boron-based 2D materials by countercation selection and functionalization.

  5. Formation of silver nanoclusters in transparent polyimides by Ag-K ion-exchange process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carturan, S.; Quaranta, A.; Bonafini, M.; Vomiero, A.; Maggioni, G.; Mattei, G.; de Julián Fernández, C.; Bersani, M.; Mazzoldi, P.; Della Mea, G.

    2007-05-01

    Silver nanoclusters embedded in two transparent fluorinated polyimides, 4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl paraphenylene diamine (6FDA-DAD) and 3,3',4,4' biphenyltetracarboxylic acid dianhydride 1,1-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1-phenyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (BPDA-3F), have been produced by surface modification with KOH aqueous solution followed by K-assisted Ag doping and thermal reduction in hydrogen atmosphere. The reaction rate of the nucleophilic hydrolysis in KOH, studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), depends on the polyimide chemical structure. After ion-exchange in AgNO{3} solution and subsequent annealing, the polyimide structure recovery was monitored by FT-IR whereas the characteristic surface plasmon absorption band of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by optical absorption measurements. The structure of silver nanoclusters as related to size and size distribution in the different polyimide matrices was thoroughly investigated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The collected data evidenced a uniform distribution of Ag clusters of nanometric size after thermal treatment at 300 circC in both polyimides. For the same ion-exchange treatment parameters and annealing temperature, XRD analyses evidenced the presence of crystallites with similar sizes.

  6. Summative and Formative Assessments in Mathematics Supporting the Goals of the Common Core Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Being proficient in mathematics involves having rich and connected mathematical knowledge, being a strategic and reflective thinker and problem solver, and having productive mathematical beliefs and dispositions. This broad set of mathematics goals is central to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. High-stakes testing often drives…

  7. 76 FR 16785 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Meeting for Software Developers on the...), published in the Federal Register on November 21, 2008: 73 FR 70731-70814. AHRQ coordinates the development... where PSOs and software developers can provide input on these technical ] specifications for the Common...

  8. Effect of common cryoprotectants on critical warming rates and ice formation in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jesse B; Badeau, Ryan; Warkentin, Matthew; Thorne, Robert E

    2012-12-01

    Ice formation on warming is of comparable or greater importance to ice formation on cooling in determining survival of cryopreserved samples. Critical warming rates required for ice-free warming of vitrified aqueous solutions of glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 200 and sucrose have been measured for warming rates of order 10-10⁴ K/s. Critical warming rates are typically one to three orders of magnitude larger than critical cooling rates. Warming rates vary strongly with cooling rates, perhaps due to the presence of small ice fractions in nominally vitrified samples. Critical warming and cooling rate data spanning orders of magnitude in rates provide rigorous tests of ice nucleation and growth models and their assumed input parameters. Current models with current best estimates for input parameters provide a reasonable account of critical warming rates for glycerol solutions at high concentrations/low rates, but overestimate both critical warming and cooling rates by orders of magnitude at lower concentrations and larger rates. In vitrification protocols, minimizing concentrations of potentially damaging cryoprotectants while minimizing ice formation will require ultrafast warming rates, as well as fast cooling rates to minimize the required warming rates.

  9. A hospital information system based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for exchanging distributed medical objects--an approach to future environment of sharing healthcare information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, K

    1998-01-01

    Tightly related subsystems in a HIS have to exchange medical data flexibly by the data object rather than by the battery of the data. We developed a CPR subsystem based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) that retrieves and stores clinical information in the object-oriented database via Internet Intra-ORB Protocol (IIOP). The system is hybridized with the legacy HIS applications on the client terminals. We believe that our solution and the experiences will contribute to the future CORBA-based environment in which computerized patient information is shared among hospitals, clinics, and tightly related systems.

  10. The causes of milk deposit formation on the walls of the heat exchangers during the heat treatment of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Matijević

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on finding the causes and preventing the formation of milk deposit are described in this paper.During the heat treatment of milk, an unwanted phenomenon occurs; the formation of milk deposit on heating surfaces of heat exchangers. This phenomenon causes the decrease of heat transfer coefficient as well as the pressure drop, it restricts the flow of milk, and causes additional production costs and increases production loss.The formation of milk deposit is a result of complex processes caused by thermal treatment of proteins and mineral substances in milk. Factors which cause milk deposit are: pH - value, the amount of proteins and mineral substances in milk, dissolved gases in milk, characteristics of heating surface, the difference in temperatures of milk and heating surfaces, and the regime of milk circulation. The chemical composition of milk can not be influenced, but the standards of heat treatment in order to minimise this phenomenon can, and that is precisely the topic of the latest researches.

  11. Energy Expenditure and Bone Formation Share a Common Sensitivity to AP-1 Transcription in the Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Glenn C.; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa; Saito, Hiroaki; Yin, Min; Green, Thomas A.; Lotinun, Sutada; Kveiborg, Marie; Horne, William C.; Nestler, Eric J.; Baron, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of bone and fat homeostasis and its relationship to energy expenditure has recently been the focus of increased attention due to its potential relevance to osteoporosis, obesity and diabetes. Although central effectors within the hypothalamus have been shown to contribute to the regulation of both energy balance and bone homeostasis, little is known of the underlying mechanisms, including the possible involvement of transcriptional factors within the hypothalamus. Transgenic mice overexpressing ΔFosB, a splice variant of the AP1 transcription factor FosB with mixed agonist-antagonistic properties, have increased energy expenditure and bone mass. Since these mice express ΔFosB in bone, fat and hypothalamus, we sought to determine 1) whether overexpression of ΔFosB within the hypothalamus was sufficient to regulate energy expenditure and whether it would also regulate bone mass, and 2) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ΔFosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass. This effect was phenocopied, at an even stronger level, by overexpressiong of a dominant-negative DNJunD, a pure AP1 antagonist. Taken together these results suggest that downregulation of AP1 activity in the hypothalamus profoundly increases energy expenditure and bone formation, leading to both a decrease in adipose mass and an increase in bone mass. These findings may have physiological implications since ΔFosB is expressed and regulated in the hypothalamus. PMID:22461201

  12. Formation of Semimetallic Cobalt Telluride Nanotube Film via Anion Exchange Tellurization Strategy in Aqueous Solution for Electrocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Supriya A; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Chang, Jinho; Lee, Joong Kee; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2015-11-25

    Metal telluride nanostructures have demonstrated several potential applications particularly in harvesting and storing green energy. Metal tellurides are synthesized by tellurization process performed basically at high temperature in reducing gas atmosphere, which makes the process expensive and complicated. The development of a facile and economical process for desirable metal telluride nanostructures without complicated manipulation is still a challenge. In an effort to develop an alternative strategy of tellurization, herein we report a thin film formation of self-standing cobalt telluride nanotubes on various conducting and nonconducting substrates using a simple binder-free synthetic strategy based on anion exchange transformation from a thin film of cobalt hydroxycarbonate nanostructures in aqueous solution at room temperature. The nanostructured films before and after ion exchange transformation reaction are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thin film X-ray diffraction technique, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction analysis technique. After the ion exchange transformation of nanostructures, the film shows conversion from insulator to highly electrical conductive semimetallic characteristic. When used as a counter electrode in I3(-)/I(-) redox electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells, the telluride film exhibits an electrocatalytic reduction activity for I3(-) with a demonstration of solar-light to electrical power conversion efficiency of 8.10%, which is highly competitive to the efficiency of 8.20% exhibited by a benchmarked Pt-film counter electrode. On the other hand, the telluride film electrode also demonstrates electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction from oxidation of water.

  13. Absence of an effect of lead acetate on sperm morphology, sister chromatid exchanges or on micronuclei formation in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, M.I.; Immel, H.R.; de Schepper, G.G.; Dietrich, A.J.J.; Wibowo, A.A.E.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    The influence of lead on sperm morphology, sister chromatid exchanges or on micronuclei formation was studied on male rabbits after exposure to doses of 0, 0.25, and 0.50 mg lead acetate/kg body weight subcutaneously injected three times a week during 14 weeks, each on a group of five rabbits. At the end of exposure phase the lead in blood concentrations of the three groups of rabbits were 0.32, 2.57, and 2.97 ..mu..mol/l respectively. The results did not show any evidence of treatment related effects on sperm count or on morphologic abnormalities of the sperms, neither on the histopathology of the testis. Statistical analysis of the number of sister chromatid exchanges per metaphase in lymphocytes indicated no differences between the groups. Also no dose dependent effect was observed on the relative number of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes. The different susceptibility to lead in different organ systems of the rabbits was discussed.

  14. Non-equilibrium H$_2$ formation in the early Universe: energy exchanges, rate coefficients and spectral distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Coppola, Carla Maria; Galli, Daniele; Tennyson, Jonathan; Longo, Savino

    2012-01-01

    Energy exchange processes play a crucial role in the early Universe, affecting the thermal balance and the dynamical evolution of the primordial gas. In the present work we focus on the consequences of a non-thermal distribution of the level populations of H$_2$: first, we determine the excitation temperatures of vibrational transitions and the non-equilibrium heat transfer; second, we compare the modifications to chemical reaction rate coefficients with respect to the values obtained assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium; third, we compute the spectral distortions to the cosmic background radiation generated by the formation of H$_2$ in vibrationally excited levels. We conclude that non-equilibrium processes cannot be ignored in cosmological simulations of the evolution of baryons, although their observational signatures remain below current limits of detection. New fits to the equilibrium and non-equilibrium heat transfer functions are provided.

  15. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily").

  16. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  17. TO THE QUESTION OF THE FORMATION OF A COMMON INFORMATION SPACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tzuanbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the possibilities, challenges, prerequisites and the reasons of necessity of forming a common information space between Russia and China. In the current situation of the development of RussianChinese relations, both countries are extremely interested in having their image abroad was attractive and contributed to the development of interstate economic, political and cultural ties. The analysis of theoretical sources covering specific aspects of RussianChinese cooperation information. It is revealed that both Russia and China for a long time and are constantly carrying out a great job on the lighting policy of their countries abroad. The characteristic of leading Chinese media, published in Russian. The issue of presence of Chinese subjects in the Russian media space is one of the important components of RussianChinese relations. Considered the circumstances and current state of bilateral interstate information interaction, the factors of the complexity of the bilingual creation of a common information space between two countries with different socio-cultural traditions and a long history of inter-state relations on the example of Russian Federation and China. The main complexity of bilateral information cooperation still is the lack of consistency in the coverage of Chinese subjects in the Russian media and Russian subjects by the Chinese media, as well as the lack of good relations and communications between the media of two countries. It is necessary to overcome lack of awareness of our peoples about each other and lack of mutual understanding of cultures. Way of addressing this issue may be the organization of the bilingual print publications, Internet-portals, TV-channels, joint broadcasting with the support of the two countries. As a result of the research as the most effective solutions is substantiated and proposed the establishment of Sino-Russian media holding.

  18. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  19. Separation and characterization of the two diastereomers for [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH2)(H2O)]2-, a common synthon in macromolecular MRI contrast agents: their water exchange and isomerization kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burai, László; Tóth, Eva; Sour, Angélique; Merbach, André E

    2005-05-16

    Chiral, bifunctional poly(amino carboxylate) ligands are commonly used for the synthesis of macromolecular, Gd(III)-based MRI contrast agents, prepared in the objective of increasing relaxivity or delivering the paramagnetic Gd(III) to a specific site (targeting). Complex formation with such ligands results in two diastereomeric forms for the complex which can be separated by HPLC. We demonstrated that the diastereomer ratio for Ln(III) DTPA derivatives (approximately 60:40) remains constant throughout the lanthanide series, in contrast to Ln(III) EPTPA derivatives, where it varies as a function of the cation size with a maximum for the middle lanthanides (DTPA(5-) = diethylenetriaminepentaacetate; EPTPA(5-) = ethylenepropylenetriaminepentaacetate). The interconversion of the two diastereomers, studied by HPLC, is a proton-catalyzed process (k(obs) = k(1)[H(+)]). It is relatively fast for [Gd(EPTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-) but slow enough for [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-) to allow investigation of pure individual isomers (isomerization rate constants are k(1) = (3.03 +/- 0.07) x 10(4) and 11.6 +/- 0.5 s(-1) M(-1) for [Gd(EPTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2)(-) and [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-), respectively). Individual water exchange rates have been determined for both diastereomers of [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-) by a variable-temperature (17)O NMR study. Similarly to Ln(III) EPTPA derivatives, k(ex) values differ by a factor of 2 (k(ex)(298) = (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) and (3.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) s(-1)). This variance in the exchange rate has no consequence on the proton relaxivity of the two diastereomers, since it is solely limited by fast rotation. However, such difference in k(ex) will affect proton relaxivity when these diastereomers are linked to a slowly rotating macromolecule. Once the rotation is optimized, slow water exchange will limit relaxivity; thus, a factor of 2 in the exchange rate can lead to a remarkably different relaxivity for the diastereomer complexes

  20. Spot Markets Indices as Benchmarks of Formation of Future Price Trends in the Power Exchanges of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikevych Nataliya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with a theoretical generalization of the use of indices for electric power at the European spot exchanges and elaborating proposals on establishment of a similar spot index for the Ukrainian power exchange. 16 indices that are published daily by the power exchanges BSP Regional Energy Exchange, Power Exchange Central Europe, Polish Power Exchange and Opcom have been analyzed. It has been indicated that these indices are used for electricity price forecasting and monitoring the situation in the power market. The article examines the way spot indices are calculated by power exchanges, based on the value of the arithmetic average of market prices «day ahead». Imperfection of such way of calculation for price index values has been substantiated. The key characteristics of the future price index for Ukrainian spot market as benchmarks within the introduction of futures contracts for electricity have been identified.

  1. A software program for exchanging MR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, P B; Jensen, J A; Henriksen, O

    1993-01-01

    of digital MR images of the human brain. Because there was no common data format, software package was developed for data exchange. This article describes the basic features of the developed software. The software package was written in the language of C and was successfully tested on an IBM-6150 UNIX......In an MR multicenter project, data exchange is a problem because most MR scanners do not use the same data format or have data export facilities. In the COMAC-BME Concerted Action on Tissue Characterization by MRS and MRI, a subgroup of seven MR centers had a need for data exchange in the form...

  2. Clustered Low-Rank Tensor Format: Introduction and Application to Fast Construction of Hartree-Fock Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Cannada A; Valeev, Edward F

    2015-01-01

    Clustered Low Rank (CLR) framework for block-sparse and block-low-rank tensor representation and computation is described. The CLR framework depends on 2 parameters that control precision: one controlling the CLR block rank truncation and another that controls screening of small contributions in arithmetic operations on CLR tensors. As these parameters approach zero CLR representation and arithmetic become exact. There are no other ad-hoc heuristics, such as domains. Use of the CLR format for the order-2 and order-3 tensors that appear in the context of density fitting (DF) evaluation of the Hartree-Fock (exact) exchange significantly reduced the storage and computational complexities below their standard $\\mathcal{O}(N^3)$ and $\\mathcal{O}(N^4)$ figures. Even for relatively small systems and realistic basis sets CLR-based DF HF becomes more efficient than the standard DF approach, and significantly more efficient than the conventional non-DF HF, while negligibly affecting molecular energies and properties.

  3. Insights in understanding aggregate formation and dissociation in cation exchange chromatography for a structurally unstable Fc-fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Huang, Chao; Chennamsetty, Naresh; Xu, Xuankuo; Li, Zheng Jian

    2016-08-19

    Cation-exchange chromatography (CEX) of a structurally unstable Fc-fusion protein exhibited multi-peak elution profile upon a salt-step elution due to protein aggregation during intra-column buffer transition where low pH and high salt coexisted. The protein exhibited a single-peak elution behavior during a pH-step elution; nevertheless, the levels of soluble aggregates (i.e. high molecular weight species, HMW) in the CEX eluate were still found up to 12-fold higher than that for the load material. The amount of the aggregates formed upon the pH-step elution was dependent on column loading with maximum HMW achieved at intermediate loading levels, supporting the hypothesis that the aggregation was the result of both the conformational changes of the bound protein and the solution concentration of the aggregation-susceptible proteins during elution. Factors such as high load pH, short protein/resin contact time, hydrophilic resin surface, and weak ionizable ligand were effective, to some extent, to reduce aggregate formation by improving the structural integrity of the bound protein. An orthogonal technique, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) using Sypro Orange dye confirmed that the bound protein exposed more hydrophobic area than the native molecule in free solution, especially in the pH 4-5 range. The Sypro Orange dye study of resin surface property also demonstrated that the poly[styrene-divinylbenzene]-based Poros XS with polyhydroxyl surface coating is more hydrophobic compared to the agarose-based CM Sepharose FF and SP Sepharose FF. The hydrophobic property of Poros XS contributed to stronger interactions with the partially unfolded bound protein and consequently to the higher aggregate levels seen in Poros XS eluate. This work also investigates the aggregation reversibility in CEX eluate where up to 66% of the aggregates were observed to dissociate into native monomers over a period of 120h, and links the aggregate stability to such conditions as resin

  4. Dynamic model of counter flow air to air heat exchanger for comfort ventilation with condensation and frost formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    In cold climates heat recovery in the ventilation system is essential to reduce heating energy demand. Condensation and freezing occur often in efficient heat exchangers used in cold climates. To develop efficient heat exchangers and defrosting strategies for cold climates, heat and mass transfer...

  5. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics of mineral pairs in closed and open systems: Applications to problems of hydrothermal alteration of igneous rocks and Precambrian iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, R.T.; Criss, R.E.; Taylor, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    heat-balance constraints, we can utilize the 18O 16O data on natural mineral assemblages to calculate the kinetic rate constants (k's) and the effective diffusion constants (D's) for mineral-H2O exchange: these calculated values (kqtz ??? 10-14, kfeld ??? 10-13-10-12) agree with experimental determinations of such constants. In nature, once the driving force or energy source for the external infiltrating fluid phase is removed, the disequilibrium mineral-pair arrays will either: (1) remain "frozen" in their existing state, if the temperatures are low enough, or (2) re-equilibrate along specific closed-system exchange vectors determined solely by the temperature path and the mineral modal proportions. Thus, modal mineralogical information is a particularly important parameter in both the open- and closed-system scenarios, and should in general always be reported in stable-isotopic studies of mineral assemblages. These concepts are applied to an analysis of 18O 16O systematics of gabbros (Plagioclase-clinopyroxene and plagioclase-amphibole pairs), granitic plutons (quartz-feldspar pairs), and Precambrian siliceous iron formations (quartz-magnetite pairs). In all these examples, striking regularities are observed on ??-?? and ??-?? plots, but we point out that ??-?? plots have many advantages over their equivalent ??-?? diagrams, as the latter are more susceptible to misinterpretation. Using the equations developed in this study, these regularities can be interpreted to give semiquantitative information on the exchange histories of these rocks subsequent to their formation. In particular, we present a new interpretation indicating that Precambrian cherty iron formations have in general undergone a complex fluid exchange history in which the iron oxide (magnetite precursor?) has exchanged much faster with low-temperature (< 400??C) fluids than has the relatively inert quartz. ?? 1989.

  6. GAMA/H-ATLAS: Common star-formation rate indicators and their dependence on galaxy physical parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L; Gunawardhana, M L P; Heinis, S; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bourne, N; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Cluver, M E; Cooray, A; da Cunha, E; Driver, S P; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Grootes, M W; Holwerda, B W; Hopkins, A M; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Lacey, C; Lara-Lopez, M A; Loveday, J; Maddox, S J; lowski, M J Micha; Oteo, I; Owers, M S; Popescu, C C; Smith, D J B; Taylor, E N; Tuffs, R J; van der Werf, P

    2016-01-01

    We compare common star-formation rate (SFR) indicators in the local Universe in the GAMA equatorial fields (around 160 sq. deg.), using ultraviolet (UV) photometry from GALEX, far-infrared (FIR) and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) photometry from H-ATLAS, and Halpha spectroscopy from the GAMA survey. With a high-quality sample of 745 galaxies (median redshift 0.08), we consider three SFR tracers: UV luminosity corrected for dust attenuation using the UV spectral slope beta (SFRUV,corr), Halpha line luminosity corrected for dust using the Balmer decrement (BD) (SFRHalpha,corr), and the combination of UV and IR emission (SFRUV+IR). We demonstrate that SFRUV,corr can be reconciled with the other two tracers after applying attenuation corrections by calibrating IRX (i.e. the IR to UV luminosity ratio) and attenuation in the Halpha (derived from BD) against beta. However, beta on its own is very unlikely to be a reliable attenuation indicator. We find that attenuation correction factors depend on parameters such as stella...

  7. Exchange of interlayer terephthalate anions from a Mg Al layered double hydroxide: formation of intermediate interstratified phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyoshi, Masami; Jones, William

    1998-10-01

    The exchange of interlayer terephthalate (TA) anions from a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by carbonate, sulfate, chloride and nitrate anions is reported. It is shown that TA is readily exchanged by CO 32- and SO 42- but only partly by Cl - and NO 3-. We demonstrate that during the exchange process interstratified phases are observed. Such interstratification has previously been reported only for directly synthesised materials. The origin of the interstratification is believed to be associated with two preferred orientations of TA anions within the layers, i.e. vertical or horizontal to the clay sheets. Two models for the possible exchange mechanism which is operating in these systems are proposed.

  8. Ten Common Misunderstandings, Misconceptions, Persistent Myths and Urban Legends about Likert Scales and Likert Response Formats and their Antidotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Carifio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent article by Jamieson in Medical Education outlined some of the (alleged abuses of “Likert scales” with suggestions about how researchers can overcome some of the (alleged methodological pitfalls and limitations[1]. However, many of the ideas advanced in the Jamison article, as well as a great many of articles it cited, and similar recent articles in medical, health, psychology, and educational journals and books, are themselves common misunderstandings, misconceptions, conceptual errors, persistent myths and “urban legends” about “Likert scales” and their characteristics and qualities that have been propagated and perpetuated across six decades, for a variety of different reasons. This article identifies, analyses and traces many of these aforementioned problems and presents the arguments, counter arguments and empirical evidence that show these many persistent claims and myths about “Likert scales” to be factually incorrect and untrue. Many studies have shown that Likert Scales (as opposed to single Likert response format items produce interval data and that the F-test is very robust to violations of the interval data assumption and moderate skewing and may be used to analyze “Likert data” (even if it is ordinal, but not on an item-by-item “shotgun” basis, which is simply a current research and analysis practice that must stop. After sixty years, it is more than time to dispel these particular research myths and urban legends as well as the various damage and problems they cause, and put them to bed and out of their misery once and for

  9. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-07-14

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos.

  10. [Biofouling of heat exchange tubes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, F; Pintado, J L

    1994-01-01

    We compared the biofouling behavior of different materials (admiralty brass, stainless steel, and titanium) commonly used to construct heat exchangers in thermoelectric plants. The incidence of film formation on the loss of heat during transference was assessed, and analyzed in terms of plant efficiency and corrosion, both general and localized development. Our results showed that the resistance of titanium and stainless steel to corrosion was similar, and much better than that of admiralty brass. Biofouling, however, was higher in the first two materials.

  11. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On April 1st,2014,CPAPD Deputy Secretary General Ms.Chen Huaifan met with Mr.Djudjuk Juyoto Suntani,President of the World Peace Committee,Indonesia,who headed the delegation,in the CPAPD office.The two sides exchanged views on issues of common concern including cooperation between the two organizations and the inheritance of Chinese culture.

  12. Performance Improvement Based Authentication Protocol for Intervessel Traffic Service Data Exchange Format Protocol Based on U-Navigation System in WoT Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunggil Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA is developing the standard intersystem VTS exchange format (IVEF protocol for exchange of navigation and vessel information between VTS systems and between VTS and vessels. VTS (vessel traffic system is an important marine traffic monitoring system which is designed to improve the safety and efficiency of navigation and the protection of the marine environment. And the demand of Inter-VTS networking has been increased for realization of e-Navigation as shore side collaboration for maritime safety. And IVEF (inter-VTS data exchange format for inter-VTS network has become a hot research topic of VTS system. Currently, the IVEF developed by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA does not include any highly trusted certification technology for the connectors. The output of standardization is distributed as the IALA recommendation V-145, and the protocol is implemented with an open source. The IVEF open source, however, is the code used to check the functions of standard protocols. It is too slow to be used in the field and requires a large memory. And the vessel traffic information requires high security since it is highly protected by the countries. Therefore, this paper suggests the authentication protocol to increase the security of the VTS systems using the main certification server and IVEF.

  13. Formation of ZnSe/Bi2Se3 QDs by surface cation exchange and high photothermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhi Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water-dispersed core/shell structure ZnSe/Bi2Se3 quantum dots were synthesized by ultrasonicwave-assisted cation exchange reaction. Only surface Zn ion can be replaced by Bi ion in ZnSe quantum dots, which lead to the ultrathin Bi2Se3 shell layer formed. It is significance to find to change the crystal of QDs due to the acting of ultrasonicwave. Cation exchange mechanism and excellent photothermal conversion properties are discussed in detail.

  14. ELIMINATING COMMON TROUBLES OF LON-EXCHANGER AND DISCARDING 001*7 STRONG ACID RESIN%离子交换器常见故障的排除及001×7强酸树脂的报废

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广珠; 汪德良; 崔焕芳; 吴文; 邵林

    2001-01-01

    分析离子交换器的常见故障,并指出排除故障的方法。介绍判定001×7强酸性阳离子交换树脂劣化的方法,给出了树脂更换、报废的规则。%Common troubles of ion-exchanger are analyzed and the method of eliminating failure is presented.The method of evaluation on deterioration of 001.7 strong acid ion exchange resin is introduced,and the rule of resin replacement and resin discard is given.

  15. Energy performance of an innovative liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a counter-flow heat and mass exchanger using potassium formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, Muhyiddine; Riffat, Saffa

    2014-01-01

    with the process air. An environmentally friendly, non-corrosive, nontoxic and chemically stable HCOOK potassium formate liquid desiccant solution was employed in the unit. A set of governing differential equations was established for the dehumidification system operation allowing the development of a numerical......An innovative micro-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system is numerically investigated. The liquid desiccant dehumidification unit employs a counter-flow low-cost and efficient heat and mass exchange core, improving the thermal performance and eliminating desiccant carryover...... that the dehumidifier effectiveness is directly proportional to the intake air temperature, intake air relative humidity and liquid desiccant flow rate where the effectiveness is inversely proportional to the intake air velocity and the heat exchanger air channel height....

  16. EFFECTS OF ISLAND-EDGE EXCHANGE BARRIER ON 2D PATTERN FORMATION IN SURFACTANT-MEDIATED EPITAXY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王戴木; 孙霞; 吴自勤

    2001-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of two-dimensional islands in a surfactant-mediated epitaxy system have been studied by computer simulation. To improve the recent results published in the literature, we use a configuration-dependent energy barrier for the exchange process at the island edge in our model. The simulations produce fractal islands at high temperatures or low deposition fluxes, and a transition to regular compact islands occurs at lower temperaturesor higher fluxes, in good agreement with the recent experimental results. The barrier for the island-edge exchange has quite a strong effect on the island density as a function of temperature and flux. A small change of the island-edge exchange barrier induces a large variation of the island density in the low-temperature or high-flux region. The flux-dependent island density shows a clear scaling-law behaviour in the intermediate-flux region. The scaling exponent increases evidently as the island-edge exchange barrier increases.

  17. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio

  18. [Disorders of information exchange as a basis for disease formation and the second law of thermodynamics for living thermodynamic systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V A; Moiseeva, T Iu; Zotov, A K

    1998-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics and the adaptation law have been utilized for analysis of thermodynamic systems functioning in humans. Disturbances in the information exchange are thought to play a pathogenetic role in the disease onset. A new informational-thermodynamic approach to assessment of the system condition (steady, unsteady) is proposed which may help to develop methods of the disease course prognosis.

  19. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Lukovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d, the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning. From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  20. New file format PaCo for standardized data and meta data exchange; PaCo - Ein neues Datenformat zum standardisierten Austausch von Parameterwerten und Meta-Informationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gekeler, M. [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The definition of the PaCo format enables the transport of parameter values as well as qualification stage information. Since PaCo is based on a unified naming of the qualification stage and their meanings, it is possible to exchange data between different companies. Additionally, the use of one PaCo file containing parameter values and qualification stage information together increases process safety. PaCo also provides reliable documentation of the qualification stage for each parameter and allows the user the possibility to estimate the overall project state. (orig.)

  1. Exchange frequency in replica exchange molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhikara, Daniel; Meng, Yilin; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the exchange-attempt frequency on sampling efficiency is studied in replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We show that sampling efficiency increases with increasing exchange-attempt frequency. This conclusion is contrary to a commonly expressed view in REMD. Five peptides (1-21 residues long) are studied with a spectrum of exchange-attempt rates. Convergence rates are gauged by comparing ensemble properties between fixed length test REMD simulations and longer reference simulations. To show the fundamental correlation between exchange frequency and convergence time, a simple model is designed and studied, displaying the same basic behavior of much more complex systems.

  2. Nanostructured gadolinium-doped ceria microsphere synthesis from ion exchange resin: Multi-scale in-situ studies of solid solution formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caisso, Marie [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC047, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Picart, Sébastien [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Martin, Philippe M.; Bès, René [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC/LLCC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Renard, Catherine; Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Neuville, Daniel R. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris-CNRS, Géochimie and Cosmochimie, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Ayral, André [Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC047, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-10-15

    In the current nano-sized material revolution, the main limitations to a large-scale deployment of nanomaterials involve health concerns related to nano-dissemination via air. Developing new chemical routes benefiting from nano-size advantages while avoiding their hazards could overcome these limitations. Addressing this need, a chemical route leading to soft nano-particle agglomerates, i.e., macroscopic precursors presenting the ability to be decomposed into nano-sized materials, was developed and applied to Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ}. Using cerium/gadolinium-loaded ion exchange resin, the Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} solid solution formation as a function of temperature was studied in-situ through X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Temperatures corresponding to the organic skeleton decomposition and to the mixed oxide crystallization were identified. An optimal heat treatment, leading to nanostructured soft agglomerates, was established. Microsphere processing capabilities were evaluated and particle size distribution measurements were recorded. A very low fracture strength was calculated, and a nanometric particle size distribution (170 nm) was determined. - Graphical abstract: The elaboration of micro-spherical precursors leading to the formation of nano-oxide soft agglomerates was studied and approved through the use of ion exchange resin loaded with cerium and gadolinium. The formation of the solid solution was followed through in-situ measurements such as XAS, XRD, Raman, TGA and DSC. Key temperatures were identified for the formation of the mixed-oxide. Following this study, the microstructure and particle size of oxide microspheres formed highlight the formation of soft nano-arrangments. - Highlights: • Soft microspherical agglomerates able to be decomposed into nano-sized materials. • In situ study of cerium/gadolinium-loaded ion exchange resin conversion in oxide. • In situ multi-scale study

  3. Phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) are associated with altered gallbladder absorptive function after formation of cholesterol gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Wu, Shuodong; Tian, Yu; Kong, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) dysfunction is thought to contribute to the altered gallbladder absorption that occurs in cholesterol gallstone disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The current study was undertaken to examine the expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization of NHE3 in gallbladder epithelium cells (GBECs) of male C57BL/6 mice on a control or lithogenic diet. Thirty-six 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive a high cholesterol diet or a regular diet for 8 weeks. Gallstone formation was recorded. Gallbladder bile cholesterol, phospholipid, and total bile acids were examined. RT-PCR was used to measure NHE3 mRNA expression. NHE3 protein expression and subcellular localization were examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gallstones were formed in all mice fed the lithogenic diet. Despite higher NHE3 mRNA expression in gallbladders of the mice on the lithogenic diet than in those on the control diet, there was no significant difference in expression of total NHE3 protein. However, a higher level of NHE3 phosphorylated at serine-552 (P-NHE3) was seen on the lithogenic diet. In immunofluorescence studies, NHE3 protein was expressed both on the apical membrane and in the cytoplasm of mouse GBEC. This pattern of subcellular distribution of NHE3 strongly corroborates an exchanger trafficking mechanism in NHE3 activity regulation in mouse GBEC. We conclude that increased phosphorylation of NHE3 following gallstone formation leads to turnover of the exchanger, resulting in decreased gallbladder concentrating function.

  4. Two-electron bound state formation in the t-J-U model for exchange-coupled planes

    OpenAIRE

    Morriss-Andrews, A.; Gooding, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    An anisotropic t-J-U model Hamiltonian is used to model electron behaviour in quasi-2d materials in the dilute limit, and as a highly simplified representation of the weakly coupled CuO2 planes of the high-Tc cuprates we model the very poor out-of-plane conductivity via the complete suppression of interplanar hopping. However, we do include the very weak interplanar superexchange, and are thus considering a model of exchange-coupled planes. For an isotropic three-dimensional system in the dil...

  5. Fish bone as a nidus for stone formation in the common bile duct: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Woo, Seong Ku [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Andong General Hospital, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Kyu [Youngnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    We report two cases of common bile duct stone formed around a fish bone which migrated from the intestinal tract, along with their characteristic imaging findings. Two patients who had no history of previous operation were admitted because of cholangitis. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed and the cholangiogram showed filling defects with an unusually elongated shape in the common bile duct. After improvement of the cholangitic symptoms, the stones were removed through the PTBD tract under fluoroscopic guidance. A nidus consisting of a 1.5 cm sized fish bone was found in each stone removed.

  6. Uncovering student thinking about mathematics in the common core, grades 6-8 25 formative assessment probes

    CERN Document Server

    Tobey, Cheryl Rose

    2013-01-01

    Pinpoint and reverse math misconceptions with laser-like accuracyQuickly and reliably uncover common math misconceptions in Grades 6-8 with these convenient and easy-to-implement diagnostic tools! Bestselling authors Cheryl Tobey and Carolyn Arline provide 25 new assessment probes that pinpoint subconcepts within the new Common Core Standards for Mathematics to promote deep learning and expert math instruction--while learning is already underway.Completely CCSM aligned, these grade-specific probes eliminate the guesswork and help teachers: Systematically address conceptual and procedural mistakes Help students better understand areas of struggle Plan targeted instruction that covers Grades 6-8 CCSM mathematical processes and proficiencies.

  7. Formation and properties of proton-exchanged and annealed $LiNbO_{3}$ waveguides for surface acoustic wave

    CERN Document Server

    Chien Chuan Cheng; Ying Chung Chen

    2001-01-01

    The proton-exchanged (PE) and annealed PE (APE) z-cut LiNbO/sub 3/ waveguides were fabricated using H/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/. The positive strain, c-axis lattice constant change ( Delta c/c), was calculated to be about +0.43%, which was almost independent of the exchanged conditions. The penetration depth of H measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) exhibited a step-like profile, which was assumed to be equal to the waveguide depth (d). The surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of PE and APE z-cut LiNbO/sub 3/ samples were investigated. The phase velocity (V/sub p/) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (K/sup 2/) of PE samples were significantly decreased by the increase of kd, where k was the wavenumber (2 pi / lambda ). The insertion loss (IL) of PE samples was increased by the increase of kd and became nearly constant at kd >0.064. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of PE samples allowed an apparent increase with kd, reaching a maximum at kd=0.292, then slightly decreased at h...

  8. The fission yeast meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase mediates formation and branch migration of Holliday junctions by preferentially promoting strand exchange in a direction opposite to that of Rad51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yasuto; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Homologous recombination proceeds via the formation of several intermediates including Holliday junctions (HJs), which are important for creating crossover products. DNA strand exchange is a core reaction that produces these intermediates that is directly catalyzed by RecA family recombinases, of which there are two types in eukaryotes: universal Rad51 and meiosis-specific Dmc1. We demonstrated previously that Rad51 promotes four-strand exchange, mimicking the formation and branch migration of HJs. Here we show that Dmc1 from fission yeast has a similar activity, which requires ATP hydrolysis and is independent of an absolute requirement for the Swi5-Sfr1 complex. These features are critically different from three-strand exchange mediated by Dmc1, but similar to those of four-strand exchange mediated by Rad51, suggesting that strand exchange reactions between duplex-duplex and single-duplex DNAs are mechanistically different. Interestingly, despite similarities in protein structure and in reaction features, the preferential polarities of Dmc1 and Rad51 strand exchange are different (Dmc1 promotes exchange in the 5'-to-3' direction and Rad51 promotes exchange in the 3'-to-5' direction relative to the ssDNA region of the DNA substrate). The significance of the Dmc1 polarity is discussed within the context of the necessity for crossover production.

  9. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  10. Networking and knowledge exchange to promote the formation of transdisciplinary coalitions and levels of agreement among transdisciplinary peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Rebecca; Petermann, Lisa; Manafo, Elizabeth; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Funding for transdisciplinary chronic disease prevention research has increased over the past decade. However, few studies have evaluated whether networking and knowledge exchange activities promote the creation of transdisciplinary teams to successfully respond to requests for proposals (RFPs). Such evaluations are critical to understanding how to accelerate the integration of research with practice and policy to improve population health. To examine (1) the extent of participation in pre-RFP activities among funded and nonfunded transdisciplinary coalitions that responded to a RFP for cancer and chronic disease prevention initiatives and (2) levels of agreement in proposal ratings among research, practice, and policy peer reviewers. Descriptive report of a Canadian funding initiative to increase the integration of evidence with action. Four hundred forty-nine representatives in 41 research, practice, and policy coalitions who responded to a RFP and whose proposals were peer reviewed by a transdisciplinary adjudication panel. The funder hosted 6 national meetings and issued a letter of intent (LOI) to foster research, practice, and policy collaborations before issuing a RFP. All provinces and territories in Canada were represented by the coalitions. Funded coalitions were 2.5 times more likely than nonfunded coalitions to submit a LOI. A greater proportion of funded coalitions were exposed to the pre-RFP activities (100%) compared with coalitions that were not funded (68%). Overall research, practice, and policy peer reviewer agreement was low (intraclass correlation 0.12). There is widespread interest in transdisciplinary collaborations to improve cancer and chronic disease prevention. Engagement in networking and knowledge exchange activities, and feedback from LOIs prior to submission of a final application, may contribute to stronger proposals and subsequent funding success. Future evaluations should examine best practices for transdisciplinary peer review to

  11. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    albumin, indicating that the tertiary structure of the target protein plays an important role in determining the rate of radical transfer and/or the stability of the resultant species. These results are consistent with a mechanism for the HRP/H2O2/no free tyrosine system involving radical transfer...... to the albumin via the heme edge of the peroxidase. In contrast, albumin radical formation by the HRP/H2O2/free tyrosine system was only marginally affected by proteolysis, consistent with free tyrosine phenoxyl radicals being the mediators of radical transfer, without significant protein-protein interaction......Incubation of Fe(III)myoglobin (Fe(III)Mb) with H2O2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been shown previously to give albumin-derived radicals as a result of radical transfer from myoglobin to BSA. In this study the occurrence of similar processes with peroxidases has been...

  12. Ligand-exchange assisted formation of Au/TiO2 Schottky contact for visible-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dawei; Liu, Kai; He, Shengnan; Gao, Chuanbo; Yin, Yadong

    2014-11-12

    Plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles have emerged as a promising material in sensitizing wide-bandgap semiconductors for visible-light photocatalysis. Conventional methods in constructing such heterocatalysts suffer from either poor control over the size of the metal nanoparticles or inefficient charge transfer through the metal/semiconductor interface, which limit their photocatalytic activity. To solve this problem, in this work we construct Au/TiO2 photocatalysts by depositing presynthesized colloidal Au nanoparticles with well-controlled sizes to TiO2 nanocrystals and then removing capping ligands on the Au surface through a delicately designed ligand-exchange method, which leads to close Au/TiO2 Schottky contact after a mild annealing process. Benefiting from this unique synthesis strategy, the obtained photocatalysts show superior activity to conventionally prepared photocatalysts in dye decomposition and water-reduction hydrogen production under visible-light illumination. This study not only opens up new opportunities in designing photoactive materials with high stability and enhanced performance for solar energy conversion but also provides a potential solution for the well-recognized challenge in cleaning capping ligands from the surface of colloidal catalyst nanoparticles.

  13. Contaminant-mobilizing capability of fullerene nanoparticles (nC60): Effect of solvent-exchange process in nC60 formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lilin; Fortner, John D; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Chengdong; Kan, Amy T; Tomson, Mason B; Chen, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Fullerene nanoparticles (nC(60)) in aqueous environments can significantly enhance the transport of hydrophobic organic contaminants by serving as a contaminant carrier. In the present study, the authors examine the effect of the solvent-exchange process on nC(60) aggregate formation and, subsequently, on nC(60) 's contaminant-mobilizing capability. A series of nC(60) samples were prepared using a modified toluene-water solvent-exchange method through the inclusion of a secondary organic solvent in the phase transfer of molecular C(60) in toluene to nC(60) in water. Two groups of solvents--a water-miscible group and a non-water-miscible group-of varied polarity were selected as secondary solvents. The involvement of a secondary solvent in the phase transfer process had only small effects on the particle size and distribution, ζ potential, and mobility of the nC(60) products but significantly influenced the capability of nC(60) to enhance the transport of 2,2',5,5'-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in a saturated sandy soil column, regardless of whether the secondary solvent was water-miscible or non-water-miscible. The two groups of secondary solvents appear to affect the aggregation properties of nC(60) in water via different mechanisms. In general, nC(60) products made with a secondary water-miscible solvent have stronger capabilities to enhance PCB transport. Taken together, the results indicate that according to formation conditions and solvent constituents, nC(60) will vary significantly in its interactions with organic contaminants, specifically as related to adsorption or desorption as well as transport in porous media.

  14. Prebiliary Right Hepatic Artery Resulting in Common Hepatic Duct Compression and Subsequent Intrahepatic Stone Formation: Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marron Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular anatomy of the liver is subjected to many variations. Aberrant hepatic artery is not an uncommon finding during visceral surgery; however, topographic variations are less reported in the literature. Prebiliary artery crossing anteriorly to the common hepatic duct was firstly reported in 1984. We present here a case of a 52-year-old lady who presented with obstructive jaundice and right upper quadrant pain. Paraclinical investigations were consistent with intrahepatic stones and a benign stricture on the CBD. During surgery, a prebiliary right hepatic artery compressing the CHD was noted. The liver pedicle was dissected and a hepaticojejunostomy was performed that resulted in a good outcome after 24 months of followup.

  15. Dynamical formation of Black Hole Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in the field - an alternative to common envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Klencki, Jakub; Gładysz, Wojciech; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Very wide binaries (> 500 AU) are subject to numerous encounters with flying-by stars in the Galactic field and can be perturbated into highly eccentric orbits (e ~ 0.99). For such systems tidal interactions at close pericenter passages can lead to orbit circularization and possibly mass transfer, consequently producing X-Ray binaries without the need for common envelope. We test this scenario for the case of Black Hole Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries (BH LMXBs) by performing a population synthesis from primordial binaries with numerical treatment of random stellar encounters. We test various models for the threshold pericenter distance under which tidal forces cause circularization. We find that fly-by interactions can produce a current population of ~ 60$-$220 BH LMXBs in the Galactic field and the results are sensitive to the assumption on tidal circularization efficiency. We show that the most likely donors are low-mass stars (< 1 Msun, at the onset of mass transfer) as observed in the population of known sour...

  16. A common intermediate for N2 formation in enzymes and zeolites: side-on Cu-nitrosyl complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2013-09-16

    Understanding the mechanisms of catalytic processes requires the identification of reaction centers and key intermediates, both of which are often achieved by the use of spectroscopic characterization tools. Due to the heterogeneity of active centers in heterogeneous catalysts, it is frequently difficult to identify the specific sites that are responsible for the overall activity. Furthermore, the simultaneous presence of a large number of surface species on the catalyst surface often poses a great challenge for the unambiguous determination of the relevant species in the reaction mechanism. In contrast, enzymes possess catalytically active centers with precisely defined coordination environments that are only able to accommodate intermediates relevant to the specific catalytic process. Here we show that side-on Cu+-NO+ complexes characterized by high magnetic field solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies are the key intermediates in the selective catalytic reduction of NO over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts. Analogous intermediates have been observed and characterized in nitrite reductase enzymes, and shown to be the critical intermediates in the formation of N2 for anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactions.[1] The identification of this key reaction intermediate, combined with the results of our prior kinetic studies, allows us to propose a new reaction mechanism for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 under oxygen-rich environments over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolites, a key reaction in automotive emission control. The authors acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental

  17. Graphene mediated domain formation in exchange coupled graphene/Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Kong, Lingmei; Pasquale, Frank L.; Cao, Yuan; Dong, Bin; Tanabe, Iori; Binek, Christian; Dowben, Peter A.; Kelber, Jeffry A.

    2013-11-01

    Graphene grown directly on Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy exhibits extrinsic p-type doping, as demonstrated by photoemission and conductivity measurements. Trilayer heterostructures of graphene/Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) reveal an unconventional magneto-optical Kerr hysteresis with vanishing remanence for temperatures up to 400 K. Magnetic force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the vanishing remanence is due to a complex domain state, indicating substrate-induced graphene spin polarization. The domain formation of the Co magnetization is in strong contrast to the magnetic behavior of Co in Co/Co3O4 bilayers. This suggests that the Co3O4 interlayer mediates the variable Co magnetization and induced graphene spin polarization, with possible retroaction of graphene on the Co film.

  18. Graphene mediated domain formation in exchange coupled graphene/Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) trilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Kong, Lingmei; Pasquale, Frank L; Cao, Yuan; Dong, Bin; Tanabe, Iori; Binek, Christian; Dowben, Peter A; Kelber, Jeffry A

    2013-11-27

    Graphene grown directly on Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy exhibits extrinsic p-type doping, as demonstrated by photoemission and conductivity measurements. Trilayer heterostructures of graphene/Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) reveal an unconventional magneto-optical Kerr hysteresis with vanishing remanence for temperatures up to 400 K. Magnetic force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the vanishing remanence is due to a complex domain state, indicating substrate-induced graphene spin polarization. The domain formation of the Co magnetization is in strong contrast to the magnetic behavior of Co in Co/Co3O4 bilayers. This suggests that the Co3O4 interlayer mediates the variable Co magnetization and induced graphene spin polarization, with possible retroaction of graphene on the Co film.

  19. Effect of biodiesel on the particle size distribution in the exhaust of common-rail diesel engine and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Effect of biodiesel blends on the particle size distribution (PSD) of exhaust aerosol and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation were investigated with a modern common rail light-duty diesel engine. The results showed that PSD of diesel included two modes:nucleation mode (NM) and accumulation mode (CM). The criterion diameter of the two modes is 50 nm. Only CM was observed for all fuels under the condition of 50 N.m,2000 r/min. When the engine torque was higher than 150 N.m,log-modal PSD of diesel shifted to bimodal. At higher loads,if the biodiesel blend ratio was below 60%,the PSD of biodiesel blends still included the two modes. However,no NM particles were found for pure biodiesel. At lower loads,only CM was found in PSD of all fuels. Significant reduction of CM particles was found for biodiesel blends compared with diesel. Discussion on the mechanism of nanoparticle formation indicated that for the light-duty diesel engine with oxidation catalysts,fuel consumption and exhaust temperature increased with increasing the engine loads,and SO2 was converted to SO3 by catalyst which,in its hydrated form,could act as the precursor for biodiesel NM formation. Therefore,sulfur level of biodiesel blends dominates the nanoparticle formation in light-duty diesel engine with oxidation catalysts.

  20. Effect of biodiesel on the particle size distribution in the exhaust of common-rail diesel engine and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XuSheng; ZHAO Hui; HU ZongJie; WU ZhiJun; LI LiGuang

    2009-01-01

    Effect of biodiesel blends on the particle size distribution (PSD) of exhaust aerosol and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation were investigated with a modern common rail light-duty diesel engine. The results showed that PSD of diesel included two modes: nucleation mode (NM) and accumulation mode (CM). The criterion diameter of the two modes is 50 rim. Only CM was observed for all fuels under the condition of 50 N. M, 2000 r/min. When the engine torque was higher than 150 N. M, log-modal PSD of diesel shifted to bimodal. At higher loads, if the biodiesel blend ratio was below 60%, the PSD of bio-diesel blends still included the two modes. However, no NM particles were found for pure biodiesel. At lower loads, only CM was found in PSD of all fuels. Significant reduction of CM particles was found for biodiesel blends compared with diesel. Discussion on the mechanism of nanoparUcle formation indi-cated that for the light-duty diesel engine with oxidation catalysts, fuel consumption and exhaust temperature increased with increasing the engine loads, and Sol was converted to SO3 by catalyst which, in its hydrated form, could act as the precursor for biodiesei NM formation. Therefore, sulfur level of biodiesel blends dominates the nanoparticle formation in light-duty diesel engine with oxidation catalysts.

  1. Hydration and ion pair formation in common aqueous La(III) salt solutions--a Raman scattering and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Wolfram W; Irmer, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectra of aqueous lanthanum perchlorate, triflate (trifluorosulfonate), chloride and nitrate solutions were measured over a broad concentration (0.121-3.050 mol L(-1)) range at room temperature (23 °C). A very weak mode at 343 cm(-1) with a full width at half height at 49 cm(-1) in the isotropic spectrum suggests that the nona-aqua La(III) ion is thermodynamically stable in dilute perchlorate solutions (∼0.2 mol L(-1)) while in concentrated perchlorate solutions outer-sphere ion pairs and contact ion pairs are formed. The La(3+) nona-hydrate was also detected in a 1.2 mol L(-1) La(CF3SO3)3(aq). In lanthanum chloride solutions chloro-complex formation was detected over the measured concentration range from 0.5-3.050 mol L(-1). The chloro-complexes in LaCl3(aq) are fairly weak and disappear with dilution. At a concentration complexes disappeared. In LaCl3 solutions, with additional HCl, a series of chloro-complexes of the type [La(OH2)(9-n)Cln](+3-n) (n = 1-3) were formed. The La(NO3)3(aq) spectra were compared with a spectrum of a 0.409 mol L(-1) NaNO3(aq) and it was concluded that in La(NO3)3(aq) over the concentration range from 0.121-1.844 mol L(-1), nitrato-complexes, [La(OH2)(9-n)(NO3)n](+3-n) (n = 1, 2) were formed. These nitrato-complexes are quite weak and disappear with dilution La(OH2)9](3+) with the polarizable dielectric continuum are in good agreement with data from recent structural experimental measurements and high quality simulations. The DFT frequency of the La-O stretching mode at 328.2 cm(-1), is only slightly smaller than the experimental one.

  2. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Bhaskara Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm or trityl (Trt protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness.

  3. A beta strand lock exchange for signal transduction in TonB-dependent transducers on the basis of a common structural motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillet, Karl; Journet, Laure; Célia, Hervé; Paulus, Laetitia; Stahl, Aude; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David

    2007-11-01

    Transport of molecules larger than 600 Da across the outer membrane involves TonB-dependent receptors and TonB-ExbB-ExbD of the inner membrane. The transport is energy consuming, and involves direct interactions between a short N-terminal sequence of receptor, called the TonB box, and TonB. We solved the structure of the ferric pyoverdine (Pvd-Fe) outer membrane receptor FpvA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in its apo form. Structure analyses show that residues of the TonB box are in a beta strand which interacts through a mixed four-stranded beta sheet with the periplasmic signaling domain involved in interactions with an inner membrane sigma regulator. In this conformation, the TonB box cannot form a four-stranded beta sheet with TonB. The FhuA-TonB or BtuB-TonB structures show that the TonB-FpvA interactions require a conformational change which involves a beta strand lock-exchange mechanism. This mechanism is compatible with movements of the periplasmic domain deduced from crystallographic analyses of FpvA, FpvA-Pvd, and FpvA-Pvd-Fe.

  4. 换热站循环泵选型与常见故障分析%On type selection for circulation pump of heat exchange stations and its analysis of common faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金龙

    2012-01-01

    Taking some heat exchange station as the example,the paper explores the type selection for the circulation pump,indicates the investigation over the heating coverage,the system heat loading and the volume identification,and the resistance calculation of the pipe network,and analyzes its common faults,so as to ensure the common operation of the circulation pump.%以某换热站为例,探讨了循环泵的选型,就其中供热面积调查、系统热负荷及流量确定、管网阻力计算等问题作了论述,并对常见故障进行了分析,以保证循环泵的正常运行。

  5. Structure formation simulations with momentum exchange: alleviating tensions between high-redshift and low-redshift cosmological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Marco; Simpson, Fergus

    2017-02-01

    Persisting tensions between the cosmological constraints derived from low-redshift probes and the ones obtained from temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) - although not yet providing compelling evidence against the Λcold dark matter model - seem to consistently indicate a slower growth of density perturbations as compared to the predictions of the standard cosmological scenario. Such behaviour is not easily accommodated by the simplest extensions of General Relativity, such as f(R) models, which generically predict an enhanced growth rate. In this work, we present the outcomes of a suite of large N-body simulations carried out in the context of a cosmological model featuring a non-vanishing scattering cross-section between the dark matter and the dark energy fields, for two different parametrizations of the dark energy equation of state. Our results indicate that these dark scattering models have very mild effects on many observables related to large-scale structures formation and evolution, while providing a significant suppression of the amplitude of linear density perturbations and the abundance of massive clusters. Our simulations therefore confirm that these models offer a promising route to alleviate existing tensions between low-redshift measurements and those of the CMB.

  6. Simultaneous production and utilization of methanol for methyl formate synthesis in a looped heat exchanger reactor configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Goosheneshin; R.Maleki; D.Iranshahi; M.R.Rahimpour; A.Jahanmiri

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation,a novel thermally coupled reactor (TCR) containing methyl formate (MF) production in the endothermic side and methanol synthesis in the exothermic side has been investigated.The interesting feature of this TCR is that productive methanol in the exothermic side could be recycled and used as feed of endothermic side for MF synthesis.Other important advantages of the proposed system are high production rates of hydrogen and MF.The configuration consists of two thermally coupled concentric tubular reactors.In these coupled reactors,autothermal system is obtained within the reactor.A steady-state heterogeneous model is used for simulation of the coupled reactor.The proposed model has been utilized to compare the performance of TCR with the conventional methanol reactor (CMR).Noticeable enhancement can be obtained in the performance of the reactors.The influence of operational parameters is studied on reactor performance.The results show that coupling of these reactions could be feasible and beneficial.Experimental proof-of-concept is required to validate the operation of the novel reactor.

  7. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  8. Exchange of natural enemies for biological control: is it a rocky road?-the road in the Euro-Mediterranean region and the South American common market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinot, D; Briano, J; Parra, J R P; de Sá, L A N; Cônsoli, F L

    2013-02-01

    The access and benefit sharing (ABS) regulations from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for the use of natural resources became an important issue because the biodiversity of developing countries was heavily accessed and unilaterally exploited by pharmaceutical and seed companies. However, natural enemies used for biological control are living and unmodified genetic resources which cannot be patented and have been treated as resources such as drugs, seeds, or other commercial products. Consequently, the ABS requirements have limited not only the use of natural enemies but also the positive effects that scientifically supported biological control strategies have on the society, the environment, and the economy, reducing problems of pesticide residues, water and soil contamination, and non-target effects. During the last several years, the biological control scientific community has faced new and extremely complicated legislation dictated by a high and diverse number of governmental agencies at different levels, making the access to natural resources for biocontrol purposes a rocky road. Society at large should be aware of how the strict ABS regulations affect the use of natural enemies as biological resources to secure food production, food safety, and global environmental protection. We discuss in here the current difficulties derived from CBD for the exchange of natural enemies taking as example the Euro-Mediterranean region, Argentina, and Brazil to demonstrate how long and diverse are the steps to be followed to obtain the required permits for access and exportation/importation of natural enemies. We then argue that the public visibility of biocontrol strategies should be increased and their benefits highlighted in order to persuade legislators for the development of a less bureaucratic, more expedient, and more centralized regulatory frame, greatly favoring the practice and benefits of biological control. We finally propose a general framework in

  9. The Exchange Programme of the Belgian American Educational Foundation: An Institutional Perspective on Scientific Persona Formation (1920-1940.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huistra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF that sent hundreds of aspiring Belgian scientists to the United States during the Interwar period. The BAEF went to great lengths to optimise its selection procedure and formulated conditions pertaining to both the mental and physical fitness of its grantees. In this way, the BAEF cut off some repertoires of being a scientist and encouraged its fellows to demonstrate certain qualities when in front of the funding body. This, we argue, points to the performative and occasional character of scientific personae. Geschikt om te reizen. Het uitwisselingsprogramma van de Belgian American Education Foundation. Een institutioneel perspectief op de vorming van wetenschappelijke personae (1920-1940. In dit artikel benaderen wij de vorming van personae vanuit een institutioneel perspectief. Net als individuele wetenschappers zijn instituties zoals funding bodies actief betrokken bij het scheppen en in standhouden van wetenschappelijke personae. Als voorbeeld hiervan bespreken wij de Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF. In het Interbellum zond de BAEF honderden wetenschappers-in-wording naar de Verenigde Staten. Daarbij getroostte de organisatie zich veel moeite om de selectieprocedure te optimaliseren en stelde zij voorwaarden aan zowel de mentale als fysieke conditie van haar fellows. De BAEF maakte hiermee sommige repertoires van het wetenschapper-zijn onmogelijk, terwijl zij haar fellows aanmoedigde om bepaalde andere kwaliteiten voor het voetlicht te brengen voor de ogen van de funding body. Dit toont aan, zo betogen wij, dat de wetenschappelijke persona gesitueerd en performatief is.

  10. The Exchange Programme of the Belgian American Educational Foundation: An Institutional Perspective on Scientific Persona Formation (1920-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Huistra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF that sent hundreds of aspiring Belgian scientists to the United States during the Interwar period. The BAEF went to great lengths to optimise its selection procedure and formulated conditions pertaining to both the mental and physical fitness of its grantees. In this way, the BAEF cut off some repertoires of being a scientist and encouraged its fellows to demonstrate certain qualities when in front of the funding body. This, we argue, points to the performative and occasional character of scientific personae. Geschikt om te reizen. Het uitwisselingsprogramma van de Belgian American Education Foundation. Een institutioneel perspectief op de vorming van wetenschappelijke personae (1920-1940In dit artikel benaderen wij de vorming van personae vanuit een institutioneel perspectief. Net als individuele wetenschappers zijn instituties zoals funding bodies actief betrokken bij het scheppen en in standhouden van wetenschappelijke personae. Als voorbeeld hiervan bespreken wij de Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF. In het Interbellum zond de BAEF honderden wetenschappers-in-wording naar de Verenigde Staten. Daarbij getroostte de organisatie zich veel moeite om de selectieprocedure te optimaliseren en stelde zij voorwaarden aan zowel de mentale als fysieke conditie van haar fellows. De BAEF maakte hiermee sommige repertoires van het wetenschapper-zijn onmogelijk, terwijl zij haar fellows aanmoedigde om bepaalde andere kwaliteiten voor het voetlicht te brengen voor de ogen van de funding body. Dit toont aan, zo betogen wij, dat de wetenschappelijke persona gesitueerd en performatief is.

  11. Formation of the black-hole binary M33 X-7 through mass exchange in a tight massive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Glebbeek, Evert; Farr, Will M; Fragos, Tassos; Willems, Bart; Orosz, Jerome A; Liu, Jifeng; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2010-11-04

    The X-ray source M33 X-7 in the nearby galaxy Messier 33 is among the most massive X-ray binary stellar systems known, hosting a rapidly spinning, 15.65M(⊙) black hole orbiting an underluminous, 70M(⊙) main-sequence companion in a slightly eccentric 3.45-day orbit (M(⊙), solar mass). Although post-main-sequence mass transfer explains the masses and tight orbit, it leaves unexplained the observed X-ray luminosity, the star's underluminosity, the black hole's spin and the orbital eccentricity. A common envelope phase, or rotational mixing, could explain the orbit, but the former would lead to a merger and the latter to an overluminous companion. A merger would also ensue if mass transfer to the black hole were invoked for its spin-up. Here we report simulations of evolutionary tracks which reveal that if M33 X-7 started as a primary body of 85M(⊙)-99M(⊙) and a secondary body of 28M(⊙)-32M(⊙), in a 2.8-3.1-d orbit, its observed properties can be consistently explained. In this model, the main-sequence primary transfers part of its envelope to the secondary and loses the rest in a wind; it ends its life as a ∼16M(⊙) helium star with an iron-nickel core that collapses to a black hole (with or without an accompanying supernova). The release of binding energy, and possibly collapse asymmetries, 'kick' the nascent black hole into an eccentric orbit. Wind accretion explains the X-ray luminosity, and the black-hole spin can be natal.

  12. IRF4 Is a Critical Gene in Retinoic Acid-Mediated Plasma Cell Formation and Is Deregulated in Common Variable Immunodeficiency-Derived B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrevær, Randi L; Moskaug, Jan Ø; Paur, Ingvild; Bøhn, Siv K; Jørgensen, Silje F; Blomhoff, Rune; Aukrust, Pål; Fevang, Børre; Blomhoff, Heidi K

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed at identifying the mechanisms whereby the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) promotes the formation of plasma cells upon stimulation of B cells via the innate immunity receptors TLR9 and RP105. Most often, differentiation of B cells involves the sequential events of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutations characteristic of germinal center reactions, followed by plasma cell formation. By studying the regulatory networks known to drive these reactions, we revealed that RA enhances the expression of the plasma cell-generating transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF)4 and Blimp1, and paradoxically also activation-induced deaminase (AID) involved in somatic hypermutations/class switch recombination, in primary human B cells. IRF4 was identified as a particularly important protein involved in the RA-mediated production of IgG in TLR9/RP105-stimulated B cells. Based on kinetic studies, we present a model suggesting that the initial induction of IRF4 by RA favors AID expression. According to this model, the higher level of IRF4 that eventually arises results in sustained elevated levels of Blimp1. Regarded as a master regulator of plasma cell development, Blimp1 will in turn suppress AID expression and drive the formation of IgG-secreting plasma cells. Notably, we demonstrated IRF4 to be deregulated in B cells from common variable immunodeficiency patients, contributing to the observed aberrant expression of AID in these patients. Taken together, the present study both provides new insight into the mechanisms whereby RA induces differentiation of B cells and identifies IRF4 as a key to understand the defective functions of B cells in common variable immunodeficiency patients.

  13. Genotoxic effects of a particular mixture of acetamiprid and alpha-cypermethrin on chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange, and micronucleus formation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Ayşe Yavuz; Topaktaş, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    The genotoxic effects of a particular mixture of acetamiprid (Acm, neonicotinoid insecticide) and alpha-cypermethrin (alpha-cyp, pyrethroid insecticide) on human peripheral lymphocytes were examined in vitro by chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronucleus (MN) tests. The human peripheral lymphocytes were treated with 12.5 + 2.5, 15 + 5, 17.5 + 7.5, and 20 + 10 microg/mL of Acm+alpha-cyp, respectively, for 24 and 48 h. The mixture of Acm+alpha-cyp induced the CAs and SCEs at all concentrations and treatment times when compared with both the control and solvent control and these increases were concentration-dependent in both treatment times. MN formation was significantly induced at 12.5 + 2.5, 15 + 5, 17.5 + 7.5, microg/mL of Acm+alpha-cyp when compared with both controls although these increases were not concentration-dependent. Binuclear cells could not be detected sufficiently in the highest concentration of the mixture (20 + 10 microg/mL) for both the 24- and 48-h treatment times. Mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI) and nuclear division index (NDI) significantly decreased because of the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of the mixture, at all concentrations for two treatment periods. Significant decreases in MI and PI were concentration dependent at both treatment times. The decrease in NDI was also concentration-dependent at 48-h treatment period. In general, Acm+alpha-cyp inhibited nuclear division more than positive control, mitomycin C (MMC) and showed a higher cytostatic effect than MMC. Furthermore, in this article, the results of combined effects of Acm+alpha-cyp were compared with the results of single effects of Acm or alpha-cyp (Kocaman and Topaktas,2007,2009, respectively). In conclusion, the particular mixture of Acm+alpha-cyp synergistically induced the genotoxicity/cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  14. Time resolved native ion-mobility mass spectrometry to monitor dynamics of IgG4 Fab arm exchange and "bispecific" monoclonal antibody formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaene, François; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Colas, Olivier; Ayoub, Daniel; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Beck, Alain; Cianférani, Sarah

    2013-10-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and derivatives such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) and bispecific antibodies (bsAb), are the fastest growing class of human therapeutics. Most of the therapeutic antibodies currently on the market and in clinical trials are chimeric, humanized, and human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). An increasing number of IgG2s and IgG4s that have distinct structural and functional properties are also investigated to develop products that lack or have diminished antibody effector functions compared to IgG1. Importantly, wild type IgG4 has been shown to form half molecules (one heavy chain and one light chain) that lack interheavy chain disulfide bonds and form intrachain disulfide bonds. Moreover, IgG4 undergoes a process of Fab-arm exchange (FAE) in which the heavy chains of antibodies of different specificities can dissociate and recombine in bispecific antibodies both in vitro and in vivo. Here, native mass spectrometry (MS) and time-resolved traveling wave ion mobility MS (TWIM-MS) were used for the first time for online monitoring of FAE and bsAb formation using Hz6F4-2v3 and natalizumab, two humanized IgG4s which bind to human Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) and alpha4 integrin, respectively. In addition, native MS analysis of bsAb/JAM-A immune complexes revealed that bsAb can bind up to two antigen molecules, confirming that the Hz6F4 family preferentially binds dimeric JAM-A. Our results illustrate how IM-MS can rapidly assess bsAb structural heterogeneity and be easily implemented into MS workflows for bsAb production follow up and bsAb/antigen complex characterization. Altogether, these results provide new MS-based methodologies for in-depth FAE and bsAb formation monitoring. Native MS and IM-MS will play an increasing role in next generation biopharmaceutical product characterization like bsAbs, antibody mixtures, and antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) as well as for biosimilar and biobetter antibodies.

  15. Dynamical formation of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries in the field: an alternative to the common envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klencki, Jakub; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Gładysz, Wojciech; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Very wide binaries (>500 au) are subject to numerous encounters with fly-by stars in the Galactic field and can be perturbed into highly eccentric orbits (e ∼ 0.99). For such systems, the tidal interactions at close pericentre passages can lead to orbit circularization and, possibly, to mass transfer, consequently producing X-ray binaries without the need for the common envelope. We test this scenario for the case of black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) by performing a population synthesis with a numerical treatment of random stellar encounters. We test various models for the threshold pericentre distance under which the tidal forces cause circularization. We estimate that fly-by interactions can produce a current population of ∼60-220 BH LMXBs in the Galactic field. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the tidal circularization efficiency and the BH natal kick, because zero to very small kick velocities of several km s-1 are required for the wide systems to survive the BH formation (∼60 per cent of the cases in our simulations). We show that the most likely donors are low-mass stars (<1 M⊙; at the onset of mass transfer) as observed in the population of known sources (∼20). However, the low number of systems formed along this route is in contrast with the most recent observational estimate of the number of dormant BH LMXBs in the Galaxy 104-108. If, indeed, the numbers are so high, alternative formation channels of BHs with low-mass donors need to be identified.

  16. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 2. Formation, bioaccumulation and elimination of hydroxylated metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munschy, C., E-mail: cmunschy@ifremer.f [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C. [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Pacepavicius, G.; Alaee, M. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The uptake, elimination and transformation of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, and then depurated over a five-month period. Methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) PBDEs were determined in fish plasma exposed to PBDEs and compared to those obtained in control fish. While all MeO- and some OH- congeners identified in fish plasma were found to originate from non-metabolic sources, several OH- congeners, i.e., OH-tetraBDEs and OH-pentaBDEs, were found to originate from fish metabolism. Among these, 4'-OH-BDE-49 was identified as a BDE-47 metabolite. Congener 4'-OH-BDE-101, identified here for the first time, may be the result of BDE-99 metabolic transformation. Our results unequivocally showed that PBDEs are metabolised in juvenile sole via the formation of OH- metabolites. However, this was not a major biotransformation route compared to biotransformation through debromination. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food showed the ability to biotransform PBDEs into hydroxylated metabolites; these meta-bolites accumulated in fish.

  17. EXCHANGE RATE - REGIMES AND POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Lučić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate of one currency is the price of the currency expressed in units of other currency. It is formed by the interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. Given that the exchange rate has a direct impact on the competitiveness of a country in terms of features of its exports and imports, in its balance of payments, and indirectly the overall economic and social development, in addition to acting in market principles - supply and demand in the formation of the equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rate is subject to different, stronger or weaker, more or less, forms of intervention. In the search for the optimal exchange rate policy of the national currency, the monetary authorities are positioned between the two extremes - the complete abandonment of the exchange rate to the market laws of supply and demand, or fixing the exchange rate for any of the selected anchor currency.

  18. Efficient C-N bond formations catalyzed by a proton-exchanged montmorillonite as a heterogeneous Brønsted acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokura, Ken; Nakagiri, Nobuaki; Mori, Kohsuke; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Ebitani, Kohki; Jitsukawa, Koichiro; Kaneda, Kiyotomi

    2006-09-28

    Nucleophilic addition of sulfonamides and carboxamides to simple alkenes proceeded smoothly using a proton-exchanged montmorillonite catalyst. The spent catalyst was recovered easily from the reaction mixture and was reusable at least five times without any loss of activity. The unique acidity of the proton-exchanged montmorillonite (H-mont) catalyst was found to be applicable to additional reactions: substitution of hydroxyl groups of alcohols with amides and anilines.

  19. 胆总管结石成因的研究进展%Research Progress of Common Bile Duct Calculi Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国海超; 党彤

    2016-01-01

    Bravery manager is a common digestive system disease, its incidence present a growth trend in recent years, more than the abdominal pain, jaundice and chills hot so-called charcot views as the main symptoms, if the patient is in critical condition can occur hypotension consciousness and mental symptoms such as sadness, coma, the so-called raynald immovable. At present, for the cause of the formation of the common bile duct calculi remains to be further research. A lot of literature thought is the outcome of combined action of multiple factors. The related factors including age, next to the duodenal papilla diverticulum, Oddi sphincter, biliary ascariasis, biliary infection, hypothyroidism, gastrointestinal dysfunction. Now this paper reviews the research progress of its origin.%胆总管结石是一种较为普遍的消化系统疾病,其发病率在近年呈现出增长的趋势,以上腹部疼痛、黄疸和寒战高热即所谓charcot三联征为主要症状,若患者病情危急则可出现低血压及神志忧伤、昏迷等精神症状,即所谓的raynald五联征。目前,针对胆总管结石的形成原因还有待进一步研究。诸多文献资料认为是多因素共同作用的结果,其有关因素包括年龄、十二指肠乳头旁憩室、Oddi括约肌、胆道蛔虫、胆道感染、甲状腺功能减退、胃肠功能紊乱等。本文就其成因的研究进展做如下综述。

  20. Formation of ZnSe/Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} QDs by surface cation exchange and high photothermal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guozhi; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Yanbang [School of science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wu, Zengna; Li, Qiang; Yao, Jianghong [Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Chang, Kai [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Water-dispersed core/shell structure ZnSe/Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} quantum dots were synthesized by ultrasonicwave-assisted cation exchange reaction. Only surface Zn ion can be replaced by Bi ion in ZnSe quantum dots, which lead to the ultrathin Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} shell layer formed. It is significance to find to change the crystal of QDs due to the acting of ultrasonicwave. Cation exchange mechanism and excellent photothermal conversion properties are discussed in detail.

  1. Experimental study on heat exchange of several types of exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志华; 赵振华; 于洋

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the ground-coupled source heat pump that possesses the shortcomings of occupying larger land,this article studies the heat exchanged of heat exchanger in piling,and compares it with common heat exchangers buried directly. The result indicates that the heat exchanger makes the best use of structure of building,saves land,reduces the construction cost,and the heat exchanged is obviously more than exchangers buried directly. In winter condition,when W-shape pipe heat exchanger in pile foundation is 50 m deep and diameter is 800 mm,it transfers 1.2-1.3 times as large as the one of single U-shape buried directly at the flow rate of 0.6 m/s,whose borehole diameter is 300 mm. And in summer condition it does about 2.0-2.3 times as that of U-shape one.

  2. Double excitation effect in non-adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory with an analytic construction of the exchange-correlation kernel in the common energy denominator approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Oleg V; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2009-06-14

    Time-dependent density functional (response) theory (TDDF(R)T) is applied almost exclusively in its adiabatic approximation (ATDDFT), which is restricted to predominantly single electronic excitations and neglects additional roots of the TDDFT eigenvalue problem stemming from the interaction between single and double excitations. We incorporate the effect of the latter interaction into a non-adiabatic frequency-dependent and spatially non-local Hartree-exchange-correlation (Hxc) kernel fCEDAHxc (r1, r2, omega), the explicit analytical expression of which is derived for interacting single and double excitations well separated from the other excitations, within the common energy denominator approximation (CEDA) for the Kohn-Sham (KS) and interacting density response functions, chis and chi, respectively. The kernel fCEDAHxc (r1, r2, omega) obtained from the direct analytical inverse of chiCEDAs and chiCEDA is a sum of the delta-function and non-local orbital-dependent spatial terms with frequency-dependent factors, with which fCEDAHxc acquires a modulated quadratic dependence on omega. The effective incorporation in fCEDAHxc of the complete manifold of excited states (through the delta function term) represents an extension of the kernel reported by Maitra, Zhang, Cave, and Burke [J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 120, 5932]. In the TDDFT eigenvalue equations considered in the diagonal approximation, fCEDAHxc generates two excitation energies omegaq and omegaq+1, which both correspond to the same single KS excitation omegasq, thus producing the effect of the single-double excitation interaction.

  3. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Common warts By Mayo Clinic Staff Common warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on your fingers or hands. Rough to the touch, common warts also often feature a pattern of tiny ...

  4. The development of MML (Medical Markup Language) version 3.0 as a medical document exchange format for HL7 messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2004-12-01

    Medical Markup Language (MML), as a set of standards, has been developed over the last 8 years to allow the exchange of medical data between different medical information providers. MML Version 2.21 used XML as a metalanguage and was announced in 1999. In 2001, MML was updated to Version 2.3, which contained 12 modules. The latest version--Version 3.0--is based on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). During the development of this new version, the structure of MML Version 2.3 was analyzed, subdivided into several categories, and redefined so the information defined in MML could be described in HL7 CDA Level One. As a result of this development, it has become possible to exchange MML Version 3.0 medical documents via HL7 messages.

  5. Sm3+-doped fluorophosphate glass: Formation of Ag nanoparticles via Ag+/K+ ion exchange and their effects on optical and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Sajna, M. S.; Nayab Rasool, Sk.; Gopinath, Manju; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Silver-potassium ion exchange on Sm3+-doped fluorophosphate glass has been carried out via thermal diffusion method. The crystallite size of silver was estimated to be 19 nm from X-ray diffraction pattern and it was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy analysis. Assessment of the optical properties has been carried out by absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. Present glass system exhibits favorable optical properties for possible uses as optical amplifiers, sensors and planar waveguides. The energy transfer mechanism from silver to samarium and the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles are discussed for the ion exchanged glass. The dielectric studies have been carried out in order to assess the influence of silver on the dielectric properties and ac conductivity of the ion exchanged glass. Coulomb blockade effects have been discussed to clarify the enhancement in the insulating behavior of the glass by the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. The power-law and Cole-Cole parameters were determined and the influence of silver on these parameters is discussed.

  6. The mzTab Data Exchange Format: Communicating Mass-spectrometry-based Proteomics and Metabolomics Experimental Results to a Wider Audience*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes; Jones, Andrew R.; Sachsenberg, Timo; Walzer, Mathias; Gatto, Laurent; Hartler, Jürgen; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Salek, Reza M.; Steinbeck, Christoph; Neuhauser, Nadin; Cox, Jürgen; Neumann, Steffen; Fan, Jun; Reisinger, Florian; Xu, Qing-Wei; del Toro, Noemi; Pérez-Riverol, Yasset; Ghali, Fawaz; Bandeira, Nuno; Xenarios, Ioannis; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed several standardized data formats to facilitate data sharing in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. These allow researchers to report their complete results in a unified way. However, at present, there is no format to describe the final qualitative and quantitative results for proteomics and metabolomics experiments in a simple tabular format. Many downstream analysis use cases are only concerned with the final results of an experiment and require an easily accessible format, compatible with tools such as Microsoft Excel or R. We developed the mzTab file format for MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results to meet this need. mzTab is intended as a lightweight supplement to the existing standard XML-based file formats (mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML), providing a comprehensive summary, similar in concept to the supplemental material of a scientific publication. mzTab files can contain protein, peptide, and small molecule identifications together with experimental metadata and basic quantitative information. The format is not intended to store the complete experimental evidence but provides mechanisms to report results at different levels of detail. These range from a simple summary of the final results to a representation of the results including the experimental design. This format is ideally suited to make MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results available to a wider biological community outside the field of MS. Several software tools for proteomics and metabolomics have already adapted the format as an output format. The comprehensive mzTab specification document and extensive additional documentation can be found online. PMID:24980485

  7. The mzTab data exchange format: communicating mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and metabolomics experimental results to a wider audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes; Jones, Andrew R; Sachsenberg, Timo; Walzer, Mathias; Gatto, Laurent; Hartler, Jürgen; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph; Neuhauser, Nadin; Cox, Jürgen; Neumann, Steffen; Fan, Jun; Reisinger, Florian; Xu, Qing-Wei; Del Toro, Noemi; Pérez-Riverol, Yasset; Ghali, Fawaz; Bandeira, Nuno; Xenarios, Ioannis; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning

    2014-10-01

    The HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed several standardized data formats to facilitate data sharing in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. These allow researchers to report their complete results in a unified way. However, at present, there is no format to describe the final qualitative and quantitative results for proteomics and metabolomics experiments in a simple tabular format. Many downstream analysis use cases are only concerned with the final results of an experiment and require an easily accessible format, compatible with tools such as Microsoft Excel or R. We developed the mzTab file format for MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results to meet this need. mzTab is intended as a lightweight supplement to the existing standard XML-based file formats (mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML), providing a comprehensive summary, similar in concept to the supplemental material of a scientific publication. mzTab files can contain protein, peptide, and small molecule identifications together with experimental metadata and basic quantitative information. The format is not intended to store the complete experimental evidence but provides mechanisms to report results at different levels of detail. These range from a simple summary of the final results to a representation of the results including the experimental design. This format is ideally suited to make MS-based proteomics and metabolomics results available to a wider biological community outside the field of MS. Several software tools for proteomics and metabolomics have already adapted the format as an output format. The comprehensive mzTab specification document and extensive additional documentation can be found online.

  8. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, L.B.; Farma, A.J.

    1987-01-06

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger as used in a space heater, of the type in which hot exhaust gases transfer heat to water or the like flowing through a helical heat exchange coil. A significant improvement to the efficiency of the heat exchange occurring between the air and water is achieved by using a conduit for the water having external helical fluting such that the hot gases circulate along two paths, rather than only one. A preferred embodiment of such a heat exchanger includes a porous combustion element for producing radiant heat from a combustible gas, surrounded by a helical coil for effectively transferring the heat in the exhaust gas, flowing radially from the combustion element, to the water flowing through the coil. 4 figs.

  9. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  10. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  11. Common Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen Common Terms Below is a list of diabetes-related ... a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly ...

  12. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

  13. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  14. Energy performance of an innovative liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a counter-flow heat and mass exchanger using potassium formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, Muhyiddine; Riffat, Saffa

    2014-01-01

    with the process air. An environmentally friendly, non-corrosive, nontoxic and chemically stable HCOOK potassium formate liquid desiccant solution was employed in the unit. A set of governing differential equations was established for the dehumidification system operation allowing the development of a numerical...

  15. The Exchange Program of the Belgian American Educational Foundation 1920-1940 : An Institutional Perspective on Persona Formation (1920-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huistra, P.A.; Wils, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF) that sent h

  16. Synthesis and alignment of silver nanorods and nanowires and the formation of Pt, Pd, and core/shell structures by galvanic exchange directly on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławiński, Grzegorz W; Zamborini, Francis P

    2007-09-25

    Here we describe the synthesis of Ag nanorods (NRs) (aspect ratio or =20) directly on surfaces by seed-mediated growth. The procedure involves attaching gold seed nanoparticles (Au NPs) to 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS)-functionalized silicon or glass surfaces and growing them into NRs/NWs by placing the substrates into a solution containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), silver nitrate, and ascorbic acid with the pH ranging from 7 to 12. Under our conditions, Ag NRs/NWs grow optimally at pH 10.6 with a 3% yield, where spherical, triangular, and hexagonal nanostructures represent the other byproducts. The length of Ag NRs/NWs ranges from 50 nm to more than 10 microm, the aspect ratio (AR) ranges from 1.4 to >300, and the average diameter is approximately 35 nm. Approximately 40% of the 1D structures are NRs, and 60% are NWs as defined by their ARs. We also report the alignment of Ag NRs/NWs directly on surfaces by growing the structures on amine-functionalized Si(100) surfaces after an amidation reaction with acetic acid and a method to improve the percentage of Ag NRs/NWs on the surface by removing structures of other shapes with adhesive tape. Surface-grown Ag NRs/NWs also react with salts of palladium, platinum, and gold via galvanic exchange reactions to form high-surface-area 1D structures of the corresponding metal. The combination of the seed-mediated growth of Ag on Au NRs followed by the galvanic exchange of Ag with Pd leads to interesting core/shell NRs grown directly on surfaces. We used scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the surface-grown nanostructures.

  17. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  18. Immunity related genes in dipterans share common enrichment of AT-rich motifs in their 5' regulatory regions that are potentially involved in nucleosome formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Mario H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in response to environmental challenges is of fundamental importance in biology. Transcription factors associated to response elements and the chromatin structure had proven to play important roles in gene expression regulation. We have analyzed promoter regions of dipteran genes induced in response to immune challenge, in search for particular sequence patterns involved in their transcriptional regulation. Results 5' upstream regions of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae immunity-induced genes and their corresponding orthologous genes in 11 non-melanogaster drosophilid species and Ae. aegypti share enrichment in AT-rich short motifs. AT-rich motifs are associated with nucleosome formation as predicted by two different algorithms. In A. gambiae and D. melanogaster, many immunity genes 5' upstream sequences also showed NFκB response elements, located within 500 bp from the transcription start site. In A. gambiae, the frequency of ATAA motif near the NFκB response elements was increased, suggesting a functional link between nucleosome formation/remodelling and NFκB regulation of transcription. Conclusion AT-rich motif enrichment in 5' upstream sequences in A. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and the Drosophila genus immunity genes suggests a particular pattern of nucleosome formation/chromatin organization. The co-occurrence of such motifs with the NFκB response elements suggests that these sequence signatures may be functionally involved in transcriptional activation during dipteran immune response. AT-rich motif enrichment in regulatory regions in this group of co-regulated genes could represent an evolutionary constrained signature in dipterans and perhaps other distantly species.

  19. A Comparison of national CCS strategies for Northwest Europe, with a focus on the potential of common CO2 storage at the Utsira formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Andrea; Hoefnagels, Ric; van den Broek, Machteld

    2011-01-01

    2 storage. However, this will not only depend on their potential available capacity to store CO2 flows but also on the cost effectiveness of such an option within national portfolios of mitigation measures. This article shows key results of a research project aiming to assess the potentials...... in the national portfolio of measures. Within the CCS portfolio, storage of CO2 in the Utsira formation can indeed be a cost effective option for North Europe and it represents a valuable CO2 storage option at the regional level. For instance, the United Kingdom will profit from the comparably short transport...

  20. Influence of Stellar Multiplicity On Planet Formation. II. Planets Are Less Common in Multiple-Star Systems with Separations Smaller than 1500 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ji; Xie, Ji-Wei; Ciardi, David R

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of the stellar systems in the solar neighborhood are made up of multiple stars. In multiple-star systems, planet formation is under the dynamical influence of stellar companions, and the planet occurrence rate is expected to be different from that for single stars. There have been numerous studies on the planet occurrence rate of single star systems. However, to fully understand planet formation, the planet occurrence rate in multiple-star systems needs to be addressed. In this work, we {{infer}} the planet occurrence rate in multiple-star systems by measuring the stellar multiplicity rate for planet host stars. For a sub-sample of 56 $Kepler$ planet host stars, we use adaptive optics (AO) imaging and the radial velocity (RV) technique to search for stellar companions. The combination of these two techniques results in high search completeness for stellar companions. We detect 59 visual stellar companions to 25 planet host stars with AO data. {{Three stellar companions are within 2$^{\\prime\\prime}...

  1. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  2. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  3. Effects on Genome Constitution and Novel Cell Wall Formation Caused by the Addition of 5RS Rye Chromosome to Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Cheng; Minoru Murata; Sodmergen; Xiao-Mei Li; Hai Nian; Jian-Min Wan

    2008-01-01

    The cytological instability of common wheat-rye addition lines was investigated in the present study. The chromosome numbers of almost all addition lines were considerably stable, but those of CS + 5R were very variable. The rye chromosome added in this line was found to be much shorter than expected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S rDNA and the centromere-specific probes clearly revealed that the short rye chromosome contains only a short arm of chromosome 5R (5RS). In this line, chromosome numbers of both 5RS and common wheat were changeable. The chromosome numbers ranged from 2n = 36 to 2n = 44 in the cells carrying two 5RS, and ranged from 2n = 31 to 2n = 44 in one 5RS cells. In addition to the chromosome instability, the multicells wrapped in a sac-like structure were frequently observed in the root meristematic tissues of CS + 5RS after the enzyme treatment for chromosome preparation. Genomic in situ hybridization with rye DNA as a probe showed that all cells in sacs investigated were at the interphase stage and contained one or two 5RS chromosomes. An electron microscopic analysis revealed that the cells of CS + 5RS, particularly in sacs, have abnormal (irregular and curved) cell walls. These results indicate that 5RS has (a) specific factor(s) influencing the cell wall development as well as the genome stability.

  4. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Role of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP 1 in Regulating Rates of Microtubule Formation in Cystic Fibrosis Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymut, Sharon M; Ivy, Tracy; Corey, Deborah A; Cotton, Calvin U; Burgess, James D; Kelley, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of microtubule dynamics in cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial cells and the consequences of reduced rates of microtubule polymerization on downstream CF cellular events, such as cholesterol accumulation, a marker of impaired intracellular transport, are explored here. It is identified that microtubules in both CF cell models and in primary CF nasal epithelial cells repolymerize at a slower rate compared with respective controls. Previous studies suggest a role for cAMP in modulating organelle transport in CF cells, implicating a role for exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) 1, a regulator of microtubule elongation, as a potential mechanism. EPAC1 activity is reduced in CF cell models and in Cftr(-/-) mouse lung compared with respective non-CF controls. Stimulation of EPAC1 activity with the selective EPAC1 agonist, 8-cpt-2-O-Me-cAMP, stimulates microtubule repolymerization to wild-type rates in CF cells. EPAC1 activation also alleviates cholesterol accumulation in CF cells, suggesting a direct link between microtubule regulation and intracellular transport. To verify the relationship between transport and microtubule regulation, expression of the protein, tubulin polymerization-promoting protein, was knocked down in non-CF human tracheal (9/HTEo(-)) cells to mimic the microtubule dysregulation in CF cells. Transduced cells with short hairpin RNA targeting tubulin polymerization-promoting protein exhibit CF-like perinuclear cholesterol accumulation and other cellular manifestations of CF cells, thus supporting a role for microtubule regulation as a mechanism linking CFTR function to downstream cellular manifestation.

  6. Biofilm formation by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 strains and their tolerance to sanitizers commonly used in the food processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Bono, James L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Shackelford, Steven; Harhay, Dayna M

    2012-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important foodborne pathogens. Among these, E. coli O157:H7 is the most frequently isolated STEC serotype responsible for foodborne diseases. However, the non-O157 serotypes have been associated with serious outbreaks and sporadic diseases as well. It has been shown that various STEC serotypes are capable of forming biofilms on different food or food contact surfaces that, when detached, may lead to cross-contamination. Bacterial cells at biofilm stage also are more tolerant to sanitizers compared with their planktonic counterparts, which makes STEC biofilms a serious food safety concern. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of biofilm formation by a variety of STEC strains from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:H8; we also compared biofilm tolerance with two types of common sanitizers, a quaternary ammonium chloride-based sanitizer and chlorine. Our results demonstrated that biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes on a polystyrene surface was highly strain-dependent, whereas the two non-O157 serotypes showed a higher potency of pellicle formation at air-liquid interfaces on a glass surface compared with serotype O157:H7. Significant reductions of viable biofilm cells were achieved with sanitizer treatments. STEC biofilm tolerance to sanitization was strain-dependent regardless of the serotypes. Curli expression appeared to play a critical role in STEC biofilm formation and tolerance to sanitizers. Our data indicated that multiple factors, including bacterial serotype and strain, surface materials, and other environmental conditions, could significantly affect STEC biofilm formation. The high potential for biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes, especially the strong potency of pellicle formation by the curli-positive non-O157 strains with high sanitization tolerance, might contribute to bacterial colonization on food contact surfaces, which may result in downstream product

  7. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  8. A Phenomenological Model for Prediction Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation of Turbulent Diffusion Combustion in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new phenomenological model, the TP (Temperature Phase model, is presented to carry out optimization calculations for turbulent diffusion combustion in a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature is the most important parameter in the TP model, which includes two parts: an auto-ignition and a soot model. In the auto-ignition phase, different reaction mechanisms are built for different zones. For the soot model, different methods are used for different temperatures. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimization. The results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP model, KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed. The results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and CFD (computational fluid dynamics and can be a useful tool to study turbulent diffusion combustion.

  9. Isotopically sensitive branching in the formation of cyclic monoterpenes: proof that (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene are synthesized by the same monoterpene cyclase via deprotonation of a common intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wheeler, C.J.; Cane, D.E.; Ebert, R.; Ha, H.J.

    1987-08-25

    To determine whether the bicyclic monoterpene olefins (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene arise biosynthetically from the same monoterpene cyclase by alternate deprotonations of a common carbocationic intermediate, the product distributions arising from the acyclic precursor (10-/sup 2/H/sub 3/,1-/sup 3/H)geranyl pyrophosphate were compared with those resulting from incubation of (1-3H)geranyl pyrophosphate with (-)-pinene cyclase from Salvia officinalis. Alteration in proportions of the olefinic products generated by the partially purified pinene cyclase resulted from the suppression of the formation of (-)-beta-pinene (C10 deprotonation) by a primary deuterium isotope effect with a compensating stimulation of the formation of (-)-alpha-pinene (C4 deprotonation). (-)-Pinene cyclase as well as (+)-pinene cyclase also exhibited a decrease in the proportion of the acyclic olefin myrcene generated from the deuteriated substrate, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the commitment to cyclized products. The observation of isotopically sensitive branching, in conjunction with quantitation of the magnitude of the secondary deuterium isotope effect on the overall rate of product formation by the (+)- and (-)-pinene cyclases as well as two other monoterpene cyclases from the same tissue, supports the biosynthetic origin of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene by alternative deprotonations of a common enzymatic intermediate. A biogenetic scheme consistent with these results is presented, and alternate proposals for the origin of the pinenes are addressed.

  10. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  11. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  12. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  13. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  14. Daytime formation of nitrous acid at a coastal remote site in Cyprus indicating a common ground source of atmospheric HONO and NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, Hannah; Kuhn, Uwe; Reiffs, Andreas; Mallik, Chinmay; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Schuladen, Jan; Bohn, Birger; Parchatka, Uwe; Crowley, John N.; Fischer, Horst; Tomsche, Laura; Novelli, Anna; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Hartogensis, Oscar; Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Weber, Bettina; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang

    2016-11-01

    Characterization of daytime sources of nitrous acid (HONO) is crucial to understand atmospheric oxidation and radical cycling in the planetary boundary layer. HONO and numerous other atmospheric trace constituents were measured on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus during the CYPHEX (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment) campaign in summer 2014. Average volume mixing ratios of HONO were 35 pptv (±25 pptv) with a HONO / NOx ratio of 0.33, which was considerably higher than reported for most other rural and urban regions. Diel profiles of HONO showed peak values in the late morning (60 ± 28 pptv around 09:00 local time) and persistently high mixing ratios during daytime (45 ± 18 pptv), indicating that the photolytic loss of HONO is compensated by a strong daytime source. Budget analyses revealed unidentified sources producing up to 3.4 × 106 molecules cm-3 s-1 of HONO and up to 2.0 × 107 molecules cm-3 s-1 NO. Under humid conditions (relative humidity > 70 %), the source strengths of HONO and NO exhibited a close linear correlation (R2 = 0.72), suggesting a common source that may be attributable to emissions from microbial communities on soil surfaces.

  15. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  16. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  17. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  18. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  19. 社会交换视角下的组织沉默形成机制:信任的中介作用%The Mediating Effect of Trust: The Formatting Mechanism of Organizational Silence from a Social Exchange Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超平; 鲍春梅

    2011-01-01

    Taking 278 nurses as samples, with questionnaire survey, this paper explores the formatting mechanism of organizational silence from the perspective of social exchange. Empirical results verifies that perceiyed organizational support(POS) has a negative effect on acquiescent silence and disregardful silence, leader-member exchange(LMX) also has such effect on acquiescent silence.Trust to origination partly mediates the influence of POS on acquiescent silence, and completely mediates that of POS on disregardful silence; while trust to leader completely mediates the effect of LMX on acquiescent silence. The findings enriches the existing theories of organizational silence, and provides theoretical support for the intervention of organizational silence.%以278名护士为研究对象,采用问卷调查的方法,探讨了社会交换视角下组织沉默的形成机制.研究结果表明,组织支持感对默许沉默和防御沉默有显著的负向影响;领导-成员交换对默许沉默有显著的负向影响;此外,信任组织在组织支持感对默许沉默的影响过程中起部分中介作用,在组织支持感对防御沉默的影响过程中起完全中介作用;信任上级在领导-成员交换对默许沉默的影响过程中起部分中介作用.这些发现丰富了现有的组织沉默理论,为组织对沉默现象进行干预提供了对策和相应的理论支持.

  20. Influence of simulated microgravity on the activation of the small GTPase Rho involved in cytoskeletal formation – molecular cloning and sequencing of bovine leukemia-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki Masaya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The irregular formation of cytoskeletal fibers in spaceflown experimental cells has been observed, but the disorganization process of fibers is still poorly understood. It is well known that the activation of the small GTPase Rho leads to actin stress fibers assembly. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity on the activation of Rho that is involved in actin fiber remodeling in cells. Results Clinorotation influences actin fiber remodeling and its related signaling pathways that involve the small GTPase Rho. Actin stress fiber remodeling was significantly inhibited to a greater extent in cells cultured under clinorotation than in static cultured cells. From the gene and protein expression analyses, we found that the expression level of leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG, which activates Rho, was downregulated under clinorotation. Moreover, we identified the full-length LARG cDNA. The amount of GTP-bound RhoA, that is, the active form of RhoA, decreased under this condition. Conclusion The activation of the small GTPase Rho was influenced by simulated microgravity generated by a three-dimensional (3D clinostat. Furthermore, the full-length cDNA of bovine LARG, a member of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF family, was identified, and its gene expression was observed to be downregulated under clinorotation. This downregulation subsequently resulted in the repression of RhoA activation. These results indicated that the disorganization of the actin fibers was caused by the inhibition of Rho activation by 3D clinorotation.

  1. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  2. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  3. Milk fouling in heat exchangers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, Th.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the precipitation of cal

  4. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  5. HIV cohort collaborations: proposal for harmonization of data exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jesper; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    HIV cohort studies have provided useful information on the natural history of HIV infection and the effects of antiretroviral therapy. It has become increasingly common to combine data from several cohorts into one dataset in order to address certain specific questions with more statistical power...... than can be achieved with the individual studies. This requires each cohort to map data into a standard format before merging. Until recently, this standard format has differed for each such collaborative analysis. We have therefore developed the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP), which...... is freely available at http://www.cphiv.dk/HICDEP.pdf. Once individual cohorts have set up a means of transfering data into this format, as and when required, this should greatly facilitate data merging for future joint analyses. The HICDEP incorporates data from HIV drug resistance tests, which have been...

  6. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  7. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Rahmani, Amirreza

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation-flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are proposed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms rely on a local information exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. Distributed space systems rely on a signal transmission network among multiple spacecraft for their operation. Control and coordination among multiple spacecraft in a formation is facilitated via a network of relative sensing and interspacecraft communications. Guidance, navigation, and control rely on the sensing network. This network becomes more complex the more spacecraft are added, or as mission requirements become more complex. The observability of a formation state was observed by a set of local observations from a particular node in the formation. Formation observability can be parameterized in terms of the matrices appearing in the formation dynamics and observation matrices. An agreement protocol was used as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. An agreement protocol is essentially an unforced dynamic system whose trajectory is governed by the interconnection geometry and initial condition of each node, with a goal of reaching a common value of interest. The observability of the interconnected system depends on the geometry of the network, as well as the position of the observer relative to the topology. For the first time, critical GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control estimation) subsystems are synthesized by bringing the contribution of the spacecraft information-exchange network to the forefront of algorithmic analysis and design. The result is a

  8. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  9. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  10. Building consumer trust into health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Carol; Ricciardi, Lygeia

    2006-01-01

    For nationwide health information exchange to succeed, consumers must trust that their data are being managed responsibly. Regional and other networks that create the nationwide exchange should make consumer trust a priority that is factored into every decision they make. Connecting for Health's Common Framework offers a starting point.

  11. Handbook on heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhan, Pavel I.; Kanevets, Georgii E.; Seliverstov, Vladimir M.

    Essential data on heat exchange equipment used in ship, locomotive, automotive, and aircraft powerplants are presented in a systematic manner. The data cover the principal types and technical and performance characteristics of heat exchangers, fundamentals of the theory of heat exchange, calculation of heat transfer coefficients for different types of heat exchange apparatus, optimization of heat exchangers, computer-aided design of heat exchange equipment, testing techniques, and test result processing.

  12. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  13. 轻质隔墙板质量通病及预控措施经验交流%On quality common diseases of lightweight partition board and experience exchange of pre-control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳琴

    2012-01-01

    Combining with many-year construction experience and the factual investigation results,the paper introduces the classification,features and the application of the raw materials of the lightweight partition board,analyzes the quality common diseases of the lightweight partition board,including the bonding empty-drum,cracks,self-joint,and the cracks at connection of main structure,and points out the prevention measures,so as to direct the practice.%结合多年施工经验及实际调查结果,介绍了轻质隔墙板板材原料构成分类,特点及应用,针对轻质隔墙板粘结空鼓、龟裂,自身对接及与主体结构连接处裂缝等质量通病进行了分析,并提出防治措施,以期指导实践。

  14. Exchange effects in a cold plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ekman, Robin; Brodin, Gert

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically we have considered the zero temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long wavelength limit, i.e. wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density functional theory.

  15. OIFITS 2: the 2nd version of the Data Exchange Standard for Optical (Visible/IR) Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Duvert, Gilles; Hummel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes version 2 of the OI Exchange Format (OIFITS), the standard for exchanging calibrated data from optical (visible/infrared) interferometers. This IAU-endorsed standard has been in use for 10 years at most of the past and current optical interferometer projects, including COAST, NPOI, IOTA, CHARA, VLTI, PTI and the Keck interferometer. Software is available for reading, writing and merging OI Exchange Format files. This version 2 provides definitions of additional data tables (e.g. for polarisation measurements), addressing the needs of future interferometric instruments. Also included are data columns for a more rigorous description of measurement errors and their correlations. In that, this document is a step towards the design of a common data model for optical interferometry. Finally, the main OIFITS header is expanded with several new keywords summarising the content to allow data base searches.

  16. Foreign Exchange Exposures of Korean Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbin Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measure foreign exchange exposures as sensitivity of firm's value to FX premium in the CAPM plus FX premium model, and try to find determinants of the exposures; using data of non-financial companies listed in the Korea Exchange from the year 2007 to 2008. Main findings are as follows. If Korean won depreciates, only a small number of firms is benefitted while majority of firms are harmed to the contrary of common knowledge. As a firm's export increases, the foreign exchange exposure increases up to a certain level and after that it declines. And, smaller firms of negative foreign exchange exposures are more sensitive to foreign exchange changes. These suggest heterogeneous effects of foreign exchange rates on industries and firms.

  17. Correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with extended spectrum beta lactamase production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from the patients suspected of urinary tract infections visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Neupane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the most predominant causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI. Recently, increase in drug resistance among the uropathogenic bacteria has caused great problem in treatment of UTI. The main objective of this research is to determine the correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with extended spectrum beta lactamase production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Methods The urine samples collected from the patients suspected of urinary tract infections (visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal between July to December 2013 were cultured in cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED agar by using semi quantitative culture technique. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL production was detected by combined disc diffusion technique and biofilm formation was detected by Congo red agar method. Chi-square test was applied and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Out of 1480 urine samples, E. Coli was isolated from 208 (14.1 % samples. Of total 69 (33.2 % ESBL producing uropathogenic strains of E. coli, 20 (29 % were strong biofilm producers, 22 (31.9 % were moderate biofilm producers, 11 (15.9 % were weak biofilm producers and 16 (23.2 % were biofilm non producers. Whereas among 139 ESBL non producing E. coli, 22 (15.8 % were strong biofilm producers, 20 (14.4 % were moderate biofilm producers, 13 (9.4 % were weak biofilm producers and 84 (60.4 % were biofilm non producers. Among total 108 biofilm producing E. coli, maximum resistance was observed toward cephalexin followed by amoxicillin and highest susceptibility was seen toward amikacin. Conclusion The ability of biofilm formation was found to be significantly higher in ESBL producing strains of E. coli than that in ESBL non producing strains (p < 0.05. There was higher resistance rate to antimicrobial agents among biofilm

  18. Formation of Tethers from Spreading Cellular Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, Grégory; Winnik, Françoise M; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    Membrane tubes are commonly extruded from cells and vesicles when a point-like force is applied on the membrane. We report here the unexpected formation of membrane tubes from lymph node cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell aggregates in the absence of external applied forces. The spreading of LNCaP aggregates deposited on adhesive glass substrates coated with fibronectin is very limited because cell-cell adhesion is stronger than cell-substrate adhesion. Some cells on the aggregate periphery are very motile and try to escape from the aggregate, leading to the formation of membrane tubes. Tethered networks and exchange of cargos between cells were observed as well. Growth of the tubes is followed by either tube retraction or tube rupture. Hence, even very cohesive cells are successful in escaping aggregates, which may lead to epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis. We interpret the dynamics of formation and retraction of tubes in the framework of membrane mechanics.

  19. Name-Value Pair Specification For Image Data Headers And Logical Standards For Image Data Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, J. M.; Selfridge, Peter G.; Anderson, Alicia C.

    1984-08-01

    A chronic barrier to rapid progress in image processing and pattern recognition research is the lack of a universal and facile method of transferring image data between different facilities. Comparison of different approaches and algorithms on a common data base is often the only means for establishing the validity of results. Data collected under known recording conditions is mandatory for improvement of analytic methodology, yet such valuable data is costly and time consuming to obtain. Therefore, the sharing and exchange of image data may be expendient. The proliferation of different image data formats has compouned the problem of exchange. The establishement of logical formats and standards for images and image data headers is the first step towards dissolving this barrier. This paper presents initial recommendations of the IEEE Computer Society PAMI (Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence) and CompMed (Computational Medicine) Technical Committees' Database Subcommittees on the first of a series of digital image data standards.

  20. Maya-Yucatecan homegardens: Supporting social networks through exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    D.G. Lope-Alzina

    2008-01-01

    This presentation, submitted at the XI International Conference of Ethnobiology, examines the importance and role of homegardens in social networks within the context of an indigenous community located in Yucatan State, Mexico. Specifically, exchange relations and genealogy (kinship) networks are analyzed. Preliminary findings suggest that household exchanges are common, homegardens provide most of the material for exchanges, and women are the main agents of exchange relations thereby support...

  1. Consequences of Kondo exchange on quantum spins

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Acosta, Fernando; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Fernández Rossier, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    When individual quantum spins are placed in close proximity to conducting substrates, the localized spin is coupled to the nearby itinerant conduction electrons via Kondo exchange. In the strong coupling limit this can result in the Kondo effect — the formation of a correlated, many body singlet state — and a resulting renormalization of the density of states near the Fermi energy. However, even when Kondo screening does not occur, Kondo exchange can give rise to a wide variety of other pheno...

  2. Common Concern——Chinese and European Women Exchange Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The discussions focusedon seven aspects:protection of women’slegal rights and benefits;women and poverty;women’s paticipation ineconomic development;women and health;women and theenvironment; women’spolitical participation andwomen and education.

  3. 共轨柴油机高海拔碳烟形成历程的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Soot Formation Histories for Common Rail Diesel Engine at High Altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董素荣; 刘瑞林; 周广猛; 王威; 张众杰; 何西常

    2013-01-01

    采用 AVL FIRE 数值分析软件对共轨柴油机高海拔(低气压)燃烧过程的燃油浓度场、温度场分布及碳烟形成历程进行了模拟计算,研究了不同海拔大气压力对共轨柴油机低速全负荷工况燃烧过程及碳烟排放的影响.结果表明,在不同海拔(0,m、3,000,m、4,000,m 和5,000,m)条件下,计算燃烧压力和放热率与试验值具有较好的一致性,验证了所建数值分析模型的有效性.随着海拔的升高,燃烧后期浓混合气分布区域、燃烧高温区域以及碳烟形成区域明显增大.在燃烧初期,碳烟质量分数逐渐增大,在15~17°,CA ATDC 出现峰值,且碳烟峰值随海拔的升高而增大,海拔5,000,m碳烟质量分数峰值是海拔0,m的1.87倍;燃烧后期,随海拔的升高,碳烟氧化速率降低,排放增加.%Numerical simulation of the fuel concentration field,temperature field distribution and soot formation histories in a common rail diesel engine at high altitude(low air pressure)was carried out by means of AVL FIRE nu-merical analysis. The influences of air pressure at different altitude on combustion process and soot emissions at low speed full-load in a common rail diesel engine were investigated. The in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate from simulation are consistent with the experimental data at different altitude(0,m,3,000,m,4,000,m,5,000,m). There-fore,the effectiveness of the numerical model is verified. The results indicated that rich fuel mixture area,high com-bustion temperature area and soot formation area were enlarged obviously during the late combustion period with the altitude increasing. The mass fraction of soot increased gradually during the early combustion period and the peak value appeared at 15~17,°CA ATDC. The soot mass fraction peak value increased with the altitude increasing,and the peak value at 5,000,m was 1.87,times that at 0,m altitude. During the late combustion period,the oxidation

  4. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  5. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  6. Exchange rate regimes and external financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoica Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability within the framework of the global financial crisis has become a common topic for researchers and practitioners. In order to analyse the impact of exchange rate regimes on financial stability we use both the de jure and de facto exchange rate classifications. We apply the model to a 1999-2010 annual data sample for 135 countries and territories, grouped by the level of economic development. Our second focus is the investigation of the effects of the exchange rate regimes in three economic integration areas (member countries of the European Union 27, the Southern Common Market, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations on financial stability. Our results generally support the central banks’ concerns that the flexibility of exchange rate regimes should be reduced in order to sustain financial stability; however, the findings are not robust when using alternative regime classifications.

  7. Heat exchangers for waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.S.H.; Alp, T. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    A survey is made of the equipment used for heat recovery and utilization. Types and merits of commonly employed heat exchangers are presented, and criteria for selecting heat exchangers are summarized. Applications for waste heat recovery are emphasized. It is concluded that careful selection and operation of such equipment would be expected to result in energy savings as well as problem-free operation. (author)

  8. Testing and plugging power plant heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutor, F. [Expando Seal Tools, Inc., Montgomeryville, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Heat Exchanger tubes fail for any number of reasons including but certainly not limited to the cumulative effects of corrosion, erosion, thermal stress and fatigue. This presentation will attempt to identify the most common techniques for determining which tubes are leaking and then introduce the products in use to plug the leaking tubes. For the sake of time I will limit the scope of this presentation to include feedwater heaters and secondary system heat exchangers such as Hydrogen Coolers, Lube Oil Coolers, and nuclear Component Cooling Water, Emergency Cooling Water, Regenerative Heat Recovery heat exchangers.

  9. Collision Induced Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Schäffer, R

    1997-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical model in which galaxy collisions and strong tidal interactions, both in the field and during the collapse phase of groups and clusters help determine galaxy morphology. From a semi-analytical analysis based on simulation results of tidal collisions (Aguilar & White 1985), we propose simple rules for energy exchanges during collisions that allow to discriminate between different Hubble types: efficient collisions result in the disruption of disks and substantial star formation, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies; inefficient collisions allow a large gas reservoir to survive and form disks. Assuming that galaxy formation proceeds in a Omega_0=1 Cold Dark Matter universe, the model both reproduces a number of observations and makes predictions, among which are the redshifts of formation of the different Hubble types in the field. When the model is normalized to the present day abundance of X-ray clusters, the amount of energy exchange needed to produce elliptical gal...

  10. Approximate strip exchanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swapnoneel; Thakur, Ashok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have been modelled by a variety of primitives such as reversals, transpositions, block moves and block interchanges. We consider such a genome rearrangement primitive Strip Exchanges. Given a permutation, the challenge is to sort it by using minimum number of strip exchanges. A strip exchanging move interchanges the positions of two chosen strips so that they merge with other strips. The strip exchange problem is to sort a permutation using minimum number of strip exchanges. We present here the first non-trivial 2-approximation algorithm to this problem. We also observe that sorting by strip-exchanges is fixed-parameter-tractable. Lastly we discuss the application of strip exchanges in a different area Optical Character Recognition (OCR) with an example.

  11. Review of Robust Data Exchange Using Optical Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data exchange, namely bidirectional information swapping, provides enhanced flexibility compared to the unidirectional information transfer. To fulfill the rapid development of high-speed large-capacity optical communications with emerging multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques and advanced modulation formats, a laudable goal would be to achieve data exchange in different degrees of freedom (wavelength, time, polarization, for different modulation formats (OOK, DPSK, DQPSK, pol-muxed, and at different granularities (entire data, groups of bits, tributary channels. Optical nonlinearities are potentially suitable candidates to enable data exchange in the wavelength, time, and polarization domains. In this paper, we will review our recent works towards robust data exchange by exploiting miscellaneous optical nonlinearities, including the use of cSFG/DFG in a PPLN waveguide for time- (groups of bits and channel-selective data exchange and tributary channel exchange between two WDM+OTDM signals, nondegenerate FWM in an HNLF for phase-transparent data exchange (DPSK, DQPSK, bidirectional degenerate FWM in an HNLF for multi-channel data exchange, and Kerr-induced nonlinear polarization rotation in an HNLF for tributary channel exchange of a pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal. The demonstrated data exchanges in different degrees of freedom, for different modulation formats, and at different granularities, open the door for alternative approaches to achieve superior network performance.

  12. Studies on Increasing RMB Exchange Rate Flexibility and RMB Exchange Rate Formation Mechanism with Reference to a Basket of Currencies%人民币汇率增加弹性和参考一篮子货币汇率形成机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆前进

    2011-01-01

    在央行货币政策目标下,可以确定最优汇率水平及汇率水平的调整。我国外汇体制改革要建立以市场供求为基础的,参考一篮子货币的有管理的浮动汇率制度,央行的汇率目标应由人民币对美元稳定转变为参考人民币有效汇率目标,确保人民币币值的总体水平稳定。实际上,参考篮子货币,人民币对美元汇率的弹性将显著增加。央行应逐步放宽人民币对美元和非美元货币的波动幅度,人民币汇率最终将由市场供求来决定,发挥汇率配置资源的基础作用。%Under the monetary policy goal of the central bank, the optimal ex- change rate level and adjustment process can be determined. The target of China's foreign exchange system reform is to establish the managed floating exchange rate system on the basis of market supply and demand with reference to a basket of currencies. The exchange rate target of the central bank should be transferred from pegging to US Dollar to referring to RMB effective exchange rate, ensuring the overall currency level stability of RMB. In fact, RMB exchange rate flexibility will increase remarkably against US Dollar with reference to a basket of currencies. The central bank should gradually relax RMB exchange rate fluctuation range against US Dollar and non-dollar currencies. RMB exchange rate will be finally determined by market supply and demand, and will play an important role on the allocation of resources.

  13. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  14. The natural history of tunneled hemodialysis catheters removed or exchanged: a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Ahmad I; Falk, Abigail

    2007-02-01

    To track the natural history of tunneled hemodialysis catheters requiring removal or exchange at a single institution. Over a 2-year period, tunneled hemodialysis catheters that presented to interventional radiology for removal or exchange were entered into this retrospective study. Patient demographics, catheter location, dwell time, and indication for removal were recorded. Pull-back contrast venography was performed with imaging over the chest. Catheters were then removed or exchanged. Three hundred thirty-four tunneled dialysis catheters were removed or exchanged in 207 patients; 108 male, median age 53 years. Dwell time, available from 296 catheters, ranged from 1 to 114 days (median, 66 days) for a total of 32,847 catheter days. One hundred three catheters were removed for infection, yielding a rate of infection requiring catheter removal of 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days. One hundred catheters were removed for other working access, and 96 catheters were exchanged for poor function. Two hundred sixty-five were removed or exchanged from the internal jugular vein, 22 from the subclavian vein, and 24 from the femoral vein. One hundred seventy-two (76%) of the 226 catheters studied with contrast had fibrin sheaths; of which 42 had thrombus identified along the catheter tract. One hundred ninety-three catheters were removed, and 141 catheters were exchanged for new catheters with 82 catheters receiving balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. Approximately one third of tunneled dialysis catheters are removed for infection, one third for other working access, and one third for poor function. Catheters usually remain in the patient for a median of 2 months. Fibrin sheaths associated with hemodialysis catheters are very common. Thrombus formation around the sheath is frequent.

  15. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  16. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  17. The tissue microarray data exchange specification: A community-based, open source tool for sharing tissue microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgerton Mary E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue Microarrays (TMAs allow researchers to examine hundreds of small tissue samples on a single glass slide. The information held in a single TMA slide may easily involve Gigabytes of data. To benefit from TMA technology, the scientific community needs an open source TMA data exchange specification that will convey all of the data in a TMA experiment in a format that is understandable to both humans and computers. A data exchange specification for TMAs allows researchers to submit their data to journals and to public data repositories and to share or merge data from different laboratories. In May 2001, the Association of Pathology Informatics (API hosted the first in a series of four workshops, co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, to develop an open, community-supported TMA data exchange specification. Methods A draft tissue microarray data exchange specification was developed through workshop meetings. The first workshop confirmed community support for the effort and urged the creation of an open XML-based specification. This was to evolve in steps with approval for each step coming from the stakeholders in the user community during open workshops. By the fourth workshop, held October, 2002, a set of Common Data Elements (CDEs was established as well as a basic strategy for organizing TMA data in self-describing XML documents. Results The TMA data exchange specification is a well-formed XML document with four required sections: 1 Header, containing the specification Dublin Core identifiers, 2 Block, describing the paraffin-embedded array of tissues, 3Slide, describing the glass slides produced from the Block, and 4 Core, containing all data related to the individual tissue samples contained in the array. Eighty CDEs, conforming to the ISO-11179 specification for data elements constitute XML tags used in the TMA data exchange specification. A set of six simple semantic rules describe the complete data exchange

  18. The Stem Cell Commons: an exemplar for data integration in the biomedical domain driven by the ISA framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Sui, Shannan; Merrill, Emily; Gehlenborg, Nils; Haseley, Psalm; Sytchev, Ilya; Park, Richard; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Corlosquet, Stephane; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Maguire, Eamonn; Hofmann, Oliver; Park, Peter; Das, Sudeshna; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of stem cell experiments at both molecular and semantic levels remain challenging due to inconsistencies in results, data formats, and descriptions among biomedical research discoveries. The Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) has created the Stem Cell Commons (stemcellcommons.org), an open, community-based approach to data sharing. Experimental information is integrated using the Investigation-Study-Assay tabular format (ISA-Tab) used by over 30 organizations (ISA Commons, isacommons.org). The early adoption of this format permitted the novel integration of three independent systems to facilitate stem cell data storage, exchange and analysis: the Blood Genomics Repository, the Stem Cell Discovery Engine, and the new Refinery platform that links the Galaxy analytical engine to data repositories.

  19. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  20. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  1. Usable optimistic fair exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Küpçü, Alptekin; Lysyanskaya, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fairly exchanging digital content is an everyday problem. It has been shown that fair exchange cannot be achieved without a trusted third party (called the Arbiter). Yet, even with a trusted party, it is still non-trivial to come up with an efficient solution, especially one that can be used in a p2p file sharing system with a high volume of data exchanged. We provide an efficient optimistic fair exchange mechanism for bartering digital files, where receiving a payment in return for a file (b...

  2. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  3. Rethinking Fast Growth in China's Foreign Exchange Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlong Wang

    2006-01-01

    The sustained surpluses in the current and capital accounts of balance of payments are the main reason for the continuing rapid expanse of China's foreign exchange reserves in recent years. However, flaws in the formation of the renminbi exchange rate regime are the institutional root cause of the sustained high growth in foreign exchange reserves. Various theoretical misconceptions about the scale of foreign exchange reserves have swayed policies and contributed to its sustained fast growth. Sustained high growth of China's foreign exchange reserves, and its extraordinary large scale, carry tremendous risks.Because the security of foreign exchange reserves affects a country's financial safety, China urgently needs to adjust its foreign exchange reserve policies.

  4. Exchange rate reform:progress,challenges and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东琪; 张岸元; 王元

    2009-01-01

    For three decades China has followed an incremental approach in renminbi exchange rate reform.During this period,the exchange rate system has gone through five stages of evolution:i) a"basket peg"exchange rate regime;ii) a dual-track system;Hi) exchange rate convergence;iv) a"unitary pegged"exchange rate regime;and v) a managed floating exchange rate regime based on market supply and demand with reference to a basket of currencies. Reforming the exchange rate formation mechanism is a complex engineering project influenced by numerous factors such as the economic development mode,industrial structure,basic economic system,market system condition,financial and macroeconomic policy system as well as the new advantages arising from opening-up initiatives.Since 2005,China has achieved substantial success in reforming the exchange rate formation mechanism but still faces a plethora of issues.To address these issues,China should strengthen the role of the market in the exchange rate formation process and gradually push for the free convertibility of the renminbi under the capital account.Amidst the raging global financial crisis,China should further adapt to the diversification of the international monetary system and aggressively proceed with renminbi regionalization and internationalization.

  5. Statistical Report: Academic Year 2014-15. Student Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report covers fall 2014 enrollments for WUE [Western Undergraduate Exchange], WRGP [Western Regional Graduate Program], and PSEP [Professional Student Exchange Program]. It details the funds that flow between students' home states and the enrolling PSEP institutions that receive them. This newly expanded format gives detailed enrollment for…

  6. Mesh geometry impact on Micromegas performance with an Exchangeable Mesh prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, F., E-mail: fabian.kuger@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg (Germany); Bianco, M.; Iengo, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sekhniaidze, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Universita e INFN, Napoli (Italy); Veenhof, R. [Uludağ University, Bursa (Turkey); Wotschack, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-11

    The reconstruction precision of gaseous detectors is limited by losses of primary electrons during signal formation. In addition to common gas related losses, like attachment, Micromegas suffer from electron absorption during its transition through the micro mesh. This study aims for a deepened understanding of electron losses and their dependency on the mesh geometry. It combines experimental results obtained with a novel designed Exchangeable Mesh Micromegas (ExMe) and advanced microscopic-tracking simulations (ANSYS and Garfield++) of electron drift and mesh transition.

  7. Hear Exchange Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  8. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  9. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  10. 17 CFR 256.201 - Common stock issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common stock issued. 256.201... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.201 Common stock issued. This account shall include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued and outstanding....

  11. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BAFFLE PADA SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

    OpenAIRE

    Ekadewi Anggraini Handoyo

    2001-01-01

    Shell-and-tube heat exchanger is a device commonly used to transfer heat. To enhance the heat transfer occurred and to support the tubes inside the shell, baffles are installed. Better heat transfer is obviously expected in a heat exchanger. A research is done to find out the effect of baffle used toward the effectiveness and pressure drop in heat exchanger. The result is that the effectiveness increases when the baffles are installed. Effectiveness increases as the spacing between the baffle...

  12. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  13. Social Value Propagation for Supply Chain Formation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Supply Chain Formation is the process of determining the participants in a supply chain, who will exchange what with whom, and the terms of the exchanges. Decentralized supply chain formation appears as a highly intricate task because agents only possess local information, have limited knowledge about the capabilities of other agents, and prefer to preserve privacy. State-of-the-art decentralized supply chain formation approaches can either: (i) #12;find supply chains of high value at the ...

  14. Loneliness, exchange orientation, and reciprocity in friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Prins, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Guided by equity theory this study among 185 Dutch students explored the effects of exchange orientation and reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend upon loneliness. Reciprocity was in general more common in this relationship than feeling advantaged or deprived. The association between

  15. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  16. Loneliness, exchange orientation, and reciprocity in friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Prins, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Guided by equity theory this study among 185 Dutch students explored the effects of exchange orientation and reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend upon loneliness. Reciprocity was in general more common in this relationship than feeling advantaged or deprived. The association between

  17. Heat exchanger life extension via in-situ reconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-28

    A method of in-situ reconditioning a heat exchanger includes the steps of: providing an in-service heat exchanger comprising a precipitate-strengthened alloy wherein at least one mechanical property of the heat exchanger is degraded by coarsening of the precipitate, the in-service heat exchanger containing a molten salt working heat exchange fluid; deactivating the heat exchanger from service in-situ; in a solution-annealing step, in-situ heating the heat exchanger and molten salt working heat exchange fluid contained therein to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the coarsened precipitate; in a quenching step, flowing the molten salt working heat-exchange fluid through the heat exchanger in-situ to cool the alloy and retain a supersaturated solid solution while preventing formation of large precipitates; and in an aging step, further varying the temperature of the flowing molten salt working heat-exchange fluid to re-precipitate the dissolved precipitate.

  18. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information home > privacy + phrs > common privacy myths Common Privacy Myths With the new federal laws protecting ... Here are the truths to some of the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your ...

  19. Common NICU Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn intensive care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  20. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is ... and acquired agammaglobulinemia. Why Is the Study of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) a Priority for NIAID? CVID ...

  1. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Common discomforts of pregnancy Common discomforts of pregnancy E-mail to a friend ... like back ache and being really tired are common and shouldn’t make you worry. For most ...

  2. A Project to Design and Build Compact Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Students designed and manufactured compact, shell-and-tube heat exchangers in a project-based learning exercise integrated with our heat transfer course. The heat exchangers were constructed from common building materials available at home improvement centers. The cost of materials for a device was less than $20. The project gave students…

  3. Spatio-Temporal Data Exchange Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    and briefly surveys standardization in relation to primarily the exchange and integration of spatio-temporal data. An overview of several data exchange languages is offered, along with reviews their potential for facilitating the collection of test data and the leveraging of prototypes. The standards, most......We believe that research that concerns aspects of spatio-temporal data management may benefit from taking into account the various standards for spatio-temporal data formats. For example, this may contribute to rendering prototype software “open” and more readily useful. This paper thus identifies...

  4. Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y

    2001-12-01

    The Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors are multifunctional molecules that transduce diverse intracellular signals leading to the activation of Rho GTPases. The tandem Dbl-homology and pleckstrin-homology domains shared by all members of this family represent the structural module responsible for catalyzing the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of Rho proteins. Recent progress in genomic, genetic, structural and biochemical studies has implicated Dbl family members in diverse biological processes, including growth and development, skeletal muscle formation, neuronal axon guidance and tissue organization. The detailed pictures of their autoregulation, agonist-controlled activation and mechanism of interaction with Rho GTPase substrates, have begun to emerge.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Data Exchange Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    We believe that research that concerns aspects of spatio-temporal data management may benefit from taking into account the various standards for spatio-temporal data formats. For example, this may contribute to rendering prototype software “open” and more readily useful. This paper thus identifies...... and briefly surveys standardization in relation to primarily the exchange and integration of spatio-temporal data. An overview of several data exchange languages is offered, along with reviews their potential for facilitating the collection of test data and the leveraging of prototypes. The standards, most...

  6. Efficient stereoscopic contents file format on the basis of ISO base media file format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuheon; Lee, Jangwon; Suh, Doug Young; Park, Gwang Hoon

    2009-02-01

    A lot of 3D contents haven been widely used for multimedia services, however, real 3D video contents have been adopted for a limited applications such as a specially designed 3D cinema. This is because of the difficulty of capturing real 3D video contents and the limitation of display devices available in a market. However, diverse types of display devices for stereoscopic video contents for real 3D video contents have been recently released in a market. Especially, a mobile phone with a stereoscopic camera has been released in a market, which provides a user as a consumer to have more realistic experiences without glasses, and also, as a content creator to take stereoscopic images or record the stereoscopic video contents. However, a user can only store and display these acquired stereoscopic contents with his/her own devices due to the non-existence of a common file format for these contents. This limitation causes a user not share his/her contents with any other users, which makes it difficult the relevant market to stereoscopic contents is getting expanded. Therefore, this paper proposes the common file format on the basis of ISO base media file format for stereoscopic contents, which enables users to store and exchange pure stereoscopic contents. This technology is also currently under development for an international standard of MPEG as being called as a stereoscopic video application format.

  7. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  8. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  9. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  10. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  11. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  12. Exchange Rate in Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China announced the reform of its decade-old RMB exchange rate regime last July, linking the RMB to a basket of currencies rather than the U.S. dollar alone, and allowing the RMB to appreciate 2 percent against the U.S. currency. Since then, different viewpoints on the new regime have been voiced. The People's Bank of China, the central bank, said in a statement in late March that it would further improve the system, broadening the foreign exchange market, increasing the flexibility of the RMB exchange r...

  13. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  14. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  15. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  16. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  17. Emittance exchange results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller, R.P., III; /Brookhaven; Koeth, T.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2009-09-01

    The promise of next-generation light sources depends on the availability of ultra-low emittance electron sources. One method of producing low transverse emittance beams is to generate a low longitudinal emittance beam and exchange it with a large transverse emittance. Experiments are underway at Fermilab's A0 Photoinjector and ANL's Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using the exchange scheme of Kim and Sessler. The experiment at the A0 Photoinjector exchanges a large longitudinal emittance with a small transverse emittance. AWA expects to exchange a large transverse emittance with a small longitudinal emittance. In this paper we discuss recent results at A0 and AWA and future plans for these experiments.

  18. Emittance Exchange Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller III,R.; Koeth, T.

    2009-05-04

    The promise of next-generation light sources depends on the availability of ultra-low emittance electron sources. One method of producing low transverse emittance beams is to generate a low longitudinal emittance beam and exchange it with a large transverse emittance. Experiments are underway at Fermilab's A0 Photoinjector and ANL's Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using the exchange scheme of Kim and Sessler. The experiment at the A0 Photoinjector exchanges a large longitudinal emittance with a small transverse emittance. AWA expects to exchange a large transverse emittance with a small longitudinal emittance. In this paper we discuss recent results at A0 and AWA and future plans for these experiments.

  19. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  20. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  1. Compact, super heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat exchanger uses porous media to enhance heat transfer through walls of cooling channels, thereby lowering wall temperature. Porous media within cooling channel increases internal surface area from which heat can be transferred to coolant. Comparison data shows wall has lower temperature and coolant has higher temperature when porous medium is used within heat exchanger. Media can be sintered powedered metal, metal fibers, woven wire layers, or any porous metal having desired permeability and porosity.

  2. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  3. Private Health Insurance Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttorff, Christine; Nowak, Sarah; Syme, James; Eibner, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Private health insurance exchanges offer employer health insurance, combining online shopping, increased plan choice, benefit administration, and cost-containment strategies. This article examines how private exchanges function, how they may affect employers and employees, and the possible implications for the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Marketplaces. The authors found that private exchanges could encourage employees to select less-generous plans. This could expose employees to higher out-of-pocket costs, but premium contributions would drop substantially, so net spending would decrease. On the other hand, employee spending may increase if, in moving to private exchanges, employers decrease their health insurance contributions. Most employers can avoid the ACA's “Cadillac tax” by reducing the generosity of the plans they offer, regardless of whether they move to a private exchange. There is not yet enough evidence to determine whether the private exchanges will become prominent in the insurance market and how they will affect employers and their employees. PMID:28845340

  4. Common Data Elements in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L; Kahn, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic radiologists generally produce unstructured information in the form of images and narrative text reports. Although designed for human consumption, radiologic reports contain a wealth of information that could be valuable for clinical care, research, and quality improvement if that information could be extracted by automated systems. Unfortunately, the lack of structure in radiologic reports limits the ability of information systems to share information easily with other systems. A common data element (CDE)-a unit of information used in a shared, predefined fashion-can improve the ability to exchange information seamlessly among information systems. In this article, a model and a repository of radiologic CDEs is described, and three important applications are highlighted. CDEs can help advance radiologic practice, research, and performance improvement, and thus, it is crucial that CDEs be adopted widely in radiologic information systems. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  5. Mycobacterium Avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates induce in vitro granuloma formation and show successful survival phenotype, common anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic responses within ovine macrophages regardless of genotype or host of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Abendaño

    Full Text Available The analysis of the early macrophage responses, including bacterial growth within macrophages, represents a powerful tool to characterize the virulence of clinical isolates of Mycobcaterium avium susbp. paratuberculosis (Map. The present study represents the first assessment of the intracellular behaviour in ovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs of Map isolates representing distinct genotypes (C, S and B, and isolated from cattle, sheep, goat, fallow deer, deer, and wild boar. Intracellular growth and survival of the selected isolates in ovine MDMs was assessed by quantification of CFUs inside of the host cells at 2 h p.i. (day 0 and 7 d p. i. using an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960. Variations in bacterial counts over 7 days from the baseline were small, in a range between 1.63 to 1.05-fold. After 7 d of infection, variations in the estimated log10 CFUs between all the tested isolates were not statistically significant. In addition, ovine MDMs exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and antidestructive responses when infected with two ovine isolates of distinct genotype (C and S or with two C-type isolates from distinct hosts (cattle and sheep; which correlated with the successful survival of these isolates within ovine MDMs. A second objective was to study, based on an in vitro granuloma model, latter stages of the infection by investigating the capacity of two Map isolates from cattle and sheep to trigger formation of microgranulomas. Upon 10 d p.i., both Map isolates were able to induce the formation of granulomas comparable to the granulomas observed in clinical specimens with respect to the cellular components involved. In summary, our results demonstrated that Map isolates from cattle, sheep, goats, deer, fallow-deer and wild boar were able not only to initiate but also to establish a successful infection in ovine macrophages regardless of genotype.

  6. Mycobacterium Avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates induce in vitro granuloma formation and show successful survival phenotype, common anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic responses within ovine macrophages regardless of genotype or host of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendaño, Naiara; Tyukalova, Lyudmila; Barandika, Jesse F; Balseiro, Ana; Sevilla, Iker A; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the early macrophage responses, including bacterial growth within macrophages, represents a powerful tool to characterize the virulence of clinical isolates of Mycobcaterium avium susbp. paratuberculosis (Map). The present study represents the first assessment of the intracellular behaviour in ovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of Map isolates representing distinct genotypes (C, S and B), and isolated from cattle, sheep, goat, fallow deer, deer, and wild boar. Intracellular growth and survival of the selected isolates in ovine MDMs was assessed by quantification of CFUs inside of the host cells at 2 h p.i. (day 0) and 7 d p. i. using an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960). Variations in bacterial counts over 7 days from the baseline were small, in a range between 1.63 to 1.05-fold. After 7 d of infection, variations in the estimated log10 CFUs between all the tested isolates were not statistically significant. In addition, ovine MDMs exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and antidestructive responses when infected with two ovine isolates of distinct genotype (C and S) or with two C-type isolates from distinct hosts (cattle and sheep); which correlated with the successful survival of these isolates within ovine MDMs. A second objective was to study, based on an in vitro granuloma model, latter stages of the infection by investigating the capacity of two Map isolates from cattle and sheep to trigger formation of microgranulomas. Upon 10 d p.i., both Map isolates were able to induce the formation of granulomas comparable to the granulomas observed in clinical specimens with respect to the cellular components involved. In summary, our results demonstrated that Map isolates from cattle, sheep, goats, deer, fallow-deer and wild boar were able not only to initiate but also to establish a successful infection in ovine macrophages regardless of genotype.

  7. The Deuterator: software for the determination of backbone amide deuterium levels from H/D exchange MS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinoremas NF

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of mass spectrometry and solution phase amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/D exchange experiments is an effective method for characterizing protein dynamics, and protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions. Despite methodological advancements and improvements in instrumentation and automation, data analysis and display remains a tedious process. The factors that contribute to this bottleneck are the large number of data points produced in a typical experiment, each requiring manual curation and validation, and then calculation of the level of backbone amide exchange. Tools have become available that address some of these issues, but lack sufficient integration, functionality, and accessibility required to address the needs of the H/D exchange community. To date there is no software for the analysis of H/D exchange data that comprehensively addresses these issues. Results We have developed an integrated software system for the automated analysis and representation of H/D exchange data that has been titled "The Deuterator". Novel approaches have been implemented that enable high throughput analysis, automated determination of deuterium incorporation, and deconvolution of overlapping peptides. This has been achieved by using methods involving iterative theoretical envelope fitting, and consideration of peak data within expected m/z ranges. Existing common file formats have been leveraged to allow compatibility with the output from the myriad of MS instrument platforms and peptide sequence database search engines. A web-based interface is used to integrate the components of The Deuterator that are able to analyze and present mass spectral data from instruments with varying resolving powers. The results, if necessary, can then be confirmed, adjusted, re-calculated and saved. Additional tools synchronize the curated calculation parameters with replicate time points, increasing throughput. Saved results can then

  8. A common language for computer security incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  9. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As rep

  10. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  11. How Common Is the Common Core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  12. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  13. Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids Nandrolone (Oxandrin ® ), oxandrolone (Anadrol ® ), oxymetholone ( ... swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts. Treatment ...

  14. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Common Asthma Triggers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... t avoid the triggers. Some of the most common triggers are: Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is unhealthy ...

  15. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  16. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 How ... do you know about cholesterol? Here are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t ...

  17. Common Conditions in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Conditions in Newborns Page Content Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

  18. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several ... diagnose an arrhythmia. View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic ...

  19. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Bernstein, G. H.; Porod, W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing.

  20. Optimal design of the separate type heat pipe heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zi-tao; HU Ya-cai; CEN Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    Separate type heat pipe heat exchangers are often used for large-scale heat exchanging. The arrangement of such a heat exchanger conveniently allows heat input to and output from the heat exchanger at remote locations. The traditional method of designing an ordinary HPHE (heat pipe heat exchanger) is commonly applied in the separate type exchanger design, but the calculations have to be carried out separately, which makes it very complicated. In this work, the ε-NTU (effectiveness-Number of Transfer Units) method was applied for optimization analysis of single- or multi-level separate type heat pipe heat exchangers. An optimizing formula for single-level separate type heat pipe heat exchangers was obtained. The optimizing principles of effectiveness-NTU and heat transfer rate by the equal distribution method for multi-level separate type heat pipe heat exchanger are presented. The design of separate type heat pipe heat exchangers by the optimizing method is more convenient and faster than by the traditional method.

  1. Performance Investigation of Plate Type Heat Exchanger (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger is a thermodynamic system which is most commonly used in the process industry for exchanging heat energy between the fluids. flowing in the same or opposite direction. It is desired that effectiveness of heat exchanger should remain as large as possible. Heat exchanger's performance may be improved by the addition of fins or corrugations. These investigations include design of plate type heat exchanger, heat transfer enhancement, flow phenomenon and cleanliness factor. In process plants, this type of heat exchange is generally used for recovering heat content of exhaust steam. However, with the flow of fluid for a long period, fouling occurs on the plate surface. Therefore, it is required to investigate the effect of fouling, wherever the heat exchanger is installed. An extensive experimental investigation has been carried out under clean and dirty condition of the said plate type heat exchanger. Heat transfer and flow data were collected in experiment. From collected data heat transfer rate, overall heat transfer coefficient, fouling factor and cleanliness factor were evaluated. Based upon the cleanliness factor data, next date of cleanliness for plate type heat exchanger was predicted. It is felt that the outcome of the present research work may be quite useful for efficient operation of plate type heat exchanger installed in Process plants.

  2. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-02-28

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein.

  3. Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Donald; Massaro, Gloria Decarlo

    2004-12-01

    Lung tissue elastic recoil and the dimension and number of pulmonary gas-exchange units (alveoli) are major determinants of gas-exchange function. Loss of gas-exchange function accelerates after menopause in the healthy aged and is progressively lost in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latter, a disease of midlife and later, though more common in men than in women, is a disease to which women smokers and never smokers may be more susceptible than men; it is characterized by diminished lung tissue elastic recoil and presently irremediable alveolar loss. Ovariectomy in sexually immature rats diminishes the formation of alveoli, and estrogen prevents the diminution. In the present work, we found that estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, the only recognized mammalian estrogen receptors, are required for the formation of a full complement of alveoli in female mice. However, only the absence of estrogen receptor-beta diminishes lung elastic tissue recoil. Furthermore, ovariectomy in adult mice results, within 3 wk, in loss of alveoli and of alveolar surface area without a change of lung volume. Estrogen replacement, after alveolar loss, induces alveolar regeneration, reversing the architectural effects of ovariectomy. These studies 1) reveal estrogen receptors regulate alveolar size and number in a nonredundant manner, 2) show estrogen is required for maintenance of already formed alveoli and induces alveolar regeneration after their loss in adult ovariectomized mice, and 3) offer the possibility estrogen can slow alveolar loss and induce alveolar regeneration in women with COPD.

  4. 78 FR 47041 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... portfolios. The Exchange proposes to introduce a cash-settled options contract on a new volatility index... in implied volatility of the SPDR S&P ETF. The Exchange also proposes to list and trade long-term... changes in implied volatility of the SPDR S&P Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) (commonly known and referred to...

  5. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  6. Tuning Exchange Anisotropy of Exchange-Biased System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan; HU Jing-Guo; R.L.Stamps

    2008-01-01

    Exchange anisotropy in FM/AFM bilayers has given a lot of static magnetization properties such as enhanced coercivity and magnetization loop shifts.These phenomena are primarily from the effective anisotropies intro-duced into a ferromagnet by exchange coupling with a strongly anisotropic antiferromagnet.These effective anisotropies can also be used to explain the dynamic consequences of exchange-biased bilayers.In this article,the dynamic con-sequences such as exchange-induced susceptibility,exchange-induced permeability,and the corresponding domain wall characteristics in the exchange-biased structures of ferromagnet/antiferromagnetl/antiferromagnet2 are studied.The results show that the second antiferromagnetic layer can largely affect the dynamic consequences of exchange-biased bilayers.Especially in the ease of critical temperature,the effects become more obvious.Practically,the exchange anisotropy of biased bilayer system can be tuned by exchange coupling with the second antiferromagnetic layer.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Complex Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Matthias; Rotach, Mathias; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gohm, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale the budget of carbon dioxide (CO_2) bears a quite substantial uncertainty, which is commonly understood to be mainly due to land-surface exchange processes. In this project we investigate to what extent complex topography can amplify these land-surface exchange processes. The hypothesis is that, on the meso-scale, topography adds additional atmospheric mechanisms that drive the exchange of CO2 at the surface. This sensitivity model study investigates an idealized sine shaped valley with the atmospheric numerical model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled to the community land model (CLM) to study the effect of complex topography on the CO2 budget compared to flat terrain. The experiment is designed to estimate the effect of the topography during maximum ecosystem exchange in summer using meteorological and ecosystem conditions at solstice, the 21. of June. Systematic variation of meteorological initial conditions, plant functional types and the topography creates an ensemble that unveils the fundamental factors that dominate the differences of CO2 between simulations with topography compared to plain surfaces in the model. The sign and magnitude of the difference between the CO2 exchange over topography and over a plain simulation are strongly dependent on the CLM plant functional type, the initial temperature, the initial relative humidity, the latitude and the area height distribution of the topography. However, in this model experiment the topography is, in the mean, a sink to the CO2 budget in the order of 5% per day.

  8. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Lezaun, Javier; Catherine M Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of p...

  9. Exchangeable lower previsions

    CERN Document Server

    de Cooman, Gert; Miranda, Enrique; 10.3150/09-BEJ182

    2009-01-01

    We extend de Finetti's [Ann. Inst. H. Poincar\\'{e} 7 (1937) 1--68] notion of exchangeability to finite and countable sequences of variables, when a subject's beliefs about them are modelled using coherent lower previsions rather than (linear) previsions. We derive representation theorems in both the finite and countable cases, in terms of sampling without and with replacement, respectively.

  10. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  11. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  12. Currency Exchange Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual…

  13. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-04-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis; however, they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a computational fluid dynmaics (CFD) model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed.

  14. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  15. Stock market prices for power trade products at the European Energy Exchange; Boersenpreise fuer Stromhandelsprodukte an der European Energy Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Klaus-Dieter [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Kapitalmarktstrafrecht; Hessisches Ministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Landesentwicklung, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    At the (German) European Energy Stock exchange (EEX, Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) stock exchange prices are determined in the power trade. These stock exchange prices are recognized as reference prices. Promptly, it was assumed that the stock exchange price for energy products at the EEX would be manipulated and not trustworthy, because its realization is not transparency. The demand for an improvement of transparency was raised both for the price formation at the stock exchange and for the corporation data of the producers. The aim of the criticism generally is referred to the stock exchange, in all. Possible weaknesses in transparency are seen in the range of the power generators. Since the beginning of 2009, a lot of discussion contributions appeared to this topic. From these contributions, the following questions result: (a) What is the meaning of the price which is determined in the trade at the stock exchange?; (b) Does the price fulfil the expectations of a stock exchange price?; (c) Which consequences result from it for the stock exchange regulatory authority?.

  16. Tragedy of the Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    The tittle refers to an article from 1968 by Garrett Hardin, using the metaphore of the common grazing land in villages in old time. These 'Commons' were for free use for people in the commounity to have some sheep grazing. This system was based on a certain social solidarity and ethic....... With an individualistic and selfish attitude this would collaps, since each single citizen could benefit from putting more sheep on the common, which would eventually collapse by overgrazing. The metaphore is applied to our common planet, and our ability to built up institutions, economics and ethics, geared for sharing...

  17. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...

  18. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  19. Predicting scale formation during electrodialytic nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Brewster, Emma; Ward, Andrew J; Mehta, Chirag M; Radjenovic, Jelena; Batstone, Damien J

    2017-03-01

    Electro-concentration of nutrients from waste streams is a promising technology to enable resource recovery, but has several operational concerns. One key concern is the formation of inorganic scale on the concentrate side of cation exchange membranes when recovering nutrients from wastewaters containing calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and carbonate, commonly present in anaerobic digester rejection water. Electrodialytic nutrient recovery was trialed on anaerobic digester rejection water in a laboratory scale electro-concentration unit without treatment (A), following struvite recovery (B), and following struvite recovery as well as concentrate controlled at pH 5 for scaling control (C). Treatment A resulted in large amount of scale, while treatment B significantly reduced the amount of scale formation with reduction in magnesium phosphates, and treatment C reduced the amount of scale further by limiting the formation of calcium carbonates. Treatment C resulted in an 87 ± 7% by weight reduction in scale compared to treatment A. A mechanistic model for the inorganic processes was validated using a previously published general precipitation model based on saturation index. The model attributed the reduction in struvite scale to the removal of phosphate during the struvite pre-treatment, and the reduction in calcium carbonate scale to pH control resulting in the stripping of carbonate as carbon dioxide gas. This indicates that multiple strategies may be required to control precipitation, and that mechanistic models can assist in developing a combined approach.

  20. MRI检查常见伪影的产生机制及解决措施%Discussion of formation mechanism and solutions of artifacts commonly seen in magnetic resonance imaging examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何卫红; 方向军; 陈伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究磁共振成像中常见伪影的产生原因与抑制方法,以减少MRI 检查时产生的伪影,提高图像质量,为临床提供良好的影像资料.方法:收集我院168 例患者不同类型和不同程度MRI 图像伪影病例,进行系统性分析,其中,四肢扫描17 例,脊柱扫描37 例,头颈部扫描71 例,腹部扫描43 例.结果:卷褶伪影36 例,占21.4%;容积效应伪影10 例,占5.9%;化学位移伪影12 例,占7.2%;运动伪影66 例,占39.2%;磁化率伪影及金属伪影24 例,占14.3%;交叉伪影9 例,占5.4%;截断伪影11 例,占6.6%.结论:了解各种伪影产生的机制,利用各种有效技术抑制或消除图像伪影,对提高图像质量和提高诊断率具有重要意义.%Objective: To reduce the artifacts generated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, improve the image quality and provide good image data for clinical use by studying the generation reasons and suppression methods of artifacts commonly seen in MRI examination. Methods: Medical records with different types and varying degrees of MR image artifacts of 168 patients of our hospital were collected for systematic analysis, of which 17 cases were limbs scan, 37 cases were spine scan, 71 cases were head and neck scan and 43 cases were abdomen scan. Results: There were 36 cases of folded artifacts, accounting for 2.4%, 10 cases of volume effect artifacts, accounting for 5.9%, 12 cases of chemical shift artifacts, accounting for 7.2%, 66 cases of motion artifacts, accounting for 39.2%, 24 cases of magnetic susceptibility artifacts, accounting for 4.3%, 9 cases of cross artifacts, accounting for 5.4% and 11 cases of truncation artifacts, accounting for 6.6%. Conclusion: Understanding the generation mechanism of various artifacts and using various effective techniques to suppress or eliminate image artifacts are of important significance to improve the image quality and the diagnos -tic rate.

  1. Wintertime CO2 fluxes in an Arctic polynya using eddy covariance: Evidence for enhanced air-sea gas transfer during ice formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. G. T. Else; T. N. Papakyriakou; R. J. Galley; W. M. Drennan; L. A. Miller; H. Thomas

    2011-01-01

      High rates of CO2 exchange were observed over flaw leads using eddy covariance Enhanced gas exchange is hypothesized to be due to ice formation in leads Enhanced gas exchange is important to annual...

  2. An Open Data Format for Visualization and Analysis of Cross-Linked Mass Spectrometry Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopmann, Michael R; Mendoza, Luis; Deutsch, Eric W; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Protein-protein interactions are an important element in the understanding of protein function, and chemical cross-linking shotgun mass spectrometry is rapidly becoming a routine approach to identify these specific interfaces and topographical interactions. Protein cross-link data analysis is aided by dozens of algorithm choices, but hindered by a lack of a common format for representing results. Consequently, interoperability between algorithms and pipelines utilizing chemical cross-linking remains a challenge. pepXML is an open, widely-used format for representing spectral search algorithm results that has facilitated information exchange and pipeline development for typical shotgun mass spectrometry analyses. We describe an extension of this format to incorporate cross-linking spectral search results. We demonstrate application of the extension by representing results of multiple cross-linking search algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate adapting existing pepXML-supporting software pipelines to analyze protein cross-linking results formatted in pepXML. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook-style format and provides practical, immediately usable task-based recipes that show you how to manage and maintain your Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 environment with Windows PowerShell 3. Each chapter of the book is written so that it can be used as a desktop reference, or it can be read from beginning to end, allowing you to build a solid foundation for building scripts in your Exchange environment.This Cookbook is for messaging professionals who want to learn how to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 3 and the Exchange Management Shell. If

  4. Health information exchange: national and international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE), the process of electronically moving patient-level information between different organizations, is viewed as a solution to the fragmentation of data in health care. This review provides a description of the current state of HIE in seven nations, as well was three international HIE efforts, with a particular focus on the relation of exchange efforts to national health care systems, common challenges, and the implications of cross-border information sharing. National and international efforts highlighted in English language informatics journals, professional associations, and government reports are described. Fully functioning HIE is not yet a common phenomenon worldwide. However, multiple nations see the potential benefits of HIE and that has led to national and international efforts of varying scope, scale, and purview. National efforts continue to work to overcome the challenges of interoperability, record linking, insufficient infrastructures, governance, and interorganizational relationships, but have created architectural strategies, oversight agencies, and incentives to foster exchange. The three international HIE efforts reviewed represent very different approaches to the same problem of ensuring the availability of health information across borders. The potential of HIE to address many cost and quality issues will ensure HIE remains on many national agendas. In many instances, health care executives and leaders have opportunities to work within national programs to help shape local exchange governance and decide technology partners. Furthermore, HIE raises policy questions concerning the role of centralized planning, national identifiers, standards, and types of information exchanged, each of which are vital issues to individual health organizations and worthy of their attention.

  5. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  6. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico

    2015-10-27

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  7. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references.

  8. GeoCSV: tabular text formatting for geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, M.; Arko, R. A.; Davis, E.; Ertz, D. J.; Turner, M.; Trabant, C. M.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Ahern, T. K.; Carbotte, S. M.; Gurnis, M.; Meertens, C.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Zaslavsky, I.; McWhirter, J.

    2015-12-01

    The GeoCSV design was developed within the GeoWS project as a way to provide a baseline of compatibility between tabular text data sets from various sub-domains in geoscience. Funded through NSF's EarthCube initiative, the GeoWS project aims to develop common web service interfaces for data access across hydrology, geodesy, seismology, marine geophysics, atmospheric science and other areas. The GeoCSV format is an essential part of delivering data via simple web services for discovery and utilization by both humans and machines. As most geoscience disciplines have developed and use data formats specific for their needs, tabular text data can play a key role as a lowest common denominator useful for exchanging and integrating data across sub-domains. The design starts with a core definition compatible with best practices described by the W3C - CSV on the Web Working Group (CSVW). Compatibility with CSVW is intended to ensure the broadest usability of data expressed as GeoCSV. An optional, simple, but limited metadata description mechanism was added to allow inclusion of important metadata with comma separated data, while staying with the definition of a "dialect" by CSVW. The format is designed both for creating new datasets and to annotate data sets already in a tabular text format such that they are compliant with GeoCSV.

  9. The Exchange Rate Forecasting Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Vitek

    2005-01-01

    We survey and update the empirical literature concerning the predictability of nominal exchange rates using structural macroeconomic models over the recent floating exchange rate period. In particular, we consider both flexible and sticky price versions of the monetary model of nominal exchange rate determination. In agreement with the existing empirical literature, we find that nominal exchange rate movements are difficult to forecast, with a random walk generally dominating the monetary mod...

  10. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A

    2015-05-07

    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 °C are -74.50 ± 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 ± 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water.

  11. Geology Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because geology professors cannot bring ore deposits from around the globe into their classrooms, the next best thing is to take their students to the deposits, according to David Norman, an associate professor of geochemistry at New Mexico Tech and Angus Moore of the Royal School of Mines. They organized a new exchange program between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, N.M., and the Royal School of Mines in London, England. In May, 14 students from England toured deposits in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado; in the photograph, Norman (on the right) describes a rock from a New Mexico ore deposit to some of the visitors from England. In early June a contingency from New Mexico Tech began studying deposits in England, Spain, and Portugal. Norman and Moore say that the exchange program may be expanded next year.

  12. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  13. Reversible Guest Exchange Mechanisms in Supramolecular Host-GuestAssemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2006-09-01

    Synthetic chemists have provided a wide array of supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules. The scope of this tutorial review focuses on supramolecular host molecules capable of reversibly encapsulating polyatomic guests. Much work has been done to determine the mechanism of guest encapsulation and guest release. This review covers common methods of monitoring and characterizing guest exchange such as NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and calorimetry and also presents representative examples of guest exchange mechanisms. The guest exchange mechanisms of hemicarcerands, cucurbiturils, hydrogen-bonded assemblies, and metal-ligand assemblies are discussed. Special attention is given to systems which exhibit constrictive binding, a motif common in supramolecular guest exchange systems.

  14. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  15. Heat exchange apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  16. Exchange Rate Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Yablonskyy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the foreign exchange currency forecasting techniques. Moreover the central idea behind the topic is to develop the strategy of forecasting by choosing indicators and techniques to make own forecast on currency pair EUR/USD. This thesis work is a mixture of theory and practice analyses. The goal during the work on this project was to study different types of forecasting techniques and make own forecast, practice forecasting and trading on Forex platform, ba...

  17. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  18. Exchange Rate Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Yablonskyy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the foreign exchange currency forecasting techniques. Moreover the central idea behind the topic is to develop the strategy of forecasting by choosing indicators and techniques to make own forecast on currency pair EUR/USD. This thesis work is a mixture of theory and practice analyses. The goal during the work on this project was to study different types of forecasting techniques and make own forecast, practice forecasting and trading on Forex platform, ba...

  19. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data.

  20. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  1. On Exchange QB∞-Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyin Chen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of rings, the QB∞-rings. We investigate necessary and sufficient conditions under which an exchange ring is a QB∞-ring. The modules over an exchange QB∞-ring are studied. Also, we prove that every regular square matrix over an exchange QB∞-ring admits a diagonal reduction by pseudo-invertible matrices.

  2. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  3. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.

    2009-01-01

    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what happe

  4. The Common HOL Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and...

  5. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  6. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  7. The effect of exchange rate on marketing margin

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Torki; AhmadAli Rezaei; Shekofeh Nagheli

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new structural model that incorprates price linkage and marketing marketing margin identity into a common framework. The inclusiom of exchange rate expands the framework to include goods traded in different currencies. This allows emprical estimates to be made of how changes in domestic prices exchange rates and middlemen costs are transmitted to foreign prices and the international marketing margin. The framework is emprically applied to international marketing channel ...

  8. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  9. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  10. Common Knowledge on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liddell, Torrin M

    2015-01-01

    Common knowledge of intentions is crucial to basic social tasks ranging from cooperative hunting to oligopoly collusion, riots, revolutions, and the evolution of social norms and human culture. Yet little is known about how common knowledge leaves a trace on the dynamics of a social network. Here we show how an individual's network properties---primarily local clustering and betweenness centrality---provide strong signals of the ability to successfully participate in common knowledge tasks. These signals are distinct from those expected when practices are contagious, or when people use less-sophisticated heuristics that do not yield true coordination. This makes it possible to infer decision rules from observation. We also find that tasks that require common knowledge can yield significant inequalities in success, in contrast to the relative equality that results when practices spread by contagion alone.

  11. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  12. Common elbow conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-02

    Sep 2, 2011 ... Chronic overuse is the most common reason for elbow injury. ... fingers. ECRB has been shown to be active with flexion, extension, ... such as lifting a kettle and shaking hands. ... proximal palmar crease to the tip of the.

  13. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  14. MA Common Tern Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The official State census period for common terns was June 1-10. The survey was conducted on June 4 by Biologist Healey, Biotech Springfield, and Maintenance...

  15. UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL COMMONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.; Cochrane, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    We want to clarify the way in which we think about the global commons, particularly the problem of global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We develop a policy framework in which the policy goal is the sustainability of the earth's ability to absorb greenhouse gases. The framework considers the unequal incidence of benefits and costs of particular policies. We identify several resource management regimes and suggest that management under a common property ...

  16. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  17. Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl Lizondo

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the economy to the target, under certain conditions. However, this policy could also lead the economy to a process of accelerating inflation.

  18. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  19. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...... created by foreign sales activities....

  20. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...

  1. High-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xuezhen; Frey, Douglas D

    2003-03-28

    Chromatofocusing using high-performance cation-exchange column packings, as opposed to the more commonly used anion-exchange column packings, is investigated with regard to the performance achieved and the range of applications possible. Linear or convex gradients in the range from pH 2.6 to 9 were formed using a variety of commercially available column packings that provide a buffering capacity in different pH ranges, and either polyampholytes or simple mixtures having a small number (three or fewer) of buffering species as the elution buffer. The resolutions achieved using cation-exchange or anion-exchange chromatofocusing were in general comparable, although for certain pairs of proteins better resolution could be achieved using one type of packing as compared to the other, evidently due to the way electrostatic charges are distributed on the protein surface. Several chromatofocusing methods were investigated that take advantage of the acid-base properties of commercially available cation-exchange column packings. These include the use of gradients with a composite shape, the use of very low pH ranges, and the use of elution buffers containing a single buffering species. The advantages of chromatofocusing over ion-exchange chromatography using a salt gradient at constant pH were illustrated by employing the former method and a cation-exchange column packing to separate beta-lactoglobulins A and B, which is a separation reported to be impossible using the latter method and a cation-exchange column packing. Trends in the apparent isoelectric points determined using cation- and anion-exchange chromatofocusing were interpreted using applicable theories. Results of this study indicate that cation-exchange chromatofocusing is a useful technique which is complementary to anion-exchange chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing for separating proteins at both the analytical and preparative scales.

  2. 78 FR 50396 - Common Format for Federal Entity Transition Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Transition Plans AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of... plans to be developed by federal entities to facilitate the relocation of, and spectrum sharing with, U... federal entities to follow in preparing transition plans for the eligible frequencies in the 1695-1710 MHz...

  3. Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 35 NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format (PC database for purchase)   This data collection contains 5,228 infrared spectra in the JCAMP-DX (Joint Committee for Atomic and Molecular Physical Data "Data Exchange") format.

  4. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.I. [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies

    1999-08-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of {sup u}se scarcity{sup .} The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  5. State Health Facts - State Decisions on Exchanges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State Decisions For Creating Health Insurance Exchanges, including Exchange Decision, Federal Approval Status, Structure of Exchange, and Type of Exchange.

  6. The Life Science Exchange: a case study of a sectoral and sub-sectoral knowledge exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Brian Lee; Garlick, Rob; Wren, Jodie; Smart, Jon; Kennedy, Julie; Stephens, Phil; Tudor, Gwyn; Bisson, Jonathan; Ford, David V

    2016-04-27

    Local and national governments have implemented sector-specific policies to support economic development through innovation, entrepreneurship and knowledge exchange. Supported by the Welsh Government through the European Regional Development Fund, The Life Science Exchange® project was created with the aim to increase interaction between stakeholders, to develop more effective knowledge exchange mechanisms, and to stimulate the formation and maintenance of long-term collaborative relationships within the Welsh life sciences ecosystem. The Life Science Exchange allowed participants to interact with other stakeholder communities (clinical, academic, business, governmental), exchange perspectives and discover new opportunities. Six sub-sector focus groups comprising over 200 senior stakeholders from academia, industry, the Welsh Government and National Health Service were established. Over 18 months, each focus group provided input to inform healthcare innovation policy and knowledge mapping exercises of their respective sub-sectors. Collaborative projects identified during the focus groups and stakeholder engagement were further developed through sandpit events and bespoke support. Each sub-sector focus group produced a report outlining the significant strengths and opportunities in their respective areas of focus, made recommendations to overcome any 'system failures', and identified the stakeholder groups which needed to take action. A second outcome was a stakeholder-driven knowledge mapping exercise for each area of focus. Finally, the sandpit events and bespoke support resulted in participants generating more than £1.66 million in grant funding and inward investment. This article outlines four separate outcomes from the Life Science Exchange programme. The Life Science Exchange process has resulted in a multitude of collaborations, projects, inward investment opportunities and special interest group formations, in addition to securing over ten times its own

  7. Small particle heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.J.

    1978-06-01

    A dispersion of small absorbing particles forms an ideal system to collect radiant energy, transform it to heat, and efficiently transfer the heat to a surrounding fluid. If the heated fluid is a pressurized gas, it can be passed through an expansion turbine to create useful mechanical energy. The most obvious application of this technique is its use in a solar collection system. In this case, the incoming sunlight is used to heat a compressed gas in an engine utilizing a Brayton cycle. The solar collection system may utilize high concentration as provided by a central receiver or parabolic dish, medium concentration from a linear collector, or possibly no concentration using a flat plate collector, if precautions were taken to reduce the heat losses. The same concept may be applied generally to non-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the type used to heat a gas from a combustion source, or in general as a gas to gas heat exchanger. The latter application may be limited to rather high temperature. Each of the above applications is discussed. First, a description of the concept is applied to a solar central-tower system. The general principles are described, including the optical and physical characteristics of the particles, the confinement of the gas-particle mixture, and the system considerations; the latter include the amount and type of particles, the receiver efficiency and the generation of the particles. The same considerations are reviewed for applications to linear trough and flat plate receivers. Finally, the use of small particles in non-solar heat exchangers is considered.

  8. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology; Die Stromboerse. Ueber Form und latente Funktionen des boerslichen Stromhandels aus marktsoziologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  9. EXCHANGE OF FLORISTICS RELEVES OR EXCHANGE OF CALIBRATIONS BETWEEN DATA BANKS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. DE RUFFRAY

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In vegetation science, an exchange between two floristical data banks increases the ecological gradient of the registered releves. Therefore, it also increases the discrimination between the behaviours of plants and, because of this, the distinctness of types of plant community. In practice, an exchange is restricted, on one hand by the priority given to the authors for processing their own releves and, on the other hand, by the interest of a bank which needs a benefit from its registered files, in order to support and develop the data processing. On the other hand, there is another kind of exchange, that of the socio-ecological calibrations of plants, which keeps the data in their initial bank and so protects everyone's interest. That exchange unites the gradients of the banks and improves the understanding of the releves. The socioecological calibI-ation of a plant is the set of its fidelities compared to all the plants of the bank. The calibration defines a statistical space of fidelities, where distances express the implicit ecological differences and determine the classification of relevès in types of plant communities corresponding to homogenous environments. The melting of the calibrations coming from two banks defines a common space of fidelities where plants and releves are localized and classified according to the common gradient covered by the two banks together.

  10. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A

    1997-01-01

    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  11. The Common HOL Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Adams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and API components, and show how to adapt legacy systems. We also report on the platform's successful application in the hand-translation of a few thousand lines of source code from HOL Light to HOL Zero.

  12. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  13. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  14. Neurodegenerative diseases: a common etiology and a common therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The variety of names of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) does not indicate that there is a wide variety of causes and a multiple number of cures. In fact NDDs derive from a common and repetitive, almost monotonous multicausal origin. NDDs are initiated invariably by a sudden or silent insidious decrease in immunologic resistance of the T cell-dependent or delayed type, produced by a large variety of psychological-emotional and/or environmental "stressors" (e.g., social, family-domestic, economic, alimentary, traumatic, and professional). These stressors increase the vulnerability of tissues (in this case, a section of the central or peripheral nervous system) to attack by a common virus (e.g., adenoviruses and herpesviruses). This attack creates a vicious circle leading to emergence of virus-generated tissue autoantigens and then to formation of autoantibodies. Use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs dramatically worsen and "eternalize" the diseases with further immunosuppression. Invariably, onset of NDDs is anticipated by a clear-cut alteration of the hormonal cyclicity, which closely controls immunity. My experience with patients in the last five years indicates a new approach to prevent and cure NDDs, based on a system totally divergent from present therapies. In fact "resetting the hormonal cyclicity clock" results in restoration of hormone-dependent antiviral immunity, arrest of disease progression, and at least partial recovery of neural functions, whatever the origin, anatomic location, and course of pathology.

  15. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  16. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  17. Buried waveguides for passive integrated optics by Cs+ -ion-exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L.; Lilienhof, H.-J.; Holscher, H. W.

    1986-11-01

    Cs4-ion-exchange in glass is compared with the commonly used K+-, Ag+- and T1+-ion-exchange in glass in the process of waveguide fabrication. It will be shown that the Cs4-ion-exchange in the special substrate glass BGG21 represents an alternative method. As in the case of Ag+ AND T14 it is possible to fabricate buried waveguides by a double ion-exchange. The field-assisted ion-exchange is preferred due to the low CO+-ion mobility.

  18. Real exchange rate fluctuations, endogenous tradability and exchange rate regime

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda Naknoi

    2005-01-01

    This paper, empirically and theoretically, studies variance decomposition of real exchange rate. We find that deviations from the law of one price for traded goods drive most real exchange rates. However, the relative price of nontraded goods is also important for some countries maintaining stable exchange rate. We propose an explanation based on dynamics of comparative advantage. Our model predicts that comovement of terms of trade and productivity differentials of the nontraded and the expo...

  19. Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Network Considering Multipass Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍军; 姚平经

    2001-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for synthesis of heat exchanger networks in recent years, most of which consider single pass exchangers. In this study some evolutionary rules have been proposed for synthesis of multipass exchanger networks. The method is based on the heuristic that optimal networks should feature maximum energy recovery and have the minimum number of shells. The effectiveness of the developed evolutionary rules is demonstrated through some literature examples.

  20. Capital Flows, Exchange Rate Flexibility, and the Real Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis Combes; Patrick Plane; Tidiane Kinda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of capital inflows and exchange rate flexibility on the real exchange rate in developing countries based on panel cointegration techniques. The results show that public and private flows are associated with a real exchange rate appreciation. Among private flows, portfolio investment has the highest appreciation effect-almost seven times that of foreign direct investment or bank loans-and private transfers have the lowest effect. Using a de facto measure of excha...

  1. Sequential Common Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.; Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    In a common agency game a set of principals promises monetary transfers to an agent which depend on the action he will take. The agent then chooses the action, and is paid the corresponding transfers. Principals announce their transfers simultaneously. This game has many equilibria; Bernheim and Whi

  2. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  3. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  4. Testing Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the use of common sense testing and measurement as a means of predicting real-world performance. The authors discuss practical versus book knowledge, examine several empirical studies of practical intelligence, describe tacit knowledge and the instruments used for testing it, and present findings from a tacit knowledge research program.…

  5. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than...

  6. 'Crossing a Bare Common'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    than not described as a ‘sublime rhetoric’. From the stock of rhetorical tropes the most favoured by Emerson and picked out as the trademark of his rhetorical sublimity critics mention in particular his use of hyperbole, chiasmus and metalepsis. Common to all three tropes is said to be their ability...

  7. Is Context Common Ground?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the relation between the how’s and why’s of humour, by gradually moving from the contextual compositionality of conversational implication to a broadened perspective on the open- ended nature of conversation and the purpose humour serves in developing ‘common ground’....

  8. Reconstitution of DNA strand exchange mediated by Rhp51 recombinase and two mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kurokawa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, genetic evidence suggests that two mediators, Rad22 (the S. pombe Rad52 homolog and the Swi5-Sfr1 complex, participate in a common pathway of Rhp51 (the S. pombe Rad51 homolog-mediated homologous recombination (HR and HR repair. Here, we have demonstrated an in vitro reconstitution of the central step of DNA strand exchange during HR. Our system consists entirely of homogeneously purified proteins, including Rhp51, the two mediators, and replication protein A (RPA, which reflects genetic requirements in vivo. Using this system, we present the first robust biochemical evidence that concerted action of the two mediators directs the loading of Rhp51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA precoated with RPA. Dissection of the reaction reveals that Rad22 overcomes the inhibitory effect of RPA on Rhp51-Swi5-Sfr1-mediated strand exchange. In addition, Rad22 negates the requirement for a strict order of protein addition to the in vitro system. However, despite the presence of Rad22, Swi5-Sfr1 is still essential for strand exchange. Importantly, Rhp51, but neither Rad22 nor the Swi5-Sfr1 mediator, is the factor that displaces RPA from ssDNA. Swi5-Sfr1 stabilizes Rhp51-ssDNA filaments in an ATP-dependent manner, and this stabilization is correlated with activation of Rhp51 for the strand exchange reaction. Rad22 alone cannot activate the Rhp51 presynaptic filament. AMP-PNP, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, induces a similar stabilization of Rhp51, but this stabilization is independent of Swi5-Sfr1. However, hydrolysis of ATP is required for processive strand transfer, which results in the formation of a long heteroduplex. Our in vitro reconstitution system has revealed that the two mediators have indispensable, but distinct, roles for mediating Rhp51 loading onto RPA-precoated ssDNA.

  9. Interfacing heat exchanger network synthesis and detailed heat exchanger design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, G.T.; Panjeh Shahi, M.H. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology)

    1991-11-01

    Current heat exchanger network synthesis targeting and design procedures involve the use of assumed stream heat transfer coefficients. However, during detailed heat exchanger design, allowable pressure drops are often the most critical factors. The result can be big differences between the exchanger sizes and costs anticipated by the network designer and those realised by the exchanger designer. This in turn prejudices any optimisation attempted at the network design stage. In this paper it is shown how allowable pressure drop can be used as a basis of network design and consistency between expectation and realisation achieved. (author).

  10. Tunneled dialysis catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption is not associated with increased rate of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.

  11. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on M4 common technical document; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of guidance entitled "M4 Organization of the Common Technical Document for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use" (M4CTD). The guidance was developed under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance, which is being made available simultaneously in four parts (general organization, quality, safety, and efficacy), describes a harmonized format for new product applications (including applications for biotechnology-derived products) for submission to the regulatory authorities in the three ICH regions. The M4 CTD is intended to reduce the time and resources used to compile applications, ease the preparation of electronic submissions, facilitate regulatory reviews and communication with the applicant, and simplify the exchange of regulatory information among regulatory authorities.

  12. Avoiding Sanctions at the E-Discovery Meet-And- Confer in Common Law Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rules of civil procedure in common law countries have been amended to better deal with the requirements of electronic discovery. One of the key changes in case management is the scheduling of a meet-and-confer session where the parties to litigation must meet early in the case before any discovery procedures have begun to exchange information regarding the nature, location, formats, and pertinent facts regarding custody and control of a party’s electronically stored information (ESI. Failure to abide by the rules and participate in good faith at the meet-and-confer session can have dire consequences for the parties and lawyers involved. The authors discuss the importance of creating and maintaining an ESI data map as a means to demonstrate good faith and effectively comply with the requirements of the meet-and-confer.

  13. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  14. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

    2009-03-26

    C materials are much lower due to phonon scattering by impurities (e.g., sintering aids located at the grain boundaries of these materials). The thermal conductivity of our SiC was determined using the laser flash method and it is 214 W/mK at 373 K and 64 W/mK at 1273 K. These values are very close to those of pure SiC and are much higher than those of SiC materials made by industrial processes. This SiC made by our LSI process meets the thermal properties required for use in high temperature heat exchanger. Cellulose and phenolic resin carbons lack the well-defined atomic structures associated with common carbon allotropes. Atomic-scale structure was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen gas adsorption and helium gas pycnometry. These studies revealed that cellulose carbon exhibits a very high degree of atomic disorder and angstrom-scale porosity. It has a density of only 93% of that of pure graphite, with primarily sp2 bonding character and a low concentration of graphene clusters. Phenolic resin carbon shows more structural order and substantially less angstrom-scale porosity. Its density is 98% of that of pure graphite, and Fourier transform analysis of its TEM micrographs has revealed high concentrations of sp3 diamond and sp2 graphene nano-clusters. This is the first time that diamond nano-clusters have been observed in carbons produced from phenolic resin. AC and DC electrical measurements were made to follow the thermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to carbon. This study identifies five regions of electrical conductivity that can be directly correlated to the chemical decomposition and microstructural evolution during carbonization. In Region I, a decrease in overall AC conductivity occurs due to the initial loss of the polar groups from cellulose molecules. In Region II, the AC conductivity starts to increase with heat treatment temperature due to the formation and growth of conducting carbon clusters. In Region

  15. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

    2009-03-26

    C materials are much lower due to phonon scattering by impurities (e.g., sintering aids located at the grain boundaries of these materials). The thermal conductivity of our SiC was determined using the laser flash method and it is 214 W/mK at 373 K and 64 W/mK at 1273 K. These values are very close to those of pure SiC and are much higher than those of SiC materials made by industrial processes. This SiC made by our LSI process meets the thermal properties required for use in high temperature heat exchanger. Cellulose and phenolic resin carbons lack the well-defined atomic structures associated with common carbon allotropes. Atomic-scale structure was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen gas adsorption and helium gas pycnometry. These studies revealed that cellulose carbon exhibits a very high degree of atomic disorder and angstrom-scale porosity. It has a density of only 93% of that of pure graphite, with primarily sp2 bonding character and a low concentration of graphene clusters. Phenolic resin carbon shows more structural order and substantially less angstrom-scale porosity. Its density is 98% of that of pure graphite, and Fourier transform analysis of its TEM micrographs has revealed high concentrations of sp3 diamond and sp2 graphene nano-clusters. This is the first time that diamond nano-clusters have been observed in carbons produced from phenolic resin. AC and DC electrical measurements were made to follow the thermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to carbon. This study identifies five regions of electrical conductivity that can be directly correlated to the chemical decomposition and microstructural evolution during carbonization. In Region I, a decrease in overall AC conductivity occurs due to the initial loss of the polar groups from cellulose molecules. In Region II, the AC conductivity starts to increase with heat treatment temperature due to the formation and growth of conducting carbon clusters. In Region

  16. 78 FR 51758 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE MKT LLC; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE MKT LLC; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval... 14, 2013, each of New York Stock Exchange LLC (``Exchange''), NYSE MKT LLC (``NYSE MKT''), and NYSE... in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom). ICE's common stock is listed...

  17. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC

    2004-01-01

    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars. Thes

  18. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  19. WaterML, an Information Standard for the Exchange of in-situ hydrological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, D.; Taylor, P.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2012-04-01

    The WaterML 2.0 Standards Working Group (SWG), working within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in cooperation with the joint OGC-World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), has developed an open standard for the exchange of water observation data; WaterML 2.0. The focus of the standard is time-series data, commonly generated from in-situ style monitoring. This is high value data for hydrological applications such as flood forecasting, environmental reporting and supporting hydrological infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems), which is commonly exchanged, but a lack of standards inhibits efficient reuse and automation. The process of developing WaterML required doing a harmonization analysis of existing standards to identify overlapping concepts and come to agreement on a harmonized definition. Generally the formats captured similar requirements, all with subtle differences, such as how time-series point metadata was handled. The in-progress standard WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, and is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. WaterML2.0 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: exchange of data for operational hydrological monitoring programs; supporting operation of infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems); cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting The first phase of WaterML2.0 focused on structural definitions allowing for the transfer of time-series, with less work on harmonization of vocabulary items such as quality codes. Vocabularies from various organizations tend to be specific and take time to

  20. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures. PMID:25866425

  1. Fixed Exchange Rates and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Jay C. Shambaugh

    2004-01-01

    A classic argument for a fixed exchange rate is its promotion of trade. Empirical support for this, however, is mixed. While one branch of research consistently shows a small negative effect of exchange rate volatility on trade, another, more recent, branch presents evidence of a large positive impact of currency unions on trade. This paper helps resolve this disconnect. Our results, which use a new data-based classification of fixed exchange rate regimes, show a large, significant effect of ...

  2. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  3. Exchange Rates, Innovations and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Christian C

    1987-01-01

    In this paper an ex-post forecasting experiment is performed on the basis of a version of the "news" model of exchange rate determination. A general finding is that the "news" formulation of monetary exchange rate models leads to relatively accurate ex post exchange rate forecasts. Often the results compare favourably with those obtained from the naive random walk forecasting rule. Thus, the evidence presented in this paper supports the argument that the 1983 finding by Meese and Rogoff (that...

  4. Fouling characteristics of compact heat exchangers and enhanced tubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C. B.; Rabas, T. J.

    1999-07-15

    Fouling is a complex phenomenon that (1) encompasses formation and transportation of precursors, and (2) attachment and possible removal of foulants. A basic understanding of fouling mechanisms should guide the development of effective mitigation techniques. The literature on fouling in complex flow passages of compact heat exchangers is limited; however, significant progress has been made with enhanced tubes.

  5. Math Exchanges: Guiding Young Mathematicians in Small-Group Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Kassia Omohundro

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, small-group math instruction has been used as a format for reaching children who struggle to understand. Math coach Kassia Omohundro Wedekind uses small-group instruction as the centerpiece of her math workshop approach, engaging all students in rigorous "math exchanges." The key characteristics of these mathematical conversations…

  6. Dithioacetal Exchange: A New Reversible Reaction for Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrillo, A Gastón; Escalante, Andrea M; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2016-05-10

    Reversibility of dithioacetal bond formation is reported under acidic mild conditions. Its utility for dynamic combinatorial chemistry was explored by combining it with orthogonal disulfide exchange. In such a setup, thiols are positioned at the intersection of both chemistries, constituting a connecting node between temporally separated networks.

  7. Matrix-assisted refolding of autoprotease fusion proteins on an ion exchange column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeger, Elisabeth; Berger, Eva; Trefilov, Alexandru; Jungbauer, Alois; Hahn, Rainer

    2009-11-27

    Refolding of proteins must be performed under very dilute conditions to overcome the competing aggregation reaction, which has a high reaction order. Refolding on a chromatography column partially prevents formation of the intermediate form prone to aggregation. A chromatographic refolding procedure was developed using an autoprotease fusion protein with the mutant EDDIE from the N(pro) autoprotease of pestivirus. Upon refolding, self-cleavage generates a target peptide with an authentic N-terminus. The refolding process was developed using the basic 1.8-kDa peptide sSNEVi-C fused to the autoprotease EDDIE or the acidic peptide pep6His, applying cation and anion exchange chromatography, respectively. Dissolved inclusion bodies were loaded on cation exchange chromatographic resins (Capto S, POROS HS, Fractogel EMD SO(3)(-), UNOsphere S, SP Sepharose FF, CM Sepharose FF, S Ceramic HyperD F, Toyopearl SP-650, and Toyopearl MegaCap II SP-550EC). A conditioning step was introduced in order to reduce the urea concentration prior to the refolding step. Refolding was initiated by applying an elution buffer containing a high concentration of Tris-HCl plus common refolding additives. The actual refolding process occurred concurrently with the elution step and was completed in the collected fraction. With Capto S, POROS HS, and Fractogel SO(3)(-), refolding could be performed at column loadings of 50mg fusion protein/ml gel, resulting in a final eluate concentration of around 10-15 mg/ml, with refolding and cleavage step yields of around 75%. The overall yield of recovered peptide reached 50%. Similar yields were obtained using the anion exchange system and the pep6His fusion peptide. This chromatographic refolding process allows processing of fusion peptides at a concentration range 10- to 100-fold higher than that observed for common refolding systems.

  8. No effect of steroids on seroma formation after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Mette; Axelsson, Christen Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Seroma formation is a common problem after breast surgery. Studies indicate that seroma formation is a result of the postoperative inflammatory process. Glucocorticoid inhibits the inflammatory response....

  9. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  10. Theoretical investigation of exchange bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhi-Jie; Wang Huai-Yu; Ding Ze-Jun

    2007-01-01

    The exchange bias of bilayer magnetic films consisting of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in an uncompensated case is studied by use of the many-body Green's function method of quantum statistical theory.The effects of the layer thickness and temperature and the interfacial coupling strength on the exchange bias HE are investigated. The dependence of the exchange bias HE on the FM layer thickness and temperature is qualitatively in agreement with experimental results. When temperature varies, both the coercivity HC and HE decrease with the temperature increasing. For each FM thickness, there exists a least AFM thickness in which the exchange bias occurs,which is called pinning thickness.

  11. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  12. Data Exchange in Grid Workflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hongwei; MIAO Huaikou

    2006-01-01

    In existing web services-based workflow, data exchanging across the web services is centralized, the workflow engine intermediates at each step of the application sequence.However, many grid applications, especially data intensive scientific applications, require exchanging large amount of data across the grid services.Having a central workfiow engine relay the data between the services would results in a bottleneck in these cases.This paper proposes a data exchange model for individual grid workflow and multiworkflows composition respectively.The model enables direct communication for large amounts of data between two grid services.To enable data to exchange among multiple workflows, the bridge data service is used.

  13. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  15. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  16. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  17. Molecular Exchange Dynamics in Block Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Frank; Lu, Jie; Choi, Soohyung; Lodge, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Poly(styrene-b-ethylene propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers were mixed with squalane (C30H62) at 1% by weight resulting in the formation of spherical micelles. The structure and dynamics of molecular exchange were characterized by synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and time resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS), respectively, between 100 C and 160 C. TR-SANS measurements were performed with solutions initially containing deuterium labeled micelle cores and normal cores dispersed in a contrast matched squalane. Monitoring the reduction in scattering intensity as a function of time at various temperatures revealed molecular exchange dynamics highly sensitive to the core molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Time-temperature superposition of data acquired at different temperatures produced a single master curve for all the mixtures. Experiments conducted with isotopically labeled micelle cores, each formed from two different but relatively mondisperse PS blocks, confirmed a simple dynamical model based on first order kinetics and core Rouse single chain relaxation. These findings demonstrate a dramatic transition to nonergodicity with increasing micelle core molecular weight and confirm the origins of the logarithmic exchange kinetics in such systems.

  18. Asymmetric exchange in flocks

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhichi, Lokrshi Prawar; Maitra, Ananyo; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    As the constituents of a flock are polar, one expects a fore-aft asymmetry in their interactions. We show here that the resulting antisymmetric part of the "exchange coupling" between a bird and its neighbours, if large enough, destabilizes the flock through spontaneous turning of the birds. The same asymmetry also yields a natural mechanism for a difference between the speed of advection of information along the flock and the speed of the flock itself. We show that the absence of detailed balance, and not merely the breaking of Galilean invariance, is responsible for this difference. We delineate the conditions on parameters and wavenumber for the existence of the turning instability. Lastly we present an alternative perspective based on flow-alignment effects in an active liquid crystal with turning inertia in contact with a momentum sink.

  19. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  20. 78 FR 40248 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Exchange proposes to amend Exchange Rule 11.11 (Orders and Modifiers) to add new subparagraph (c)(2)(E... ``sell short'' will be rejected by the System. Users can assess the impact of the rule amendment on their... impact on efficiency, competition and capital formation. See 15 U.S.C. 78c(f). At any time within 60...

  1. A computer program for condensing heat exchanger performance in the presence of noncondensable gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendler, Boris

    1994-01-01

    A computer model has been developed which evaluates the performance of a heat exchanger. This model is general enough to be used to evaluate many heat exchanger geometries and a number of different operating conditions. The film approach is used to describe condensation in the presence of noncondensables. The model is also easily expanded to include other effects like fog formation or suction.

  2. 75 FR 30082 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... change, the Commission has considered its impact on efficiency, competition, and capital formation. See... supervision of the business of CBOE Holdings.\\28\\ Other officers would have the duties or powers or both set... that controlling influence by directing the exchange to refrain from, or the exchange may hesitate...

  3. MDF: Magnetic Particle Imaging Data Format

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Tobias; Bringout, Gael; Ahlborg, Mandy; Rahmer, Jürgen; Hofmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a tomographic method to determine the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. In this document a file format for the standardized storage of MPI data is introduced. The aim of the Magnetic Particle Imaging Data Format (MDF) is to provide a coherent way of exchanging MPI data acquired with different MPI scanners worldwide. The focus of the file format is on sequence parameters, raw measurement data, calibration data, and reconstruction data. The format is based on the hierarchical document format (HDF) in version 5 (HDF5).

  4. Effect of size sprinkled heat exchange surface on developing boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research of sprinkled heat exchangers. This type of research has become rather topical in relation to sea water desalination. This process uses sprinkling of exchangers which rapidly separates vapour phase from a liquid phase. Applications help better utilize low-potential heat which is commonly wasted in utility systems. Low-potential heat may increase utilization of primary materials. Our ambition is to analyse and describe the whole sprinkled exchanger. Two heat exchangers were tested with a similar tube pitch: heat exchanger no. 1 had a four-tube bundle and heat exchanger no. 2 had eight-tube bundle. Efforts were made to maintain similar physical characteristics. They were tested at two flow rates (ca 0.07 and 0.11 kg s−1 m−1 and progress of boiling on the bundle was observed. Initial pressure was ca 10 kPa (abs at which no liquid was boiling at any part of the exchanger; the pressure was then lowered. Other input parameters were roughly similar for both flow rates. Temperature of heating water was ca 50°C at a constant flow rate of ca 7.2 L min−1. Results of our experiments provide optimum parameters for the given conditions for both tube bundles.

  5. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia. The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely: 1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools. 2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth. 3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector. 4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.

  6. 75 FR 43214 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... change is available on the Exchange's Internet website at http://www.directedge.com , at the principal... formation of additional liquidity for the halted security, thus increasing price stability upon...

  7. Optimization for entransy dissipation minimization in heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ShaoJun; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui

    2009-01-01

    A common of two-fluid flow heat exchanger, in which the heat transfer between high-and low-temperature sides obeys Newton's law [q∝△(T)], is studied in this paper. By taking entransy dissipation minimization as optimization objective, the optimum parameter distributions in the heat ex-changer are derived by using optimal control theory under the condition of fixed heat load. The condition corresponding to the minimum entransy dissipation is that corresponding to a constant heat flux density. Three kinds of heat exchangers, including parallel flow, condensing flow and counter-flow, are considered, and the results show that only the counter-flow heat exchanger can realize the entransy dissipation minimization in the heat transfer process. The obtained results for entransy dissipation minimization are also compared with those obtained for entropy generation minimization by numerical examples.

  8. Exchange corrections in a low-temperature plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Robin; Zamanian, Jens; Brodin, Gert

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically, we have considered the zero-temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long-wavelength limit, i.e., wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density-functional theory.

  9. The effect of exchange rate on marketing margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Torki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new structural model that incorprates price linkage and marketing marketing margin identity into a common framework. The inclusiom of exchange rate expands the framework to include goods traded in different currencies. This allows emprical estimates to be made of how changes in domestic prices exchange rates and middlemen costs are transmitted to foreign prices and the international marketing margin. The framework is emprically applied to international marketing channel using farmed apple data to investigate how Iranian export prices exchange rates and middlemen costs affect turkey wholesale prices and the marketing margin. Results suggest that the markets are via complete price and exchange rate pass through purely competitive and that the marketing margin only increase when costs of marketing service increase.

  10. INTERACTION OF AMINO ACID WITH ION EXCHANGE RESIN Ⅲ.FURTHER INVESTIGA TION OF SUPEREQUIVALENT ADSORPTION MECHANISM OF AMINO ACID ON ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHui; SHAOTong; 等

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption isotherms of glycine,alanine and oxidized glutathion on strong acid cation and strong base anion exchange resins from aqueous solutions were measured and the superequivalent adsorptions of glycine and alanine observed.The infrared spectra of glycine adsorbed on the cation and the anion exchange resins,001×7 and 201×7,were measured.From these results,it is concluded that the amino acid adsorption on the ion exchange resin proceeds not only through ion exchange and proton transfer mechanisms,but also through aminecarboxylate interaction between the adsorbed amino acid molecules,and the formation of second layer of amino acid molecules is the mechanism of superequivalent adsorption of amino acid,the carboxylate or amine groups of the first layer of amino acid molecules on the ion exchange resin act as the exchange sites for the second layer of amino acid molecules.

  11. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  12. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  13. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  14. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus.

  15. Simulating Replica Exchange: Markov State Models, Proposal Schemes, and the Infinite Swapping Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin W; Dai, Wei; Gallicchio, Emilio; He, Peng; Xia, Junchao; Tan, Zhiqiang; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-08-25

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is a multicanonical simulation technique commonly used to enhance the sampling of solvated biomolecules on rugged free energy landscapes. While replica exchange is relatively easy to implement, there are many unanswered questions about how to use this technique most efficiently, especially because it is frequently the case in practice that replica exchange simulations are not fully converged. A replica exchange cycle consists of a series of molecular dynamics steps of a set of replicas moving under different Hamiltonians or at different thermodynamic states followed by one or more replica exchange attempts to swap replicas among the different states. How the replica exchange cycle is constructed affects how rapidly the system equilibrates. We have constructed a Markov state model of replica exchange (MSMRE) using long molecular dynamics simulations of a host-guest binding system as an example, in order to study how different implementations of the replica exchange cycle can affect the sampling efficiency. We analyze how the number of replica exchange attempts per cycle, the number of MD steps per cycle, and the interaction between the two parameters affects the largest implied time scale of the MSMRE simulation. The infinite swapping limit is an important concept in replica exchange. We show how to estimate the infinite swapping limit from the diagonal elements of the exchange transition matrix constructed from MSMRE "simulations of simulations" as well as from relatively short runs of the actual replica exchange simulations.

  16. Conquering the Summit With Firm Strides——Review on the restarted RMB exchange rate reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the evening of June 19th 2010, the central bank of China released that "on further advancing the reform in RMB exchange rate formation mechanism and strengthen-ing the flexibility of RMB rate". There were three key points. First, "now that global economy is steadily recovering, and the recovering trend in China is strengthened, it is necessary to further advance reform in RMB exchange rate formation mechanism, and strengthen the flexibility of RMB rate."

  17. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  18. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  19. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  20. Macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R F; E Gancher, R; Russo, F R

    1970-06-01

    Two macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers have been prepared and characterized. One contains the iminodiacetate group and the second contains the arsonate group as the ion-exchanging site. The macroreticular resins show selectivities among metal ions similar to those of the commercially available naicroreticular chelating resins. Chromatographie separations on the new resins are rapid and sharp.

  1. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network re

  2. Exchange Rates and Old People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)

  3. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well as s...

  4. EXCHANGE. Volume 9-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, J.C. [ed.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  5. DN interaction from meson exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidenbauer, J.; Krein, G.; Meiner, U. -G.; Tolos, L.

    A model of the DN interaction is presented which is developed in close analogy to the meson-exchange (K) over barN potential of the Julich group utilizing SU(4) symmetry constraints. The main ingredients of the interaction are provided by vector meson (rho, omega) exchange and higher-order box

  6. COMMON SENSE BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  7. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate.

  8. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  9. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  10. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  11. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  12. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  13. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  14. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-18

    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  15. HIV cohort collaborations: proposal for harmonization of data exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jesper; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    than can be achieved with the individual studies. This requires each cohort to map data into a standard format before merging. Until recently, this standard format has differed for each such collaborative analysis. We have therefore developed the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP), which...... is freely available at http://www.cphiv.dk/HICDEP.pdf. Once individual cohorts have set up a means of transfering data into this format, as and when required, this should greatly facilitate data merging for future joint analyses. The HICDEP incorporates data from HIV drug resistance tests, which have been...

  16. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  17. Scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions. Workshop and establishment of a common knowledge base for nuclear safety and security. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-technischer Erfahrungsaustausch Deutschlands mit der GUS, den Baltischen und den MOE-Staaten sowie Laendern Zentralasiens und anderer Regionen. Arbeitstreffen und Schaffung gemeinsamer Wissensbasen fuer nukleare Sicherheit und Sicherung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The report on the workshop concerning scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions includes the following issues: Results an d success of know-how transfer from West to East, topical issues for mutual exchange of experience, scope of the project, concept of the realization of mutual exchange of experiences. The emphasis of the workshop covered the following issues: emergency preparedness, international requirements concerning nuclear safety and radiation protection, transport of radioactive wastes and communication in nuclear technology.

  18. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  19. [Halitosis. A common problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

    2011-12-01

    Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis.

  20. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    In opposition to positivism the so called postpositivism reject the emphasis on the empirical truth and proposes an interpretative approach to the social world (Fischer, 1993). Policy analysis begins to address the sense-making constructions and the competing discourses on social meanings whilst...... the implications of the categorization of the immigration that the European Union wants to manage based on the ten common principles. I will attend to the creation of the European immigrant (third-country nationals) and its different categories (economic immigration, labour immigrants, potential immigrants, other...... categories of immigrants) under the more general legal immigrant. The economic discourse defined the immigrant in terms of adequacy to the European labour market through metaphors and new categories (immigration profiles, circular migration, brain waste – opposite brain drain). The new EU narrative...