WorldWideScience

Sample records for common diagnostic imaging

  1. Temporoparietal hypometabolism is common in FTLD and is associated with imaging diagnostic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Kyle B.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Arnold, Steven E.; Barbas, Nancy R.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Clark, Christopher M.; DeCarli, Charles S.; Jagust, William J.; Leverenz, James B.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Scott Turner, R.; Zamrini, Edward Y.; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Burke, James R.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Farlow, Martin R.; Gabel, Matthew J.; Higdon, Roger; Kawas, Claudia H.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Lipton, Anne M.; Foster, Norman L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cause of diagnostic errors in the visual interpretation of positron emission tomography scans with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design Twelve trained raters unaware of clinical and autopsy information independently reviewed FDG-PET scans and provided their diagnostic impression and confidence of either FTLD or AD. Six of these raters also recorded whether metabolism appeared normal or abnormal in 5 predefined brain regions in each hemisphere – frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex, temporoparietal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex. Results were compared to neuropathological diagnoses. Setting Academic medical centers Patients 45 patients with pathologically confirmed FTLD (n=14) or AD (n=31) Results Raters had a high degree of diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of FDG-PET scans; however, raters consistently found some scans more difficult to interpret than others. Unanimity of diagnosis among the raters was more frequent in patients with AD (27/31, 87%) than in patients with FTLD (7/14, 50%) (p = 0.02). Disagreements in interpretation of scans in patients with FTLD largely occurred when there was temporoparietal hypometabolism, which was present in 7 of the 14 FTLD scans and 6 of the 7 lacking unanimity. Hypometabolism of anterior cingulate and anterior temporal regions had higher specificities and positive likelihood ratios for FTLD than temporoparietal hypometabolism had for AD. Conclusions Temporoparietal hypometabolism in FTLD is common and may cause inaccurate interpretation of FDG-PET scans. An interpretation paradigm that focuses on the absence of hypometabolism in regions typically affected in AD before considering FTLD is likely to misclassify a significant portion of FTLD scans. Anterior cingulate and/or anterior temporal hypometabolism indicates a high likelihood of FTLD, even when

  2. Diagnostic Imaging for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Mallya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants are a popular modality for permanent tooth replacement. The key to successful implant placement, its subsequent osseointegration and the final prosthetic rehabilitation is proper preoperative assessment. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the pre- and post-surgical evaluation process. Imaging is used to evaluate suitability of implant sites, aid in selection of appropriate implants, and finally evaluate implant placement and osseointegration. This article reviews the role of diagnostic imaging in the various phases and the advantages and limitations of the numerous imaging modalities.

  3. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kułakowska, Alina; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzyńska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wiesław

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients. PMID:22802820

  4. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future.

  5. [Imaging diagnostics of bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J A; Gübitz, R; Beck, L; Heindel, W; Vieth, V

    2014-06-01

    Bone tumors and especially bone sarcomas are rare lesions of the skeletal system in comparison to the much more frequently occurring bone metastases. Despite the relative rarity they are important differential diagnoses of bone lesions. The aim of this article is to give the reader an insight into the fundamentals of the primary imaging of bone sarcomas and to illustrate this with the help of two examples (e.g. osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma). The foundation of the imaging of bone sarcomas is the radiograph in two planes. This method delivers important information on bone tumors. This information should be analyzed with the help of the Lodwick classification, the configuration of periosteal reactions and a possible reaction of the cortex. A possible tumor matrix and the localization within the skeleton or within long bones also provide important information for differential diagnostic delimitation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with specific adapted bone tumor sequences allows an exact local staging of a bone sarcoma. In addition to local imaging a compartmental MRI which illustrates the entire extent of tumor-bearing bone and the adjacent joints should be performed to rule out possible skip lesions. The most common distant metastases of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma occur in the lungs; therefore, a computed tomography (CT) of the chest is part of staging. Other imaging methods, such as CT of the tumor, positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT), bone scan and whole body MRI supplement the imaging depending on tumor type.

  6. Image Processing Diagnostics: Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Currently the computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect emphysema sooner than traditional x-rays, but other tests are required to measure more accurately the amount of affected lung. CT scan images show clearly if a patient has emphysema, but is unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it appears merely as subtle, barely distinct, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to create a software plug-in to interface with existing open source medical imaging software, to automate the process of accurately diagnosing and determining emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing a number of statistical calculations using data taken from CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. These analyses include an examination of the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness, a commonly used statistical parameter. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than currently utilized methods which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in air passages of the lung.

  7. Technology assessment and diagnostic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging scanning are discussed to illustrate some aspects of health care technology assessment in the field of diagnostic imaging. Technology assessment is defined as a comprehensive form of policy research that examines short-

  8. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic imaging of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroki (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Modalities for the diagnostic imaging of the prostate are surveyed. Transrectal sonography is thought to be the best method for the purpose, because of its non-invasive nature, fine picture quality, sufficient reproductivity and less expensive cost. Up-to-date utilizations of the method are described, such as diagnostic capability, staging, monitoring, screening and intervention. CT is less effective but MRI is promising to visualize internal structure inside the prostate. Two very new techniques, namely, ultrasonic Doppler color flow mapping and positron emission CT (PET), of which application to the prostate is being investigated originally in our laboratory, are introduced. (author) 100 refs.

  10. The effects of a common stainless steel orthodontic bracket on the diagnostic quality of cranial and cervical 3T- MR images: a prospective, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Michele; Pranno, Nicola; Stasolla, Alessandro; Orsogna, Nicola; Fierro, Davide; Cavallini, Costanza; Cantisani, Vito

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of orthodontic stainless steel brackets and two different types of archwires on the diagnostic quality of 3-T MR images. This prospective, case-control study was conducted following Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. The recruitment was conducted among orthodontic patients. 80 subjects, requiring MRI for the presence of temporomandibular disorders, were enrolled and divided into four groups: 20 patients using aligners (control group); 20 patients with stainless steel brackets without archwires; 20 patients with stainless steel brackets and nickel-titanium archwires; and 20 patients with stainless steel brackets and stainless steel archwires. Two experts in neuroradiology evaluated the images to determine the amount of distortion in 6 regions and 48 districts. A score was subjectively assigned according to a modified receiver operating characteristic method of distortion classification. Any disagreement was resolved through consensus seeking; when this was not possible, a third neuroradiologist was consulted. The following statistical methods were used: descriptive statistics, Cohen's kappa coefficient (k), Kruskal-Wallis test, pairwise comparisons using the Dunn-Bonferroni approach. The significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The presence of stainless steel brackets with or without archwires negatively influenced MRI of the cervical region, paranasal sinuses, head and neck region, and cervical vertebrae but did not influence MRI of brain and temporomandibular joint regions. Patients with a stainless steel multibracket orthodontic appliance should remove it before cervical vertebrae, cervical region, paranasal sinuses, and head and neck MRI scans. The brain and temporomandibular joint region MRI should not require the removal of such appliances.

  11. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  12. Common Diagnostic Test Results Over the Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruvee Eve

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, common test results over the years 2000 – 2016 are analysed. The test questions for new entrants were based on secondary school mathematics. The students took the test in the first lesson of the higher mathematics course. The test results were analysed by years, by tasks and by specialities, and their differences were found. The test results’ dependence on state-exams score was studied and other types of dependence were looked at.

  13. Diagnostic imaging of melanocytic skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerger, Armin; Smolle, Josef

    2003-04-01

    In tissue counter analysis, digital images are dissected into subregions (elements), and the digital information in each element is used for statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of tissue counter analysis and CART (Classification and Regression Tree) to the diagnostic discrimination of benign common nevi and malignant melanoma in dermatopathology. Two hundred cases each of benign nevi and malignant melanoma were consecutively sampled. CART analyses of background versus tissue elements, cellular versus 'other' tissue elements and benign versus malignant cellular elements were performed. For diagnostic assessment, only the percentage of cellular elements suggestive for malignancy in each case was used. CART analysis led to a correct classification of 99% of background versus tissue elements, 96% of cellular versus 'other' tissue elements and 79.1% of benign versus malignant cellular elements. When the percentage of cellular elements suggestive for malignancy in each case was evaluated, 29.5 +/- 14% (range 4.1-62.4) 'malignant' elements were found in benign nevi (n = 200), in contrast to 75.9 +/- 13.9% (range 32.8-97.3) in melanoma (n = 200; z =-16.72, p melanoma out of 200 each (specificity 96%, sensitivity 93%, positive predictive value 95.9%). Tissue counter analysis combined with CART may be a useful method for diagnostic purposes in histopathology.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  15. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Bower, D; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2012-10-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  16. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  17. Technical diagnostics of objects using active imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piszczek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an original method of the space-time framing as a potential tool for technical diagnostics. Because of the unusual observation and measurement properties such as the selection of the observed spatial scenes, the proposed technique of recording video data can be used in many situations where traditional cameras are not able to assume the tasks. The proposed use of the experimental Laser Photography Device (LPD concerns the issue of diagnosis of steam turbine blades.[b]Keywords[/b]: active imaging, image processing, diagnostics

  18. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  19. A review of diagnostic imaging of snakes and lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Hellebuyck, T; Van Caelenberg, A; Saunders, J H; Zotti, A

    2013-07-13

    Snakes and lizards are considered 'stoic' animals and often show only non-specific signs of illness. Consequently, diagnostic imaging--along with clinical examination and laboratory tests--is gaining importance in making a final diagnosis and establishing a correct therapy. The large number of captive snake and lizard species commonly kept as pets, together with the high inter- and intraspecific morphological variability that is innate in these animals, make the analysis of diagnostic images challenging for the veterinary practitioner. Moreover, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the species that are the object of clinical investigation is mandatory for the correct interpretation of diagnostic images. Despite the large amount of clinical and scientific work carried out in the past two decades, the radiographic features of snakes and lizards have not undergone systematic description, and therefore veterinarians often have to rely mostly on anatomical studies rather than radiological literature. The aim of this paper is to review the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modalities, as well as to provide an overview of the available international original studies and scientific reviews describing the normal and pathological imaging features in snakes and lizards.

  20. Latex glove sensitivity amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gloves prior to this investigation. The paper concludes that latex hypersensitivity is a real problem amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare personnel in our locality. This preliminary work, therefore, provides the basis of a much larger controlled study in the future. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 15 (1&2) 2008: pp.

  1. [Imaging techniques in modern trauma diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, T J; Eichler, K; Marzi, I; Wutzler, S; Zacharowski, K; Frellessen, C

    2017-10-01

    Modern trauma room management requires interdisciplinary teamwork and synchronous communication between a team of anaesthesists, surgeons and radiologists. As the length of stay in the trauma room influences morbidity and mortality of a severely injured person, optimizing time is one of the main targets. With the direct involvement of modern imaging techniques the injuries caused by trauma should be detected within a very short period of time in order to enable a priority-orientated treatment. Radiology influences structure and process quality, management and development of trauma room algorithms regarding the use of imaging techniques. For the individual case interventional therapy methods can be added. Based on current data and on the Frankfurt experience the current diagnostic concepts of trauma diagnostics are presented.

  2. Active imaging for monitoring and technical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piszczek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of currently running work in the field of active imaging. The term active refers to both the image acquisition methods, so-called methods of the spatio-temporal framing and active visualization method applying augmented reality. Also results of application of the HMD and 6DoF modules as well as the experimental laser photography device are given. The device works by methods of spatio-temporal framing and it has been developed at the IOE WAT. In terms of image acquisition - active imaging involves the use of illumination of the observed scene. In the field of information visualization - active imaging directly concerns the issues of interaction human-machine environment. The results show the possibility of using the described techniques, among others, rescue (fire brigade, security of mass events (police or the protection of critical infrastructure as well as broadly understood diagnostic problems. Examples presented in the article show a wide range of possible uses of the methods both in observational techniques and measurement. They are relatively innovative solutions and require elaboration of series of hardware and algorithmic issues. However, already at this stage it is clear that active acquisition and visualization methods indicate a high potential for this type of information solutions.[b]Keywords[/b]: active imaging, augmented reality, digital image processing

  3. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  4. Usefulness of diagnostic imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Kazuya; Akakura, Koichiro; Mikami, Kazuo; Mizoguchi, Ken-ichi; Tobe, Toyofusa; Nakano, Koichi; Numata, Tsutomu; Konno, Akiyoshi; Ito, Haruo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-01-01

    In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, prevention of urinary stone recurrence can be achieved by surgical removal of the enlarged parathyroid gland. To ensure the efficacy of surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, preoperative localization of the enlarged gland is important. In the present study, usefulness of diagnostic imaging for localization of the enlarged gland was investigated in primary hyperparathyroidism. We retrospectively examined the findings of imaging studies and clinical records in 79 patients (97 glands) who underwent surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism at Chiba University Hospital between 1976 and 2000. The detection rates of accurate localization were investigated for imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thallium-201 and technetium-99m pertechnetate (Tl-Tc) subtraction scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy, and analysed in relation to the size and weight of the gland and pathological diagnosis. The detection rates by US, CT, MRI, Tl-Tc subtraction scintigraphy and MIBI scintigraphy were 70%, 67%, 73%, 38% and 78%, respectively. The overall detection rate changed from 50% to 88% before and after 1987. The detection rate of MIBI scintigraphy was superior to Tl-Tc subtraction scintigraphy. In primary hyperparathyroidism, improvement of accurate localization of an enlarged parathyroid gland was demonstrated along with recent advances in imaging techniques including MIBI scintigraphy. (author)

  5. Diagnostic imaging in the management of craniosynostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotrikova, Bibiana; Freier, Kolja; Muehling, Joachim [University of Heidelberg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Krempien, Robert [University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Craniosynostoses are the most frequent craniofacial malformations. However, with a prevalence of 3-6 cases per 10,000 live births they are amongst the rarely seen diseases and their definite diagnosis thus poses a challenge to the physician. When an abnormal calvarial configuration is detected, a radiological evaluation is necessary to characterize the deformity and to guide the corrective surgical procedure. The demand for clear diagnostic criteria is justified by the severity of the disease and the possible consequences of delayed diagnosis. In addition to the clinical signs (deformation of the head), conventional skull X-rays show typical radiological alterations and are used for basic diagnostics. Diagnostic tests that may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the extent of the problem, include computed tomography (CT), 3D-CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and ultrasonography. In the present review we will describe the most important clinical and radiological characteristics of craniosynostosis by means of clinical, radiological and operative situs examples. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic Value of Narrow Band Imaging in Diagnosing Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbi Yuniserani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinoma is the most common tumor in nasopharynx. Endoscopy is used to determine the presence of lesions suspected of malignancy. Narrow Band Imaging is an endoscopic technique that uses narrow–band spectrum as a filter to determine any mucosal vascular changes in carcinoma. Narrow Band Imaging can early detect superficial mucosal lesions that are difficult to detect with conventional endoscopy, so that diagnosing is more accurate and occurrence of unnecessary biopsies can be reduced. This study aimed to determine diagnostic value of Narrow Band Imaging in diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: This diagnostic test study was conducted at Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung from September to October 2014. Twenty four patients with clinical signs and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma that fulfilled the study criteria were assigned using consecutive sampling to examine with Narrow Band Imaging and histopathology examination. The data were then analyzed with 2x2 table to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. Results: In this study, the results of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma using Narrow Band Imaging were 93.75%, 62.5%, 83.3%, 83.3%, and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of Narrow Band Imaging is 93.75%.

  7. Diagnostic mammography in women in Ibadan: common indications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a retrospective descriptive study of 520patients who presented for diagnostic mammography over a 5 year period(2008-2013) in the Radiology department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was extracted from departmental recordsof women who presented for diagnostic mammograms between ...

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  9. Renal oncocytoma. Image diagnostics and therapeutic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carli, P.; Lamanna, L.; Cantiani, R. [Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Vidiri, A. [Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Urology, Service of Radiology

    2000-09-01

    The renal oncocytoma is a solid epithelial neoplasm with a generally benign course. The improved image diagnostics with the computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should today permit the identification of these lesions preoperatively so that conservative rather than radical surgery can be employed, especially in the presence of an early or incidental diagnosis, this latter being always more frequent today. Eighteen patients (9 women and 9 men) with renal oncocytoma are presented. The sizes of the lesions ranged from 1.5 to 12 cm and all were studied by means of ultrasonography, CT and MRI. The MRI was found to be superior to both the ultrasonography and the CT in identifying smaller than 5 cm lesions, presenting typical, homogeneous low-density images in the T1-weighted image sequences which appeared hyperintense in the T2-weighted ones. The presence of a central scar or stellate architecture, the absence of hemorrhage and necrosis and the presence of a pseudo capsule are other elements to differentiate an oncocytoma from a renal carcinoma. These aspects are less characteristic in greater than 5 cm lesions, making the differential diagnosis more difficult. Twelve patients were submitted to a radical nephrectomy and 6 underwent enucleation. The follow-up of the patients (6-74 months) showed a disease-free survival in 17, while one patient died of distant metastases. No local recurrences were observed after conservative surgery which should be considered the treatment of choice in cases of renal oncocytoma with lesions of less than 5 cm.

  10. Common-image gathers using the excitation amplitude imaging condition

    KAUST Repository

    Kalita, Mahesh

    2016-06-06

    Common-image gathers (CIGs) are extensively used in migration velocity analysis. Any defocused events in the subsurface offset domain or equivalently nonflat events in angle-domain CIGs are accounted for revising the migration velocities. However, CIGs from wave-equation methods such as reverse time migration are often expensive to compute, especially in 3D. Using the excitation amplitude imaging condition that simplifies the forward-propagated source wavefield, we have managed to extract extended images for space and time lags in conjunction with prestack reverse time migration. The extended images tend to be cleaner, and the memory cost/disk storage is extensively reduced because we do not need to store the source wavefield. In addition, by avoiding the crosscorrelation calculation, we reduce the computational cost. These features are demonstrated on a linear v(z) model, a two-layer velocity model, and the Marmousi model.

  11. Image-guided pleural biopsy: diagnostic yield and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamore, R.E. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rachelbenamore@doctors.org.uk; Scott, K. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom); Richards, C.J. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom); Entwisle, J.J. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Background: Pleural biopsy and cytology are standard procedures for the investigation of pleural disease. Recent medical literature has suggested that image-guided pleural biopsy shows improved sensitivity for the diagnosis of pleural malignancy, when compared with the more commonly performed reverse bevel needle biopsy such as Abrams' needle. In our centre there has been an increasing trend towards performing image-guided pleural biopsies, and to our knowledge there is no large published series documenting the complication rate and diagnostic yield. Methods: The radiology and pathology databases were searched for all image-guided [computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)] pleural biopsies from January 2001 to December 2004. All imaging and histology were reviewed, and final diagnostic information about patients was obtained from the respiratory multidisciplinary team database and patient notes. A record was made of complications following biopsy, presence of pleura in the biopsy, and adequacy of tissue for histological diagnosis. Results: A total of 82 patients underwent 85 image-guided pleural biopsies over a 4-year period. 80 cases were performed under CT and five under US guidance. The rate of new pneumothorax detected by chest radiography was 4.7%. No patient required a chest drain or blood transfusion to treat complications. In 10 (12%) cases, there was inadequate tissue to reach a confident histological diagnosis and in eight (9%) of these, no pleura was present. Assuming all suspicious and inadequate biopsies are treated as benign, which is the worst case scenario, image-guided pleural biopsy has a sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of malignant disease. Conclusions: Image-guided pleural biopsy is a safe procedure with few associated complications and has a higher sensitivity than previously published series for reverse cutting needle biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant pleural disease.

  12. MR imaging diagnostic protocol for unilocular lesions of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironobu Konouchi

    2012-08-01

    Using our MR imaging diagnostic protocol to diagnose 31 cases, we obtained a positivity rate of 71.0%. The use of our MR imaging diagnostic protocol for unilocular lesions, which are especially difficult to differentiate by radiography, would improve the morphological and qualitative diagnosis of soft tissue lesions.

  13. Applications of 'edge-on' illuminated porous plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2002-01-01

    Scanning X-ray imaging systems for non-invasive diagnostics have several advantages over conventional imaging systems using area detectors. They significantly reduce the detected scatter radiation, cover large areas and potentially provide high spatial resolution. Applications of one-dimensional gaseous detectors and 'edge-on' illuminated silicon strip detectors for scanning imaging systems are currently under intensive investigation. The purpose of this work is to investigate 'edge-on' illuminated Porous Plate (PP) detectors for applications in diagnostic X-ray imaging. MicroChannel Plate (MCP), which is a common type of PP, has previously been investigated as a detector in surface-on illumination mode for medical X-ray imaging. However, its detection efficiency was too low for medical imaging applications. In the present study, the PP are used in the 'edge-on' illumination mode. Furthermore, the structural parameters of different PP types are optimized to improve the detection efficiency in the diagnostic X...

  14. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar DĂŠniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  15. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

    2009-01-01

    Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  16. Improved Diagnostics Using Polarization Imaging and Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Jianhua; Klimach, Uwe; Zhao, Hongzhi; Chen, Qiushui; Zou, Yingyin; Wang, Yue

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying the propagation of polarized light in biological cells and tissues. This paper presents a novel approach to cell or tissue imaging using a full Stokes imaging system with advanced polarization image analysis algorithms for improved diagnostics. The key component of the Stokes imaging system is the electrically tunable retarder, enabling high-speed operation of the system to acquire four intensity images sequentially. From the ...

  17. Application of aptamers in diagnostics, drug-delivery and imaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inthis review we will discuss about the latest developments in using aptamers in diagnostics, drug delivery and imaging.We begin with diagnostics, discussing the application of aptamers for the detection of infective agents itself, antigens/toxins (bacteria), biomarkers (cancer), or a combination. The ease of conjugation and ...

  18. Quantitative Methods for Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview on the basic quantitative methods, an in-depth discussion on the cutting-edge quantitative analysis approaches as well as their applications for both static and dynamic molecular diagnostic and therapeutic imaging.

  19. Diagnostic value of imaging in infective endocarditis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, Anna; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Touw, Daan J; van Melle, Joost P; Willems, Tineke P; Maass, Alexander H; Natour, Ehsan; Prakken, Niek H J; Borra, Ronald J H; van Geel, Peter Paul; Slart, Riemer H J A; van Assen, Sander; Sinha, Bhanu

    Sensitivity and specificity of the modified Duke criteria for native valve endocarditis are both suboptimal, at approximately 80%. Diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection is even lower. Non-invasive imaging modalities could potentially improve diagnosis of

  20. Application of Nanoparticles in Diagnostic Imaging via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). These imaging modalities differ not only in resolution, but also in the instrumentation and the type of nanoparticle that can be employed as its assistant. Of these imaging techniques, ultrasound is one of ...

  1. Trends in utilization: has extremity MR imaging replaced diagnostic arthroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, Nicole; Morrison, William B.; Parker, Laurence [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Suite 3390 Gibbon Building, 111 South 11th Street, PA 19107, Philadelphia (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [Department of Radiology, New York University Hospital for Joint Disease, 301 East 17th Street, NY 10003, New York (United States); Carrino, John A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, MA 02115, Boston (United States)

    2004-05-01

    To examine the relative change in utilization of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the extremities versus diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy. Using the 1993, 1996, and 1999 nationwide Medicare Part B databases, utilization rates (per 100,000) were determined for upper and lower extremity MR imaging, diagnostic arthroscopy and therapeutic arthroscopy using CPT-4 codes. Utilization of extremity MR imaging was compared with that of diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy in 10 geographic regions of the United States and tracked over time. Combined lower and upper extremity MR imaging utilization per 100,000 increased from 393 to 1,056 in 1999 (+168.7%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the extremities decreased from 18 in 1993 to 8 in 1999 (-55.6%); therapeutic arthroscopy rates increased from 461 in 1993 to 636 in 1999 (+40.0%). Specifically, from 1993 to 1999, utilization of lower extremity MR imaging increased from 270 to 661 (+144.8%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee over the same time period decreased from 11 to 5 (-54.5%); therapeutic arthroscopy increased from 394 to 501 (+27.2%). Similarly, utilization rates for upper extremity MR imaging increased from 123 to 395 (+221.1%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the shoulder over the same time period decreased from 7 to 2 (-71.4%); therapeutic arthroscopy increased from 44 to 104 (+136.4%). No specific geographic trends were ascertained. The utilization of MR imaging of the extremities has markedly increased from 1993 to 1999. During the same time period the utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy has decreased and that of therapeutic arthroscopy has increased. These findings support the hypothesis that there is increased reliance of clinical practitioners on the diagnostic information provided by MR imaging in preoperative clinical decision-making. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic Imaging of Dental Disease in Pet Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications. MRI is a diagnostic imaging technique additional to CT used primarily to enhance soft tissues, including complex odontogenic abscesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Book review: Clinical endocrinology and diagnostic imaging,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laboratory and functional tests, reference values, the indications for and algorithms of diagnostic ... acquainted with the unique use of the English language. Although the book is mainly intended for medical students and registrars, Fellows training for the Certificate in. Endocrinology may be pleasantly surprised at the clinical.

  4. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  5. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  6. Laboratory biomarkers or imaging in the diagnostics of rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Grassi, Walter; Szodoray, Peter

    2014-03-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease in which a heterogeneous course and different pathogenic mechanisms are implicated in chronic inflammation and joint destruction. Despite the diagnostic contribution of anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) and rheumatoid factors, about one-third of RA patients remain seronegative. ACPAs belong to a heterogeneous family of autoantibodies targeting citrullinated proteins, including myelin-basic protein, several histone proteins, filaggrin and fibrin, fibrinogen or vimentin. In addition to ACPAs, antibodies directed against other post-translationally modified-carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) were detected in up to 30% of ACPA-negative patients. Using phage display technology, further autoantibodies were recently discovered as candidate biomarkers for seronegative RA patients. Furthermore, in clinical practice, ultrasound may reveal subclinical synovitis and radiographically undetected bone erosions. To improve diagnostic certainty in undifferentiated arthritis and seronegative patients, ultrasound imaging and several new biomarkers may help to identify at risk patients and those with early disease. In this commentary we summarize recent advances in joint ultrasound and future potential of serological biomarkers to improve diagnosis of RA.

  7. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  8. AN ALGORITHM FOR ASSEMBLING A COMMON IMAGE OF VLSI LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Lankevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider problem of assembling a common image of VLSI layout. Common image is composedof frames obtained by electron microscope photographing. Many frames require a lot of computation for positioning each frame inside the common image. Employing graphics processing units enables acceleration of computations. We realize algorithms and programs for assembling a common image of VLSI layout. Specificity of this work is to use abilities of CUDA to reduce computation time. Experimental results show efficiency of the proposed programs.

  9. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  10. Diagnostic imaging analysis of the impacted mesiodens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jeong Jun; Choi, Bo Ram; Jeong, Hwan Seok; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The research was performed to predict the three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors and the proximity with the anatomic structures by comparing their panoramic images with the CT images. Among the patients visiting Seoul National University Dental Hospital from April 2003 to July 2007, those with mesiodens were selected (154 mesiodens of 120 patients). The numbers, shapes, orientation and positional relationship of mesiodens with maxillary central incisors were investigated in the panoramic images. The proximity with the anatomical structures and complications were investigated in the CT images as well. The sex ratio (M : F) was 2.28 : 1 and the mean number of mesiodens per one patient was 1.28. Conical shape was 84.4% and inverted orientation was 51.9%. There were more cases of anatomical structures encroachment, especially on the nasal floor and nasopalatine duct, when the mesiodens was not superimposed with the central incisor. There were, however, many cases of the nasopalatine duct encroachment when the mesiodens was superimpoised with the apical 1/3 of central incisor (52.6%). Delayed eruption (55.6%), crown rotation (66.7%) and crown resorption (100%) were observed when the mesiodens was superimposed with the crown of the central incisor. It is possible to predict three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors in the panoramic images, but more details should be confirmed by the CT images when necessary.

  11. Improved diagnostics using polarization imaging and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimach, Uwe; Zhao, Hongzhi; Chen, Qiushui; Zou, Yingyin Kevin; Wang, Yue; Xuan, Jianhua

    2006-03-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in studying the propagation of polarized light in randomly scattering media. This paper presents a novel approach for cell and tissue imaging by using full Stokes imaging and for its improved diagnostics by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Phantom experiments have been conducted using a prototyped Stokes polarization imaging device. Several types of phantoms, consisting of polystyrene latex spheres in various diameters, were prepared to simulate different conditions of epidermal layer of skin. Several sets of four images that contain not only the intensity, but also the polarization information were taken for analysis. Wavelet transforms are first applied to the Stokes components for initial feature analysis and extraction. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are then used to extract diagnostic features for improved classification and prediction. The experimental results show that the classification performance using Stokes images is significantly improved over that using the intensity image only.

  12. Diagnostic imaging in neuro-ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Marín, A C; Seral Moral, P; Bernal Lafuente, C; Izquierdo Hernández, B

    2018-01-20

    Neuro-ophthalmology is a field combining neurology and ophthalmology that studies diseases that affect the visual system and the mechanisms that control eye movement and pupil function. Imaging tests make it possible to thoroughly assess the relevant anatomy and disease of the structures that make up the visual pathway, the nerves that control eye and pupil movement, and the orbital structures themselves. This article is divided into three sections (review of the anatomy, appropriate imaging techniques, and evaluation of disease according to clinical symptoms), with the aim of providing useful tools that will enable radiologists to choose the best imaging technique for the differential diagnosis of patients' problems to reach the correct diagnosis of their disease. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic Imaging for Dental Implant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implant is a device made of alloplastic (foreign material implanted into the jaw bone beneath the mucosal layer to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis. Dental implants are gaining immense popularity and wide acceptance because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with oral function or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Appropriate treatment planning for replacement of lost teeth is required and imaging plays a pivotal role to ensure a satisfactory outcome. The development of pre-surgical imaging techniques and surgical templates helps the dentist place the implants with relative ease. This article focuses on various types of imaging modalities that have a pivotal role in implant therapy.

  14. Improved Diagnostics Using Polarization Imaging and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xuan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying the propagation of polarized light in biological cells and tissues. This paper presents a novel approach to cell or tissue imaging using a full Stokes imaging system with advanced polarization image analysis algorithms for improved diagnostics. The key component of the Stokes imaging system is the electrically tunable retarder, enabling high-speed operation of the system to acquire four intensity images sequentially. From the acquired intensity images, four Stokes vector images can be computed to obtain complete polarization information. Polarization image analysis algorithms are then developed to analyze Stokes polarization images for cell or tissue classification. Specifically, wavelet transforms are first applied to the Stokes components for initial feature analysis and extraction. Artificial neural networks (ANNs are then used to extract diagnostic features for improved classification and prediction. In this study, phantom experiments have been conducted using a prototyped Stokes polarization imaging device. In particular, several types of phantoms, consisting of polystyrene latex spheres in various diameters, were prepared to simulate different conditions of epidermal layer of skin. The experimental results from phantom studies and a plant cell study show that the classification performance using Stokes images is significantly improved over that using the intensity image only.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 2: the bony disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-08-01

    The metacarpophangeal/metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joint in the horse is commonly associated with equine lameness and diagnostic imaging is routinely used to investigate disorders of the joint and its surrounding tissues. This review describes the osseous disorders of the fetlock as well as the technical aspects of taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different lesions. In current clinical practice, a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most frequently used approach to arrive at a diagnosis.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of tibial periosteal ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls, R. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Melloni, P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Darnell, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Munoz, J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Canalies, J. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    A case of a soft tissue tumor situated in the anterior surface of the proximal end of the tibia in an adult patient is demonstrated by conventional radiographs, CT, and MRI. The lesion was well defined with respect to the adjacent soft tissue. The CT exam showed a soft tissue mass with external cortical erosion and thick spicules by periosteal reaction. On T1-weighted images the mass was homogeneous and of low signal intensity, whereas on T2-weighted images it showed a high signal intensity, with some septa in the mass. The differential considerations include a periosteal chondroma, a lipoma, a subperiosteal hematoma, an inflammatory process, a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and a parosteal osteosarcoma. The CT and MR features of these entities are reviewed as an aid in differential diagnosis of the periosteal ganglion. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  17. Plenoptic Imaging for Three-Dimensional Particle Field Diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hall, Elise Munz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising emerging technology for single-camera, 3D diagnostics of particle fields. In this work, recent developments towards quantitative measurements of particle size, positions, and velocities are discussed. First, the technique is proven viable with measurements of the particle field generated by the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water. Next, well cont rolled experiments are used to verify diagnostic uncertainty. Finally, an example is presented of 3D plenoptic imaging of a laboratory scale, explosively generated fragment field.

  18. Healthcare provider and patient perspectives on diagnostic imaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjee, Chandra R; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A

    2015-05-20

    Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor-patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers' and patients' perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation. AIM AND SETTING: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex. A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars). Two main themes guided our analysis: (1) provider perspectives; and (2) patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof. Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider-patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included.

  19. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R.P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S.R.; Hillyer, T.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, 228 Walker Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A.J. [FOM-Inst. voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Association Euratom-FOM (International organizations without location); RTP team

    1999-01-01

    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 {mu}s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array. Unlike conventional ECE diagnostics, the sample volumes of the ECE imaging system are aligned vertically, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the local oscillator frequency, making possible 2D measurements of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. The poloidal/radial wavenumber spectra and correlation lengths of T{sub e} fluctuations in the plasma core can also be obtained by properly positioning the focal plane of the imaging system. Due to these unique features, ECE imaging is an ideal tool for plasma transport study. Technical details of the system are described, together with preliminary experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Diagnostic value of imaging in infective endocarditis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Anna; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Touw, Daan J; van Melle, Joost P; Willems, Tineke P; Maass, Alexander H; Natour, Ehsan; Prakken, Niek H J; Borra, Ronald J H; van Geel, Peter Paul; Slart, Riemer H J A; van Assen, Sander; Sinha, Bhanu

    2017-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity of the modified Duke criteria for native valve endocarditis are both suboptimal, at approximately 80%. Diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection is even lower. Non-invasive imaging modalities could potentially improve diagnosis of infective endocarditis; however, their diagnostic value is unclear. We did a systematic literature review to critically appraise the evidence for the diagnostic performance of these imaging modalities, according to PRISMA and GRADE criteria. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. 31 studies were included that presented original data on the performance of electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA), ECG-gated MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET/CT, and leucocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of native valve endocarditis, intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection, and extracardiac foci in adults. We consistently found positive albeit weak evidence for the diagnostic benefit of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and MDCTA. We conclude that additional imaging techniques should be considered if infective endocarditis is suspected. We propose an evidence-based diagnostic work-up for infective endocarditis including these non-invasive techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  2. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R. P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S. R.; Hillyer, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. T. P. Team,

    1999-01-01

    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 mu s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low

  3. Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Objective: To conduct an analysis of all registered South Africa (SA) diagnostic radiology equipment, assess the number of equipment units per capita by imaging modality, and compare SA figures with published international data, in preparation for the introduction of national health insurance (NHI) in SA.

  4. Optimisation of patient protection and image quality in diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiology Department of Kenyatta National Hospital, a referral, teaching and research hospital in Kenya. Subjects: A total of 837 adult and 229 paediatric patients undergoing diagnostic examinations were assessed for patient dose and image quality. Interventions: The X-ray tube output measurements and X-ray exposure ...

  5. Early diagnostic method for sepsis based on neutrophil MR imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhua Han

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Mouse and human neutrophils could be more effectively labelled by Mannan-coated SPION in vitro than Feridex. Sepsis analog neutrophils labelled by Mannan-coated SPIONs could be efficiently detected on MR images, which may serve as an early diagnostic method for sepsis.

  6. [Imaging in rheumatic diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis and differential diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhoff, T; Hermann, K-G A

    2012-10-01

    Differential diagnostics of arthritides is challenging even for experienced radiologists. Nevertheless, there are simple signs that can give important clues to make a diagnosis. Close cooperation with the attending clinicians is essential to get the most from imaging studies and to provide relevant information for patient management and therapy.

  7. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  8. Diagnostic imaging of shoulder rotator cuff lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira-Barbosa Marcello Henrique

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder rotator cuff tendon tears were evaluated with ultrasonography (US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Surgical or arthroscopical correlation were available in 25 cases. Overall costs were also considered. Shoulder impingement syndrome diagnosis was done on a clinical basis. Surgery or arthroscopy was considered when conservative treatment failure for 6 months, or when rotator cuff repair was indicated. Ultrasound was performed in 22 patients and MRI in 17 of the 25 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 80%, 100% and 90.9% for US and 90%, 100% and 94.12% for MRI, respectively. In 16 cases both US and MRI were obtained and in this subgroup statistical correlation was excellent (p< 0.001. We concluded that both methods are reliable for rotator cuff full thickness tear evaluation. Since US is less expensive, it could be considered as the screening method when rotator cuff integrity is the main question, and when well trained radiologists and high resolution equipment are available.

  9. Autofluorescence-based diagnostic UV imaging of tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkoski, Timothy E.

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and its early diagnosis is critical to improving treatment options and patient outcomes. In autofluorescence (AF) imaging, light of controlled wavelengths is projected onto tissue, absorbed by specific molecules, and re-emitted at longer wavelengths. Images of re-emitted light are used together with spectral information to infer tissue functional information and diagnosis. This dissertation describes AF imaging studies of three different organs using data collected from fresh human surgical specimens. In the ovary study, illumination was at 365 nm, and images were captured at 8 emission wavelengths. Measurements from a multispectral imaging system and fiber optic probe were used to map tissue diagnosis at every image pixel. For the colon and pancreas studies, instrumentation was developed extending AF imaging capability to sub-300 nm excitation. Images excited in the deep UV revealed tryptophan and protein content which are believed to change with disease state. Several excitation wavelength bands from 280 nm to 440 nm were investigated. Microscopic AF images collected in the pancreas study included both cultured and primary cells. Several findings are reported. A method of transforming fiber optic probe spectra for direct comparison with imager spectra was devised. Normalization of AF data by green reflectance data was found useful in correcting hemoglobin absorption. Ratio images, both AF and reflectance, were formulated to highlight growths in the colon. Novel tryptophan AF images were found less useful for colon diagnostics than the new ratio techniques. Microscopic tryptophan AF images produce useful visualization of cellular protein content, but their diagnostic value requires further study.

  10. Common source identification of images in large databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisolf, F.; Barens, P.; Snel, E.; Malgoezar, A.; Vos, M.; Mieremet, A.; Geradts, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Photo-response non-uniformity noise patterns are a robust way to identify the source of an image. However, identifying a common source of images in a large database may be impractical due to long computation times. In this paper a solution for large volume digital camera identification is proposed,

  11. Diagnostic Value of Dual-Source Computerized Tomography Combined with Perfusion Imaging for Peripheral Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xijin; Wang, Shanshan; Jiang, Xingyue; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Wenjian

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism has become the third most common cardiovascular disease, which can seriously harm human health. Objectives To investigate the diagnostic value of dual-source computerized tomography (CT) and perfusion imaging for peripheral pulmonary embolism. Patients and Methods Thirty-two patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent dual-source CT exams. To compare the ability of pulmonary embolism detection software (PED) with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in determining the presence, numbers, and locations of pulmonary emboli, the subsequent images were reviewed by two radiologists using both imaging modalities. Also, the diagnostic consistency between PED and CTPA images and dual-energy pulmonary perfusion imaging (DEPI) for segmental pulmonary embolism was compared. Results CTPA images revealed 50 (7.81%) segmental and 56 (4.38%) sub-segmental pulmonary embolisms, while the PED images showed 68 (10.63%) segmental and 94 (7.34%) sub-segmental pulmonary embolisms. Thus, the detection rate on PED images for peripheral pulmonary embolism was significantly higher than that of the CTPA images (P pulmonary embolism between PED and CTPA and DEPI (kappa = 0.85). The sensitivity and specificity of DEPI images for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism were 91.7% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion PED software of dual-source CT combined with perfusion imaging can significantly improve the detection rate of peripheral pulmonary embolism. PMID:27703656

  12. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha T Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  13. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha T; Jankharia, Bijal B

    2016-01-01

    The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer. PMID:27413269

  14. Synthesis and Development of Diagnostic Tools for Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik

    The need for novel diagnostic tools in medical imaging is increasing since they can improve the positive therapeutic outcome as well as patient compliance. In this thesis different diagnostic tools were developed within an interdisciplinary project, whereas the main work reported in this thesis...... was the synthesis of different materials. The first project introduces the development of injectable fiducial markers within the field of image-guided radiotherapy. Fiducial markers for computed tomography (CT)-imaging are today needed in order to correlate the positioning of the tumor to provide a more precise...... engineering of the gold nanoparticles that will allow full dispersion of AuNPs within the hydrophobic environment of the SAIB matrix. As stabilizing coating-materials PEG, PNIPAM polymers and a dithiolane SAIB derivative were tested. The unique gelation properties of the SAIB matrix led to the second project...

  15. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: Soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-08-01

    The equine fetlock is the joint most commonly associated with lameness. Although the fetlock is regarded as a simple joint, diagnosis of a fetlock disorder can be a challenge and various imaging modalities are routinely used to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. This review describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the fetlock region and addresses some of the technical aspects involved in taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different soft tissue lesions. A combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most commonly used diagnostic approach in clinical practice.

  16. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image

  17. Diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for common knee disorders: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Desmeules, François

    2017-01-01

    More evidence on diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for knee disorders is needed to lower frequently used and costly imaging tests. To conduct a systematic review of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) evaluating the diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in five databases until January 2016. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR. Seventeen reviews were included with mean AMSTAR score of 5.5 ± 2.3. Based on six SR, only the Lachman test for ACL injuries is diagnostically valid when individually performed (Likelihood ratio (LR+):10.2, LR-:0.2). Based on two SR, the Ottawa Knee Rule is a valid screening tool for knee fractures (LR-:0.05). Based on one SR, the EULAR criteria had a post-test probability of 99% for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Based on two SR, a complete physical examination performed by a trained health provider was found to be diagnostically valid for ACL, PCL and meniscal injuries as well as for cartilage lesions. When individually performed, common physical tests are rarely able to rule in or rule out a specific knee disorder, except the Lachman for ACL injuries. There is low-quality evidence concerning the validity of combining history elements and physical tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthcare provider and patient perspectives on diagnostic imaging investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra R. Makanjee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor–patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers’ and patients’ perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation.Aim and setting: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars.Results: Two main themes guided our analysis: (1 provider perspectives; and (2 patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof.Conclusion: Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider–patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included.

  19. Complex diagnostics of common conditions of the motor organ of the developmental age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Some muscular and osteoarticular diseases pose serious diagnostic problems, e.g. subsequent recurrent or persistent conditions of isolated pain in the extremities, most frequently - in the lower extremities, especially knee joints, and isolated pain in the back, usually in the lumbosacral spine. They are often accompanied by gait abnormalities. The paper herein presents a complex differential diagnosis of these conditions, the presented diseases that can cause them, and the role of the family doctor, paediatrician, orthopaedist, and rheumatologist in the diagnosis. A detailed history of the presented complaints, accurate physical examination, plus extensive biochemical and immunological diagnostics, and microbiological and imaging techniques usually allow a diagnosis to be made. Attention was paid to the sequence of imaging procedures conducted in the differential diagnosis of pains of the extremities and the spine and not to overuse procedures that involve exposure to ionising radiation.

  20. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Malone; John R. Celesteb; Peter M. Celliers; Brent C. Froggeta; Robert L. Guyton; Morris I. Kaufman; Tony L. Lee; Brian J. MacGowan; Edmund W. Ng; Imants P. Reinbachs; Ronald B. Robinson; Lynn G. Seppala; Tom W. Tunnell; Phillip W. Watts

    2005-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1–5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  1. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R; Celeste, J; Celliers, P; Frogget, B; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M; Lee, T; MacGowan, B; Ng, E W; Reinbachs, I P; Robinson, R B; Seppala, L; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P

    2005-07-07

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  2. Synthetic Microwave Imaging Reflectometry diagnostic using 3D FDTD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Scott; Jenkins, Thomas; Smithe, David; King, Jacob; Nimrod Team Team

    2017-10-01

    Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) has become a standard diagnostic for understanding tokamak edge perturbations, including the edge harmonic oscillations in QH mode operation. These long-wavelength perturbations are larger than the normal turbulent fluctuation levels and thus normal analysis of synthetic signals become more difficult. To investigate, we construct a synthetic MIR diagnostic for exploring density fluctuation amplitudes in the tokamak plasma edge by using the three-dimensional, full-wave FDTD code Vorpal. The source microwave beam for the diagnostic is generated and refelected at the cutoff surface that is distorted by 2D density fluctuations in the edge plasma. Synthetic imaging optics at the detector can be used to understand the fluctuation and background density profiles. We apply the diagnostic to understand the fluctuations in edge plasma density during QH-mode activity in the DIII-D tokamak, as modeled by the NIMROD code. This work was funded under DOE Grant Number DE-FC02-08ER54972.

  3. Imaging VISAR diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R M; Bower, J R; Bradley, D K; Capelle, G A; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Eckart, M J; Eggert, J H; Frogget, B C; Guyton, R L; Hicks, D G; Kaufman, M I; MacGowan, B J; Montelongo, S; Ng, E W; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W; Zapata, P G

    2004-08-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. A VISAR (Velocity Interferometry System for Any Reflector) diagnostic has been designed to measure shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two interferometers. A 60-kW VISAR probe laser operates at 659.5 nm with variable pulse width. Special coatings on the mirrors and cutoff filters are used to reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and to pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, passive shock breakout light, or thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing other experimenters to use that port. A unique resolution pattern has been designed to validate the VISAR diagnostic before each use. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. Seven CCD cameras monitor the diagnostic alignment.

  4. Diagnostic Imaging of Reproductive Tract Disorders in Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpenberger, Michaela

    2017-05-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the reproductive tract in reptiles is used for gender determination, evaluation of breeding status, detection of pathologic changes, and supervising treatment. Whole-body radiographs provide an overview and support detection of mineralized egg shells. Sonography is used to evaluate follicles, nonmineralized eggs, and the salpinx in all reptiles. Computed tomography is able to overcome imaging limitations in chelonian species. This article provides detailed information about the performance of different imaging techniques. Multiple images demonstrate the physiologic appearance of the male and female reproductive tract in various reptile species and pathologic changes. Advantages and disadvantages of radiography, sonography, and computed tomography are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of an EMC3-EIRENE Synthetic Imaging Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William; Allen, Steve; Samuell, Cameron; Lore, Jeremy

    2017-10-01

    2D and 3D flow measurements are critical for validating numerical codes such as EMC3-EIRENE. Toroidal symmetry assumptions preclude tomographic reconstruction of 3D flows from single camera views. In addition, the resolution of the grids utilized in numerical code models can easily surpass the resolution of physical camera diagnostic geometries. For these reasons we have developed a Synthetic Imaging Diagnostic capability for forward projection comparisons of EMC3-EIRENE model solutions with the line integrated images from the Doppler Coherence Imaging diagnostic on DIII-D. The forward projection matrix is 2.8 Mpixel by 6.4 Mcells for the non-axisymmetric case we present. For flow comparisons, both simple line integral, and field aligned component matrices must be calculated. The calculation of these matrices is a massive embarrassingly parallel problem and performed with a custom dispatcher that allows processing platforms to join mid-problem as they become available, or drop out if resources are needed for higher priority tasks. The matrices are handled using standard sparse matrix techniques. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. LLNL-ABS-734800.

  6. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Hoegaerts, Michel; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-02-01

    The equine tarsus is the most commonly affected hindlimb region associated with lameness. Diagnostic imaging is routinely applied but because of its complexity, being composed of 10 multifaceted bones and different joints, multiple ligaments, tendons and bursae, imaging this region can be a challenge. This is the first part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. It describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the tarsal region and addresses some of the technical aspects in taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different soft tissue lesions. Where applicable, comments on the diagnostic use of contrast radiography, arthroscopy and tenoscopy are made. In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis.

  8. Cancer imaging phenomics toolkit: quantitative imaging analytics for precision diagnostics and predictive modeling of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Pati, Sarthak; Bergman, Mark; Kalarot, Ratheesh; Sridharan, Patmaa; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Akbari, Hamed; Tunc, Birkan; Doshi, Jimit; Parker, Drew; Hsieh, Michael; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Li, Hongming; Ou, Yangming; Doot, Robert K; Bilello, Michel; Fan, Yong; Shinohara, Russell T; Yushkevich, Paul; Verma, Ragini; Kontos, Despina

    2018-01-01

    The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer. CaPTk leverages the value of quantitative imaging analytics along with machine learning to derive phenotypic imaging signatures, based on two-level functionality. First, image analysis algorithms are used to extract comprehensive panels of diverse and complementary features, such as multiparametric intensity histogram distributions, texture, shape, kinetics, connectomics, and spatial patterns. At the second level, these quantitative imaging signatures are fed into multivariate machine learning models to produce diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Results from clinical studies in three areas are shown: (i) computational neuro-oncology of brain gliomas for precision diagnostics, prediction of outcome, and treatment planning; (ii) prediction of treatment response for breast and lung cancer, and (iii) risk assessment for breast cancer.

  9. Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

  10. Diagnostic Performance of Superb Microvascular Imaging and Other Sonographic Modalities in the Assessment of Lateral Epicondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serdar; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Oncu, Fatih; Bakdik, Suleyman; Durmaz, Mehmet Sedat; Tolu, Ismet

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of different sonographic modalities for diagnosing lateral epicondylosis. A total of 50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic common extensor tendons in 44 patients with lateral epicondylosis, and 25 healthy participants were prospectively examined by B-mode sonography, color Doppler imaging, power Doppler imaging, Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI; Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and strain elastography. We evaluated blood flow in common extensor tendons by using a grading system with color Doppler imaging, power Doppler imaging, and SMI. The diagnostic performance of the modalities was compared. When a cutoff value of hypoechogenicity was used for the mean strain ratio, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy rates were 92.0%, 94%.0, 93.9%, 92.2%, and 93.0%, respectively. When a cutoff point of grade 1 was used, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy rates were 26.0%, 10.0%, 10.0%, 57.5%, and 63.0, for color Doppler imaging; 40.0%, 10.0%, 10.0%, 62.5%, and 70.0% for power Doppler imaging; and 84.0%, 94.0%, 93.0%, 85.5%, and 89.0% for SMI. When a cutoff value of 3.94 was used for the mean strain ratio, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy rates were 78.0%, 92.0%, 90.7%, 80.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was detected between SMI, strain elastography, and visual analog scale scores (P < .001). The combination of SMI and B-mode sonography was found to have excellent diagnostic performance for lateral epicondylosis. Neovascularzation in patients' tendons with lateral epicondylosis was identified much better with SMI compared to color or power Doppler imaging. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. [Significance of ophthalmological imaging in common hereditary retinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K; Kernt, M; Reznicek, L

    2013-03-01

    Over the past years, a significant progress in genetic, functional and imaging diagnostics in hereditary retinal diseases has been made. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as fundus autofluorescence (FAF) allow for high-resolution, non-invasive imaging - from various perspectives - of retinal and choroidal layers of the posterior fundus. Both techniques have gained more and more significance in the diagnosis of hereditary retinal diseases. Of all patients presented in this review, extensive family history was taken and a clinical ophthalmological examination performed. OCT scans as well as FAF images were acquired and compared to results of other functional and molecular genetic tests in the context of each disease. The presented cases in this review addressing hereditary retinal diseases (Best's disease, Stargardt's disease, cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, achromatopsia, and X-linked retinoschisis) show the significance of ophthalmic imaging (OCT + FAF) for a targeted diagnosis of hereditary retinal diseases. The described imaging techniques (OCT + FAF) are becoming more and more important in the diagnosis of hereditary retinal diseases. Due to increasing availability of the devices, earlier detection of typical morphological changes not seen in clinical fundoscopy is feasible. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Strategic planning for radiology: opening an outpatient diagnostic imaging center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepson, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Launching a new diagnostic imaging center involves very specific requirements and roadmaps, including five major areas of change that have a direct impact on planning: Imaging and communication technology Finances and reimbursement Ownership structure of imaging entities Critical workforce shortages Imaging is moving outside radiology First, planning must focus on the strategic level of any organization, whether it is a multi-national corporation or a six-person radiology group. Think of all organizations as a triangle with three horizontal levels: strategic, managerial and operational. The strategic level of decision-making is at the top of the triangle, and here is where planning must take place. For strategic planning to work, there must be focused time and energy spent on this activity, usually away from the reading room and imaging center. There are five planning strategies, which must have the explicit goal of developing and growing the imaging center. The five strategies are: Clinical and quality issues, Governance and administration, Technology, Relationships, Marketing and business development. The best way to plan and implement these strategies is to create work groups of radiologists, technologists, and administrative and support staff. Once the group agrees on the strategy and tactic, it takes responsibility for implementation. Embarking on the launch of a new outpatient diagnostic imaging center is no small undertaking, and anyone who has struggled with such an endeavor can readily attest to the associated challenges and benefits. Success depends on many things, and one of the most important factors relates to the amount of time and the quality of effort spent on strategic planning at the outset. Neglecting or skimping on this phase may lead to unforeseen obstacles that could potentially derail the project.

  13. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calculated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above, ...

  14. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calcu- lated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above ...

  15. Biokinetics and dosimetry of commonly used radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta; Lassmann, Michael [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Broeer, Joern Hendrik; Nosske, Dietmar [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Vandevoorde, Charlot; Bacher, Klaus [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Division of Medical Physics, Ghent (Belgium); Santos, Paula; Bardies, Manuel [INSERM UMR892, Nantes (France)

    2011-12-15

    The impact on patients' health of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine diagnostics has not until now been evaluated systematically in a European context. Therefore, as part of the EU-funded Project PEDDOSE.NET, we review and summarize the current knowledge on biokinetics and dosimetry of commonly used diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals. A detailed literature search on published biokinetic and dosimetric data was performed mostly via PubMed. In principle the criteria for inclusion of data followed the EANM Dosimetry Committee guidance document on good clinical reporting. Data on dosimetry and biokinetics can be difficult to find, are scattered in various journals and, especially in paediatric nuclear medicine, are very scarce. The data collection and calculation methods vary with respect to the time-points, bladder voiding, dose assessment after the last data point and the way the effective dose was calculated. In many studies the number of subjects included for obtaining biokinetic and dosimetry data was fewer than ten, and some of the biokinetic data were acquired more than 20 years ago. It would be of interest to generate new data on biokinetics and dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine using state-of-the-art equipment and more uniform dosimetry protocols. For easier public access to dosimetry data for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, a database containing these data should be created and maintained. (orig.)

  16. Accuracy of diagnostic imaging in nephroblastoma before preoperative chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieden, K. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. Klinische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Weirich, A. [Kinderklinik, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Troeger, J. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Gamroth, A.H. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Raschke, K. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, R. [Kinderklinik, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    1993-04-01

    From July 1988 to February 1991, 130 children with the tentative diagnosis of nephroblastoma were treated preoperatively. The initial diagnostic images (excretory urography, ultrasound, CT, MRI) have been analysed both prospectively and retrospectively and the findings correlated with the intraoperative and histological results. Of the preoperatively treated patients 93.8% had a Wilms` tumour or one of its variants. Five patients had a different malignant tumour and 3 patients, i.e. 2.3% of those preoperatively treated or 1.6% of all registered patients, had benign tumours of the kidney. Wilms` tumour generally presented as a well-defined mass with an inhomogeneous morphology on CT. On ultrasound only 24% of the tumours were homogeneous. Intratumoral haemorrhage and cystic areas occurred frequently; calcifications were rare (8%). With regard to caval involvement only ultrasound and MRI enabled the correct diagnosis, while CT could not differentiate compressions from invasion. The pretherapeutic diagnostic imaging was of sufficient accuracy to start preoperative chemotherapy without diagnostic biopsy. (orig.)

  17. X-ray diagnostics of most common periodontal diseases in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental diseases in dogs and cats are of increasing importance in veterinary practice. If not diagnosed and treated on time, they can significantly affect the quality of life and pet health as well. Roentgenography of orofacial system, as a part of veterinary dentistry, is an important diagnostic tool that provides insight into diseases and irregularities of the teeth, shows macrostructure of bone parts, and also may indicate the etiology and genesis of various pathological conditions of the teeth. The objective of this paper is to point out to most common pathologies which small animal veterinary dentistry daily meets, as well as to foster the systematic development in this area in order to find more quality to both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  18. Computer-aided assessment of diagnostic images for epidemiological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gange Stephen J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic images are often assessed for clinical outcomes using subjective methods, which are limited by the skill of the reviewer. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD algorithms that assist reviewers in their decisions concerning outcomes have been developed to increase sensitivity and specificity in the clinical setting. However, these systems have not been well utilized in research settings to improve the measurement of clinical endpoints. Reductions in bias through their use could have important implications for etiologic research. Methods Using the example of cortical cataract detection, we developed an algorithm for assisting a reviewer in evaluating digital images for the presence and severity of lesions. Available image processing and statistical methods that were easily implementable were used as the basis for the CAD algorithm. The performance of the system was compared to the subjective assessment of five reviewers using 60 simulated images. Cortical cataract severity scores from 0 to 16 were assigned to the images by the reviewers and the CAD system, with each image assessed twice to obtain a measure of variability. Image characteristics that affected reviewer bias were also assessed by systematically varying the appearance of the simulated images. Results The algorithm yielded severity scores with smaller bias on images where cataract severity was mild to moderate (approximately ≤ 6/16ths. On high severity images, the bias of the CAD system exceeded that of the reviewers. The variability of the CAD system was zero on repeated images but ranged from 0.48 to 1.22 for the reviewers. The direction and magnitude of the bias exhibited by the reviewers was a function of the number of cataract opacities, the shape and the contrast of the lesions in the simulated images. Conclusion CAD systems are feasible to implement with available software and can be valuable when medical images contain exposure or outcome information for

  19. Reliability modelling of redundant safety systems without automatic diagnostics incorporating common cause failures and process demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Siamak; Sriramula, Srinivas

    2017-11-01

    Redundant safety systems are commonly used in the process industry to respond to hazardous events. In redundant systems composed of identical units, Common Cause Failures (CCFs) can significantly influence system performance with regards to reliability and safety. However, their impact has been overlooked due to the inherent complexity of modelling common cause induced failures. This article develops a reliability model for a redundant safety system using Markov analysis approach. The proposed model incorporates process demands in conjunction with CCF for the first time and evaluates their impacts on the reliability quantification of safety systems without automatic diagnostics. The reliability of the Markov model is quantified by considering the Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD) as a measure for low demand systems. The safety performance of the model is analysed using Hazardous Event Frequency (HEF) to evaluate the frequency of entering a hazardous state that will lead to an accident if the situation is not controlled. The utilisation of Markov model for a simple case study of a pressure protection system is demonstrated and it is shown that the proposed approach gives a sufficiently accurate result for all demand rates, durations, component failure rates and corresponding repair rates for low demand mode of operation. The Markov model proposed in this paper assumes the absence of automatic diagnostics, along with multiple stage repair strategy for CCFs and restoration of the system from hazardous state to the "as good as new" state. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. APPLICATION OF IMAGING METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSTICS OF MALIGNANT NECK LYMPH NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Petrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of malignant lymph nodes in the neck is a prognostic factor in planocellular carcinomas of the head and neck which are the most common primary tumors of this region. Determination of neck lymph nodes involvement is necessary for deciding on surgical treatment and planning chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Metastases in the neck lymph nodes reduce patient survival to a half. Localization of metastatic lymph nodes, their number and size are also very important factors which correlate with distant metastases. Besides clinical examination which includes inspection and palpation of the neck, the diagnostics of metastatic neck lymph nodes also uses imaging techniques: ultrasound (US, computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Precision and reliability of these methods depends on the application of adequate radiological criteria in the diagnostics of malignant lymph nodes of the neck.

  1. Optimum image compression rate maintaining diagnostic image quality of digital intraoral radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ju Seop; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The aims of the present study are to determine the optimum compression rate in terms of file size reduction and diagnostic quality of the images after compression and evaluate the transmission speed of original or each compressed images. The material consisted of 24 extracted human premolars and molars. The occlusal surfaces and proximal surfaces of the teeth had a clinical disease spectrum that ranged from sound to varying degrees of fissure discoloration and cavitation. The images from Digora system were exported in TIFF and the images from conventional intraoral film were scanned and digitalized in TIFF by Nikon SF-200 scanner(Nikon, Japan). And six compression factors were chosen and applied on the basis of the results from a pilot study. The total number of images to be assessed were 336. Three radiologists assessed the occlusal and proximal surfaces of the teeth with 5-rank scale. Finally diagnosed as either sound or carious lesion by one expert oral pathologist. And sensitivity and specificity and kappa value for diagnostic agreement was calculated. Also the area (Az) values under the ROC curve were calculated and paired t-test and oneway ANOVA test was performed. Thereafter, transmission time of the image files of the each compression level were compared with that of the original image files. No significant difference was found between original and the corresponding images up to 7% (1:14) compression ratio for both the occlusal and proximal caries (p<0.05). JPEG3 (1:14) image files are transmitted fast more than 10 times, maintained diagnostic information in image, compared with original image files. 1:14 compressed image file may be used instead of the original image and reduce storage needs and transmission time.

  2. Development of diagnostic algorithms for image analysis of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yova, Dido M.; Delibasis, Athanasios K.; Papaodysseus, Constantinos N.; Koukoutsis, Elias; Vasilopoulos, Periklis

    1997-05-01

    The crucial step in the diagnostic treatment of skin cancer is the initial examination and detection of any unusual change of a skin lesion. Digital imaging permits the documentation of the size, shape and color of lesions and their later comparison, so the last years its key role as an adjunct to early malignant melanoma diagnosis has arisen. In this work, a novel approach to diagnosis is presented by developing a digital imaging system for capturing and processing the images of individual lesions. It was used a 12 bit CCD camera, connected with a Pentium PC equipped with a Matrox frame grabber and convenient software. Images were collected using a zoom close up lens and a light source, attached to the front of the CCD camera. The format of the images was 640 X 480 pixels with 8 bit color table. The border of the lesion was found using a region growing based algorithm combined with the Gradient Operator. It was calculated the border irregularity and the asymmetry of the lesion, using the compactness formula. There was developed algorithms based on thresholding and region growing to determine the borders of the lesion. Compactness has been calculated as well. The pre-prototype system has been placed at the National Cancer Hospital to support melanoma diagnosis.

  3. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for Alzheimer's disease using magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya; Soma, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accompanied with brain atrophy. Structural measurements of brain atrophy in specific brain structures such as hippocampus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported to detect the development of dementia early in the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for AD using MRI, which is based on the automatic volumetry of segmented brain images and generation of three-dimensional cortical thickness images using the Eulerian partial differential equation (PDE) approach. We investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength and statistical noise on the accuracy of our automatic volumetry and the PDE approach using the simulated MR images generated from BrainWeb. Our automatic volumetry and PDE approach were robust against inhomogeneous magnetic field strength. Although the accuracy of our automatic volumetry decreased with increasing statistical noise, it was mai...

  4. Meeting the Needs for Radiation Protection: Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Donald P

    2017-02-01

    Radiation and potential risk during medical imaging is one of the foremost issues for the imaging community. Because of this, there are growing demands for accountability, including appropriate use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. Factors contributing to this include increasing use of medical imaging; increased scrutiny (from awareness to alarm) by patients/caregivers and the public over radiation risk; and mounting calls for accountability from regulatory, accrediting, healthcare coverage (e.g., Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), and advisory agencies and organizations as well as industry (e.g., NEMA XR-29, Standard Attributes on CT Equipment Related to Dose Optimization and Management). Current challenges include debates over uncertainty with risks with low-level radiation; lack of fully developed and targeted products for diagnostic imaging and radiation dose monitoring; lack of resources for and clarity surrounding dose monitoring programs; inconsistencies across and between practices for design, implementation and audit of dose monitoring programs; lack of interdisciplinary programs for radiation protection of patients; potential shortages in personnel for these and other consensus efforts; and training concerns as well as inconsistencies for competencies throughout medical providers' careers for radiation protection of patients. Medical care providers are currently in a purgatory between quality- and value-based imaging paradigms, a state that has yet to mature to reward this move to quality-based performance. There are also deficits in radiation expertise personnel in medicine. For example, health physics academic programs and graduates have recently declined, and medical physics residency openings are currently at a third of the number of graduates. However, leveraging solutions to the medical needs will require money and resources, beyond personnel alone. Energy and capital will need to be directed to

  5. Diagnostic imaging of aortic diseases; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Aortenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A. [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kodolitsch, Y. von [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this overview is the comparison between noninvasive tomographic imaging modalities such as surface echochardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with the previous gold standard angiography in the setting of acute and chronic aortic diseases. Methods: The groundwork for the comparison between various noninvasive modalities is the validation of findings with angiography or intraoperative and histopathological results. Results and conclusions: Nonivasive modalities such as transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are suitable methods for reliable diagnosis or exclusion of aortic dissection both in the ascending and descending segment of the thoracic aorta. Ohter more rare pathologies of the aorta such as intramural hemorrhage as a precursor of dissection, aortic ulcers, aneurysms as well as congenital and posttraumatic lesions may also be subjected to transesophageal echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging with excellent sensitivity and specificity; both techniques have also proven to be safe procedures in critically ill patients and have, in our view, replaced angiography for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Thus, in acute aortic diseases invasive angiographic procedures should be relegated to a complementary role, while transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography (especially helical CT) in acute, and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic cases represent prefered diagnostic options. In addition to primary diagnostics the noninvasive approaches using transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are superbly suitable for serial follow-up imaging in all forms of aortic pathology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Ziel der Uebersicht ist der Vergleich nichtinvasiver diagnostischer Schnittbildverfahren wie Echokardiographie, transoesophageale Echokardiographie, Computertomographie und

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard; Haase, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Paramagnetic contrast agents have been used for a long time, but more recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been discovered to influence MRI contrast as well. In contrast to paramagnetic contrast agents, SPIOs can be functionalized and size-tailored in order to adapt to various kinds of soft tissues. Although both types of contrast agents have a inducible magnetization, their mechanisms of influence on spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation of protons are different. A special emphasis on the basic magnetism of nanoparticles and their structures as well as on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance is made. Examples of different contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images are given. The potential use of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic tracers is explored. Additionally, SPIOs can be used in diagnostic magnetic resonance, since the spin relaxation time of water protons differs, whether magnetic nanoparticles are bound to a target or not.

  7. Diagnostic errors in interpretation of pediatric musculoskeletal radiographs at common injury sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisset, George S.; Crowe, James [Texas Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Extremity pain represents one of the most common reasons for obtaining conventional radiographs in childhood. Despite the frequency of these examinations little is known about the incidence of diagnostic errors by interpreting pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this study was to develop a standard error rate of pediatric radiologists by double-reading of extremity radiographs (elbow, wrists, knees and ankles) in children presenting with a history of trauma or pain. During a 6-month period all major extremity radiographs (excluding digits) obtained at a large pediatric referral hospital for evaluation of pain or trauma were reviewed by two senior pediatric radiologists and compared to the official interpretation. All radiographs were interpreted initially by a board-certified pediatric radiologist with a Certificate of Added Qualification (CAQ). We reviewed 3,865 radiographic series in children and young adults 2-20 years of age. We tabulated misses and overcalls. We did not assess the clinical significance of the errors. There were 61 miss errors and 44 overcalls in 1,235 abnormal cases and 2,630 normal cases, for a 1.6% miss rate and a 1.1% overcall rate. Misses and overcalls were most common in the ankle. Interpretive errors by pediatric radiologists reviewing certain musculoskeletal radiographs are relatively infrequent. Diagnostic errors in the form of a miss or overcall occurred in 2.7% of the radiographs. (orig.)

  8. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  9. An investigation of infection control for x-ray cassettes in a diagnostic imaging department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matthew [School of Allied Health Professions and Science, Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Rope Walk, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP4 1LT (United Kingdom); Harvey, Jane M. [School of Allied Health Professions and Science, Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Rope Walk, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP4 1LT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.harvey@ucs.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    Introduction: This research was conducted to investigate if X-ray cassettes could be a possible source of pathogens capable of causing nosocomial infections, and if they could be a possible vector for cross infection within the hospital environment. Method: The research involved the swabbing of X-ray cassettes in a Diagnostic Imaging Department of a large hospital in the east of England. Two areas of the Diagnostic Imaging Department were included in the study. Research concentrated on X-ray cassettes used for mobile radiography, accident and emergency and inpatient use. Forty cassettes were swabbed in total specifically for general levels of bacterial contamination, also for the presence or absence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A mapping exercise was completed following the location of an X-ray cassette typically used in mobile radiography. The exercise noted the level of direct contact with patient's skin and other possible routes of infection. Results: The results demonstrated that there were large levels of growth of samples taken from cassettes and developed in the Microbiology Department. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Micrococci, Diptheroids and species of Bacillus were all identified. The mapping exercise in which the journey of a 35/43 cm cassette used for mobile radiography was tracked found that contact with patient's skin and potential pathogens or routes of cross infection was a common occurrence whilst undertaking mobile radiography. Conclusion: The research has identified the presence of bacterial contamination on cassettes. The research established that X-ray cassettes/imaging plates are often exposed to pathogens and possible routes of cross infection; also that patient's skin often comes directly in contact with the X-ray cassette/imaging plate. The research also shows that as cassettes/imaging plates are a potential source of cross infection, the Diagnostic Imaging Department may be partly responsible

  10. Targeted diagnostic magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, I; Strauss, A; Dobiasch, S; Weis, C; Szanyi, S; Gil-Iceta, L; Alonso, E; González Esparza, M; Gómez-Vallejo, V; Szczupak, B; Plaza-García, S; Mirzaei, S; Israel, L L; Bianchessi, S; Scanziani, E; Lellouche, J-P; Knoll, P; Werner, J; Felix, K; Grenacher, L; Reese, T; Kreuter, J; Jiménez-González, M

    2015-09-28

    Highly aggressive cancer types such as pancreatic cancer possess a mortality rate of up to 80% within the first 6months after diagnosis. To reduce this high mortality rate, more sensitive diagnostic tools allowing an early stage medical imaging of even very small tumours are needed. For this purpose, magnetic, biodegradable nanoparticles prepared using recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) and incorporated iron oxide (maghemite, γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were developed. Galectin-1 has been chosen as target receptor as this protein is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions but not in healthy pancreatic tissue nor in pancreatitis. Tissue plasminogen activator derived peptides (t-PA-ligands), that have a high affinity to galectin-1 have been chosen as target moieties and were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface. Improved targeting and imaging properties were shown in mice using single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT), a handheld gamma camera, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing Leg length Discrepancy Using a Biplane Low Dose Imaging System. A Comparative Diagnostic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo Redder; Torfing, Trine

    study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of leg length (LL) measurements performed on low dose pre-view images acquired using a new bi-planar imaging system. The administered radiation dose from the pre-view image is approximately 20,17μGycm2 vs. 2670μGycm2 when acquiring the diagnostic image....... Materials and Methods. Pre-view and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (44 images) and included in the study. All images were anonymized and interpreted independently by two senior musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on both the pre......-view- and the diagnostic images, the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Variance within and between the two raters was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and comparisons between LL measurements in the pre-view and the diagnostic...

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Imaging in Detecting Biliary Strictures After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Divyanshoo R; Vachhani, Ravi; Shah, Tilak U; BouHaidar, Doumit S; Siddiqui, M Shadab

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is often required to diagnose post-liver transplant (LT) biliary strictures. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive laboratory and imaging tests in detecting post-LT biliary strictures. Adult LT recipients who underwent ERCP between 2008 and 2015 were evaluated. Biliary strictures were diagnosed after blinded review of cholangiograms by three interventional endoscopists. The accuracy of liver enzymes, ultrasound, and MRI was determined using cholangiography as the reference standard. To evaluate the accuracy of change in liver enzymes, the difference between baseline and liver enzymes prior to ERCP (Δlab) was utilized. Biliary strictures were present on cholangiogram in 48 (58%) of 82 LT recipients meeting inclusion criteria. Baseline liver enzyme values did not differ significantly between patients with and without strictures. The optimal cutoffs for ΔALT, ΔAST, Δbilirubin, and Δalkaline phosphatase (AP) were determined to be 174 IU/L, 75 IU/L, 3.1 mg/dL, and 225 IU/L, respectively. ΔALT had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 43%, and negative predictive value 100%. ΔAP had the highest specificity (53%) but modest sensitivity (69%) with a positive predictive value of 67%. Ultrasound had sensitivity of 29% and specificity of 69%, while MRI had sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 56%. The diagnostic accuracy of liver enzymes and imaging modalities is modest in detecting post-LT biliary strictures and cannot be used solely to identify patients needing further workup.

  13. Hemicrania Continua: Functional Imaging and Clinical Features With Diagnostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Kristen

    2013-04-10

    This review focuses on summarizing 2 pivotal articles in the clinical and pathophysiologic understanding of hemicrania continua (HC). The first article, a functional imaging project, identifies both the dorsal rostral pons (a region associated with the generation of migraines) and the posterior hypothalamus (a region associated with the generation of cluster and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing [SUNCT]) as active during HC. The second article is a summary of the clinical features seen in a prospective cohort of HC patients that carry significant diagnostic implications. In particular, they identify a wider range of autonomic signs than what is currently included in the International Headache Society criteria (including an absence of autonomic signs in a small percentage of patients), a high frequency of migrainous features, and the presence of aggravation and/or restlessness during attacks. Wide variations in exacerbation length, frequency, pain description, and pain location (including side-switching pain) are also noted. Thus, a case is made for widening and modifying the clinical diagnostic criteria used to identify patients with HC. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  14. Phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, Lukas-Georg; Grulke, Olaf [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic allows for non-invasive measurements of density fluctuations in high temperature plasmas. Since the index of refraction in a plasma is a function of the electron density, an incoming laser beam experiences a phase shift, which can be converted to intensity variations via interference after passing a phase plate. Generally speaking, the signal contains only the line-integrated information along the beam path. This limitation can be circumvented by using the fact that the density fluctuations form filamentary structures that are well aligned with the local magnetic field. If the magnetic field direction significantly varies along the beam path, optical filtering allows for localization of the density fluctuations. In order to identify the best diagnostic position regarding localization performance three figures of merit are introduced. They allow for quantitative comparison of different lines of sight and different magnetic field configurations. The results of the optimization process and a comparison with other fusion experiments are shown in this contribution.

  15. Targeting SR-BI for cancer diagnostics, imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Amrita Rajora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumours and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents.

  16. Diagnostic performance on briefly presented digital pathology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Houghton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying new and more robust assessments of proficiency/expertise (finding new "biomarkers of expertise" in histopathology is desirable for many reasons. Advances in digital pathology permit new and innovative tests such as flash viewing tests and eye tracking and slide navigation analyses that would not be possible with a traditional microscope. The main purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of time-restricted testing of expertise in histopathology using digital images. Methods: 19 novices (undergraduate medical students, 18 intermediates (trainees, and 19 experts (consultants were invited to give their opinion on 20 general histopathology cases after 1 s and 10 s viewing times. Differences in performance between groups were measured and the internal reliability of the test was calculated. Results: There were highly significant differences in performance between the groups using the Fisher′s least significant difference method for multiple comparisons. Differences between groups were consistently greater in the 10-s than the 1-s test. The Kuder-Richardson 20 internal reliability coefficients were very high for both tests: 0.905 for the 1-s test and 0.926 for the 10-s test. Consultants had levels of diagnostic accuracy of 72% at 1 s and 83% at 10 s. Conclusions: Time-restricted tests using digital images have the potential to be extremely reliable tests of diagnostic proficiency in histopathology. A 10-s viewing test may be more reliable than a 1-s test. Over-reliance on "at a glance" diagnoses in histopathology is a potential source of medical error due to over-confidence bias and premature closure.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, B. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, CC6, Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [German] In der Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung ist die Bildgebung ein wesentlicher Faktor. Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens ('battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI) als auch im ZNS ('shaken baby syndrome'). Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet. Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Bei schwerer Misshandlung ohne aeussere Verletzungszeichen ist das rechtzeitige Erfassen einer ZNS

  18. [Transparency regime: semiotics of radiographical images in urological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2012-10-01

    Shortly after Röntgen discovered x-rays urology became one of the main test fields for the application of this new technology. Initial scepticism among physicians, who were inclined to cling to traditional manual methods of diagnosing, was replaced by enthusiasm for radiographic technologies and the new method soon became the standard in, for example the diagnosis of concrements. Patients favoring radiographic procedures over the use of probes and a convincing documentation of stones in radiograms were factors that impacted the relatively rapid integration of radiology into urology. The radiographic representation of soft tissues and body cavities was more difficult and the development of contrast agents in particular posed a serious problem. Several patients died during this research. A new diagnostic dimension was revealed when radiography and cystography were combined to form the method of retrograde pyelography. However, the problem of how urologists could learn how to read the new images remained. In order to allow trainee physicians to practice interpreting radiograms atlases were produced which offered explanatory texts and drawings for radiographic images of the kidneys, the bladder etc. Thus, urologists developed a self-contained semiotics which facilitated the appropriation of a unique urological radiographical gaze.

  19. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of viral encephalitis; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Virusenzephalitiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D. [Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Felber, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Innsbruck (Austria). Klinische Abt. der Radiologie I; Jaenisch, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuropathologie; Schaper, J. [Klinikum der Univ. Essen (Germany). Zentralinst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2000-11-01

    The diagnostic procedure in viral encephalitis is based on the synopsis of clinical signs and symptoms, serological data, CSF analysis and diagnostic imaging findings. This article summarizes the findings of those viral encephalitides most frequently encountered in Western Europe. MRI is more sensitive than CT for the detection of inflammatory brain lesions due to the higher contrast resolution. The pattern of parenchymal damage is highly specific in only some viral encephalitides (e.g., the frequently hemorrhagic lesions of structures of the limbic system in herpes simples virus type I encephalitis; the symmetric and confluent lesions of the frontal white matter of progressive diffuse leukoencephalopathy in AIDS). In the majority of viral encephalitides MRI demonstrates the location and extension of parenchymal damage. The specific diagnosis in terms of the causative agent is based on serological studies. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnostik viraler Enzephalitiden basiert auf der synoptischen Auswertung klinischer, serologischer, liquoranalytischer und bildgebend erhobener Befunde. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die entsprechenden Befunde der haeufigsten in Westeuropa viral verursachten Enzephalitiden dargestellt. Generell ist bei entzuendlichen Laesionen des Hirnparenchyms die Kernspintomographie (MRT) aufgrund ihrer hohen Weichteilkontrastaufloesung der Computertomographie (CT) hinsichtlich der Nachweissensitivitaet ueberlegen. Bei einigen viralen Enzephalitiden ist das kernspintomographisch erfassbare Schaedigungsmuster hochspezifisch. Die gilt z.B. fuer die haeufig haemorrhagischen Laesionen der Strukturen des limbischen Systems bei der Herpes-simplex-Virus-Typ-1-Enzephalitis und fuer die flaechenhaft symmetrischen Marklagerlaesionen bei der progressiven diffusen Leukenzephalopathie bei AIDS-Patienten. Bei der Mehrzahl der viralen Enzephalitiden weist die MRT zwar die Lokalisation und Ausdehnung der Parenchymschaedigung nach, erlaubt jedoch keine sichere

  1. Optimizing Patient-centered Communication and Multidisciplinary Care Coordination in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Merck, Lisa H; Froemming, Adam T; Vaughan, William; Brown, Michael D; Hess, Erik P; Applegate, Kimberly E; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging relies on efficient communication and multispecialty care coordination to ensure optimal imaging utilization. The construct of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination cycle with three main phases (pretest, test, and posttest) provides a useful framework to evaluate care coordination in patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. This article summarizes findings reached during the patient-centered outcomes session of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The primary objective was to develop a research agenda focused on 1) defining component parts of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination process, 2) identifying gaps in communication that affect emergency diagnostic imaging, and 3) defining optimal methods of communication and multidisciplinary care coordination that ensure patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. Prioritized research questions provided the framework to define a research agenda for multidisciplinary care coordination in emergency diagnostic imaging. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Optimization of diagnostic imaging use in patients with acute abdominal pain (OPTIMA): Design and rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laméris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The acute abdomen is a frequent entity at the Emergency Department (ED), which usually needs rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. Diagnostic work-up with imaging can consist of plain X-ray, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and even diagnostic laparoscopy.

  3. Variable morphology of the axis vertebrae in 100 specimens: implications for clinical palpation and diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Hong, Fan; Li-Ping, Wu; Yi-Kai, Li; Bo-Jin, Liang; Das, Manas; Xiao-Yong, Fu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and measure the variable morphologies of axis vertebrae and explore the clinical significance of variations as it may pertain to clinical palpation and diagnostic imaging. The common variable morphologies in 100 specimens of intact dry adult axis vertebrae (Chinese) were investigated and measured. The frequencies in deviation of odontoid processes, deviation of spinous processes, and presence of bifid spinous processes were observed. The distances between the apices of transverse processes and inferior articular facets were also measured. Variable morphologies of C2 that we observed were deviation of odontoid processes (14 cases, 14.0%), deviation of spinous processes (3 cases, 3.0%), and bifid spinous processes (95 cases, 95.0%). Of the bifid spinous processes, 56 had a process on the left side equal to the right side, 21 were longer on the left, and 18 were longer on the right. The distances between apices of transverse processes and inferior articular facets in the left side of C2 were 17.67 +/- 2.47 mm, and that of the right side were 17.81 +/- 2.55 mm. Because variable morphology of the axis is common, congenital deviation of the odontoid process, deviation of the spinous process, and asymmetrical bifid spinous processes should be taken into account during clinical palpation and diagnostic imaging. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of diagnostic imaging for identifying abnormal gas accumulations in cetaceans and pinnipeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eDennison

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness (DCS due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be incidental and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination and histology results.

  5. High-sensitivity hyperspectral imager for biomedical video diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Raimund; Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin

    2010-04-01

    Video endoscopy allows physicians to visually inspect inner regions of the human body using a camera and only minimal invasive optical instruments. It has become an every-day routine in clinics all over the world. Recently a technological shift was done to increase the resolution from PAL/NTSC to HDTV. But, despite a vast literature on invivo and in-vitro experiments with multi-spectral point and imaging instruments that suggest that a wealth of information for diagnostic overlays is available in the visible spectrum, the technological evolution from colour to hyper-spectral video endoscopy is overdue. There were two approaches (NBI, OBI) that tried to increase the contrast for a better visualisation by using more than three wavelengths. But controversial discussions about the real benefit of a contrast enhancement alone, motivated a more comprehensive approach using the entire spectrum and pattern recognition algorithms. Up to now the hyper-spectral equipment was too slow to acquire a multi-spectral image stack at reasonable video rates rendering video endoscopy applications impossible. Recently, the availability of fast and versatile tunable filters with switching times below 50 microseconds made an instrumentation for hyper-spectral video endoscopes feasible. This paper describes a demonstrator for hyper-spectral video endoscopy and the results of clinical measurements using this demonstrator for measurements after otolaryngoscopic investigations and thorax surgeries. The application investigated here is the detection of dysplastic tissue, although hyper-spectral video endoscopy is of course not limited to cancer detection. Other applications are the detection of dysplastic tissue or polyps in the colon or the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. BRAF V600E mutations are common in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Dias-Santagata

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA is low-grade glial neoplasm principally affecting children and young adults. Approximately 40% of PXA are reported to recur within 10 years of primary resection. Upon recurrence, patients receive radiation therapy and conventional chemotherapeutics designed for high-grade gliomas. Genetic changes that can be targeted by selective therapeutics have not been extensively evaluated in PXA and ancillary diagnostic tests to help discriminate PXA from other pleomorphic and often more aggressive astrocytic malignancies are limited. In this study, we apply the SNaPshot multiplexed targeted sequencing platform in the analysis of brain tumors to interrogate 60 genetic loci that are frequently mutated in 15 cancer genes. In our analysis we detect BRAF V600E mutations in 12 of 20 (60% WHO grade II PXA, in 1 of 6 (17% PXA with anaplasia and in 1 glioblastoma arising in a PXA. Phospho-ERK was detected in all tumors independent of the BRAF mutation status. BRAF duplication was not detected in any of the PXA cases. BRAF V600E mutations were identified in only 2 of 71 (2.8% glioblastoma (GBM analyzed, including 1 of 9 (11.1% giant cell GBM (gcGBM. The finding that BRAF V600E mutations are common in the majority of PXA has important therapeutic implications and may help in differentiating less aggressive PXAs from lethal gcGBMs and GBMs.

  7. A common new species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest with a diagnostic PDAB reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Matheny, P. B.

    2012-09-06

    A species of Inocybe common in Washington, Oregon and British Columbia is documented and described as new. The species, I. chondroderma, is characterized by these features: pileus with a fulvous disk and ochraceous to chamois margin, presence of a cortina, densely mycelioid stipe base, smooth spores and fall phenology. The most reliable and distinctive feature of the species is a blue-green or turquoise reaction in response to application of a solution of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDAB), indicating the presence of what is most likely an indole alkaloid. PDAB use provides a quick and diagnostic character easily implemented in a laboratory setting. ITS sequences from recent collections of I. chondroderma and from materials collected in the 1940s in Washington and Oregon fully match numerous mislabeled sequences from specimens in British Columbia and Oregon. The species is most closely related to an unclarified taxon from Colorado and Japan (I. cf. chondroderma) and a rare European species, I. subnudipes. Nine different species names in Inocybe and one in Hebeloma attributed to I. chondroderma based on GenBank BLASTN searches of the ITS locus match with 99–100% similarity, reinforcing concerns about taxonomic inaccuracies in public DNA sequence databases. A complete morphological description, illustrations and phylogenetic assessment are provided.

  8. X-ray imaging spectroscopic diagnostics on Nike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Electron temperature and density diagnostics of the laser plasma produced within the focal spot of the NRL's Nike laser are being explored with the help of X-ray imaging spectroscopy. Spectra of He-like and H-like ions were taken by Nike focusing spectrometers in a range of lower (1.8 kev, Si XIV) and higher (6.7 kev, Fe XXV) x-ray energies. Data that were obtained with spatial resolution were translated into the temperature and density as functions of distance from the target. As an example electron density was determined from He-like satellites to Ly-alpha in Si XIV. The dielectronic satellites with intensity ratios that are sensitive to collisional transfer of population between different triplet groups of double-excited states 2l2l' in Si XIII were observed with high spatial and spectral resolution Lineouts taken at different axial distances from the planar Si target show changing spectral shapes due to the different electron densities as determined by supporting non-LTE simulations. These shapes are relatively insensitive to the plasma temperature which was measured using different spectral lines. This work was supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  9. [Diagnostic imaging in dementia: use of imaging modalities in Dutch memory clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeniers, Mayke; Wattjes, Mike P; Meulen, Etienne F J; Barkhof, Frederik; Bakker, Jeannette

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the use of MRI and CT in the diagnostic work-up of dementia in Dutch memory clinics, and to analyse the rationale for choosing each modality. A digital survey was sent by e-mail to all medical specialists (n=235) working at a memory clinic in the Netherlands. The survey was completed by 64% (151). 85% of the respondents were geriatricians, 13% neurologists and 2% other, working at a total of 69 clinics. 40% variably orders CT or MRI, 37% orders MRI, 19% CT, and 4% CT plus MRI. Primary factors influencing this choice are: MRI contraindications, physical limitations, age, vascular or oncological medical history, and waiting time. With CT, 87% indicates information is lacking: vascular disease/white matter lesions, (hippocampal) atrophy, and specific pathologies (metastases, amyloid angiopathy). Furthermore, respondents prefer MRI because they can assess the images more easily themselves. Only 50% of respondents indicate that CT protocol dictates coronal reconstructions. Additionally, these reconstructions are not provided consistently. Rating-scales are used to describe images in 5%. In 75% assessment is not uniform. MRI is preferred over CT in diagnostic imaging of dementia, in accordance with existing guidelines. However, these guidelines are mostly out-dated and modern multislice CT potential is relatively unknown among geriatricians. In memory clinics, multislice CT could offer a well suitable imaging alternative, but only if multiplanar reconstructions are performed consistently. Furthermore, radiology reports need to be improved by using more standardized assessment.

  10. Non-linear multimodal imaging for disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocklitz, Thomas; Schmitt, Michael; Lukić, Aleksandar; Heuke, Sandro; Chernavskaia, Olga; Meyer, Tobias; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Molecular imaging modalities, like multimodal imaging, e.g. the combination of coherent-anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF), feature a unique potential for disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. In order to use the full potential of multi-modal imaging for diagnostic tasks powerful image analysis methods are necessary, which translate the physical measurements into medical meaningful information. This translation process requires standardization, correction procedures and statistical models like regression or classification models. With the help of these techniques medical relevant information can be extracted and used for the diagnostics of cancer or inflammation related diseases.

  11. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Joanna T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P P = 0.01. CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P Conclusion This systematic review has identified 23 studies investigating the diagnostic imaging appearance of the plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP. Analysis of these studies found that people with CPHP are likely to have a thickened plantar fascia with associated fluid collection, and that

  12. Valve Calcification in Aortic Stenosis: Etiology and Diagnostic Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Izquierdo-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis is the most common valvulopathy in the Western world. Its prevalence has increased significantly in recent years due to population aging; hence, up to 8% of westerners above the age of 84 now have severe aortic stenosis (Lindroos et al., 1993. This causes increased morbidity and mortality and therein lies the importance of adequate diagnosis and stratification of the degree of severity which allows planning the best therapeutic option in each case. Long understood as a passive age-related degenerative process, it is now considered a rather more complex entity involving mechanisms and factors similar to those of atherosclerosis (Stewart et al., 1997. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease and analyze the current role of cardiac imaging techniques for diagnosis.

  13. NMR imaging of the liver. Diagnostics, differential diagnostics, therapeutic approaches; MRT der Leber. Diagnostik, Differenzialdiagnostik, Therapieansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbach, Frank; Fischbach, Katharina [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2017-03-01

    The book on NMR imaging of the liver covers the following issues: Fundamentals of NMR imaging, T1-weighted imaging; T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, cavernous hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasy; hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellulas carcinoma, cholangiocellular carcinoma, hepatic metastases.

  14. From 'Image Gently' to image intelligently: a personalized perspective on diagnostic radiation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerman, R Paul

    2014-10-01

    The risk of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging has been a popular topic in the radiology literature and lay press. Communicating the magnitude of risk to patients and caregivers is problematic because of the uncertainty in estimates derived principally from epidemiological studies of large populations, and alternative approaches are needed to provide a scientific basis for personalized risk estimates. The underlying patient disease and life expectancy greatly influence risk projections. Research into the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair challenges the linear no-threshold dose-response assumption and reveals that individuals vary in sensitivity to radiation. Studies of decision-making psychology show that individuals are highly susceptible to irrational biases when judging risks. Truly informed medical decision-making that respects patient autonomy requires appropriate framing of radiation risks in perspective with other risks and with the benefits of imaging. To follow the principles of personalized medicine and treat patients according to their specific phenotypic and personality profiles, diagnostic imaging should optimally be tailored not only to patient size, body region and clinical indication, but also to underlying disease conditions, radio-sensitivity and risk perception and preferences that vary among individuals.

  15. Medical image computing for computer-supported diagnostics and therapy. Advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handels, H; Ehrhardt, J

    2009-01-01

    Medical image computing has become one of the most challenging fields in medical informatics. In image-based diagnostics of the future software assistance will become more and more important, and image analysis systems integrating advanced image computing methods are needed to extract quantitative image parameters to characterize the state and changes of image structures of interest (e.g. tumors, organs, vessels, bones etc.) in a reproducible and objective way. Furthermore, in the field of software-assisted and navigated surgery medical image computing methods play a key role and have opened up new perspectives for patient treatment. However, further developments are needed to increase the grade of automation, accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, the systems developed have to be integrated into the clinical workflow. For the development of advanced image computing systems methods of different scientific fields have to be adapted and used in combination. The principal methodologies in medical image computing are the following: image segmentation, image registration, image analysis for quantification and computer assisted image interpretation, modeling and simulation as well as visualization and virtual reality. Especially, model-based image computing techniques open up new perspectives for prediction of organ changes and risk analysis of patients and will gain importance in diagnostic and therapy of the future. From a methodical point of view the authors identify the following future trends and perspectives in medical image computing: development of optimized application-specific systems and integration into the clinical workflow, enhanced computational models for image analysis and virtual reality training systems, integration of different image computing methods, further integration of multimodal image data and biosignals and advanced methods for 4D medical image computing. The development of image analysis systems for diagnostic support or

  16. MO-DE-207-04: Imaging educational program on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, R. [Texas Children’s Hospital: Pediatric MRI Quality, Artifacts, and Safety (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children’s hospitals. The educational program will begin with a detailed discussion of the optimal configuration of fluoroscopes for general pediatric procedures. Following this introduction will be a focused discussion on the utility of Dual Energy CT for imaging children. The third lecture will address the substantial challenge of obtaining consistent image post -processing in pediatric digital radiography. The fourth and final lecture will address best practices in pediatric MRI including a discussion of ancillary methods to reduce sedation and anesthesia rates. Learning Objectives: To learn techniques for optimizing radiation dose and image quality in pediatric fluoroscopy To become familiar with the unique challenges and applications of Dual Energy CT in pediatric imaging To learn solutions for consistent post-processing quality in pediatric digital radiography To understand the key components of an effective MRI safety and quality program for the pediatric practice.

  17. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  18. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Objective To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Results Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. Conclusion The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution. PMID:28298730

  19. Diagnostic errors in musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging and how to avoid them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Serafin-Król

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the major challenges related to the principles of the correct technique of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK US. All the crucial aspects of correct MSK soft tissue diagnosis have been discussed, including equipment settings, use of recent image software innovations and ultrasound standoff pads, and correct transducer positioning. The importance of the fundamental principles of MSK US, facilitating good quality image and limiting the occurrence of artifacts, has been highlighted. The most common artifacts of the musculoskeletal system have been described, including those that diagnostically helpful, such as the presence of echo enhancement deep to a fluidfilled structure, or an acoustic shadow behind a calcification. The presence of acoustic shadow in the context of lesions of a different type has also been discussed. The common anisotropy-related artifacts, frequently leading to diagnosis of a pathological condition where none is present, have been elaborated on. The frequently encountered mirror reflection artifact has been described. Special attention has been paid to the means of either eliminating, or taking advantage of artifacts for the correct diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. The possibilities and technique of correct differentiation of hypoechoic or anechoic foci, commonly found in the pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system, have been analysed. Non-typical ultrasound findings leading to misdiagnosis of given pathological conditions have been discussed.

  20. Optical diagnostics for plasma physics and accelerator science: commonalities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Optical diagnostics are widely used both for experiments of plasma physics and for measurements of parameters of electron/positron beams in accelerators. The approaches applied for these often have the same methodological basis explained by the similarity of the properties of the studied phenomena. Nevertheless, these branches of physics are very specific and require special diagnostics. The possibility of closed contacts and cooperation between scientists solving similar problems in different areas of physics helps to overcome these problems. It is especially typical for BINP SB RAS known by pioneering works on electron-positron colliders and nuclear fusion. This paper describes the diagnostics that are used in plasma physics experiments, especially for plasma heating by a high-current electron beam, and contains a comparison with optical diagnostics which are recognized tools in colliders and storage rings.

  1. Local versus global measures of accuracy: an important distinction for diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Dwyer, A J

    1990-01-01

    Unlike many tests, diagnostic imaging provides information about the location of disease, in addition to its presence or absence. To account for this ability of imaging, the authors make the distinction between local and global measures of accuracy. Local pertains to each anatomic site of potential disease in the patient and the corresponding image, while global refers to all such sites, collectively. After making this distinction, the authors demonstrate two major problems with global sensitivity and specificity, which are more commonly reported than their local counterparts. First, global sensitivity, unlike local sensitivities, varies with the anatomic distribution of disease in the reference population. Second, the conventional global measures cannot be integrated with pretest knowledge about the anatomic distribution of disease. Consequently, predictive values based on global sensitivity and specificity under-estimate the probability of disease when imaging and clinical findings correlate anatomically and overestimate the probability when the findings do not correlate. The local versus global distinction supports the commonsense notion that information pertaining to the anatomic distribution of disease is crucial for test interpretation.

  2. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  3. Advances in diagnostic imaging for pathologic conditions of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Byron W; Flint, Diane J; Liang, Hui; Opatowsky, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in dental and maxillofacial imaging are delineated along with the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality. The imaging modalities that are included are intraoral radiography, panoramic radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, and ultrasound.

  4. Optimization of diagnostic imaging use in patients with acute abdominal pain (OPTIMA: Design and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Patrick MM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acute abdomen is a frequent entity at the Emergency Department (ED, which usually needs rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. Diagnostic work-up with imaging can consist of plain X-ray, ultrasonography (US, computed tomography (CT and even diagnostic laparoscopy. However, no evidence-based guidelines exist in current literature. The actual diagnostic work-up of a patient with acute abdominal pain presenting to the ED varies greatly between hospitals and physicians. The OPTIMA study was designed to provide the evidence base for constructing an optimal diagnostic imaging guideline for patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED. Methods/design Thousand consecutive patients with abdominal pain > 2 hours and Discussion This study aims to provide the evidence base for the development of a diagnostic algorithm that can act as a guideline for ED physicians to evaluate patients with acute abdominal pain.

  5. Diagnostic sensitivity of radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Corey R; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-01-01

    Radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography are commonly used for diagnosis of shoulder osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans (OC/OCD) in dogs, however there is a lack of published information on the relative diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities for detecting shoulder OC/OCD in a group of dogs, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical findings consistent with osteochondrosis and/or osteochondritis dissecans involving at least one shoulder. With informed client consent, both shoulders for all included dogs were examined using standardized radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and arthroscopy protocols. One of three veterinary surgeons recorded clinical and arthroscopic findings without knowledge of diagnostic imaging findings. One of two veterinary radiologists recorded diagnostic imaging findings without knowledge of clinical and arthroscopic findings. Eighteen client-owned dogs (n = 36 shoulders) met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (correct classification rate) values for detecting presence or absence of shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans were as follows: radiography (88.5%, 90%, 88.9%), ultrasonography (92%, 60%, 82.6%), and MRI (96%, 88.9%, 94.4%). Odds of a correct diagnosis for MRI were 3.2 times more than ultrasonography and two times more than radiography. For MRI detection of lesions, the sagittal T2 or PD-FAT SAT sequences were considered to be most helpful. For radiographic detection of lesions, the additional supinated-mediolateral and pronated-mediolateral projections were considered to be most helpful. Findings from the current study support more evidence-based diagnostic imaging recommendations for dogs with clinically suspected shoulder osteochondrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. © 2014 American College of

  6. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    21

    affected by anisotropy, so ignoring anisotropy in migration may lead to obvious imaging errors (Larner and Cohen, 1993; Alkhalifah and Larner, 1994; Etgen et al.,. 2009). Migration imaging algorithms in the presence of anisotropy have been presented in a number of studies. Sena and Toksoz (1993) extended the isotropic.

  7. [How relevant are diagnostics and therapy in body image disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Bauer, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Body image-related interventions become increasingly important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Previous studies concerning body image disturbance conducted by means of diverse research methods focused on different components of body image - the perceptive, cognitive-emotional and the behavioral component. However, regarding the etiology, maintenance and treatment of body image disturbance in eating disorders, many questions remain unanswered. An integrative perspective on the different body image components within a theoretical framework as well as the development of specific body image-related interventions according to individual indications would be desirable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Diagnostic value of lymph node metastasis by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Qin He

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The ADC values in CC tissues with LN metastasis were significantly lower than those without LN metastasis, suggesting that DWI appears to improve diagnostic performance and can be a useful adjunct imaging for identifying LN metastasis in CC patients.

  9. Appropriate diagnostic imaging - Assessment of the quality of referrals from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kirstine Kousgaard; Torfing, Trine; Ulrichsen, Walther

    Background and aim Diagnostic imaging is the second most used paraclinical examination in Denmark and 15% of all referrals from general practice concerns radiology. The fast development in diagnostic imaging constitutes a challenge for general practitioners’ when determining the right type...... modality. Results Four regional radiological departments participated in the study. A total of 785 referrals were reviewed. Most reviews were conducted on x-ray referrals (35%). Diagnostic imaging was considered relevant or very relevant in 73.5% of the reviewed referrals, of which referrals to CT...... to diagnostic imaging were considered relevant from a radiologic perspective. However, there seems to be a potential for development regarding the exhaustiveness of information and modality relevance, particularly for referrals to MRI and ultrasound....

  10. Diagnostic Imaging of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Neonatal Foals: Radiography and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Joslyn, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and monitoring of lower respiratory disease in neonatal foals. Radiography is most widely available to equine practitioners and is the primary modality that has been used for the characterization of respiratory disease in foals. Computed tomography imaging, although still limited in availability to the general practitioner, offers advantages over radiography and has been used diagnostically in neonatal foals with respiratory disease. Recognition of appropriate imaging protocols and patient-associated artifacts is critical for accurate image interpretation regardless of the modality used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Common evidence gaps in point-of-care diagnostic test evaluation: a review of horizon scan reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Jan Y; Turner, Philip J; Thompson, Matthew J; Plüddemann, Annette; Price, Christopher P; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Since 2008, the Oxford Diagnostic Horizon Scan Programme has been identifying and summarising evidence on new and emerging diagnostic technologies relevant to primary care. We used these reports to determine the sequence and timing of evidence for new point-of-care diagnostic tests and to identify common evidence gaps in this process. Systematic overview of diagnostic horizon scan reports. We obtained the primary studies referenced in each horizon scan report (n=40) and extracted details of the study size, clinical setting and design characteristics. In particular, we assessed whether each study evaluated test accuracy, test impact or cost-effectiveness. The evidence for each point-of-care test was mapped against the Horvath framework for diagnostic test evaluation. We extracted data from 500 primary studies. Most diagnostic technologies underwent clinical performance (ie, ability to detect a clinical condition) assessment (71.2%), with very few progressing to comparative clinical effectiveness (10.0%) and a cost-effectiveness evaluation (8.6%), even in the more established and frequently reported clinical domains, such as cardiovascular disease. The median time to complete an evaluation cycle was 9 years (IQR 5.5-12.5 years). The sequence of evidence generation was typically haphazard and some diagnostic tests appear to be implemented in routine care without completing essential evaluation stages such as clinical effectiveness. Evidence generation for new point-of-care diagnostic tests is slow and tends to focus on accuracy, and overlooks other test attributes such as impact, implementation and cost-effectiveness. Evaluation of this dynamic cycle and feeding back data from clinical effectiveness to refine analytical and clinical performance are key to improve the efficiency of point-of-care diagnostic test development and impact on clinically relevant outcomes. While the 'road map' for the steps needed to generate evidence are reasonably well delineated, we

  12. A prospective study of shoulder pain in primary care: Prevalence of imaged pathology and response to guided diagnostic blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNair Peter J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of imaged pathology in primary care has received little attention and the relevance of identified pathology to symptoms remains unclear. This paper reports the prevalence of imaged pathology and the association between pathology and response to diagnostic blocks into the subacromial bursa (SAB, acromioclavicular joint (ACJ and glenohumeral joint (GHJ. Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain recruited from primary care underwent standardised x-ray, diagnostic ultrasound scan and diagnostic injections of local anaesthetic into the SAB and ACJ. Subjects who reported less than 80% reduction in pain following either of these injections were referred for a magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA and GHJ diagnostic block. Differences in proportions of positive and negative imaging findings in the anaesthetic response groups were assessed using Fishers test and odds ratios were calculated a for positive anaesthetic response (PAR to diagnostic blocks. Results In the 208 subjects recruited, the rotator cuff and SAB displayed the highest prevalence of pathology on both ultrasound (50% and 31% respectively and MRA (65% and 76% respectively. The prevalence of PAR following SAB injection was 34% and ACJ injection 14%. Of the 59% reporting a negative anaesthetic response (NAR for both of these injections, 16% demonstrated a PAR to GHJ injection. A full thickness tear of supraspinatus on ultrasound was associated with PAR to SAB injection (OR 5.02; p p p p ≤ 0.05. Conclusions Rotator cuff and SAB pathology were the most common findings on ultrasound and MRA. Evidence of a full thickness supraspinatus tear was associated with symptoms arising from the subacromial region, and a biceps tendon sheath effusion and an intact rotator cuff were associated with an intra-articular GHJ pain source. When combined with clinical information, these results may help guide diagnostic decision making in primary care.

  13. X-ray diagnostics of most common periodontal diseases in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Nikola; Lazarević-Macanović Mirjana; Mitrović Branislava; Mitrović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Dental diseases in dogs and cats are of increasing importance in veterinary practice. If not diagnosed and treated on time, they can significantly affect the quality of life and pet health as well. Roentgenography of orofacial system, as a part of veterinary dentistry, is an important diagnostic tool that provides insight into diseases and irregularities of the teeth, shows macrostructure of bone parts, and also may indicate the etiology and genesis of vari...

  14. Investigation into diagnostic accuracy of common strategies for automated perfusion motion correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkaroff, Constantine; Biglands, John D; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven; Boyle, Roger D; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Magee, Derek R

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory motion is a significant obstacle to the use of quantitative perfusion in clinical practice. Increasingly complex motion correction algorithms are being developed to correct for respiratory motion. However, the impact of these improvements on the final diagnosis of ischemic heart disease has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of four automated correction methods in terms of their impact on diagnostic accuracy. Three strategies for motion correction were used: (1) independent translation correction for all slices, (2) translation correction for the basal slice with transform propagation to the remaining two slices assuming identical motion in the remaining slices, and (3) rigid correction (translation and rotation) for the basal slice. There were no significant differences in diagnostic accuracy between the manual and automatic motion-corrected datasets ([Formula: see text]). The area under the curve values for manual motion correction and automatic motion correction were 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. All of the automated motion correction methods achieved a comparable diagnostic accuracy to manual correction. This suggests that the simplest automated motion correction method (method 2 with translation transform for basal location and transform propagation to the remaining slices) is a sufficiently complex motion correction method for use in quantitative myocardial perfusion.

  15. Accuracy, risk and the intrinsic value of diagnostic imaging: a review of the cost-utility literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Hansel J; Fang, Chi H; Sekar, Meera; Ward, Robert J; Neumann, Peter J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the reporting of the value of imaging unrelated to treatment consequences and test characteristics in all imaging-related published cost-utility analyses (CUAs) in the medical literature. All CUAs published between 1976 and 2008 evaluating diagnostic imaging technologies contained in the CEA Registry, a publicly available comprehensive database of health related CUAs, were screened. Publication characteristics, imaging modality, and the inclusion of test characteristics including accuracy, costs, risks, and the potential value unrelated to treatment consequences (eg, reassurance or anxiety) were assessed. Ninety-six published CUAs evaluating 155 different imaging technologies were included in the final sample; 27 studies were published in imaging-specialized journals. Fifty-two studies (54%) evaluated the performance of a single imaging modality, while 44 studies (46%) compared two or more different imaging modalities. The most common areas of interest were cardiovascular (45%) and neuroradiology (17%). Forty-two technologies (27%) concerned ultrasound, while 34 (22%) concerned magnetic resonance. Seventy-nine (51%) technologies used ionizing radiation. Test accuracy was reported or calculated for 90% (n = 133 and n = 5, respectively) and assumed perfect (reference test or gold-standard test without alternative testing strategy to capture false-negatives and false-positives) for 8% (n = 12) of technologies. Only 22 studies (23%) assessing 40 imaging technologies (26%) considered inconclusive or indeterminate results. The risk of testing was reported for 32 imaging technologies (21%). Fifteen studies (16%) considered the value of diagnostic imaging unrelated to treatment. Four studies incorporated it as quality-of-life adjustments, while 10 studies mentioned it only in their discussions or as a limitation. The intrinsic value of imaging (the value of imaging unrelated to treatment) has not been appropriately defined

  16. Wireless spectroscopic compact photonic explorer for diagnostic optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leming; Zhang, G; Luo, J C; Zeng, F; Wang, Q Z; Alfano, S A; Katz, A; Zevallos, M; Alfano, R R

    2005-06-01

    A remote, small-size spectroscopic-based device called Compact Photonics Explorer (CPE) was designed, assembled, and tested for medical and non-medical spectroscopic and imaging applications. Spatial images acquired using the spectroscopic CPE are presented. Operational principles are demonstrated for various biomedical and non-medical applications.

  17. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods for the assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer to properly reveal the clinical value. This paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging.

  18. Personal smartphones for neonatal diagnostic imaging: A prospective crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Margreta; Vasko, Theresia; Owen, Louise S; Bhatia, Risha; Lluch, Marta Thio; Donath, Susan; Davis, Peter G; Dawson, Jennifer A

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal clinicians may be asked to review X-ray images when unable to directly access the original image. Transmitting an X-ray image to a smartphone is a technique increasingly being used by clinicians in a number of settings. Minimal data exist on its use in the neonatal setting. Our aim was to compare the ability of neonatal clinicians to correctly diagnose a pneumothorax from a chest radiograph (CXR) viewed on a smartphone, paralleled with the same image viewed on a computer screen. We investigated the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predicative value of two methods of viewing CXR images to diagnose pneumothorax, compared with a gold standard radiologist report. Clinicians were presented with 40 CXR images on two occasions, at least 1 week apart. Images were viewed once on a smartphone and once on a computer screen. Both the viewing method and viewing order of the images were randomised. The clinical details of the infant at the time the CXR was taken were provided, and participants were asked if a pneumothorax was present. Twenty-one clinicians viewed all CXR images using both viewing methods (840 paired observations). There was no difference in accuracy of detecting pneumothorax between viewing methods, 81% correctly identified a pneumothorax using the smartphone, versus 80% using the computer screen (P = 0.40 (95% CI), difference -4 to 1.5%). Diagnosis of neonatal pneumothorax was as accurate using a smartphone as viewing CXR images displayed on a computer screen when clinicians were presented with X-rays with diagnosis of pneumothorax. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in children: common problems and possible solutions for lung and airways imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wielopolski, Piotr A. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Divisions, Boston, MA (United States); Morana, Giovanni [Ca' Foncello Regional Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Lequin, Maarten H. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    Pediatric chest MRI is challenging. High-resolution scans of the lungs and airways are compromised by long imaging times, low lung proton density and motion. Low signal is a problem of normal lung. Lung abnormalities commonly cause increased signal intensities. Among the most important factors for a successful MRI is patient cooperation, so the long acquisition times make patient preparation crucial. Children usually have problems with long breath-holds and with the concept of quiet breathing. Young children are even more challenging because of higher cardiac and respiratory rates giving motion blurring. For these reasons, CT has often been preferred over MRI for chest pediatric imaging. Despite its drawbacks, MRI also has advantages over CT, which justifies its further development and clinical use. The most important advantage is the absence of ionizing radiation, which allows frequent scanning for short- and long-term follow-up studies of chronic diseases. Moreover, MRI allows assessment of functional aspects of the chest, such as lung perfusion and ventilation, or airways and diaphragm mechanics. In this review, we describe the most common MRI acquisition techniques on the verge of clinical translation, their problems and the possible solutions to make chest MRI feasible in children. (orig.)

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis: contribution and limitations of diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malghem, Jacques; Lecouvet, Frédéric E; Omoumi, Patrick; Maldague, Baudouin E; Vande Berg, Bruno C

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, rapidly spreading, deep-seated infection causing thrombosis of the blood vessels located in the fascia. Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency. The diagnosis typically relies on clinical findings of severe sepsis and intense pain, although subacute forms may be difficult to recognize. Imaging studies can help to differentiate necrotizing fasciitis from infections located more superficially (dermohypodermitis). The presence of gas within the necrotized fasciae is characteristic but may be lacking. The main finding is thickening of the deep fasciae due to fluid accumulation and reactive hyperemia, which can be visualized using computed tomography and, above all, magnetic resonance imaging (high signal on contrast-enhanced T1 images and T2 images, best seen with fat saturation). These findings lack specificity, as they can be seen in non-necrotizing fasciitis and even in non-inflammatory conditions. Signs that support a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis include extensive involvement of the deep intermuscular fascias (high sensitivity but low specificity), thickening to more than 3mm, and partial or complete absence on post-gadolinium images of signal enhancement of the thickened fasciae (fairly high sensitivity and specificity). Ultrasonography is not recommended in adults, as the infiltration of the hypodermis blocks ultrasound transmission. Thus, imaging studies in patients with necrotizing fasciitis may be challenging to interpret. Although imaging may help to confirm deep tissue involvement and to evaluate lesion spread, it should never delay emergency surgical treatment in patients with established necrotizing fasciitis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic Features of Common Oral Ulcerative Lesions: An Updated Decision Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Mortazavi; Yaser Safi; Maryam Baharvand; Somayeh Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. This narrative review article aims to introduce an updated decision tree for diagnosing oral ulcerative lesions on the basis of their diagnostic features. Various general search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of MeSH keywords such as “oral ulcer,” “stomatitis,” and “mout...

  3. First Steps Toward Incorporating Image Based Diagnostics Into Particle Accelerator Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Edelen, J. P.

    2016-12-16

    At present, a variety of image-based diagnostics are used in particle accelerator systems. Often times, these are viewed by a human operator who then makes appropriate adjustments to the machine. Given recent advances in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image processing, it should be possible to use image diagnostics directly in control routines (NN-based or otherwise). This is especially appealing for non-intercepting diagnostics that could run continuously during beam operation. Here, we show results of a first step toward implementing such a controller: our trained CNN can predict multiple simulated downstream beam parameters at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility's low energy beamline using simulated virtual cathode laser images, gun phases, and solenoid strengths.

  4. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis...... are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...

  5. Observation of plasma shift in SST-1 using optical imaging diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Parmar, Chesta; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Kumar, Ajai

    2017-04-01

    A tangential viewing optical imaging system at SST-1 is used to observe the plasma shift both vertical and horizontal during experimental campaigns. The images from the plasma are transferred through optical imaging fiber and coupled to a CCD camera which operates at 31 frames/s. The data from the CCD camera is transferred through gigabit Ethernet cable to acquisition PC placed in diagnostics lab. The whole system is fully automated for operation and data acquisition of the imaging data. The complete imaging system will be explained in this presentation. With this optical imaging system, the shift in plasma position both in vertical and horizontal direction is observed. The plasma shape and diameter can also be estimated with this system. The estimated diameter during some of the plasma shots is ∼ 50 cm and shape is circular. The data from this diagnostics is very useful from the operation point of view of the machine.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities for internal derangements of temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Igarashi, Chinami; Yuasa, Masao; Imanaka, Masahiro; Kondoh, Toshirou [Tsurumi Univ., Yokohama (Japan). School of Dental Medicine

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and review the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of imaging diagnosis for temporomandibular disorders. The role of diagnostic imaging is to detect and document specific anatomic abnormalities associated with the signs and symptoms in the temporomandibular joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) can accurately depict disc displacement and disc deformity. MR imaging is our first choice among the various imaging modalities for the patients with clinical signs and symptoms. However, it has been shown that intra-capsular adhesions and perforations of the disc and retrodiscal tissue are sometimes not detected by MR imaging. To improve the diagnostic technique for adhesions and perforations, double-contrast arthrotomography with fluoroscopy should be employed. The irregular surface of the eminences and the glenoid fossae shown by MR imaging and tomography are correlated with subchondral bone exposure by arthroscopy. Erosion of the condyles detected by MR imaging, tomography and rotational panoramic radiography is correlated with subchondral bone exposure detected by arthroscopy. (author). 69 refs.

  7. Automatic volumetry on MR brain images can support diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckemann, Rolf A; Hammers, Alexander; Rueckert, Daniel; Aviv, Richard I; Harvey, Christopher J; Hajnal, Joseph V

    2008-05-23

    Diagnostic decisions in clinical imaging currently rely almost exclusively on visual image interpretation. This can lead to uncertainty, for example in dementia disease, where some of the changes resemble those of normal ageing. We hypothesized that extracting volumetric data from patients' MR brain images, relating them to reference data and presenting the results as a colour overlay on the grey scale data would aid diagnostic readers in classifying dementia disease versus normal ageing. A proof-of-concept forced-choice reader study was designed using MR brain images from 36 subjects. Images were segmented into 43 regions using an automatic atlas registration-based label propagation procedure. Seven subjects had clinically probable AD, the remaining 29 of a similar age range were used as controls. Seven of the control subject data sets were selected at random to be presented along with the seven AD datasets to two readers, who were blinded to all clinical and demographic information except age and gender. Readers were asked to review the grey scale MR images and to record their choice of diagnosis (AD or non-AD) along with their confidence in this decision. Afterwards, readers were given the option to switch on a false-colour overlay representing the relative size of the segmented structures. Colorization was based on the size rank of the test subject when compared with a reference group consisting of the 22 control subjects who were not used as review subjects. The readers were then asked to record whether and how the additional information had an impact on their diagnostic confidence. The size rank colour overlays were useful in 18 of 28 diagnoses, as determined by their impact on readers' diagnostic confidence. A not useful result was found in 6 of 28 cases. The impact of the additional information on diagnostic confidence was significant (p < 0.02). Volumetric anatomical information extracted from brain images using automatic segmentation and presented as

  8. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  9. Real-time image fusion involving diagnostic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Lucian G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our article is to give an overview of the current and future possibilities of real-time image fusion involving ultrasound. We present a review of the existing English-language peer-reviewed literature assessing this technique, which covers technical solutions (for ultrasound and endosc...

  10. Ba II 4554 Å speckle imaging as solar Doppler diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, P.; Rutten, R.J.; Skomorovsky, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    We present observations testing the Dopplergram capability of a narrow-band (80 mÅ) Lyot filter imaging the solar surface in the wings of the Ba II 4554 Å resonance line in combination with speckle reconstruction to obtain high angular resolution. The Ba II line is found to be an excellent tool

  11. X-ray optics for better diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, C A; Gibson, W M; Peppler, W W

    2002-04-01

    Polycapillary x-ray optics provide an innovative new way to control x-ray beams. Placing these optics after the object to be imaged provides very efficient rejection of Compton scatter, while allowing image magnification without loss of resolution, image demagnification, or image shaping to match with digital detectors. Measured scatter rejection optics had primary transmissions greater than 50% and scatter transmission of less than 1%. For a 5-cm thick Lucite phantom, this resulted in a contrast enhancement of nearly a factor of two at 20 keV and three at 40 keV. The magnification from the tapered capillary optics improved the MTF at all frequencies out to 1.8 times the original system resolution. Increases below the system resolution are most important because clinically relevant structures generally occupy lower spatial frequencies. Alternatively, placing a collimating optic and diffracting crystal before the patient provides sufficient monochromatic beam intensity for medical imaging. Contrast, resolution, and intensity measurements were performed with both high and low angular acceptance crystals. At 8 keV, contrast enhancement was a factor of 5 relative to the polychromatic case, in good agreement with theoretical values. At 17.5 keV, monochromatic subject contrast was more than a factor of 2 times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. An additional factor of two increase in contrast, for a total factor of four, is expected from the removal of scatter in a large beam clinical system. The measured angular resolution after the crystal was 0.4 mrad for a silicon crystal.

  12. From Clinical Symptoms to MR Imaging: Diagnostic Steps in Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krentel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyosis or endometriosis genitalis interna is a frequent benign disease of women in fertile age. It causes symptoms like bleeding disorders and dysmenorrhea and seems to have a negative effect on fertility. Adenomyosis can be part of a complex genital and extragenital endometriosis but also can be found as a solitary uterine disease. While peritoneal endometriosis can be easily diagnosed by laparoscopy with subsequent biopsy, the determination of adenomyosis is difficult. In the following literature review, the diagnostic methods clinical history and symptoms, gynecological examination, 2D and 3D transvaginal ultrasound, MRI, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy will be discussed step by step in order to evaluate their predictive value in the diagnosis of adenomyosis.

  13. Applications of imaging flow cytometry in the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwade, Lizz F; Fuller, Kathryn A; Erber, Wendy N

    2017-01-01

    Automated imaging flow cytometry integrates flow cytometry with digital microscopy to produce high-resolution digital imaging with quantitative analysis. This enables cell identification based on morphology (cell size, shape), antigen expression, quantification of fluorescence signal intensity and localisation of detected signals (i.e. surface, cytoplasm, nuclear). We describe applications of imaging flow cytometry for the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia. These bone marrow malignancies are traditionally diagnosed and classified by cell morphology, phenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities. Traditionally morphology is assessed by light microscopy, phenotyping by conventional flow cytometry and genetics by karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on interphase nuclei/metaphase spreads of cells on slides. Imaging flow cytometry adds a new dimension to the diagnostic assessment of these neoplasms. We describe three specific applications: From this we conclude that imaging flow cytometry offers benefits over conventional diagnostic methods. Specifically the ability to visualise the cells of interest, the pattern and localisation of expressed antigens and assess cytogenetic abnormalities in one integrated automated high-throughput test. Imaging flow cytometry presents a new paradigm for the diagnostic assessment of leukaemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of diagnostic imaging use in patients with acute abdominal pain (OPTIMA): Design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laméris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

    2007-08-06

    The acute abdomen is a frequent entity at the Emergency Department (ED), which usually needs rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. Diagnostic work-up with imaging can consist of plain X-ray, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and even diagnostic laparoscopy. However, no evidence-based guidelines exist in current literature. The actual diagnostic work-up of a patient with acute abdominal pain presenting to the ED varies greatly between hospitals and physicians. The OPTIMA study was designed to provide the evidence base for constructing an optimal diagnostic imaging guideline for patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED. Thousand consecutive patients with abdominal pain > 2 hours and post hoc assignment of the final diagnosis by an expert panel. The focus of the analysis will be on the added value of the imaging modalities over history and clinical examination, relative to the incremental costs. This study aims to provide the evidence base for the development of a diagnostic algorithm that can act as a guideline for ED physicians to evaluate patients with acute abdominal pain.

  15. Assessment of tibial and common peroneal nerves in diabetic peripheral neuropathy by diffusion tensor imaging: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Yunxia; Hao, Wen; Zhao, Lianxin; Zhang, Xinjuan; Cao, Jinfeng; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie; Zhao, Bin; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-08-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver performance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and detect correlations with electrophysiology. Twelve healthy volunteers (controls) and ten DPN patients were enrolled to undergo MR examinations. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tibial nerve (TN) and common peroneal nerve (CPN) were measured. Unpaired t test and Levene tests were performed to assess differences between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for FA and ADC values. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between DTI and electrophysiology parameters in the patient group. The FA values of TN and CPN in the DPN group were significantly lower and ADC were higher than the control group (p  0.05). Moderate diagnostic accuracy of DTI was seen in the diagnosis of DPN. DTI demonstrates moderate diagnostic accuracy and excellent interobserver performance in the detection of DPN involving the TN and CPN. There is moderate correlation with MCV. • FA values of TN and CPN are significantly lower in DPN. • ADC values of TN and CPN are significantly higher in DPN. • DTI demonstrates moderate diagnostic accuracy in detection of DPN. • There is excellent interobserver performance in DTI measurements. • Moderate correlation is seen between DTI parameters and MCV.

  16. Diagnostic Features of Common Oral Ulcerative Lesions: An Updated Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. This narrative review article aims to introduce an updated decision tree for diagnosing oral ulcerative lesions on the basis of their diagnostic features. Various general search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of MeSH keywords such as “oral ulcer,” “stomatitis,” and “mouth diseases.” Thereafter, English-language articles published since 1983 to 2015 in both medical and dental journals including reviews, meta-analyses, original papers, and case reports were appraised. Upon compilation of the relevant data, oral ulcerative lesions were categorized into three major groups: acute, chronic, and recurrent ulcers and into five subgroups: solitary acute, multiple acute, solitary chronic, multiple chronic, and solitary/multiple recurrent, based on the number and duration of lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by stepwise progression.

  17. Diagnostic Features of Common Oral Ulcerative Lesions: An Updated Decision Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Safi, Yaser; Baharvand, Maryam; Rahmani, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. This narrative review article aims to introduce an updated decision tree for diagnosing oral ulcerative lesions on the basis of their diagnostic features. Various general search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of MeSH keywords such as "oral ulcer," "stomatitis," and "mouth diseases." Thereafter, English-language articles published since 1983 to 2015 in both medical and dental journals including reviews, meta-analyses, original papers, and case reports were appraised. Upon compilation of the relevant data, oral ulcerative lesions were categorized into three major groups: acute, chronic, and recurrent ulcers and into five subgroups: solitary acute, multiple acute, solitary chronic, multiple chronic, and solitary/multiple recurrent, based on the number and duration of lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by stepwise progression.

  18. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 2. Diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of individual variation in diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton has been performed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. More than 50 skeletal anomalies have been recorded. Factual data are presented that characterize deviations from the species norm in the frequency of "background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003). Correlations between manifestations of different variants of character states are considered. The problem of norm and anomaly in individual variation is discussed.

  19. Radiation Dose Risk and Diagnostic Benefit in Imaging Investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrescu, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents many facets of medical imaging investigations radiological risks. The total volume of prescribed medical investigations proves a serious lack in monitoring and tracking of the cumulative radiation doses in many health services. Modern radiological investigations equipment is continuously reducing the total dose of radiation due to improved technologies, so a decrease in per caput dose can be noticed, but the increasing number of investigations has determined a net increase of the annual collective dose. High doses of radiation are cumulated from Computed Tomography investigations. An integrated system for radiation safety of the patients investigated by radiological imaging methods, based on smart cards and Public Key Infrastructure allow radiation absorbed dose data storage.

  20. Measuring diagnostic accuracy of imaging parameters in pelvic lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yudong, E-mail: pku_zyd06@163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Wu, Shiliang, E-mail: wushiliangjsh@263.net [Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Xi, Zhijun, E-mail: xizhijun@hsc.pku.edu.cn [Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Xiaoying, E-mail: cjr.wangxiaoying@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Jiang, Xuexiang, E-mail: cjr.jxx@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To study whether the individual radiological findings can help predict diagnosis of pelvic lipomatosis (PL) or, specifically appreciate its progression. Methods: Data from 32 clinically proven cases of PL and 25 controls were collected. Two reviewers were recruited for a blinded evaluation, image features were recorded in terms of: (1) bladder shape; (2) bladder-rectosigmoid morphological indexes including ratio of superior-inferior to anterior-posterior length of bladder (SI/AP), angle between anterior and posterior wall (AAP), relative length of posterior urethra (rLPU), angle between bladder and seminal vesicle (ABS) and rectosigmoid morphological index (RMI); (3) secondary complications. Results were evaluated by an unpaired t test and ROC analysis. Results: The sensitivity and specificity were 40.6% and 100% for pear and banana-shaped bladder, 62.5% and 100% for SI/AP, 40.6% and 100% for AAP, 62.5% and 100% for ABS, 78.1% and 72% for rLPU, 59.4% and 96% for RMI, respectively. These radiological findings partially correlated with the severity of disease weighted by hydronephrosis and treatment grade. Image analysis demonstrated high prevalence of glandular cystitis (100%) and hydronephrosis (73.4%). Conclusion: We conclude that PL is a progressive disease involving multiple pelvic organs with high prevalence of intractable cystitis and hydronephrosis. The imaging characteristics can help predict diagnosis and, specifically appreciate progression.

  1. Multiple sclerosis: imaging, diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis; Bildgebung, Diagnosekriterien und Differenzialdiagnose der Multiplen Sklerose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, I.; Sartor, K. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany); Sellner, J.; Meyding-Lamade, U. [Abt. Neurologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), presenting with multifocal, disseminated inflammatory lesions referred to as plaques. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically depicts multiple, round to oval, circumscript lesions predominantly involving periventricular and subcortical white matter, brainstem and cerebellum. More recent investigations have demonstrated that the macroscopically visible plaques only present the tip of the iceberg: Already early in its course, MS causes neuroaxonal damage and diffusely involves the entire brain parenchyma including normal appearing white matter. These changes are reflected by strongly T{sub 1}w hypointense lesions and atrophy of early onset, by reduction of the neuronal Marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) on spectroscopy, by a decrease of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), by an increased in diffusibility and decreased anisotropy on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MRI imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis of MS by revealing the characteristic spatial and temporal dissemination of the cerebral and spinal manifestations of this disease. Diagnostic criteria increase the diagnostic specificity and allow better differentiation from other diseases with multifocal white matter abnormalities. (orig.) [German] Die multiple sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste entzuendliche, demyelinisierende Erkrankung des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS) Sie ist durch multifokale, disseminierte Entzuendungsherde, sogenannte Plaques, in den myelinhaltigen Strukturen des ZNS charakterisiert. In der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) sind multiple umschriebene, rundlich-ovale Laesionen der weissen Substanz charakteristisch, die bevorzugt im periventrikulaeren Marklager, an der Mark-Rindengrenze, im Hirnstamm und im Kleinhirn lokalisiert sind. Neuere Untersuchungen zeigen, dass die sichtbaren Entmarkungsherde nur die Spitze des Eisbergs sind: Bereits fruehzeitig verursacht die MS

  2. Efficient medical image access in diagnostic environments with limited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Venson

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A medical application running outside the workstation environment has to deal with several constraints, such as reduced available memory and low network bandwidth. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to optimize the data flow for fast image transfer and visualization on mobile devices and remote stationary devices. Methods We use a combination of client- and server-side procedures to reduce the amount of information transferred by the application. Our approach was implemented on top of a commercial PACS and evaluated through user experiments with specialists in typical diagnosis tasks. The quality of the system outcome was measured in relation to the accumulated amount of network data transference and the amount of memory used in the host device. Besides, the system's quality of use (usability was measured through participants’ feedback. Results Contrarily to previous approaches, ours keeps the application within the memory constraints, minimizing data transferring whenever possible, allowing the application to run on a variety of devices. Moreover, it does that without sacrificing the user experience. Experimental data point that over 90% of the users did not notice any delays or degraded image quality, and when they did, they did not impact on the clinical decisions. Conclusion The combined activities and orchestration of our methods allow the image viewer to run on resource-constrained environments, such as those with low network bandwidth or little available memory. These results demonstrate the ability to explore the use of mobile devices as a support tool in the medical workflow.

  3. Multimodality Diagnostic Imaging in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Cecilia S.; Payne, John F.; Bergstrom, Chris S.; Cribbs, Blaine E.; Yan, Jiong; Hubbard, G. Baker; Olsen, Timothy W.; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical features and imaging characteristics in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM). Methods This is a retrospective review of four patients diagnosed with UAIM. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, Snellen visual acuity (VA), and funduscopic features) and images from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein (FA), and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography were analyzed. Results The median age at presentation was 31 years (range 27–52 years). The median interval between symptom onset and presentation was four weeks (range 1–20 weeks). Associated systemic findings included a viral prodrome (50%), orchitis (50%), hand-foot-mouth disease (25%), and positive Coxsackie virus titers (50%). The median presenting VA was 20/400 (range 20/70–1/400), which improved to 20/30 (range 20/20–20/60) at final follow-up. The median follow-up time was 6 weeks (range 0–8 weeks). Early in the disease course, the central macula developed irregular, circular areas of white-grey discoloration. Following recovery, the macula had a stippled retinal pigment epithelium characterized by rarefaction and hyperplasia. FA demonstrated irregular early hyperfluorescence and late subretinal hyperfluorescence. SD-OCT showed a partially reversible disruption of the outer photoreceptor layer. FAF initially revealed stippled autofluorescence that eventually became more hypoautofluorescent. ICG showed “moth-eaten” appearing choroidal vasculature, suggestive of choroidal inflammation. Conclusions The imaging characteristics highlight the structural changes during the active and resolution phases of UAIM. The visual recovery correlates with structural changes and suggests that the pathogenesis involves inflammation of the inner choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer photoreceptor complex that is partially reversible. PMID:22232475

  4. Incidental focal solid liver lesions: diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussan, Michael [Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Aube, Christophe [CHU Angers, Department of Radiology, Angers (France); Laboratoire HIFIH, Angers (France); Bahrami, Stephane [Universite Paris-Dauphine, Department of Medical Statistics, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Paris (France); Boursier, Jerome [CHU Angers, Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Laboratoire HIFIH, Angers (France); Valla, Dominique Charles [Universite Paris-7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM Centre de recherche Biomedicale Bichat Beaujon, Paris (France); Hopital Beaujon, Department of Hepatology, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Universite Paris-7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM Centre de recherche Biomedicale Bichat Beaujon, Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    To prospectively assess the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MR imaging in incidental solid focal liver lesions not characterised on ultrasound. Forty-seven patients with 50 lesions underwent MR imaging and CEUS: 24 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH), 11 adenomas, 10 haemangiomas, 1 focal fatty change and 4 malignant lesions were identified. Two experienced radiologists randomly reviewed contrast-enhanced MR imaging and CEUS data, and provided the most likely diagnosis. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), likelihood ratios (LR) and kappa value were calculated. A histotype diagnosis was obtained in 66-52% with MR imaging and 52-53% with CEUS, respectively, for both readers. Se, Sp and LR for haemangioma were 100-100, 100-100 and 78-78 with MR imaging and 89-89, 100-100 and 68-70 with CEUS; for FNH with MR imaging they were 88-63, 96-100 and 23-34 and 74-67, 88-96 and 6-17 with CEUS. If the diagnosis of haemangioma was uncertain with CEUS, MR imaging always confirmed the diagnosis. If the diagnosis of FNH was uncertain with either CEUS or MR imaging, the other imaging technique confirmed the diagnosis in approximately half the cases. Both CEUS and MR imaging have a high diagnostic performance in incidental focal liver lesions and are complementary when diagnosis is uncertain. (orig.)

  5. The clinician's guide to diagnostic imaging: Cost-effective pathways. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Z.D.; Chew, F.S.; Ellis, D.A.; Brigham, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors developed a cost-effective approach to imaging studies, based on initial selection of an exam that best addresses the specific clinical problem and obviates the need for additional diagnostic tests. Tightly reasoned arguments compare available imaging options with respect to diagnostic yield, feasibility, risk, and cost. To aid the clinician in making cost comparisons, each paper of the Second Edition lists the dollar cost of relevant imaging studies. The Second Edition has been thoroughly revised to reflect the important advances in diagnostic imaging of the past three years, highlighting CT's expanding role in thoracic and abdominal problems, magnetic resonance imaging as a spectacular diagnostic tool for the central nervous system, and the clinical application of many newly-developed radiopharmaceuticals. New chapters cover breast cancer screening, acute spinal trauma, search for primary cancer of unknown origin, acute anuria, blunt chest trauma, new onset seizures, and spinal cord compression from metastases. Other papers have been rewritten for greater clarity and to incorporate new techniques, like dipyridamole stress testing. A glossary and an introduction define and explain the capabilities and limitations of current techniques.

  6. Technique for verifying treatment fields using portal images with diagnostic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, A S; Hogstrom, K R; Janjan, N A; Fields, R S; Peters, L J

    1987-10-01

    The image quality of portal films for megavoltage photon beams, when using the double-exposure technique, is poor compared to diagnostic quality, X ray images. A technique is described to record on a single film a megavoltage portal image superimposed upon a diagnostic X ray image, which provides the radiotherapist with "diagnostic quality" portal images. The technique uses a commercially available X ray tube mounted on the head of a 60Co unit. The alignment procedure, which uses a leveling device to ensure that the X ray focal spot and 60Co source are at the same location for each exposure, is confirmed by registering on film the image of an alignment marker. An evaluation of film-screen combination showed therapy verification film in a rare earth intensifying screen cassette to be best suited for this technique. The relationship between off-axis dose and the penumbral region of the portal image has been evaluated and should be useful in the interpretation of portal verification film relative to the treatment volume.

  7. Digital image intensifier radiography - application in angiography, urography and skeletal diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, M.; Zwicker, C.; Langer, R.; Scholz, A.; Hinz, A.; Eichstaedt, H.; Mitsch, E.; Felix, R.

    1989-06-01

    In a retrospective study, the clinical usefulness of digital image intensifier radiography was analysed. It could be demonstrated that for angiographic procedures the image quality of a 1024/sup 2/ matrix is superior to a 512/sup 2/ matrix. For digital excretory urography it could be seen that in 80 to 90% the images were at least sufficient to analyse the renal pelvis. Digital image intensifier radiography of bones was diagnostically sufficient in 76% and analysis of bone architecture was possible in 85%. (orig.).

  8. Application of Six Sigma methodology to a diagnostic imaging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Mehmet Tolga; Sezen, Bulent; Atwat, Kamal M

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to apply the Six Sigma methodology to improve workflow by eliminating the causes of failure in the medical imaging department of a private Turkish hospital. Implementation of the design, measure, analyse, improve and control (DMAIC) improvement cycle, workflow chart, fishbone diagrams and Pareto charts were employed, together with rigorous data collection in the department. The identification of root causes of repeat sessions and delays was followed by failure, mode and effect analysis, hazard analysis and decision tree analysis. The most frequent causes of failure were malfunction of the RIS/PACS system and improper positioning of patients. Subsequent to extensive training of professionals, the sigma level was increased from 3.5 to 4.2. The data were collected over only four months. Six Sigma's data measurement and process improvement methodology is the impetus for health care organisations to rethink their workflow and reduce malpractice. It involves measuring, recording and reporting data on a regular basis. This enables the administration to monitor workflow continuously. The improvements in the workflow under study, made by determining the failures and potential risks associated with radiologic care, will have a positive impact on society in terms of patient safety. Having eliminated repeat examinations, the risk of being exposed to more radiation was also minimised. This paper supports the need to apply Six Sigma and present an evaluation of the process in an imaging department.

  9. Diagnostic ultrasound tooth imaging using fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Sevan; Evans, Tony; Bubb, Nigel; Freear, Steven

    2011-10-01

    An ultrasound contact imaging method is proposed to measure the enamel thickness in the human tooth. A delay-line transducer with a working frequency of 15 MHz is chosen to achieve a minimum resolvable distance of 400 μm in human enamel. To confirm the contact between the tooth and the transducer, a verification technique based on the phase shift upon reflection is used. Because of the high attenuation in human teeth, linear frequency-modulated chirp excitation and pulse compression are exploited to increase the penetration depth and improve the SNR. Preliminary measurements show that the enamel-dentin boundary creates numerous internal reflections, which cause the applied chirp signals to interfere arbitrarily. In this work, the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is employed for the first time in dental imaging to separate chirp signals overlapping in both time and frequency domains. The overlapped chirps are compressed using the FrFT and matched filter techniques. Micro-computed tomography is used for validation of the ultrasound measurements for both techniques. For a human molar, the thickness of the enamel layer is measured with an average error of 5.5% after compressing with the FrFT and 13.4% after compressing with the matched filter based on the average speed of sound in human teeth.

  10. Diagnostic imaging of pancreatic carcinoma; Radiologische Diagnostik des Pankreaskarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J.; Juchems, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik

    2006-06-15

    Pancreatic carcinoma continues to have an extremely poor prognosis. At the time of diagnosis most patients present with advanced disease including retroperitoneal infiltration and distant metastases. Therefore, only 5-20% are considered to be candidates for surgical resection. The clinical signs are not specific and small tumors frequently present without any symptoms. Early diagnosis is unusual and screening programs turned out to be disappointing. Basically, modern cross sectional imaging promises the detection of small tumors, and probably a higher detection rate of resectable cancers can be achieved. The diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma is based on clinical presentation, laboratory data (including tumor markers), and imaging techniques. Spiral CT, MRI, and endoscopic ultrasound are competitive methods in the preoperative assessment and staging of the disease. CT and MRI are considered equivalent in diagnosing and staging of pancreatic carcinoma. However, thin-slice spiral CT is a quick, robust, and widely available modality, and therefore the most frequently used technology. Following the detection of a pancreatic carcinoma the assessment of resectability resp. irresectability of the tumor is a great challenge. Criteria of irresectability include retroperitoneal infiltration, invasion of the large arterial and venous vessels adjacent to the pancreas, and metastases to peritoneum, liver, and lungs. The assessment of irresectability is more reliable and is usually based on a constellation of findings and not on a single criterion. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Examination and Imaging Findings for Identifying Subacromial Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cadogan

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of subacromial pathology is limited by the poor accuracy of clinical tests for specific pathologies. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination and imaging features for identifying subacromial pain (SAP defined by a positive response to diagnostic injection, and to evaluate the influence of imaging findings on the clinical diagnosis of SAP.In a prospective, diagnostic accuracy design, 208 consecutive patients presenting to their primary healthcare practitioner for the first time with a new episode of shoulder pain were recruited. All participants underwent a standardized clinical examination, shoulder x-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Results were compared with the response to a diagnostic block of xylocaineTM injected into the SAB under ultrasound guidance using ≥80% post-injection reduction in pain intensity as the positive anaesthetic response (PAR criterion. Diagnostic accuracy statistics were calculated for combinations of clinical and imaging variables demonstrating the highest likelihood of a PAR. A PAR was reported by 34% of participants. In participants with no loss of passive external rotation, combinations of three clinical variables (anterior shoulder pain, strain injury, absence of symptoms at end-range external rotation (in abduction demonstrated 100% specificity for a PAR when all three were positive (LR+ infinity; 95%CI 2.9, infinity. A full-thickness supraspinatus tear on ultrasound increased the likelihood of a PAR irrespective of age (specificity 98% (95%CI 94, 100; LR+ 6.2; 95% CI 1.5, 25.7. Imaging did not improve the ability to rule-out a PAR.Combinations of clinical examination findings and a full-thickness supraspinatus tear on ultrasound scan can help confirm, but not exclude, the presence of subacromial pain. Other imaging findings were of limited value for diagnosing SAP.

  12. Diagnostic imaging of vascular leiomyosarcomas; Bildgebende Diagnostik von vaskulaeren Leiomyosarkomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreft, B.; Flacke, S.; Textor, J.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn Univ., Radiologische Klinik (Germany); Zhou, H. [Bonn Univ., Pathologisches Inst. (Germany); Remig, J. [Chirurgische Klinik, Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Primary vascular leiomyosarcomas are very rare tumors, with the venous variety most often arising from the inferior caval vein and the arterial variety from the pulmonal artery. The tumors show either an exclusive intra- or extravascular pattern or a mixed growth pattern. The clinical symptoms depend on tumor location, with intraluminal tumors of the inferior caval vein causing edema or a Budd-Chiari syndrome. Leiomyosarcomas of the pulmonal artery can mimic chronic central or recurrent peripheral pulmonary embolism. Contrast enhanced spiral CT with multiplanar reconstruction is the diagnostic method of choice when a vascular leiomyosarcoma is suspected. MRI with MR-angiography can be added. If a tumor of undetermined origin shows a broad contact with a vessel and/or an intraluminal component, possible primary vascular leiomyosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis. (orig.) [German] Primaere vaskulaere Leiomyosarkome sind sehr seltene Tumoren, die venoes meistens von der Vena cava inferior und arteriell von der Pulmonalarterie ausgehen. Die Tumoren zeigen entweder ein komplett extra- bzw. intravaskulaeres oder ein gemischtes Wachstum. Die klinischen Symptome der venoesen Tumoren richten sich nach der Lokalisation der Tumoren, wobei intraluminale Tumoren im Bereich der Vena cava inferior durch Oedeme oder ein Budd-Chiari-Syndrom auffallen koennen. Leiomyosarkome der Pulmonalarterien koennen chronische zentrale oder rezidivierende periphere Lungenembolie imitieren. Die kontrastverstaerkte Spiral-CT mit multiplanaren Rekonstruktionen ist die diagnostische Methode der Wahl bei V.a. ein vaskulaeres Leiomyosarkom, die durch die MRT in Kombination mit der MR-Angiographie ergaenzt werden kann. Differenzialdiagnostisch sollte bei unklarer Organzugehoerigkeit von Tumoren mit Kontakt zu Venen und/oder intraluminalem Anteil an die Moeglichkeit eines primaeren vaskulaeren Leiomyosarkoms gedacht werden. (orig.)

  13. Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: Diagnostic Performance and Prognostic Value of PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong Min; Hur, Bo Yun; Joo, Ijin; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kang, Keon Wook; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonace (MR) imaging (hereafter, PET/MR imaging) in the detection of liver metastases and to assess its prognostic value in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLMs). Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. A total of 55 patients with 98 CRLMs who underwent PET/MR imaging and multidetector computed tomography (CT) between January 2013 and June 2014 comprised the study population. Of these patients, 34 underwent hepatic resection, 18 of whom also underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Two board-certificated radiologists independently assessed the four image sets (ie, multidetector CT, whole-body PET, MR imaging with a liver-specific contrast agent [hereafter, EOB MR imaging], and PET/MR imaging). To compare the diagnostic performance of each imaging modality, jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic and generalized estimating equations were used. To assess prognostic value, recurrence-free survival of the 18 patients who underwent NAC followed by hepatic resection was analyzed by using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results The reader-averaged figure of merit of PET/MR imaging was significantly higher than that of either multidetector CT (P = .003) or PET (P = .020) in the detection of CRLMs. However, no significant difference was observed between figure of merit for PET/MR imaging and that for EOB MR imaging (P = .231). After NAC, six of the 18 patients had isometabolic CRLMs on PET images, and 12 patients had hypermetabolic CRLMs. The 1-year recurrence-free survival rate was 80% in patients with isometabolic CRLMs and 14% in patients with hypermetabolic CRLMs, showing a significant difference (P = .026). Conclusion PET/MR imaging can yield significantly higher diagnostic performance in the detection of CRLMs

  14. Gold-manganese nanoparticles for targeted diagnostic and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-10

    Imagine the possibility of non-invasive, non-radiation based Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combating cardiac disease. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are developing a process that would use nanotechnology in a novel, targeted approach that would allow MRIs to be more descriptive and brighter, and to target specific organs. Researchers at SRNL have discovered a way to use multifunctional metallic gold-manganese nanoparticles to create a unique, targeted positive contrast agent. SRNL Senior Scientist Dr. Simona Hunyadi Murph says she first thought of using the nanoparticles for cardiac disease applications after learning that people who survive an infarct exhibit up to 15 times higher rate of developing chronic heart failure, arrhythmias and/or sudden death compared to the general population. Without question, nanotechnology will revolutionize the future of technology. The development of functional nanomaterials with multi-detection modalities opens up new avenues for creating multi-purpose technologies for biomedical applications.

  15. Predicting diagnostic error in Radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Application in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Pinto, Frank M [ORNL; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels. Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from 4 Radiology residents and 2 breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADs images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated. Results: Diagnostic error can be predicted reliably by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model (AUC=0.79). Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (average AUC of 0.837 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (average AUC of 0.667 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features. Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted reliably by leveraging the radiologists gaze behavior and image content.

  16. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  17. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of infrared imaging of the breast: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yuh-Ming; Tsai Yuh-Show; Chien Kuo-Liong; Chen Chin-Yu; Chang King-Jen; Wang Jane; Teng Yu-Chuan; Shih Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic performance of infrared (IR) imaging of the breast using an interpretive model derived from a scoring system. Methods The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. A total of 276 women (mean age = 50.8 years, SD 11.8) with suspicious findings on mammograms or ultrasound received IR imaging of the breast before excisional biopsy. The interpreting radiologists scored the lesions using a scoring...

  18. A Case of Rasmussen Encephalitis: The Differential Diagnoses and Role of Diagnostic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoj Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen encephalitis is an extremely rare chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease affecting a single cerebral hemisphere, causing progressive neurological deterioration and intractable seizures. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis by demonstrating focal or unihemispheric involvement and excluding other possible causes. Here, we report a case of Rasmussen encephalitis with an update on recent diagnostic criteria and emphasis on differential diagnoses which can be excluded on imaging.

  19. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.J.; Twomey, M.; O' Regan, K.N. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, K.P.; Maher, M.M.; O' Connor, O.J. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); McLaughlin, P.D. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Trauma Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Power, D.G. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-04-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  20. Modern methods of high-pressure fuel pump common rail power system diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyshchun В.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We've considered high pressure fuel pumps design features and equipment for their diagnosis. It was noted that the reliability of the fuel elements Common Rail system primarily provide precision parts of the fuel equipment. As a consequence, the aim of study was comparative analysis and laborious of modern methods of the high pressure fuel pump diagnosing. In particular, the definition of a technical condition of the fuel pump was carried out using a special stand and by measuring the fuel pressure and duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal. As an object of our research we've chosen Bosch № 0445010008 fuel pump (from Mercedes Benz E320cdi in which the plunger pairs were changed alternately with different technical conditions. Preliminary fuel pump parameters were determined by hydraulic testing. Based on conducted experiments we've found out that fuel pressure measurement change method and the duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal at the starting and full load modes less laborious compared to the definition of a technical condition of the pump on the stand. The results of both methods of diagnosing confirmed identity of the fuel pumps.

  1. Diagnostic imaging and surgical management of a congenital cervical teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara T. Alharbi, SB-RAD

    2018-02-01

    Diagnosis of a congenital cervical teratoma is possible during an early prenatal ultrasound evaluation. The appearance depends on the size of the tumour, but it is typically a large neck mass with solid and cystic components that causes hyperextension of the neck and is frequently associated with polyhydramnios. In the postnatal period, ultrasound helps in differentiating cervical teratoma from other common congenital cervical masses. MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the consistency of the tumour, surrounding soft tissue extent of the tumour, and any mass effect on other cervical structures. In our case report, we present a case of a full-term baby that was delivered with a large cervical mass. MRI was helpful in demonstrating the complex content of the mass, surrounding soft tissue extension, and mass effect on other major cervical structures. The clear demarcation of the mass facilitated complete surgical removal without complications.

  2. A simple data compression scheme for binary images of bacteria compared with commonly used image data compression schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.

    A run length code compression scheme of extreme simplicity, used for image storage in an automated bacterial morphometry system, is compared with more common compression schemes, such as are used in the tag image file format. These schemes are Lempel-Ziv and Welch (LZW), Macintosh Packbits, and

  3. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic; Ventajas de la imagen digital para el diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapero, M. A.; Gonzalez, S.; Albillos, J. C.; Martel, J.; Rebollo, M.

    2006-07-01

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Image Enhancement in Intra-Oral Direct Digital Radiography in the Assessment of Interproximal Caries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farzad Esmaeili; Teymour Abbasi; Nazli Rabienejad; Shabnam Seyedzadeh Sabounchi

    2016-01-01

    ... since then. Currently, it is possible to enhance images in digital radiography. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of image enhancement in direct digital radiography as it relates to interproximal carries assessment...

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lumbosacral Spine Magnetic Resonance Image Reading by Chiropractors, Chiropractic Radiologists, and Medical Radiologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, A.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Knol, D.L.; Algra, P.R.; Wilmink, J.T.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in 2 sessions. Objective. It is important to know whether it is possible to accurately detect "specific findings" on lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) images and whether the results of different observers are comparable.

  6. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. The exercise was a four-part operation undertaken with the subjects in the lateral position. The reliability analysis included use of the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability. [Results] ICC (1.1) values for the pelvic floor elevation measurement with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device were 0.98 [contraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle], 0.99 [contraction of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs)], 0.98 (co-contraction of the TrA and PFMs), and 0.98 (resistance of the TrA and PFMs). This study proved the reliability of the method because the coefficient of reliability was 0.97 or more for all of the measurements, even for those during exercise. [Conclusion] The diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device measures pelvic floor elevation with high reliability.

  7. Training for thorax diagnostics. Systematic cardiopulmonary image analysis; Trainer Thoraxdiagnostik. Systematische kardiopulmonale Bildanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen gem.GmbH (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2010-07-01

    The training book on thorax diagnostics using image analysis is supposed to be a supplement to the usual textbooks based on comprehensive experiences of radiologists. The covered issues are the following: heart insufficiency, acute/ chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema; pneumonia and tuberculosis; bronchial carcinoma; lung fibrosis, sarcoidosis and pneumoconiosis, pleural effusion and pneumothorax.

  8. Novel X-ray imaging technology enables significant patient dose reduction in interventional cardiology while maintaining diagnostic image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloot, Liesbeth; Thierens, Hubert; Taeymans, Yves; Drieghe, Benny; De Pooter, Jan; Van Peteghem, Sylvie; Buytaert, Dimitri; Gijs, Thomas; Lapere, Régine; Bacher, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction in patient radiation dose during coronary angiography (CA) by a new X-ray technology, and to assess its impact on diagnostic image quality. Recently, a novel X-ray imaging technology has become available for interventional cardiology, using advanced image processing and an optimized acquisition chain for radiation dose reduction. 70 adult patients were randomly assigned to a reference X-ray system or the novel X-ray system. Patient demographics were registered and exposure parameters were recorded for each radiation event. Clinical image quality was assessed for both patient groups. With the same angiographic technique and a comparable patient population, the new imaging technology was associated with a 75% reduction in total kerma-area product (KAP) value (decrease from 47 Gycm2 to 12 Gycm2, Pimage quality showed an equivalent detail and contrast for both imaging systems. On the other hand, the subjective appreciation of noise was more apparent in images of the new image processing system, acquired at lower doses, compared to the reference system. However, the higher noise content did not affect the overall image quality score, which was adequate for diagnosis in both systems. For the first time, we present a new X-ray imaging technology, combining advanced noise reduction algorithms and an optimized acquisition chain, which reduces patient radiation dose in CA drastically (75%), while maintaining diagnostic image quality. Use of this technology may further improve the radiation safety of cardiac angiography and interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Clinically Unjustified Diagnostic Imaging – a Worrisome Tendency in Today’s Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecka, Aleksandra; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Rutkowska, Milena; Latos, Tomasz; Walecki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the percentage of unjustified examinations among all the CT and MRI studies performed by two radiology departments and to determine the types of examinations which are most commonly carried out unnecessarily. Material/Methods Three radiologists assessed the justification of CT and MRI examinations performed during a period of 14 days based on the referrals. The radiologists assessed 799 referrals for CT scans (847 examinations of a particular part of the body) and 269 MRI referrals (269 examinations). The criteria for justification were: medical expertise and the guidelines. During the first stage radiologists divided the examinations into 3 groups: justified, unjustified and the examinations of questionable justification. The second step was to determine the reasons why the studies were considered as unjustified or of questionable justification. Results 73 of 1116 examinations (6.54%) were considered to be unjustified or of a questionable justification. There were 59 CT scans (59/847=6.97%) and 14 MRI studies (14/269=5.20%). The most common reasons to consider them as unjustified or of questionable justification were: inadequate method of diagnostic imaging chosen as a first-line tool and lacking or insufficient clinical details. Conclusions In our investigation 6.54% of both CT and MRI examinations were considered as unjustified or of questionable justification, which is lower than described in other studies (from 7% to 26%). The assessment was based only on referrals, therefore a total share of these examinations is likely to be higher. PMID:27471577

  10. Diagnostic performance of reformatted isotropic thin-section helical CT images in the detection of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacia, Gianvincenzo; Iaia, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) reformatted images for detection of superior semicircular canal (SSC) dehiscence. Material and methods Forty-two patients, with sound- and/or pressure-induced vestibular symptoms, and 42 control participants underwent helical CT examination with a highly collimated beam (0.5 mm). Reformatted images of the vestibular labyrinth were obtained in the standard axial and coronal planes (group A images), and in a plane parallel and perpendicular to the SSC (group B images). Diagnostic performance obtained by evaluating the group A images alone and the group B images alone was analyzed by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results The diagnostic performance of group A images was AUC = 0.929 with an overall accuracy of 92.9%. The diagnostic performance of group B images was AUC = 0.988 with an overall accuracy of 98.8%. The evaluation of group B images alone showed an improved diagnostic performance over the group A images alone. Conclusion Thin-section 0.5-mm collimation CT with reformatted images oriented in the plane parallel and perpendicular to the SSC improves diagnostic accuracy in assessing for SSC dehiscence in comparison to CT images with reconstructions limited to traditional axial and coronal planes.

  11. Protocol for diagnostic test accuracy study: the efficacy of screening for common dental diseases by dental care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Richard; Walsh, Tanya; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen; Tickle, Martin; Ashley, James; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2013-09-21

    The bulk of service delivery in dentistry is delivered by general dental practitioners, when a large proportion of patients who attend regularly are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. This represents a substantial and unnecessary cost, given that it is possible to delegate a range of tasks to dental care professionals, who are a less expensive resource. Screening for the common dental diseases by dental care professionals has the potential to release general dental practitioner's time and increase the capacity to care for those who don't currently access services. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic test accuracy of dental care professionals when screening for dental caries and periodontal disease in asymptomatic adults aged eighteen years of age. Ten dental practices across the North-West of England will take part in a diagnostic test accuracy study with 200 consecutive patients in each practice. The dental care professionals will act as the index test and the general dental practitioner will act as the reference test. Consenting asymptomatic patients will enter the study and see either the dental care professionals or general dental practitioner first to remove order effects. Both sets of clinicians will make an assessment of dental caries and periodontal disease and enter their decisions on a record sheet for each participant. The primary outcome measure is the diagnostic test accuracy of the dental care professionals and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values will be reported. A number of clinical factors will be assessed for confounding. The results of this study will determine whether dental care professionals can screen for the two most prevalent oral diseases. This will inform the literature and is apposite given the recent policy change in the United Kingdom towards direct access.

  12. Hierarchical Multi-modal Image Registration by Learning Common Feature Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hongkun; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-10-05

    Mutual information (MI) has been widely used for registering images with different modalities. Since most inter-modality registration methods simply estimate deformations in a local scale, but optimizing MI from the entire image, the estimated deformations for certain structures could be dominated by the surrounding unrelated structures. Also, since there often exist multiple structures in each image, the intensity correlation between two images could be complex and highly nonlinear, which makes global MI unable to precisely guide local image deformation. To solve these issues, we propose a hierarchical inter-modality registration method by robust feature matching. Specifically, we first select a small set of key points at salient image locations to drive the entire image registration. Since the original image features computed from different modalities are often difficult for direct comparison, we propose to learn their common feature representations by projecting them from their native feature spaces to a common space, where the correlations between corresponding features are maximized. Due to the large heterogeneity between two high-dimension feature distributions, we employ Kernel CCA (Canonical Correlation Analysis) to reveal such non-linear feature mappings. Then, our registration method can take advantage of the learned common features to reliably establish correspondences for key points from different modality images by robust feature matching. As more and more key points take part in the registration, our hierarchical feature-based image registration method can efficiently estimate the deformation pathway between two inter-modality images in a global to local manner. We have applied our proposed registration method to prostate CT and MR images, as well as the infant MR brain images in the first year of life. Experimental results show that our method can achieve more accurate registration results, compared to other state-of-the-art image registration

  13. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Hands-On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  14. Design of a Thermal Imaging Diagnostic Using 90-Degree, Off-Axis, Parabolic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Robert M.; Becker, Steven A.; Dolan, Daniel H.; Hacking, Richard G.; Hickman, Randy J.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Turley, William D.

    2006-09-01

    Thermal imaging is an important, though challenging, diagnostic for shockwave experiments. Shock-compressed materials undergo transient temperature changes that cannot be recorded with standard (greater than ms response time) infrared detectors. A further complication arises when optical elements near the experiment are destroyed. We have designed a thermal-imaging system for studying shock temperatures produced inside a gas gun at Sandia National Laboratories. Inexpensive, diamond-turned, parabolic mirrors relay an image of the shocked target to the exterior of the gas gun chamber through a sapphire vacuum port. The 3000–5000-nm portion of this image is directed to an infrared camera which acquires a snapshot of the target with a minimum exposure time of 150 ns. A special mask is inserted at the last intermediate image plane, to provide dynamic thermal background recording during the event. Other wavelength bands of this image are split into high-speed detectors operating at 900–1700 nm, and at 1700–3000 nm for timeresolved pyrometry measurements. This system incorporates 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors, which can collect low f/# light over a broad spectral range, for high-speed imaging. Matched mirror pairs must be used so that aberrations cancel. To eliminate image plane tilt, proper tip-to-tip orientation of the parabolic mirrors is required. If one parabolic mirror is rotated 180 degrees about the optical axis connecting the pair of parabolic mirrors, the resulting image is tilted by 60 degrees. Different focal-length mirrors cannot be used to magnify the image without substantially sacrificing image quality. This paper analyzes performance and aberrations of this imaging diagnostic.

  15. Investigation into diagnostic agreement using automated computer-assisted histopathology pattern recognition image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joshua D.; Michalowski, Aleksandra M.; Dwyer, Jennifer E.; Corps, Kara N.; Wei, Bih-Rong; Juopperi, Tarja; Hoover, Shelley B.; Simpson, R. Mark

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which histopathology pattern recognition image analysis (PRIA) agrees with microscopic assessment has not been established. Thus, a commercial PRIA platform was evaluated in two applications using whole-slide images. Substantial agreement, lacking significant constant or proportional errors, between PRIA and manual morphometric image segmentation was obtained for pulmonary metastatic cancer areas (Passing/Bablok regression). Bland-Altman analysis indicated heteroscedastic measurements and tendency toward increasing variance with increasing tumor burden, but no significant trend in mean bias. The average between-methods percent tumor content difference was -0.64. Analysis of between-methods measurement differences relative to the percent tumor magnitude revealed that method disagreement had an impact primarily in the smallest measurements (tumor burden 0.988, indicating high reproducibility for both methods, yet PRIA reproducibility was superior (C.V.: PRIA = 7.4, manual = 17.1). Evaluation of PRIA on morphologically complex teratomas led to diagnostic agreement with pathologist assessments of pluripotency on subsets of teratomas. Accommodation of the diversity of teratoma histologic features frequently resulted in detrimental trade-offs, increasing PRIA error elsewhere in images. PRIA error was nonrandom and influenced by variations in histomorphology. File-size limitations encountered while training algorithms and consequences of spectral image processing dominance contributed to diagnostic inaccuracies experienced for some teratomas. PRIA appeared better suited for tissues with limited phenotypic diversity. Technical improvements may enhance diagnostic agreement, and consistent pathologist input will benefit further development and application of PRIA. PMID:22616030

  16. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM. Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA, while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA, the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  17. Investigation into diagnostic agreement using automated computer-assisted histopathology pattern recognition image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Webster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which histopathology pattern recognition image analysis (PRIA agrees with microscopic assessment has not been established. Thus, a commercial PRIA platform was evaluated in two applications using whole-slide images. Substantial agreement, lacking significant constant or proportional errors, between PRIA and manual morphometric image segmentation was obtained for pulmonary metastatic cancer areas (Passing/Bablok regression. Bland-Altman analysis indicated heteroscedastic measurements and tendency toward increasing variance with increasing tumor burden, but no significant trend in mean bias. The average between-methods percent tumor content difference was -0.64. Analysis of between-methods measurement differences relative to the percent tumor magnitude revealed that method disagreement had an impact primarily in the smallest measurements (tumor burden 0.988, indicating high reproducibility for both methods, yet PRIA reproducibility was superior (C.V.: PRIA = 7.4, manual = 17.1. Evaluation of PRIA on morphologically complex teratomas led to diagnostic agreement with pathologist assessments of pluripotency on subsets of teratomas. Accommodation of the diversity of teratoma histologic features frequently resulted in detrimental trade-offs, increasing PRIA error elsewhere in images. PRIA error was nonrandom and influenced by variations in histomorphology. File-size limitations encountered while training algorithms and consequences of spectral image processing dominance contributed to diagnostic inaccuracies experienced for some teratomas. PRIA appeared better suited for tissues with limited phenotypic diversity. Technical improvements may enhance diagnostic agreement, and consistent pathologist input will benefit further development and application of PRIA.

  18. Breast Imaging: How We Manage Diagnostic Technology at a Multidisciplinary Breast Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tejerina Bernal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the most important aspects and problems related to the management of breast cancer imaging, at a center specialized in breast pathology. We review the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications, and peculiarities: digital mammography, CAD systems, and the recent digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound and complementary elastography, molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, advanced sequences (diffusion, and positron emission mammography (PEM. The adequate integration and rational management of these techniques is essential, but this is not always easy, in order to achieve a successful diagnosis.

  19. Innovations in optical coupling of the KSTAR electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T; Tobias, B; Kong, X; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Lee, W; Yun, G S; Park, H K

    2010-10-01

    The installation of a new electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is underway, making use of a unique optical port cassette design, which allows placement of refractive elements inside the cryostat region without adverse effects. The result is unprecedented window access for the implementation of a state of the art imaging diagnostic. A dual-array optical design has been developed, capable of simultaneously imaging the high and low field sides of the plasma with independent features of focal plane translation, vertical zoom, and radial channel spacing. The number of translating optics has been minimized by making use of a zoom lens triplet and parabolic plasma facing lens for maximum channel uniformity over a continuous vertical zoom range of 3:1. The simulated performance of this design is presented along with preliminary laboratory characterization data.

  20. Diagnostic imaging and endoscopic finding in dogs and cats with gastric tumors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, R; Vignoli, M; van Bree, H J; Gaschen, L; Saunders, J H

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging is an essential part of the diagnostic workup of many gastrointestinal disorders. This paper reviews imaging and endoscopy of gastric tumors in dogs and cats and the techniques used. The appearance of the normal as well as the various aspects of gastric tumors are described for these different modalities. Plain radiography is widely available but has limited diagnostic value. Contrast radiography has higher sensitivity but is laborious and time-consuming. Ultrasonography (if an adequate acoustic window is available), endosonography and endoscopy are the most appropriate modalities for diagnosing gastric tumors. They are especially useful when obtaining samples for cytologic or histopathologic examination, because the imaging modalities do not always differentiate between inflammatory or infectious conditions and neoplastic disorders. Hydro-helical CT was found helpful for evaluating the location and local invasiveness of the lesion. Ultrasonography and endoscopy are useful modalities for taking adequate biopsies.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a reduction in diagnostic imaging in degenerative spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joanne S M; Dong, Joyce Z; Brener, Stacey; Coyte, Peter C; Rampersaud, Y Raja

    2011-11-01

    Advanced imaging technologies such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are highly sensitive, but often non-specific, diagnostic tools. Despite this, CT and MRI are overutilized in degenerative spinal disorder diagnosis. From the perspective of the Ministry of Health, we evaluated against usual care the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical triage program for non-emergent spinal disorders that reduces unnecessary imaging uses. Diagnostic and surgical data were prospectively collected on 2,046 outpatients who received consultation with the senior surgical author at Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, between September 2005 and April 2008. Using these data, we modelled an evidence-based diagnostic triage program wherein spine-focused clinical assessments and plain X-ray imaging would be applied prior to CT and MRI. Incremental costs were the incurred expenses from additional consultations and plain X-rays less the cost savings from the eliminated CT and MRI scans, expressed in 2009 Canadian dollars. Outcomes were expressed as the number of surgical candidates identified per MRI used in diagnosis, reflecting the efficiency of diagnostic imaging. The triage program incurred $109,720 from additional consultations and plain X-rays and saved $2,117,697 from eliminated CT and MRI scans, resulting in net cost savings of $2,007,977 for the 31 months of the study period, or $777,282 per year. In usual care, 0.328~0.418 surgical candidates were identified per MRI whereas in the triage program, 0.736~0.885 surgical candidates were identified per MRI, resulting in over a twofold improvement in MRI efficiency. The triage program was therefore dominating. Applying to high-volume spine surgeons in Ontario, we estimated that the implementation of the triage program would save the province $24,234,929 per year. Based on the assumptions made in our modelling, eliminating unnecessary imaging in spinal disorder diagnosis can save healthcare

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of intraoral film and direct digital images for detection of simulated recurrent decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K; Ludlow, J B; May, K N; Nair, U P; Johnson, M P; Close, J M

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of bitewing images for detection of simulated recurrent caries using the following imaging modalities: Ektaspeed Plus film and different digital imaging system technologies comprised of a charge-coupled device (CCD) based digital imaging unit, a photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP) based unit and contrast- and brightness-enhanced PSP images. Twenty-four extracted posterior teeth with MOD inlay preparations were secured in models simulating a natural arrangement of teeth. Lesions were created in proximal boxes using dental burs of varying sizes. Defects were filled with wax and plaster and preparations were restored with composite or amalgam. Averages of receiver operating curve areas (Az) revealed diagnostic performances of Az = 0.74 for film, Az = 0.80 for CCD, Az = 0.73 for unenhanced PSP and Az = 0.64 for enhanced PSP. The differences between these means were significant (MANOVA p modalities. CCD performance was not significantly better than enhanced PSP. Lesions under radiopaque composite restorations were easier to detect, followed by those under amalgam and radiolucent composites across imaging modalities and lesion locations. Based on lesion location, those located at the buccal point angle were easiest to detect, followed by those at mid-gingival floor and lingual-point angle sites. Contrast and brightness-enhanced digital images enabled better signal detection and a comparable performance with film for detection of artificially induced recurrent caries.

  3. Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics systems on the EAST tokamak (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y. L.; Xie, J. L., E-mail: jlxie@ustc.edu.cn; Yu, C. X.; Zhao, Z. L.; Gao, B. X.; Chen, D. X.; Liu, W. D.; Liao, W.; Qu, C. M.; Luo, C. [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, X.; Spear, A. G.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Chen, M.; Ren, X. [University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, with large poloidal span and wide radial range, have been developed on the EAST tokamak for visualization of 2D electron temperature and density fluctuations. A 384 channel (24 poloidal × 16 radial) Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system in F-band (90-140 GHz) was installed on the EAST tokamak in 2012 to provide 2D electron temperature fluctuation images with high spatial and temporal resolution. A co-located Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) will be installed for imaging of density fluctuations by December 2016. This “4th generation” MIR system has eight independent frequency illumination beams in W-band (75-110 GHz) driven by fast tuning synthesizers and active multipliers. Both of these advanced millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic systems have applied the latest techniques. A novel design philosophy “general optics structure” has been employed for the design of the ECEI and MIR receiver optics with large aperture. The extended radial and poloidal coverage of ECEI on EAST is made possible by innovations in the design of front-end optics. The front-end optical structures of the two imaging diagnostics, ECEI and MIR, have been integrated into a compact system, including the ECEI receiver and MIR transmitter and receiver. Two imaging systems share the same mid-plane port for simultaneous, co-located 2D fluctuation measurements of electron density and temperature. An intelligent remote-control is utilized in the MIR electronics systems to maintain focusing at the desired radial region even with density variations by remotely tuning the probe frequencies in about 200 μs. A similar intelligent technique has also been applied on the ECEI IF system, with remote configuration of the attenuations for each channel.

  4. University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC): an assessment of its utility for teaching diagnostic imaging in the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil; Malin, Greg; Trinder, Krista; Pinelle, David

    2015-01-01

    We have found it very challenging to integrate images from our radiology digital imaging repository into the curriculum of our local medical school. Thus, it has been difficult to convey important knowledge related to viewing and interpreting diagnostic radiology images. We sought to determine if we could create a solution for this problem and evaluate whether students exposed to this solution were able to learn imaging concepts pertinent to medical practice. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a novel interactive web application that enables preclinical medical students to acquire image interpretation skills fundamental to clinical practice. This web application reformats content stored in Medical Imaging Resource Center teaching cases for BlackBoard Learn™, a popular learning management system. We have deployed this solution for 2 successive years in a 1st-year basic sciences medical school course at the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan. The "courseware" content covers both normal anatomy and common clinical pathologies in five distinct modules. We created two cohorts of learners consisting of an intervention cohort of students who had used USRC for their 1st academic year, whereas the nonintervention cohort was students who had not been exposed to this learning opportunity. To assess the learning experience of the users we designed an online questionnaire and image review quiz delivered to both of the student groups. Comparisons between the groups revealed statistically significant differences in both confidence with image interpretation and the ability to answer knowledge-based questions. Students were satisfied with the overall usability, functions, and capabilities of USRC. USRC is an innovative technology that provides integration between Medical Imaging Resource Center, a teaching solution used in radiology, and a Learning Management System.

  5. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) of dynamic image processing for cardiologic diagnostics of transportation workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedenko, Valeri G.; Ioseliani, D. G.; Nikiforov, S. N.; Fainberg, Evgeny M.

    2002-04-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are the most perspective branch of medical technologies development. One of the most mass, cheap and effective methods of diagnostics and treatment of cardio-vascular diseases is interventional cardiology based on angiologic procedures. The principal difference of PACS for interventional cardiology is in necessity of gaining, analysis and archiving of dynamic images (angiology scenes). Russian Research Center > has developed and successfully implemented the first Russian PACS for interventional cardiology - complex for diagnostics, monitoring and treatment of cardio-vascular disease > which is described later in the article.

  6. Magnetic Levitation Coupled with Portable Imaging and Analysis for Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie M; Yenilmez, Bekir; Amin, Reza; Tasoglu, Savas

    2017-02-19

    Currently, many clinical diagnostic procedures are complex, costly, inefficient, and inaccessible to a large population in the world. The requirements for specialized equipment and trained personnel require that many diagnostic tests be performed at remote, centralized clinical laboratories. Magnetic levitation is a simple yet powerful technique and can be applied to levitate cells, which are suspended in a paramagnetic solution and placed in a magnetic field, at a position determined by equilibrium between a magnetic force and a buoyancy force. Here, we present a versatile platform technology designed for point-of-care diagnostics which uses magnetic levitation coupled to microscopic imaging and automated analysis to determine the density distribution of a patient's cells as a useful diagnostic indicator. We present two platforms operating on this principle: (i) a smartphone-compatible version of the technology, where the built-in smartphone camera is used to image cells in the magnetic field and a smartphone application processes the images and to measures the density distribution of the cells and (ii) a self-contained version where a camera board is used to capture images and an embedded processing unit with attached thin-film-transistor (TFT) screen measures and displays the results. Demonstrated applications include: (i) measuring the altered distribution of a cell population with a disease phenotype compared to a healthy phenotype, which is applied to sickle cell disease diagnosis, and (ii) separation of different cell types based on their characteristic densities, which is applied to separate white blood cells from red blood cells for white blood cell cytometry. These applications, as well as future extensions of the essential density-based measurements enabled by this portable, user-friendly platform technology, will significantly enhance disease diagnostic capabilities at the point of care.

  7. Coherent fiber bundle based integrated photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging (PAUSFI) for endoscopy and diagnostic bio-imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Joseph; Murukeshan, V. M.; Sathiyamoorthy, K.; Woh, Lye Sun

    2014-08-01

    Recent research in diagnostic imaging and sensing focuses on deriving complementary information from the diagnosed site. From that perspective it is imperative to devise new imaging platforms where multiple distinct modalities are used either simultaneously or sequentially. Increased efforts have been devoted towards establishing such multi-modal imaging systems, which house and operate more than two imaging modalities within a single instrumentation set-up. In this context, we propose a novel multi-modal imaging platform using non-ionizing radiation that has been successfully conceptualized, established and experimentally demonstrated. This proposed GRIN lensed fiber-optic microscope and linear array transducer based PAUSFI (photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging) system makes use of non-ionizing radiation sources to map optical and acoustic heterogeneities (complementary information) along the depth of the tissue at multi-scale resolution (microscopic to mesoscopic). The fiber-optic assembly enables the system to perform minimally invasive remote light delivery and high resolution fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of inaccessible areas of intact tissues or intra body cavities. It is expected that the proposed multi-modal imaging system could open up niches in bio-imaging research in the near future.

  8. Confirmation of Thermal Images and Vibration Signals for Intelligent Machine Fault Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Widodo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the maintenance technique for industrial machinery using the artificial neural network so-called self-organizing map (SOM. The aim of this work is to develop intelligent maintenance system for machinery based on an alternative way, namely, thermal images instead of vibration signals. SOM is selected due to its simplicity and is categorized as an unsupervised algorithm. Following the SOM training, machine fault diagnostics is performed by using the pattern recognition technique of machine conditions. The data used in this work are thermal images and vibration signals, which were acquired from machine fault simulator (MFS. It is a reliable tool and is able to simulate several conditions of faulty machine such as unbalance, misalignment, looseness, and rolling element bearing faults (outer race, inner race, ball, and cage defects. Data acquisition were conducted simultaneously by infrared thermography camera and vibration sensors installed in the MFS. The experimental data are presented as thermal image and vibration signal in the time domain. Feature extraction was carried out to obtain salient features sensitive to machine conditions from thermal images and vibration signals. These features are then used to train the SOM for intelligent machine diagnostics process. The results show that SOM can perform intelligent fault diagnostics with plausible accuracies.

  9. OpenID connect as a security service in Cloud-based diagnostic imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Sartipi, Kamran; Sharghi, Hassan; Koff, David; Bak, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of cloud computing is driving the next generation of diagnostic imaging (DI) systems. Cloud-based DI systems are able to deliver better services to patients without constraining to their own physical facilities. However, privacy and security concerns have been consistently regarded as the major obstacle for adoption of cloud computing by healthcare domains. Furthermore, traditional computing models and interfaces employed by DI systems are not ready for accessing diagnostic images through mobile devices. RESTful is an ideal technology for provisioning both mobile services and cloud computing. OpenID Connect, combining OpenID and OAuth together, is an emerging REST-based federated identity solution. It is one of the most perspective open standards to potentially become the de-facto standard for securing cloud computing and mobile applications, which has ever been regarded as "Kerberos of Cloud". We introduce OpenID Connect as an identity and authentication service in cloud-based DI systems and propose enhancements that allow for incorporating this technology within distributed enterprise environment. The objective of this study is to offer solutions for secure radiology image sharing among DI-r (Diagnostic Imaging Repository) and heterogeneous PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) as well as mobile clients in the cloud ecosystem. Through using OpenID Connect as an open-source identity and authentication service, deploying DI-r and PACS to private or community clouds should obtain equivalent security level to traditional computing model.

  10. Computer-aided diagnostic system for detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images from a Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Molinari, Filippo; Zieleźnik, Witold; Bardales, Ricardo H; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2014-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques aid physicians in better diagnosis of diseases by extracting objective and accurate diagnostic information from medical data. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common type of inflammation of the thyroid gland. The inflammation changes the structure of the thyroid tissue, and these changes are reflected as echogenic changes on ultrasound images. In this work, we propose a novel CAD system (a class of systems called ThyroScan) that extracts textural features from a thyroid sonogram and uses them to aid in the detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this paradigm, we extracted grayscale features based on stationary wavelet transform from 232 normal and 294 Hashimoto thyroiditis-affected thyroid ultrasound images obtained from a Polish population. Significant features were selected using a Student t test. The resulting feature vectors were used to build and evaluate the following 4 classifiers using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation technique: support vector machine, decision tree, fuzzy classifier, and K-nearest neighbor. Using 7 significant features that characterized the textural changes in the images, the fuzzy classifier had the highest classification accuracy of 84.6%, sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 87.0%, and a positive predictive value of 88.9%. The proposed ThyroScan CAD system uses novel features to noninvasively detect the presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images. Compared to manual interpretations of ultrasound images, the CAD system offers a more objective interpretation of the nature of the thyroid. The preliminary results presented in this work indicate the possibility of using such a CAD system in a clinical setting after evaluating it with larger databases in multicenter clinical trials.

  11. Distributed decision making in action: diagnostic imaging investigations within the bigger picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjee, Chandra R; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A

    2017-11-11

    Decision making in the health care system - specifically with regard to diagnostic imaging investigations - occurs at multiple levels. Professional role players from various backgrounds are involved in making these decisions, from the point of referral to the outcomes of the imaging investigation. The aim of this study was to map the decision-making processes and pathways involved when patients are referred for diagnostic imaging investigations and to explore distributed decision-making events at the points of contact with patients within a health care system. A two-phased qualitative study was conducted in an academic public health complex with the district hospital as entry point. The first phase included case studies of 24 conveniently selected patients, and the second phase involved 12 focus group interviews with health care providers. Data analysis was based on Rapley's interpretation of decision making as being distributed across time, situations and actions, and including different role players and technologies. Clinical decisions incorporating imaging investigations are distributed across the three vital points of contact or decision-making events, namely the initial patient consultation, the diagnostic imaging investigation and the post-investigation consultation. Each of these decision-making events is made up of a sequence of discrete decision-making moments based on the transfer of retrospective, current and prospective information and its transformation into knowledge. This paper contributes to the understanding of the microstructural processes (the 'when' and 'where') involved in the distribution of decisions related to imaging investigations. It also highlights the interdependency in decision-making events of medical and non-medical providers within a single medical encounter. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation

  12. Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy of clavicle lesions: a retrospective study of diagnostic yield with description of safe biopsy routes in 55 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressney, I.; Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-21

    To assess the diagnostic yield and diagnostic accuracy of image-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of clavicle lesions and to analyse the diagnostic spectrum of clavicular lesions referred to a tertiary musculoskeletal oncology centre. To further describe safe biopsy routes for biopsy of the unique clavicle bone. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent an image-guided clavicle biopsy during the period from August 2006 to December 2013. A total of 52 patients with 55 consecutive biopsies were identified and included in the study. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed using CT (n = 38) or ultrasound (n = 17). There were 23 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 40 years (range 2 to 87 years). Forty-six of the 55 biopsies (83.6 %) yielded a diagnostic sample and 9 (16.4 %) were non-diagnostic. Thirty of 46 (65.2 %) lesions were malignant and 16 (34.8 %) were benign/non-neoplastic. The most common malignant lesions were metastases, 22 of 30 (73.3 %), followed by primary tumours in 8 of 30 (26.7 %). The most common benign/non-neoplastic lesion was chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (4 of 16, 25 %) followed by Langerhans cell histiocytosis, epithelioid haemangioma and osteomyelitis (each with 2 of 16, 12.5 %). There was complete agreement between the needle and surgical histology specimen in 12 of 13 subjects (92.3 %). No post-biopsy complications were reported. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy has high diagnostic yield and accuracy and the described approaches are a safe means of biopsy for clavicle lesions. (orig.)

  13. Postcards from the imaging informatics road. Despite policy complexities, diagnostic imaging informatics makes progress on multiple fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagland, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The current strategic landscape for imaging informatics is one filled with great contrasts and paradoxes. On the one hand, because imaging informatics was not explicitly addressed in Stage 1 of the meaningful use requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act/Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (ARRA-HITECH) legislation, it instantly lost some of the environment of turbo-charged energy characterized by areas that were directly addressed by the HITECH Act, such as quality data reporting, care management, and of course, core electronic health record (EHR) development. On the other hand, an interesting combination of factors--rapidly advancing technology, the expansion of the image archiving concept across different medical specialties, and the inclusion of diagnostic image-sharing as one element in the development of health information exchange (HIE) arrangements nationwide--is nonetheless pushing imaging informatics forward towards new innovations. The five articles below provide readers with different glimpses of the path ahead for imaging informatics. The first presents a look at the current policy and reimbursement landscape. Each of the four subsequent articles delve into different aspects of innovation, from a process developed at a public hospital to improve and speed up the diagnostic process for trauma patients, to a radiology-specific financial analytics solution in the group practice setting, to an advance in cardiology information systems, to a self-developed federated image viewing platform at one of the nation's largest integrated health systems. Each of those initiatives is very different; yet it is clear that a great deal of innovation is taking place across the US. healthcare system when it comes to imaging informatics. With a landscape filled with uncertainties and potential policy, reimbursement, and industry shifts in the offing, CIOs, CMIOs, and other healthcare IT leaders will need to think very

  14. Diagnostic imaging of the hand. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Rainer [Herz und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Lanz, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the hand covers the following issues: projection radiography, cinematography, MRT and CR arthrography, arthroscopy, arteriography, skeleton scintiscanning, sonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, anatomy of forearm and carpus, anatomy of metacarpus and fingers, carpal function and morphometry, postoperative X-ray diagnostic, growing hand skeleton, normative variants, malformations and deformities, trauma of the distal forearm, lesions of the ulnocarpal complex (TFCC), scaphoid fractures, scaphoid arthrosis, fractures of other carpus bones, carpal luxations and luxation fractures, carpal instabilities, fractures of the metacarpalla, finger fractures, arthrosis deformans, enthesiopathies, sport induced soft tissue lesions, osteonecrosis, impingement syndromes, osteopenic skeletal diseases, metabolis diseases, crystal-induced osteoarthropaties, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, rheumatic fever, collagenoses, infective arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infections, cystoids bone lesions, skeletal tumors, soft tissue tumors, carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve compression syndrome, arterial perfusion disturbances, differential diagnostic tables on hand lesions.

  15. Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS—A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Avci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the growing need in disease diagnostics has stimulated rapid development of new technologies with unprecedented capabilities. Recent emerging infectious diseases and epidemics have revealed the shortcomings of existing diagnostics tools, and the necessity for further improvements. Optical biosensors can lay the foundations for future generation diagnostics by providing means to detect biomarkers in a highly sensitive, specific, quantitative and multiplexed fashion. Here, we review an optical sensing technology, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS, and the relevant features of this multifunctional platform for quantitative, label-free and dynamic detection. We discuss two distinct modalities for IRIS: (i low-magnification (ensemble biomolecular mass measurements and (ii high-magnification (digital detection of individual nanoparticles along with their applications, including label-free detection of multiplexed protein chips, measurement of single nucleotide polymorphism, quantification of transcription factor DNA binding, and high sensitivity digital sensing and characterization of nanoparticles and viruses.

  16. Factors influencing the diagnostic yield and accuracy of image-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of pediatric tumors: single-center audit of a 26-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondiaux, Eléonore; Laurent, Méryle; Audureau, Etienne; Boudjemaa, Sabah; Sileo, Chiara; Lenoir, Marion; Dainese, Linda; Garel, Catherine; Coulomb, Aurore; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert

    2016-03-01

    Image-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy is a common procedure for diagnosis of both solid tumors and hematological malignancies in children. Despite recent improvements, a certain rate of non-diagnostic biopsies persists. To assess the factors influencing the diagnostic yield and accuracy of percutaneous core needle biopsies of pediatric tumors. We conducted a single-center retrospective study of a 26-year experience with image-guided biopsies in children and young adults. Using uni- and multivariate analysis, we evaluated the association of diagnostic yield and accuracy with technical factors (image-guided procedure, pathological technique) and clinical factors (complication rate, histological type and anatomical location). We retrieved data relating to 396 biopsies were performed in 363 children and young adults (mean age: 7.4 years). Overall, percutaneous core needle biopsy showed a diagnostic yield of 89.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 85.9-92.2) and an accuracy of 90.9% (CI 87.6-93.6) with a complication rate of 2.5% (CI 1.2-4.6).The diagnostic yield increased with the use of advanced tissue assessment techniques (95.7% with immunohistochemistry versus 82.3% without immunohistochemistry; P < 0.0001) and an increased number of passes (mean: 3.96 for diagnostic biopsies versus 3.62 for non-diagnostic biopsies; P = 0.044). The use of advanced pathological techniques and an increased number of passes are the two main factors influencing the diagnostic success of biopsies in pediatric tumors.

  17. Diagnostic performance of imaging-guided core needle biopsy of the mesentery and peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Montilla, M E; Lombardo Galera, S; Espejo Herrero, J J; Sastoque, J M; Zurera Tendero, L

    2018-01-21

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of imaging-guided core needle biopsy of nodules and diffuse infiltration of the omentum or of the peritoneum. We retrospectively evaluated 57 patients who underwent core needle biopsy of the peritoneum or of the omentum between March 2014 and January 2017. We used computed tomography (CT) to plan the biopsy. Biopsies were guided by CT or ultrasonography (US). We classified the results as diagnostic (benign / malignant) or inconclusive (inadequate sample). We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value, and negative predictive value. We analyzed whether the specimen was diagnostic depending on the imaging technique used (CT or US) and on the type of omental or peritoneal involvement from which the specimen was obtained (mass, nodule, or diffuse involvement). All (100%) the percutaneous biopsies were diagnostic. The sensitivity of the technique was 98.18% and the specificity was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 50%. Both the specimens obtained under CT guidance (n=10) and those obtained under US guidance (n=47) were diagnostic. Likewise, biopsies of masses (n=24), of nodules (n=17), and even of diffuse infiltration (n=16) of the peritoneum or omentum enabled the histologic diagnosis. The rate of complications was 1.75% (one death). Percutaneous core needle biopsy has high sensitivity regardless of the imaging technique used to guide the technique (CT or US) and of the type of lesion biopsied (mass, nodule, diffuse infiltration). It is a useful technique with a very low rate of complications, although severe complications can occur. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical Note: Measurement of common carotid artery lumen dynamics using black-blood MR cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erpeng; Dong, Li; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Lyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xihai; Wang, Jinnan; Yuan, Chun; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen dynamics using a black-blood cine (BB-cine) imaging method. Motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (MSDE) prepared spoiled gradient sequence was used for the BB-cine imaging. CCAs of eleven healthy volunteers were studied using this method. Lumen dynamics, including lumen area evolution waveforms and distension values, were measured and evaluated by comparing this method with bright-blood cine (BrB-cine) imaging. Compared with the BrB-cine images, flow artifacts were effectively suppressed in the BB-cine images. BrB-cine images generally show larger lumen areas than BB-cine images. The lumen area waveforms and distension measurements from BB-cine imaging showed smaller variances among different subjects than BrB-cine imaging. The proposed BB-cine imaging technique can suppress the flow artifacts effectively and reduce the partial volume effects from the vessel wall. This might allow more accurate lumen dynamics measurements than traditional BrB-cine imaging, which may further be valuable for investigating biomechanical and functional properties of the cardiovascular system. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Diagnostic MR imagings of temporomandibular joint disorders by 1. 5 tesla superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Ken-ichiro; Tsuda, Yoshitugu; Moriya, Hiroyuki; Segami, Natsuki; Konishi, Junji; Iizuka, Tadahiko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    For diagnostic imaging of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, 1.5 tesla superconducting magnet system was applied in 65 patients with 75 joints. MR imaging was performed with GE-Signa 1.5 tesla MR imaging system with the body coil used as the transmitter and 3 inch surface coil as the receiver. For detecting T{sub 1} weighted images, the following parameters were used; TR: 1000, TE: 25, Excitation: 1. Data matrix: 256 x 128, FOV: 8 cm, Slice thickness: 3 mm. For taking T{sub 2} weighted images, TR: 2200, TE:80 was used. For anatomical interpretation of TMJ, 3-mm thick images with a 1-mm interspace sagittal multiplane with TR: 1000/TE: 25 sequence was useful, and additional coronal images were beneficial for examining condylar morphology as well as mediolateral disk position. T{sub 2} weighted imaging obtained the joint effusion suspected of intra-articular inflammation. These findings suggest that MR imaging is useful in the detection and evaluation of TMJ patho-morphology. (author).

  20. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  1. Selected issues in diagnostic imaging of spondyloarthritides: psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritides (also known as spondyloarthropathies) are a group of rheumatic diseases that consists of diversified entities, i.e. ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis in the course of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and juvenile spondyloarthropathies. In the diagnostics of spondyloarthritides, plain radiography has played a crucial role for years due to its undisputed ability to show distinctive bony changes. Yet as those diseases often manifest themselves by soft tissue pathology and bone marrow inflammation, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are currently a subject of numerous studies in the quest for setting up diagnostic criteria, especially at early stages of inflammatory processes. In our review, we present an up-to-date insight into classifications, etiopathogenesis and imaging of psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis.

  2. Selected issues in diagnostic imaging of spondyloarthritides: psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spondyloarthritides (also known as spondyloarthropathies are a group of rheumatic diseases that consists of diversified entities, i.e. ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis in the course of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and juvenile spondyloarthropathies. In the diagnostics of spondyloarthritides, plain radiography has played a crucial role for years due to its undisputed ability to show distinctive bony changes. Yet as those diseases often manifest themselves by soft tissue pathology and bone marrow inflammation, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are currently a subject of numerous studies in the quest for setting up diagnostic criteria, especially at early stages of inflammatory processes. In our review, we present an up-to-date insight into classifications, etiopathogenesis and imaging of psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis.

  3. Additive diagnostic role of imaging in glaucoma: optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko Eun; Kim, Seok Hwan; Oh, Sohee; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Suh, Min Hee; Seo, Je Hyun; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2014-11-20

    To investigate the additive diagnostic role of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and red-free retinal nerve fiber layer photography (RNFLP) in making clinical glaucoma diagnosis. Four diagnostic combination sets, including the most recent image from each measurement of 196 glaucoma eyes (including the 44 preperimetric glaucoma eyes) and 101 healthy eyes, were prepared: (1) stereo disc photography and Humphrey visual field (SH), (2) SH and SD-OCT (SHO), (3) SH and RNFLP (SHR), and (4) SHR and SD-OCT (SHRO). Each randomly sorted set was serially presented at 1-month intervals to five glaucoma specialists who were asked to evaluate them in a subjective and independent manner. The specialists' glaucoma-diagnostic performances based on the sets were then compared. For each specialist, adding SD-OCT to SH or SHR increased the glaucoma-diagnostic sensitivity but not to a level of statistical significance. For one specialist, adding RNFLP to SH significantly increased the sensitivity. Each specialist showed a high level of specificity regardless of the diagnostic set. The overall sensitivity of all specialists' assessments was significantly increased by adding RNFLP or the combination of SD-OCT and RNFLP to SH (P < 0.001); however, adding SD-OCT to SH or SHR did not significantly increase the sensitivity. A similar relationship was noted also for the preperimetric glaucoma subgroup. In contrast to RNFLP, SD-OCT did not significantly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of detecting glaucoma or even of preperimetric glaucoma. Our results suggest that, at least for glaucoma specialists, the additive diagnostic role of OCT is limited. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Textile foreign body in a Green Iguana (Iguana iguana): Diagnostic imaging for localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebens, M; Länger, B; Günther, P; Fehr, M; Mathes, K A

    2016-11-01

    This case report includes different diagnostic imaging methods for localization of textile foreign bodies in reptiles and shows the limitations and advantages of these methods. A six-year-old, male, green iguana was presented to our clinic after ingesting a sock 5 days earlier. Ultrasound, contrast x-ray, computed tomography and endoscopy were used to locate the foreign body before surgery. Attempts to remove the sock endoscopically failed. The sock was surgically removed via celiotomy and enterotomy.

  5. A texture analysis approach for objective uniformity evaluation in diagnostic ultrasound imaging: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Andrea; Conforto, Silvia; Lupi, Giulia; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound image uniformity is an important parameter for quality assurance in diagnostic ultrasounds, but it is usually assessed by a qualitative judgement of technicians so its estimation is rough and subjective. In this work a novel method is developed to give an objective measurement of the Bmode image uniformity over the whole field of view or some of its part: the Texture Distribution Analysis Method (TDAM) is based on a segmentation of the Region of Interest, depending on some texture features calculated from co-occurrence matrices. Results on a set of 10 test images with different non-uniformities (Uniformity Image Test Set or UITS) show a good sensitivity and agreement of TDAM with the mean judgment by 5 human observers (TUV): TDAM and TUV uniformity values are coherent for the whole UITS, nevertheless a high uncertainty in uniformity values has been observed (up to 28 percent). Preliminary results look encouraging and more efforts are worth to refine the method.

  6. Diagnostic performance of 3D standing CT imaging for detection of knee osteoarthritis features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Neil A; Nevitt, Michael C; Lynch, John A; Niu, Jingbo; Torner, James C; Guermazi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of standing computerized tomography (SCT) of the knee for osteophytes and subchondral cysts compared with fixed-flexion radiography, using MRI as the reference standard. Twenty participants were recruited from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. Participants' knees were imaged with SCT while standing in a knee-positioning frame, and with postero-anterior fixed-flexion radiography and 1T MRI. Medial and lateral marginal osteophytes and subchondral cysts were scored on bilateral radiographs and coronal SCT images using the OARSI grading system and on coronal MRI using Whole Organ MRI Scoring. Imaging modalities were read separately with images in random order. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the detection of lesions were calculated and differences between modalities were tested using McNemar's test. Participants' mean age was 66.8 years, body mass index was 29.6 kg/m(2) and 50% were women. Of the 160 surfaces (medial and lateral femur and tibia for 40 knees), MRI revealed 84 osteophytes and 10 subchondral cysts. In comparison with osteophytes and subchondral cysts detected by MRI, SCT was significantly more sensitive (93 and 100%; p MRI, SCT imaging was more sensitive and accurate for detection of osteophytes and subchondral cysts than conventional fixed-flexion radiography. Additional study is warranted to assess diagnostic performance of SCT measures of joint space width, progression of OA features and the patellofemoral joint.

  7. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and neurosonography in congenital neurological anomalies: supplementary diagnostic and postnatal prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Flores, Jose; Recio, Manuel; Uriel, Monserrat; Cañamares, Marina; Cruceyra, Mireia; Tamarit, Inés; Carrascoso, Javier; Espada, Mercedes; Sáinz de la Cuesta, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic conclusions between fetal neurosonography and MRI in the cases of congenital neurological abnormalities, and with postnatal clinical and imaging evaluation, when available. A retrospective study of 28 patients who underwent a fetal MRI study for suspected congenital neurological anomalies. The diagnoses obtained by neurosonography and MRI were collected and compared. Both of them were compared with the final diagnosis when available by necropsy or postnatal evaluation. Postnatal imaging tests were performed only when clinically indicated. The indications for the fetal MRI examination were: fetal ventriculomegaly, posterior fossa anomalies, suspected midline defects, small-for-gestational-age cephalic biometry and confirmed congenital CMV infection. There was a good degree of agreement beyond chance between both techniques (kappa test = 0.76). Both imaging modalities give a high-diagnostic performance with a good degree of agreement between them, when made by specialized staff. Fetal MRI is a valuable complementary tool to detailed neurosonography which allows an evaluation of the normal brain maturation from the second trimester. It also offers a higher diagnostic performance for some congenital abnormalities such as cortical development or acquired lesions.

  8. Harmonisation of the appearance of digital radiographs from different vendors by means of common external image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Lars; Båth, Magnus; Engman, Eva-Lena; Månsson, Lars Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of common external image processing to compensate for differences in appearance between digital X-ray images from different vendors. Twenty posteroanterior chest radiographs were collected from each of three different modalities from different vendors (GE, Siemens and Canon) with vendor-specific image processing applied. The images were also extracted with neutral process parameters and processed with external image-processing software. Six experienced radiologists rated the quality and the similarity of the images with the original Siemens images. The externally processed GE images were rated of higher quality than the original GE images and more similar to the original Siemens images (p images. The externally processed Siemens images were rated of similar quality as the original images. The present study indicates the possibility of using common external image processing to harmonise the appearance of images from different vendors, although the exposure parameters may need to be adjusted for individual vendors.

  9. The possibilities of improvement in the sensitivity of cancer fluorescence diagnostics by computer image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwon, Aleksandra; Bieda, Robert; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Polanski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Latos, Wojciech; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Sieron, Aleksander

    2008-02-01

    Background: Fluorescence diagnostics uses the ability of tissues to fluoresce after exposition to a specific wavelength of light. The change in fluorescence between normal and progression to cancer allows to see early cancer and precancerous lesions often missed by white light. Aim: To improve by computer image processing the sensitivity of fluorescence images obtained during examination of skin, oral cavity, vulva and cervix lesions, during endoscopy, cystoscopy and bronchoscopy using Xillix ONCOLIFE. Methods: Function of image f(x,y):R2 --> R 3 was transformed from original color space RGB to space in which vector of 46 values refers to every point labeled by defined xy-coordinates- f(x,y):R2 --> R 46. By means of Fisher discriminator vector of attributes of concrete point analalyzed in the image was reduced according to two defined classes defined as pathologic areas (foreground) and healthy areas (background). As a result the highest four fisher's coefficients allowing the greatest separation between points of pathologic (foreground) and healthy (background) areas were chosen. In this way new function f(x,y):R2 --> R 4 was created in which point x,y corresponds with vector Y, H, a*, c II. In the second step using Gaussian Mixtures and Expectation-Maximisation appropriate classificator was constructed. This classificator enables determination of probability that the selected pixel of analyzed image is a pathologically changed point (foreground) or healthy one (background). Obtained map of probability distribution was presented by means of pseudocolors. Results: Image processing techniques improve the sensitivity, quality and sharpness of original fluorescence images. Conclusion: Computer image processing enables better visualization of suspected areas examined by means of fluorescence diagnostics.

  10. The Effect of Diagnostic Imaging on Surgical Treatment Planning in Diseases of the Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ottlakan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate imaging of the thymus is essential in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of both neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. Imaging of the thymus is a rather complex task, which affects both initial diagnosis and further surgical treatment planning. Imaging techniques include a wide armamentary of possibilities, from the most frequently used computed tomography (CT to 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography- (18-FDG-PET- CT and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI. In cases where surgical treatment is involved diagnostic imaging is of pivotal importance, not only in distinguishing benign from malignant disease but also in making a way among subtypes of thymic conditions. The article presents a current review of the advantages and backdrops of different imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thymic conditions, with emphasis on differential imaging of thymic hyperplasia (TH, ectopic thymic tissue (ETT, and thymic epithelial tumors (TETs, with special attention to the importance of MR imaging according to the new TNM classification of thymic epithelial tumors.

  11. SEGMENTATION AND CORRELATION OF OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND X-RAY IMAGES FOR BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONATHAN G. SUN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-operative X-ray mammography and intraoperative X-ray specimen radiography are routinely used to identify breast cancer pathology. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT have enabled its use for the intraoperative assessment of surgical margins during breast cancer surgery. While each modality offers distinct contrast of normal and pathological features, there is an essential need to correlate image-based features between the two modalities to take advantage of the diagnostic capabilities of each technique. We compare OCT to X-ray images of resected human breast tissue and correlate different tissue features between modalities for future use in real-time intraoperative OCT imaging. X-ray imaging (specimen radiography is currently used during surgical breast cancer procedures to verify tumor margins, but cannot image tissue in situ. OCT has the potential to solve this problem by providing intraoperative imaging of the resected specimen as well as the in situ tumor cavity. OCT and micro-CT (X-ray images are automatically segmented using different computational approaches, and quantitatively compared to determine the ability of these algorithms to automatically differentiate regions of adipose tissue from tumor. Furthermore, two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D results are compared. These correlations, combined with real-time intraoperative OCT, have the potential to identify possible regions of tumor within breast tissue which correlate to tumor regions identified previously on X-ray imaging (mammography or specimen radiography.

  12. Fundus image diagnostic agreement in uveitis utilizing free and open source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jane; Honda, Andrea F; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Samson, C Michael; Kedhar, Sanjay; Mauro, John; Francis, Jasmine; Badamo, Jason; Diaz, Vicente A; Kempen, John H; Latkany, Paul A

    2013-08-01

    To assess the adequacy of image agreement regarding uveitis based on color fundus and fluorescein angiography images alone, and to use free and open source applications to conduct an image agreement study. Cross-sectional agreement study. Baseline fundus and fluorescein images of patients with panuveitis, posterior, or intermediate uveitis enrolled in the Multi-center Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial. Three fellowship-trained specialists in uveitis independently reviewed patient images using ClearCanvas™ and responded using Epi Info™. The diagnoses of the 3 reviewers were compared with the MUST clinician as a gold standard. A rank transformation adjusted for the possible variation in number of responses per patient. Chance-corrected interobserver agreement among the 3 reviewers was estimated with the ι coefficient. Confidence interval (CI) and SE were bootstrapped. Agreement between the diagnoses of the respondents and the baseline MUST clinician's diagnosis was poor across all diagnostic categories, ι = 0.09 (95% CI, 0.07-0.11). The agreement among respondents alone also was poor, ι = 0.11 ± 0.02 (95% CI, 0.08-0.13). The specialists requested more patient historical and clinical information to make a diagnosis on all patients. The role in distinguishing the multiple conditions in uveitis appears to be limited when based on fundus imaging alone. Future studies should investigate different categories of clinical data to supplement image data. Freely available applications have excellent utility in ophthalmic imaging agreement studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography system, filtered images, and subtraction radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of three different imaging systems: Direct digital radiography system (DDR-CMOS, four types of filtered images, and a priori and a posteriori registration of digital subtraction radiography (DSR in the diagnosis of proximal defects. Materials and Methods: The teeth were arranged in pairs in 10 blocks of vinyl polysiloxane, and proximal defects were performed with drills of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm diameter. Kodak RVG 6100 sensor was used to capture the images. A posteriori DSR registrations were done with Regeemy 0.2.43 and subtraction with Image Tool 3.0. Filtered images were obtained with Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1 software. Images (n = 360 were evaluated by three raters, all experts in dental radiology. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve (Az were higher for DSR images with all three drills (Az = 0.896, 0.979, and 1.000 for drills 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm, respectively. The highest values were found for 1-mm drills and the lowest for 0.25-mm drills, with negative filter having the lowest values of all (Az = 0.631. Conclusion: The best method of diagnosis was by using a DSR. The negative filter obtained the worst results. Larger drills showed the highest sensitivity and specificity values of the area under the ROC curve.

  14. Diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in the radiological evaluation of pulsatile tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweel, Mohamed; Hamdy, Balegh

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging with complimentary magnetic resonance angiography (MRI/MRA) in the radiological evaluation of patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). The present study was retrospectively conducted on 27 patients with pulsatile tinnitus. All patients showed normal otoscopic findings and were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with complimentary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), 9/27 (33.3%) patients were investigated by CT, and 12/27 (44.4%) were evaluated by angiography. All patients' clinical investigation was reviewed to discard systemic causes of PT. All hard copies of MRI/MRA studies were evaluated. MRI/MRA detected the underlying etiology of subjective pulsatile tinnitus (PT) in 11/27 patients (40.7%), and 16/27 patients (59.5%) showed normal MRI/MRA examination. The most common cause was dural arteriovenous malformation (AFM) in 4/27 (14.8%) patients, high jugular bulbus in 2/27 (7.4%), aneurysm of internal carotid artery in 1/27 (3.7%), aberrant internal carotid artery in 1/27 (3.7%), vertebral artery hypoplasia in 2/27 (7.4%), and glomus tumor in 1/27 (3.7%). The statistical results of the present study showed that MRI/MRA had the following: 80% sensitivity, 88% specificity, 86% accuracy, 85% PPV, 83% NPV, and 15% error percentage for diagnosis of PT. MRI/MRA was an effective radiological imaging method in detecting the underlying pathology of pulsatile tinnitus. Magnetic resonance may be considered a first line diagnostic imaging modality in the assessment of subjective pulsatile tinnitus. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast imaging diagnostics on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstedt, E. M., E-mail: egranstedt@trialphaenergy.com; Petrov, P.; Knapp, K.; Cordero, M.; Patel, V. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary. The axial view incorporated a stainless-steel mirror in a protective cap assembly attached to the vacuum-side of the viewport. For each system, a custom lens-based, high-throughput optical periscope was designed to relay the plasma image about half a meter to a high-speed camera. Each instrument also contained a remote-controlled filter wheel, set between shots to isolate a particular hydrogen or impurity emission line. The design of the camera platform, imaging performance, and sample data for each view is presented.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of less common pancreatic malignancies and pancreatic tumors with malignant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are an increasingly common finding in abdominal imaging. Various kinds of pathologies of the pancreas are well known, but it often remains difficult to classify the lesions radiologically in respect of type and grade of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for the evaluation of pancreatic pathologies due to its superior soft tissue contrast. In this article we present a selection of less common malignant and potentially malignant pancreatic neoplasms with their characteristic appearance on established MRI sequences with and without contrast enhancement.

  17. 2D-3D image registration in diagnostic and interventional X-Ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, I.M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Clinical procedures that are conventionally guided by 2D x-ray imaging, may benefit from the additional spatial information provided by 3D image data. For instance, guidance of minimally invasive procedures with CT or MRI data provides 3D spatial information and visualization of structures that are

  18. Cushing Syndrome: Diagnostic Workup and Imaging Features, With Clinical and Pathologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Baiomy, Ali; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Mukhi, Shalini V; Morani, Ajaykumar C; Korivi, Brinda R; Waguespack, Steven G; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2017-07-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess cortisol, either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous CS is most commonly caused by administration of glucocorticoids. Endogenous CS is subdivided into two types: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent and ACTH independent. Cushing disease, which is caused by a pituitary adenoma, is the most common cause of ACTH-dependent CS for which pituitary MRI can be diagnostic, with bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling useful in equivocal cases. In ectopic ACTH production, which is usually caused by a tumor in the thorax (e.g., small cell lung carcinoma, bronchial and thymic carcinoids, or medullary thyroid carcinoma) or abdomen (e.g., gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or pheochromocytoma), CT, MRI, and nuclear medicine tests are used for localizing the source of ACTH. In ACTH-independent CS, which is caused by various adrenal abnormalities, adrenal protocol CT or MRI is usually diagnostic.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy at several reduced radiation dose levels for CT imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun; Jude, Matilda; Zaragoza, Edward; Lee, Margaret; Patel, Maitraya; Poon, Cheryce; Douek, Michael; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Doepke, Laura; McNitt-Gray, Shawn; Cagnon, Chris; DeMarco, John; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: While several studies have investigated the tradeoffs between radiation dose and image quality (noise) in CT imaging, the purpose of this study was to take this analysis a step further by investigating the tradeoffs between patient radiation dose (including organ dose) and diagnostic accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis using CT. Methods: This study was IRB approved and utilized data from 20 patients who underwent clinical CT exams for indications of appendicitis. Medical record review established true diagnosis of appendicitis, with 10 positives and 10 negatives. A validated software tool used raw projection data from each scan to create simulated images at lower dose levels (70%, 50%, 30%, 20% of original). An observer study was performed with 6 radiologists reviewing each case at each dose level in random order over several sessions. Readers assessed image quality and provided confidence in their diagnosis of appendicitis, each on a 5 point scale. Liver doses at each case and each dose level were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation based methods. Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy varies across dose levels: 92%, 93%, 91%, 90% and 90% across the 100%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 20% dose levels respectively. And it is 93%, 95%, 88%, 90% and 90% across the 13.5-22mGy, 9.6-13.5mGy, 6.4-9.6mGy, 4-6.4mGy, and 2-4mGy liver dose ranges respectively. Only 4 out of 600 observations were rated "unacceptable" for image quality. Conclusion: The results from this pilot study indicate that the diagnostic accuracy does not change dramatically even at significantly reduced radiation dose.

  20. The Yield of Diagnostic Imaging in Patients with Isolated Horner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Johanna D; Kardon, Randy H; Thurtell, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine, with a retrospective chart review, the imaging yield for patients with clinically isolated Horner syndrome. MRI/MRA of the head and neck extending from the supraorbital ridge to T4 with fat suppression and with postcontrast images was obtained. Of 88 patients with isolated Horner syndrome who were imaged, 20% had a causative etiology on imaging. The most common cause of an isolated Horner syndrome was a carotid artery dissection. There was 1 patient with a primary malignancy found to be the causative lesion in this group, and 1 patient with spread of their known metastatic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Limitations in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathologies with fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Steen, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    To describe the limitations of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathology. Retrospective, single-center case series of 40 patients with conjunctival and cornea pathology. Fourier-domain OCT imaged laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps in detail, including its relation to other corneal structures and abnormalities. Similarly, in infectious or degenerative corneal disorders, Fourier-domain OCT successfully showed the extent of infiltration or material deposition, which appeared as hyper-reflective areas. In cases with pterygium, the underlying cornea could not be imaged. All cases of common conjunctival pathologies, such as nevus or pinguecula, were successfully imaged in detail. Nevi, scleritis, pterygium, pinguecula, and subconjunctival hemorrhage were hyper-reflective lesions, while cysts and lymphangiectasia were hyporeflective. The details of the underlying sclera were not uniformly imaged in conjunctival pathologies. Fourier-domain OCT imaged the trabeculectomy bleb in detail, whereas the details of structures of the anterior chamber angle were not routinely visualized in all cases. Light scatter through vascularized, densely inflamed, or thick lesions limits the imaging capabilities of Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT.

  2. Diagnostic imaging of shoulder impingement; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Schultergelenkes bei Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merl, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Weinhardt, H. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie; Oettl, G. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie; Lenz, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Riel, K.A. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a method that has been advancing in the last few years to the modality of choice for diagnostic evaluation of the bone joints, as the method is capable of imaging not only the ossous but also the soft tissue components of the joint. MRI likewise has become an accepted method for diagnostic evaluation of syndromes of the shoulder, with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting rotator cuff lesions, or as an efficient MRI arthrography for evaluation of the instability or lesions of the labrocapsular complex. In the evaluation of early stages of shoulder impingement, the conventional MRI technique as a static technique yields indirect signs which in many cases do not provide the diagnostic certainty required in order to do justice to the functional nature of the syndrome. In these cases, functional MRI for imaging of the arm in abducted position and in rotational movement may offer a chance to early detect impingement and thus identify patients who will profit from treatment at an early stage. [Deutsch] Die Magnetresonanztomographie hat sich in den letzten Jahren zur Methode der Wahl in der Diagnostik der Gelenke entwickelt, sie erlaubt neben der Abbildung aller knoechernen auch die Abbildung aller Weichteilelemente eines Gelenkes. Auch in der Diagnostik der Schultergelenkserkrankungen besitzt die Magnetresonanztomographie einen festen Stellenwert mit hoher diagnostischer Treffsicherheit in der Beurteilung der Rotatorenmanschette, als MR-Arthrographie auch in der Beurteilung der Instabilitaet bzw von Laesionen des labrokapsulaeren Komplexes. In der Bewertung frueher Stadien des Impingement ist die klassische Magnetresonanztomographie als statische Methode auf indirekte Zeichen angewiesen, die in vielen Faellen nicht ausreichende Sicherheit bieten und dem funktionellen Charakter des Krankheitsbildes nicht ausreichend Rechnung tragen. Hier koennte die funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie unter Abbildung des Arms in Abduktion und Rotation eine

  3. Rationale diagnostic approach to biliary tract imaging; Rationale Diagnostik der Gallenwege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, H.; Huppertz, A.; Ruell, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Zillinger, C.; Ehrenberg, C.; Roesch, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). 2. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1998-04-01

    Since the introduction of MR cholangiography (MRC) diagnostic imaging of the biliary tract has been significantly improved. While percutaneous ultrasonography is still the primary examination, computed tomography (CT), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as the direct imaging modalities of the biliary tract - iv cholangiography, endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiography (ERC), and percutaneous-transhepatic-cholangiography (PTC) are in use. This article discusses the clinical value of the different diagnostic techniques for the various biliary pathologies with special attention to recent developments in MRC techniques. An algorithm is presented offering a rational approach to biliary disorders. With further technical improvement shifts from ERC(P) to MRC(P) for biliary imaging could be envisioned, ERCP further concentrating on its role as a minimal invasive treatment option. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Diagnostik der Gallenwege hat durch die Einfuehrung der MR-Cholangiographie (MRC) entscheidende neue Impulse erfahren. Neben der als Ausgangsuntersuchung zur Verfuegung stehenden perkutanen Sonographie kommen die Computertomographie (CT), die klassische Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) sowie die Verfahren der direkten Gallengangsdarstellung, i.v. Cholangiographie, endoskopisch-retrograde Cholangiographie (ERC) und perkutane-transhepatische Cholangiographie (PTC), zum Einsatz. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die diagnostischen Wertigkeiten der einzelnen bildgebenden Verfahren fuer die unterschiedlichen Krankheitsgruppen des biliaeren Systems unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der neuesten Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet der MRC. In einem Strategiealgorithmus wird ein Vorschlag fuer das diagnostische Vorgehen bei Erkrankungen des biliaeren Gangsystems erarbeitet. Die bisherigen Ergebnisse lassen erwarten, dass die MRT einschliesslich MRC(P) in Kuerze die rein diagnostische ERC(P) ersetzen wird. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic utility of intravenous contrast for MR imaging in pediatric appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Gray R.; Renjen, Pooja; Kovanlikaya, Arzu [New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Askin, Gulce; Giambrone, Ashley E. [New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, New York, NY (United States); Beneck, Debra [New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly employed as a diagnostic modality for suspected appendicitis in children. However, there is uncertainty as to which MRI sequences are sufficient for safe, timely and accurate diagnosis. Several recent studies have described different MRI protocols, including exams both with and without the use of intravenous contrast. We hypothesized that intravenous contrast may be useful in some patients but could be safely omitted in others. All MRI examinations (n=112) performed at our institution for evaluating appendicitis in children were retrospectively reevaluated. Exams were reread by pediatric radiologists under three conditions: With postcontrast images, Without postcontrast images, and Without/With - selective use of postcontrast sequences only when needed for diagnostic certainty. Samples were scored as positive, negative or equivocal for appendicitis. Findings were compared to pathological or clinical follow-up in the medical record. Without the use of intravenous contrast yielded more equivocal results (12.4%) compared to With contrast (3.4%). By selectively using postcontrast sequences, the Without/With group yielded fewer equivocal results (1.1%) compared to Without while also reducing contrast use 79.8% compared to the With contrast group. No significant differences in conditional sensitivity or conditional specificity were detected among the three groups. MRI diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be performed without contrast for most patients; injection of contrast can be reserved for only those patients with equivocal non-contrast imaging. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  6. Diagnostic performance of fusion of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and computed tomography coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Cesar A.; Garcia, Ernest V.; Faber, Tracy L.; Sirineni, Gopi K. R.; Esteves, Fabio P.; Sanyal, Rupan; Halkar, Raghuveer; Ornelas, Mario; Verdes, Liudmila; Lerakis, Stamatios; Ramos, Julie J.; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Cuéllar, Hugo; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Raggi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Background We evaluated the incremental diagnostic value of fusion images of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) over MPI alone or MPI and CTA side-by-side to identify obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD > 50% stenosis) using invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the gold standard. Methods 50 subjects (36 men; 56 ± 11 years old) underwent rest-stress MPI and CTA within 12-26 days of each other. CTAs were performed with multi-detector CT-scanners (31 on 64-slice; and 19 on 16-slice). 37 patients underwent ICA while 13 subjects did not because of low (area under the curve (AUC) for fused images: 0.89; P = .005 vs MPI, P = .04 vs side-by-side MPI-CTA) and for localization of CAD to the left anterior descending coronary artery (AUC: 0.82, P < .001 vs MPI; P = .007 vs side-by-side MPI-CTA). There was a non-significant trend for better detection of multi-vessel disease with fusion. Conclusions Using ICA as the gold standard, fusion imaging provided incremental diagnostic information compared to MPI alone or side-by-side MPI-CTA for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD and for localization of CAD to the left anterior descending coronary artery. PMID:19156478

  7. Use of hyperspectral imaging technology to develop a diagnostic support system for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Jun; Kiyotoki, Shu; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Sakaida, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a new technology that obtains spectroscopic information and renders it in image form. This study examined the difference in the spectral reflectance (SR) of gastric tumors and normal mucosa recorded with a hyperspectral camera equipped with HSI technology and attempted to determine the specific wavelength that is useful for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. A total of 104 gastric tumors removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection from 96 patients at Yamaguchi University Hospital were recorded using a hyperspectral camera. We determined the optimal wavelength and the cut-off value for differentiating tumors from normal mucosa to establish a diagnostic algorithm. We also attempted to highlight tumors by image processing using the hyperspectral camera's analysis software. A wavelength of 770 nm and a cut-off value of 1/4 the corrected SR were selected as the respective optimal wavelength and cut-off values. The rates of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the algorithm's diagnostic capability were 71%, 98%, and 85%, respectively. It was possible to enhance tumors by image processing at the 770-nm wavelength. HSI can be used to measure the SR in gastric tumors and to differentiate between tumorous and normal mucosa.

  8. Comparison of the diagnostic value of MR imaging and ophthalmoscopy for the staging of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurana, Aman; Wan, Wenshuai; Yeom, Kristen [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Eisenhut, Christina A. [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebrahimi, Katayoon B. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Ocular Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Patel, Chirag [University of California Davis, Department of Radiology, Davis, CA (United States); O' Brien, Joan M. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Ophthalmology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Radiology Section, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    To compare the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ophthalmoscopy for staging of retinoblastoma. MR and ophthalmoscopic images of 36 patients who underwent enucleation were evaluated retrospectively following institutional review board approval. Histopathology being the standard of reference, the sensitivity and specificity of both diagnostic modalities were compared regarding growth pattern, iris neoangiogenesis, retinal detachment, vitreous seeds and optic nerve invasion. Data were analysed via McNemar's test. Both investigations showed no significant difference in accuracy for the detection of different tumour growth patterns (P = 0.80). Vitreous seeding detection was superior by ophthalmoscopy (P < 0.001). For prelaminar optic nerve invasion, MR imaging showed similar sensitivity as ophthalmoscopy but increased specificity of 40 % (CI 0.12-0.74) vs. 20 % (0.03-0.56). MR detected optic nerve involvement past the lamina cribrosa with a sensitivity of 80 % (0.28-0.99) and a specificity of 74 % (0.55-0.88). The absence of optic nerve enhancement excluded histopathological infiltration, but the presence of optic nerve enhancement included a high number of false positives (22-24 %). Ophthalmoscopy remains the method of choice for determining extent within the globe while MR imaging is useful for evaluating extraocular tumour extension. Thus, both have their own strengths and contribute uniquely to the staging of retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities in detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, B; Kamburoglu, K; Uçok, O; Yüksel, S P; Ozen, T; Avsever, H

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of visual inspection, film, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor and cone beam CT in the detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth compared with the histological gold standard. Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP and cone beam CT images were used to detect proximal caries in the mesial and distal surfaces of 138 teeth (276 surfaces). Visual inspection and evaluation of all intraoral digital and conventional radiographs and cone beam CT images were performed twice by three oral radiologists. Weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement for each image set, and scores were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate diagnostic ability. Intraobserver kappa coefficients calculated for each observer for each method of detecting caries ranged from 0.739 to 0.928. Strong interobserver agreement ranging from 0.631 to 0.811 was found for all detection methods. The highest Az values for all three observers were obtained with the cone beam CT images; however, differences between detection methods were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP plates and cone beam CT performed similarly in the detection of proximal caries.

  10. [Intranet-based integrated information system of radiotherapy-related images and diagnostic reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R; Sasaki, M; Oikawa, H; Harada, S; Tamakawa, Y

    2000-03-01

    To use an intranet technique to develop an information system that simultaneously supports both diagnostic reports and radiotherapy planning images. Using a file server as the gateway a radiation oncology LAN was connected to an already operative RIS LAN. Dose-distribution images were saved in tagged-image-file format by way of a screen dump to the file server. X-ray simulator images and portal images were saved in encapsulated postscript format in the file server and automatically converted to portable document format. The files on the file server were automatically registered to the Web server by the search engine and were available for searching and browsing using the Web browser. It took less than a minute to register planning images. For clients, searching and browsing the file took less than 3 seconds. Over 150,000 reports and 4,000 images from a six-month period were accessible. Because the intranet technique was used, construction and maintenance was completed without specialty. Prompt access to essential information about radiotherapy has been made possible by this system. It promotes public access to radiotherapy planning that may improve the quality of treatment.

  11. From 'Image Gently' to image intelligently: a personalized perspective on diagnostic radiation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerman, R.P. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The risk of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging has been a popular topic in the radiology literature and lay press. Communicating the magnitude of risk to patients and caregivers is problematic because of the uncertainty in estimates derived principally from epidemiological studies of large populations, and alternative approaches are needed to provide a scientific basis for personalized risk estimates. The underlying patient disease and life expectancy greatly influence risk projections. Research into the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair challenges the linear no-threshold dose-response assumption and reveals that individuals vary in sensitivity to radiation. Studies of decision-making psychology show that individuals are highly susceptible to irrational biases when judging risks. Truly informed medical decision-making that respects patient autonomy requires appropriate framing of radiation risks in perspective with other risks and with the benefits of imaging. To follow the principles of personalized medicine and treat patients according to their specific phenotypic and personality profiles, diagnostic imaging should optimally be tailored not only to patient size, body region and clinical indication, but also to underlying disease conditions, radio-sensitivity and risk perception and preferences that vary among individuals. (orig.)

  12. Polarization Imaging Apparatus for Cell and Tissue Imaging and Diagnostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in a novel visible-near infrared Stokes polarization imaging technology based on high performance fast...

  13. WE-A-BRF-01: Dual-Energy CT Imaging in Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Li, B [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chen, H [New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The quantification accuracy of dual-energy imaging is influenced by the fundamentals of x-ray physics, system geometry, data acquisition hardware/protocol, system calibration, and image processing technique. This symposium will provide updates on the following advanced application areas: Mammography. Volumetric breast density techniques based on standard mammograms require estimation of breast thickness, which is difficult to accurately measure. By comparison, calculation of breast density using dual energy mammography does not require measurement of breast thickness. Dual energy mammography has been implemented using both energy integrating flat panel detectors in conjunction with beam energy switching and energy resolved photon counting detectors. These techniques have been optimized using simulation studies and validated using physical phantoms and postmortem breasts. Chemical decomposition was used as the gold standard for volumetric breast density measurement in postmortem breasts. Breast density measurements have also been compared with results from four-category BI-RADS density rankings, standard image thresholding and Fuzzy k-mean clustering techniques. These studies indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure volumetric breast density. Cardiovascular CT. The predicative accuracy of risk models for recurrent stroke and cardiac arrest depends heavily on accurate differentiation of thrombus or calcium from iodine in left atrial appendage or coronary arteries. The amount of energy separation is constrained by image noise; therefore, optimal kVp, beam filtration, and balanced flux are essential for the quantification accuracy of iodine and calcium. The basis materials are combined linearly to generate monochromatic energy images, where CT# accuracy and CNR are energy dependent. With optimal monochromatic energy, the mean iodine concentration for the thrombus, circulatory stasis, and control groups are significantly different. Risk

  14. Molecular imaging of the brain. Using multi-quantum coherence and diagnostics of brain disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaila, M.M. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Kaila, Rakhi [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). School of Medicine

    2013-11-01

    Explains the basics of the MRI and its use in the diagnostics and the treatment of the human brain disorders. Examines multi-quantum magnetic resonance imaging methods and the diagnostics of brain disorders. Covers how in a non-invasive manner one can diagnose diseases of the brain. This book examines multi-quantum magnetic resonance imaging methods and the diagnostics of brain disorders. It consists of two Parts. The part I is initially devoted towards the basic concepts of the conventional single quantum MRI techniques. It is supplemented by the basic knowledge required to understand multi-quantum MRI. Practical illustrations are included both on recent developments in conventional MRI and the MQ-MRI. This is to illustrate the connection between theoretical concepts and their scope in the clinical applications. The Part II initially sets out the basic details about quadrupole charge distribution present in certain nuclei and their importance about the functions they perform in our brain. Some simplified final mathematical expressions are included to illustrate facts about the basic concepts of the quantum level interactions between magnetic dipole and the electric quadrupole behavior of useful nuclei present in the brain. Selected practical illustrations, from research and clinical practices are included to illustrate the newly emerging ideas and techniques. The reader should note that the two parts of the book are written with no interdependence. One can read them quite independently.

  15. Safety and diagnostic performance of image-guided lung biopsy in the targeted therapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Marco; Sardo, Diego; Garetto, Irene; Righi, Luisella; Libero, Giulia; Vavalà, Tiziana; Ardissone, Francesco; Novello, Silvia; Papotti, Mauro; Veltri, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    To identify risk factors for the adverse events and determine the diagnostic yield of a large series of image-guided thoracic biopsies performed in a single institution. We reviewed a consecutive series of 811 patients (546 males; average age: 68 years.) who underwent 824 image-guided biopsies of pulmonary lesions performed between 2009 and 2013. Indications for biopsy were always evaluated by a multidisciplinary board. All complications were registered. The diagnostic accuracy was calculated on the basis of histology after surgery, response to medical therapy, or outcome at imaging follow-up. Safety and accuracy was correlated with patient-related and lesion-related factors. 61 biopsies were performed under US-guidance, 750 under CT-guidance, and 13 under combined guidance. The average lesion size was 36.4 mm (6-150 mm). FNAB was exclusively performed in 247 patients, whereas 577 patients underwent also or only core biopsy (CB). 40 (4.8 %) major complications and 172 (20.8 %) minor complications occurred. US-guidance, absence of perilesional emphysema and minor depth of the target lesion from the skin resulted as favorable predictors against major complications. According to the gold standard criteria, we demonstrated 497 true positives, 72 true negatives, 18 false negatives, 0 false positives. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96.5, 100 and 97 %. No predictors for accuracy were found, but the number of samples largely related to the pathologist on site. Image-guided lung biopsy is safe and highly accurate for diagnosing thoracic lesions. In the targeted therapy era, CB with larger needles can be safely applied when the need for larger amounts of tumor tissue is presumed.

  16. The clinician's guide to diagnostic imaging: Cost effective pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Z.D.; Chew, F.S.; Ellis, D.A.; Brigham, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents logical, step-by-step imaging sequences for 47 medical, surgical, and pediatric problems. Topics considered include breast cancer screening, acute spinal trauma, search for primary cancer of unknown origin, acute anuria, blunt chest trauma, new onset seizures, and spinal cord compression from metastases. Other chapters have been rewritten to enhance the clarity of presentation and to incorporate new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, dipyridamole stress testing, and single photon emission computed tomography. The book highlights the expanding role of CT in evaluation of thoracic and abdominal problems, the emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a vital diagnostic tool for the central nervous system, and the clinical utility of many newly developed radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. Diagnostic imaging applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 8, 9, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbach, E. S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    It is more important than ever that engineers have an understanding of the future needs of clinical and research medicine, and that physicians know somthing about probable future developments in instrumentation capabilities. Only by maintaining such a dialog can the most effective application of technological advances to medicine be achieved. This workshop attempted to provide this kind of information transfer in the limited field of diagnostic imaging. Biomedical research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is discussed, taking into account imaging results from space exploration missions, as well as biomedical research tasks based in these technologies. Attention is also given to current and future indications for magnetic resonance in medicine, high speed quantitative digital microscopy, computer processing of radiographic images, computed tomography and its modern applications, position emission tomography, and developments related to medical ultrasound.

  18. Image processing methods for noise reduction in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Farias, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Vega, J.; Pastor, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe an approach in order to reduce or mitigate the stray-light on the images and show the exceptional results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the parameters to take account in the proposed process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a simplified exampled in order to explain the proposed process. - Abstract: The Thomsom Scattering diagnostic of the TJ-II stellarator provides temperature and density profiles. The CCD camera acquires images corrupted with noise that, in some cases, can produce unreliable profiles. The main source of noise is the so-called stray-light. In this paper we describe an approach that allows mitigation of the effects that stray-light has on the images: extraction regions with connected-components. In addition, the robustness and effectiveness of the noise reduction technique is validated in two ways: (1) supervised classification and (2) comparison of electron temperature profiles.

  19. Common-image gathers in the offset domain from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2014-04-01

    Kirchhoff migration is flexible to output common-image gathers (CIGs) in the offset domain by imaging data with different offsets separately. These CIGs supply important information for velocity model updates and amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis. Reverse-time migration (RTM) offers more insights into complex geology than Kirchhoff migration by accurately describing wave propagation using the two-way wave equation. But, it has difficulty to produce offset domain CIGs like Kirchhoff migration. In this paper, we develop a method for obtaining offset domain CIGs from RTM. The method first computes the RTM operator of an offset gather, followed by a dot product of the operator and the offset data to form a common-offset RTM image. The offset domain CIGs are then achieved after separately migrating data with different offsets. We generate offset domain CIGs on both the Marmousi synthetic data and 2D Gulf of Mexico real data using this approach. © 2014.

  20. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  1. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Deirdre M., E-mail: d.mcgrath@sheffield.ac.uk; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Samavati, Navid [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Jewett, Michael A. S. [Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Kwast, Theo van der [Pathology Department, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Chung, Peter [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, 1058 Rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, Québec H2X 3J4 (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  2. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Deirdre M.; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D.; Samavati, Navid; Jewett, Michael A. S.; van der Kwast, Theo; Chung, Peter; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  3. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Deirdre M; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D; Samavati, Navid; Jewett, Michael A S; van der Kwast, Theo; Chung, Peter; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K

    2016-03-01

    Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily adaptable to other types of whole tissue

  4. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  5. The role of diagnostic imaging and liver biopsy in the diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Pamela L; Ling, Simon C; Ng, Vicky L; John, Philip; Bonasoni, Paola; Castro, Denise A; Taylor, Glenn; Chavhan, Govind B; Kamath, Binita M

    2014-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), a benign liver tumour, has a characteristic appearance on diagnostic imaging (DI) and histology. The role of liver biopsy in children for the diagnosis of FNH is unclear. This study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of DI for FNH in children without comorbidities, compared to liver biopsy. A total of 304 consecutive patients (age biopsied liver mass were retrospectively ascertained (1990-2010). Individuals with a history of malignancy, liver disease or syndromes with increased malignancy risk were excluded. DI and biopsy data were reviewed. After excluding 205 cases, 99 liver masses were studied. Based on histology, the most common diagnosis was hepatoblastoma (46/99, 44%) followed by FNH (23/99, 23%). The mean age at FNH diagnosis was 11.1 ± 5.2 years, with female preponderance (78%), and a median follow-up of 1.35 years (interquartile range 0.54, 4.20 years). 19/23 biopsy-proven FNH met standard criteria for FNH on DI. In 4/23 cases of biopsy-proven FNH, imaging did not suggest FNH. Two false positive cases included adenoma and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. On review of original reports, DI had 82.6% sensitivity and 97.4% specificity for the diagnosis of FNH. On blind review, the sensitivity of DI for FNH diagnosis was 81.3% for MRI (13/16), and 53.3% for CT (8/15). In this cohort of children with liver masses and no comorbidities, a diagnosis of FNH by imaging was highly specific, and MRI was the most sensitive study for its diagnosis. Liver biopsy may be deferred in selected children if the DI, particularly MRI, is indicative of FNH. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Analysis of the priority of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic task in cone-beam computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate differences in the required visibility of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic tasks of implant planning and periapical diagnosis. Images of a real skull phantom were acquired under 24 combinations of different exposure conditions in a cone-beam computed tomography scanner (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, and 110 kV and 4, 6, 8, and 10 mA). Five radiologists evaluated the visibility of anatomic structures and the image quality for diagnostic tasks using a 6-point scale. The visibility of the periodontal ligament space showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for periapical diagnosis in both jaws. The visibility of the sinus floor and canal wall showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for implant planning. Variations in tube voltage were associated with significant differences in image quality for all diagnostic tasks. However, tube current did not show significant associations with the ability to use an image for implant planning. The required visibility of anatomic structures varied depending on the diagnostic task. Tube voltage was a more important exposure parameter for image quality than tube current. Different settings should be used for optimization and image quality evaluation depending on the diagnostic task.

  7. Changing Utilization of Noninvasive Diagnostic Imaging Over 2 Decades: An Examination Family-Focused Analysis of Medicare Claims Using the Neiman Imaging Types of Service Categorization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, David A; Duszak, Richard; Wang, Wenyi; Hughes, Danny R; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2017-12-08

    The objective of our study was to use a new modality and body region categorization system to assess changing utilization of noninvasive diagnostic imaging in the Medicare fee-for-service population over a recent 20-year period (1994-2013). All Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule services billed between 1994 and 2013 were identified using Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary master files. Billed codes for diagnostic imaging were classified using the Neiman Imaging Types of Service (NITOS) coding system by both modality and body region. Utilization rates per 1000 beneficiaries were calculated for families of services. Among all diagnostic imaging modalities, growth was greatest for MRI (+312%) and CT (+151%) and was lower for ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and radiography and fluoroscopy (range, +1% to +31%). Among body regions, service growth was greatest for brain (+126%) and spine (+74%) imaging; showed milder growth (range, +18% to +67%) for imaging of the head and neck, breast, abdomen and pelvis, and extremity; and showed slight declines (range, -2% to -7%) for cardiac and chest imaging overall. The following specific imaging service families showed massive (> +100%) growth: cardiac CT, cardiac MRI, and breast MRI. NITOS categorization permits identification of temporal shifts in noninvasive diagnostic imaging by specific modality- and region-focused families, providing a granular understanding and reproducible analysis of global changes in imaging overall. Service family-level perspectives may help inform ongoing policy efforts to optimize imaging utilization and appropriateness.

  8. Recent developments and key legal issues impacting diagnostic imaging services, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresevic, Adrienne; Kalmowitz, Carey F

    2009-01-01

    Medicare's recently finalized anti-markup rule provides a flexible 2 alternative approach to determining whether or not a diagnostic testing arrangement is subject to the anti-markup payment limitation. Both tests measure whether a performing or supervising physician "shares a practice"with the billing physician or other supplier. Although in the 2009 Medicare Final Physician Fee Schedule CMS declined to implement the IDTF enrollment proposals, which would have required any physician or non-physician practitioner furnishing diagnostic testing services to enroll as an IDTF and be subject to most IDTF performance standards, CMS did finalize its earlier proposal to require mobile IDTFs to enroll and bill Medicare directly for the technical component services that they provide. Imaging services providers should be prepared for heightened Medicare auditing activity, as CMS has made permanent and is expanding its Recovery Audit Contractors program.

  9. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of ischemic electrocardiographic changes with regadenoson-stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukky, Rami; Olusanya, Adebayo; Vashistha, Raj; Saini, Abhimanyu; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Mansour, Khaled; Nigatu, Abiy; Confer, Kara; Sims, Shannon A

    2015-08-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic value of regadenoson-induced ST-segment depression (ST↓) is not defined. Due to the low incidence of ST↓ ≥1.0 mm with vasodilator stress, a lower threshold to define ischemic ECG response may provide improved clinical utility. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent regadenoson-stress SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) followed by coronary angiography within 6 months. Ischemic ST↓ was defined as ≥0.5 mm. The prevalence of angiographically severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and the rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization were determined. In a diagnostic cohort of 629 subjects, 117 (18.6%) had ST↓ ≥0.5 mm. Severe CAD was more prevalent in the ST↓ ≥0.5 vs ST regadenoson-induced ST↓ ≥0.5 mm was associated with higher rates of severe CAD and MACE, irrespective of MPI finding.

  10. Metastatic retropharyngeal lymph nodes: Comparison of CT and MR imaging for diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki, E-mail: hkato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo, E-mail: haruwow860@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke, E-mail: kmizuta@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Aoki, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: aoki@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracies of CT and MR imaging for the detection of metastatic retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLNs) in patients with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Materials and methods: The study included 38 patients (28 men and 10 women; mean age, 65 years; age range, 48–82 years) with nasopharyngeal (n = 15) and oropharyngeal (n = 23) SCC who underwent both contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging before chemoradiotherapy. RLNs were classified as malignant or benign on the basis of the results of follow-up MR imaging. Two radiologists independently evaluated the images for diagnosing metastatic RLNs. Results: Among a total of 68 RLNs (minimum diameter, ≥4 mm) that were detected on gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, 30 (44%) were malignant and 38 (56%) were benign. The sensitivities of CT versus MRI were 60% versus 97% for observer 1 (p < 0.01) and 37% versus 90% for observer 2 (p < 0.01). The specificities of CT versus MRI were 92% versus 97% for observer 1 (p = 0.50) and 92% versus 100% for observer 2 (p = 0.25). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for CT versus MRI were 0.788 versus 0.996 for observer 1 (p < 0.01) and 0.693 versus 0.961 for observer 2 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of metastatic RLNs.

  11. Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis: 11 cases (1990-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Matthew S; Paglia, Danielle; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Boroffka, Susanne A E B; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Wisner, Erik R

    2011-11-01

    To describe clinical and diagnostic imaging features of zygomatic sialadenitis in dogs. Retrospective case series. 11 dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis and 20 control dogs without evidence of retrobulbar disease. Medical records were searched for dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis that underwent some combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography. Signalment, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic tests, cytologic and histologic diagnosis, treatment, qualitative disease features, and disease course were recorded. Images obtained via MRI or CT were analyzed for pre- and postcontrast signal intensity or density, respectively; zygomatic salivary gland area was determined. Results were compared with those of control dogs that underwent the same imaging procedures (n = 10/method). Ultrasonographic images of affected dogs were assessed qualitatively. Most (9/11) affected dogs were medium- or large-breed males (mean age, 8 years) with unilateral disease. Affected dogs had clinical signs of retrobulbar disease and cytologic or histologic evidence of zygomatic sialadenitis. Sialoceles were detected in 7 affected glands. Compared with values for control dogs, MRI findings in affected dogs (n = 7) included gland enlargement, T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and increased contrast enhancement; CT features in affected dogs (2) included gland enlargement and hypodensity on unenhanced images. Retrobulbar masses were identified via ultrasonography in 9 of 10 orbits examined, and zygomatic salivary gland origin was detected in 4. Visualization of anatomic structures for diagnosis of zygomatic sialadenitis and evaluation of adjacent structures was excellent via MRI and CT Ultrasonography was less definitive but useful for sample collection.

  12. New amorphous-silicon image sensor for x-ray diagnostic medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfield, Richard L.; Hartney, Mark A.; Street, Robert A.; Apte, Raj B.

    1998-07-01

    This paper introduces new high-resolution amorphous Silicon (a-Si) image sensors specifically configured for demonstrating film-quality medical x-ray imaging capabilities. The devices utilizes an x-ray phosphor screen coupled to an array of a-Si photodiodes for detecting visible light, and a-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) for connecting the photodiodes to external readout electronics. We have developed imagers based on a pixel size of 127 micrometer X 127 micrometer with an approximately page-size imaging area of 244 mm X 195 mm, and array size of 1,536 data lines by 1,920 gate lines, for a total of 2.95 million pixels. More recently, we have developed a much larger imager based on the same pixel pattern, which covers an area of approximately 406 mm X 293 mm, with 2,304 data lines by 3,200 gate lines, for a total of nearly 7.4 million pixels. This is very likely to be the largest image sensor array and highest pixel count detector fabricated on a single substrate. Both imagers connect to a standard PC and are capable of taking an image in a few seconds. Through design rule optimization we have achieved a light sensitive area of 57% and optimized quantum efficiency for x-ray phosphor output in the green part of the spectrum, yielding an average quantum efficiency between 500 and 600 nm of approximately 70%. At the same time, we have managed to reduce extraneous leakage currents on these devices to a few fA per pixel, which allows for very high dynamic range to be achieved. We have characterized leakage currents as a function of photodiode bias, time and temperature to demonstrate high stability over these large sized arrays. At the electronics level, we have adopted a new generation of low noise, charge- sensitive amplifiers coupled to 12-bit A/D converters. Considerable attention was given to reducing electronic noise in order to demonstrate a large dynamic range (over 4,000:1) for medical imaging applications. Through a combination of low data lines capacitance

  13. Evaluation of virtual monoenergetic imaging algorithms for dual-energy carotid and intracerebral CT angiography: Effects on image quality, artefacts and diagnostic performance for the detection of stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Doris; Mahmoudi, Scherwin; Wichmann, Julian L; Martin, Simon S; Lenga, Lukas; Albrecht, Moritz H; Booz, Christian; Arendt, Christophe T; Beeres, Martin; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Bodelle, Boris; Vogl, Thomas J; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the impact of traditional (VMI) and noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) algorithms on quantitative and qualitative image quality, and the assessment of stenosis in carotid and intracranial dual-energy CTA (DE-CTA). DE-CTA studies of 40 patients performed on a third-generation 192-slice dual-source CT scanner were included in this retrospective study. 120-kVp image-equivalent linearly-blended, VMI and VMI+ series were reconstructed. Quantitative analysis included evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of the aorta, common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery, and basilar artery. VMI and VMI+ with highest CNR, and linearly-blended series were rated qualitatively. Three radiologists assessed artefacts and suitability for evaluation at shoulder height, carotid bifurcation, siphon, and intracranial using 5-point Likert scales. Detection and grading of stenosis were performed at carotid bifurcation and siphon. Highest CNR values were observed for 40-keV VMI+ compared to 65-keV VMI and linearly-blended images (P evaluation at shoulder and bifurcation height. Suitability was significantly higher in VMI+ and VMI compared to linearly-blended images for intracranial and ICA assessment (P performance. 40-keV VMI+ showed improved quantitative image quality compared to 65-keV VMI and linearly-blended series in supraaortic DE-CTA. VMI and VMI+ provided increased suitability for carotid and intracranial artery evaluation with excellent assessment of stenosis, but did not translate into increased diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast parallel image registration on CPU and GPU for diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamonin, Denis P; Bron, Esther E; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Smits, Marion; Klein, Stefan; Staring, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Nonrigid image registration is an important, but time-consuming task in medical image analysis. In typical neuroimaging studies, multiple image registrations are performed, i.e., for atlas-based segmentation or template construction. Faster image registration routines would therefore be beneficial. In this paper we explore acceleration of the image registration package elastix by a combination of several techniques: (i) parallelization on the CPU, to speed up the cost function derivative calculation; (ii) parallelization on the GPU building on and extending the OpenCL framework from ITKv4, to speed up the Gaussian pyramid computation and the image resampling step; (iii) exploitation of certain properties of the B-spline transformation model; (iv) further software optimizations. The accelerated registration tool is employed in a study on diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal controls based on T1-weighted MRI. We selected 299 participants from the publicly available Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Classification is performed with a support vector machine based on gray matter volumes as a marker for atrophy. We evaluated two types of strategies (voxel-wise and region-wise) that heavily rely on nonrigid image registration. Parallelization and optimization resulted in an acceleration factor of 4-5x on an 8-core machine. Using OpenCL a speedup factor of 2 was realized for computation of the Gaussian pyramids, and 15-60 for the resampling step, for larger images. The voxel-wise and the region-wise classification methods had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 88 and 90%, respectively, both for standard and accelerated registration. We conclude that the image registration package elastix was substantially accelerated, with nearly identical results to the non-optimized version. The new functionality will become available in the next release of elastix as open source under the BSD license.

  15. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  16. The quest for 'diagnostically lossless' medical image compression: a comparative study of objective quality metrics for compressed medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik-Urbaniak, Ilona; Brunet, Dominique; Wang, Jiheng; Koff, David; Smolarski-Koff, Nadine; Vrscay, Edward R.; Wallace, Bill; Wang, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Our study, involving a collaboration with radiologists (DK,NSK) as well as a leading international developer of medical imaging software (AGFA), is primarily concerned with improved methods of assessing the diagnostic quality of compressed medical images and the investigation of compression artifacts resulting from JPEG and JPEG2000. In this work, we compare the performances of the Structural Similarity quality measure (SSIM), MSE/PSNR, compression ratio CR and JPEG quality factor Q, based on experimental data collected in two experiments involving radiologists. An ROC and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis indicates that compression ratio is not always a good indicator of visual quality. Moreover, SSIM demonstrates the best performance, i.e., it provides the closest match to the radiologists' assessments. We also show that a weighted Youden index1 and curve tting method can provide SSIM and MSE thresholds for acceptable compression ratios.

  17. Fielding of an Imaging VISAR Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R; Bower, J; Capelle, G; Celeste, J; Celliers, P; Frogget, B C; Guyton, R L; Kauffman, M; Lare, G; Lee, T; MacGowan, B; Montelongo, S; Thomas, T; Tunnell, T; Watts, P

    2004-06-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. As a core NIF early light diagnostic, this system measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. A 659.5 nm VISAR probe laser illuminates the target. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 33-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) interferometers. Both streak cameras and CCD cameras record the images. Total track is 75 feet. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing for other experimenters to use that port. The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. Along with special coatings on the mirrors, cutoff filters reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, for passive shock breakout light, or for thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). Finite Element Analysis was performed on all mounting structures. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts, so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. A two-color laser alignment scheme is discussed.

  18. Data acquisition and control system for the ECE imaging diagnostic on the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C.; Lan, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, J.; Gao, B.; Liu, W.; Yu, C.; Milne, P. G.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2017-06-01

    A 384-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system is installed on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) and 7-gigabyte data is produced for each regular discharge of a 10-second pulse. The data acquisition and control (DAC) system for the EAST ECEI diagnostics covers the large data production and embeds the ability to report the data quality instantly after the discharge. The symmetric routing design of the timing signal distributions among the 384 channels provides a low-cost solution to the synchronization of a large number of channels. The application of the load-balance bond service largely reduces the configuration difficulty and the cost in the high-speed data transferring tasks. Benefiting from the various kinds of hardware units with dedicated functionalities, an automated and user interactive DAC work flow is achieved, including the pre-selections of the automation scheme and the observation region, 384-channel data acquisition and local caching, post-discharge imaging data quality evaluation, remote system status monitoring, and inter-discharge imaging system event handling. The system configuration in a specific physics experiment is further optimized through the associated operating software which is enhanced by the input of the tokamak operation status and the region of interest (ROI) from other diagnostics. The DAC system is based on a modularized design and scalable to the long-pulse discharges in the EAST tokamak.

  19. Despeckle filtering software toolbox for ultrasound imaging of the common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Christos P; Theofanous, Charoula; Pantziaris, Marios; Kasparis, Takis

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the common carotid artery (CCA) is a non-invasive tool used in medicine to assess the severity of atherosclerosis and monitor its progression through time. It is also used in border detection and texture characterization of the atherosclerotic carotid plaque in the CCA, the identification and measurement of the intima-media thickness (IMT) and the lumen diameter that all are very important in the assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Visual perception, however, is hindered by speckle, a multiplicative noise, that degrades the quality of ultrasound B-mode imaging. Noise reduction is therefore essential for improving the visual observation quality or as a pre-processing step for further automated analysis, such as image segmentation of the IMT and the atherosclerotic carotid plaque in ultrasound images. In order to facilitate this preprocessing step, we have developed in MATLAB(®) a unified toolbox that integrates image despeckle filtering (IDF), texture analysis and image quality evaluation techniques to automate the pre-processing and complement the disease evaluation in ultrasound CCA images. The proposed software, is based on a graphical user interface (GUI) and incorporates image normalization, 10 different despeckle filtering techniques (DsFlsmv, DsFwiener, DsFlsminsc, DsFkuwahara, DsFgf, DsFmedian, DsFhmedian, DsFad, DsFnldif, DsFsrad), image intensity normalization, 65 texture features, 15 quantitative image quality metrics and objective image quality evaluation. The software is publicly available in an executable form, which can be downloaded from http://www.cs.ucy.ac.cy/medinfo/. It was validated on 100 ultrasound images of the CCA, by comparing its results with quantitative visual analysis performed by a medical expert. It was observed that the despeckle filters DsFlsmv, and DsFhmedian improved image quality perception (based on the expert's assessment and the image texture and quality metrics). It is anticipated that the

  20. Diagnostic yield of lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging requested by paediatric urology consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ibieta, M; Rojas Ticona, J; Villamil, V; Guirao Piñera, M J; López García, A; Zambudio Carmona, G

    2017-11-01

    In the historical series, the diagnostic yield of lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging to rule out occult spinal dysraphism (or occult myelodysplasia), requested by paediatric urology, ranged from 2% to 15%. The aim of this study was to define our cost-effectiveness in children with urinary symptoms and to define endpoints that increase the possibility of finding occult spinal dysraphism. A screening was conducted on patients with urinary dysfunction for whom an magnetic resonance imaging was requested by the paediatric urology clinic, for persistent symptoms after treatment, voiding dysfunction or other clinical or urodynamic findings. We analysed clinical (UTI, daytime leaks, enuresis, voiding dysfunction, urgency, renal ultrasonography, lumbosacral radiography, history of acute urine retention, skin stigma and myalgia) and urodynamic endpoints (hyperactivity or areflexia, voiding dysfunction, interrupted pattern, accommodation value and maximum flow). A univariate analysis was conducted with SPSS 20.0. We analysed 21 patients during the period 2011-2015. The median age was 6 years (3-10). Three patients (14.3%) had occult spinal dysraphism: one spinal lipoma, one filum lipomatosus and one caudal regression syndrome with channel stenosis. The endpoints with statistically significant differences were the myalgias and the history of acute urine retention (66.7% vs. 5.6%, P=.04; OR= 34; 95%CI: 1.5-781 for both endpoints). The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging requested for children with urinary dysfunctions without skin stigma or neuro-orthopaedic abnormalities is low, although nonnegligible. In this group, the patients with a history of acute urine retention and muscle pain (pain, «cramps») can experience a greater diagnostic yield or positive predictive value. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The diagnostic challenge of the sequelae of acute pancreatitis on CT imaging: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Mark; Taffel, Myles; Zeman, Robert K; Patel, Smita; Hill, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to present a pictorial review of the long-term sequelae of acute pancreatitis on CT imaging as these findings can cause diagnostic confusion in the absence of a proper clinical history and/or prior CT imaging. We retrospectively identified 81 patients who had an episode of acute pancreatitis with diagnostic findings on CT and also underwent one or more follow-up CT scans at least 1 month beyond the acute episode. The residual findings on all follow-up CT scans were tabulated, including the time interval since the initial bout of acute pancreatitis. Residual inflammatory changes were present in 19.8% of cases, with a median time period lasting 86 days since the initial episode of acute pancreatitis. Residual fluid collections were seen in 27.2% and persisted for a median of 132 days. Three patients had residual solid-appearing inflammatory masses, which could be mistaken for neoplasms. Other long-term sequelae were also tabulated, including pancreatic ductal dilatation, pancreatic atrophy, new or increased pancreatic calcifications, biliary tract dilatation, central portal venous occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm formation. These residual findings and long-term complications are presented as a pictorial essay. Recognizing the spectrum of residual findings of acute pancreatitis, some of which can be long term, is important in the correct interpretation of a pancreatic CT. These findings can mimic acute pancreatitis or a pancreatic/peripancreatic neoplasm and often cause diagnostic confusion, especially in the absence of prior CT imaging.

  2. Cumulative radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Fiachra; Fama, Daniel; Twomey, Maria; O'Leary, Ruth; Houlihane, Conor; Murphy, Kevin P; O'Neill, Siobhan B; O'Connor, Owen J; Breen, Dorothy; Maher, Michael M

    2016-04-28

    To quantify cumulative effective dose of intensive care unit (ICU) patients attributable to diagnostic imaging. This was a prospective, interdisciplinary study conducted in the ICU of a large tertiary referral and level 1 trauma center. Demographic and clinical data including age, gender, date of ICU admission, primary reason for ICU admission, APACHE II score, length of stay, number of days intubated, date of death or discharge, and re-admission data was collected on all patients admitted over a 1-year period. The overall radiation exposure was quantified by the cumulative effective radiation dose (CED) in millisieverts (mSv) and calculated using reference effective doses published by the United Kingdom National Radiation Protection Board. Pediatric patients were selected for subgroup-analysis. A total of 2737 studies were performed in 421 patients. The total CED was 1704 mSv with a median CED of 1.5 mSv (IQR 0.04-6.6 mSv). Total CED in pediatric patients was 74.6 mSv with a median CED of 0.07 mSv (IQR 0.01-4.7 mSv). Chest radiography was the most commonly performed examination accounting for 83% of all studies but only 2.7% of total CED. Computed tomography (CT) accounted for 16% of all studies performed and contributed 97% of total CED. Trauma patients received a statistically significant higher dose [median CED 7.7 mSv (IQR 3.5-13.8 mSv)] than medical [median CED 1.4 mSv (IQR 0.05-5.4 mSv)] and surgical [median CED 1.6 mSv (IQR 0.04-7.5 mSv)] patients. Length of stay in ICU [OR = 1.12 (95%CI: 1.079-1.157)] was identified as an independent predictor of receiving a CED greater than 15 mSv. Trauma patients and patients with extended ICU admission times are at increased risk of higher CEDs. CED should be minimized where feasible, especially in young patients.

  3. Sugar recognition: designing artificial receptors for applications in biological diagnostics and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Caitlin E; Petitjean, Anne

    2015-02-09

    At the cellular level, numerous processes ranging from protein folding to disease development are mediated by a sugar-based molecular information system that is much less well known than its DNA- or protein-based counterparts. The subtle structural diversity of such sugar tags nevertheless offers an excellent, if challenging, opportunity to design receptors for the selective recognition of biorelevant sugars. Over the past 40 years, growing interest in the field of sugar recognition has led to the development of several promising artificial receptors, which could soon find widespread use in medical diagnostics and cell imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art.

  5. Diagnostic utility of candidate definitions for demonstrating axial spondyloarthritis on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Zhao, Zheng; Rufibach, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A recent consensus statement has suggested ≥3 corner inflammatory lesions (CILs) or several corner fatty lesions (CFLs) as candidate criteria indicative of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic...... on results of clinical examination and pelvic radiography as having nonradiographic axial SpA (n = 50), AS (n = 33), or nonspecific back pain (n = 47). Cohort A also included 20 age-matched healthy controls. Four blinded readers assessed MRIs of the spine using the standardized Canada-Denmark module. Readers...... of the spine alone....

  6. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V [Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Astaf' eva, N G [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Meglinski, I V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  7. Common-path biodynamic imaging for dynamic fluctuation spectroscopy of 3D living tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Turek, John; Nolte, David D.

    2017-03-01

    Biodynamic imaging is a novel 3D optical imaging technology based on short-coherence digital holography that measures intracellular motions of cells inside their natural microenvironments. Here both common-path and Mach-Zehnder designs are presented. Biological tissues such as tumor spheroids and ex vivo biopsies are used as targets, and backscattered light is collected as signal. Drugs are applied to samples, and their effects are evaluated by identifying biomarkers that capture intracellular dynamics from the reconstructed holograms. Through digital holography and coherence gating, information from different depths of the samples can be extracted, enabling the deep-tissue measurement of the responses to drugs.

  8. Diagnostic Performance of Three Phase Bone Scan for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 with Optimally Modified Image Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Nahm, Francins Sahngun; Kim, Seog Gyun; Zehra, Tanzeel; Oh, So Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Although the three phase bone scan (TBPS) is one of the widely used imaging studies for diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), there is some controversy regarding the TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1. In this study, we modified the image criteria using image pattern and quantitative analysis in the patients diagnosed using the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria. The study included 140 patients with suspected CRPS 1 (CRPS 1, n=79; non CRPS, n=61; mean age 39{+-}15 years) who underwent TPBS. The clinical diagnostic criteria for CRPS 1 revised by the Budapest consensus group were used for confirmative diagnosis. Patients were classified according to flow/pool and delayed uptake (DU) image patterns, and the time interval between the initiating event and TPBS (TI{sup eventscan)}. Quantitative analysis for lesion to contralateral ratio (LCR) was performed. Modified TPBS image criteria were created and evaluated for optimal diagnostic performance. Both increased and decreased periarticular DU were significant image findings for CRPS 1 (CRPS 1 positive rate=73% in the increased DU group, 75% in the decreased DU group). The TI{sup eventscand}id not differ significantly between the different image pattern groups. Quantitative analysis revealed an LCR of 1.43 was the optimal cutoff value for CRPS 1 and diagnostic performance was significantly improved in the increased DU group (area under the curve=0.732). Given the modified image criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of TPBS for diagnosing CRPS 1 were 80% and 72%, respectively. Optimally modified TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1 were suggested using image pattern and quantitative analysis. With the criteria, TPBS is an effective imaging study for CRPS 1 even with the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria.

  9. Giant retroperitoneal liposarcomas: Diagnostic approach with multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hekimoglu, K

    2013-01-01

    Liposarcomas are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the retroperitoneal space. Retroperitoneal liposarcomas are usually grown slowly and frequently reach a very large size before clinical recognition. Precise diagnosis and distinct multiplanar evaluation is essential for complete resection of these tumors. Here in we reported two cases with giant retroperitoneal liposarcomas which were evaluated multiplanary with multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Data Analysis of the Gated-LEH X-Ray Imaging Diagnostic at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Matthew; Chen, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The Gated Laser Entrance Hole (G-LEH) x-ray imaging diagnostic in use at the NIF offers a desirable combination of spatial and temporal resolution. By looking inside of NIF hohlraums with time resolution, G-LEH measures target features including LEH size and capsule size. A framework is presented for automated and systematic analysis of G-LEH images that measures several physical parameters of interest and their evolution over time. The results from these analyses enable comparisons with hohlraum models and allow model validation of LEH closure velocity and the extent of capsule blow-off. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Guided waves based diagnostic imaging of circumferential cracks in small-diameter pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kehai; Wu, Zhanjun; Jiang, Youqiang; Wang, Yishou; Zhou, Kai; Chen, Yingpu

    2016-02-01

    To improve the safety and reliability of pipeline structures, much work has been done using ultrasonic guided waves methods for pipe inspection. Though good for evaluating the defects in the pipes, most of the methods lack the capability to precisely identify the defects in the pipe features like welds or supports. Therefore, a novel guided wave based cross-sectional diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed to improve the ability of circumferential cracks identification in the pipe features. To ensure the accuracy of the imaging, an angular profile-based frequency selection method is presented. As validation, the approach was employed to identify the presence and location of a small circumferential crack with 1.13% cross sectional area (CSA) in the welding zone of a 48 mm diameter type 304 stainless steel pipe. Accurate identification results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Singular structure of Mueller matrices images of biological crystal networks for diagnostic human tissues pathological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhnovskiy, M. Y.; Ushenko, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    The process of converting of laser radiation by optically anisotropic crystals of biological networks are singular in the sense of total (simultaneous) of mechanisms of orientation and phase (birefringence) anisotropy the formation of polarization-inhomogeneous field of scattered radiation. This work is aimed at developing a method of polarization selection mechanisms of blood plasma polycrystalline networks anisotropy. The relationship between statistics, correlation and fractal parameters of polarization-inhomogeneous images of blood plasma and by linear dichroism and linear birefringence of polycrystalline networks albumin and globulin was found. The criteria of differentiation and diagnostic images of polarization-inhomogeneous plasma samples of the control group (donor) and a group of patients with malignant changes of breast tissue was identified.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of low tesla MR imaging in the internal derangement of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dae Ik; Ahn, Hyup; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Byung Young; Lee, Jong Gil [Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    This study is for the evaluation of low tesla(0.064T). MR imaging diagnostic accuracy in the internal derangement of the knee. We retrospectively analysed the MR images of 36 injured knees of 35 patients. The presence of tear was determined by arthroscopy or surgery in all cases. The specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of of low tesla MRI for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury were 83%, 88%, 86%, 77%, 91%, for the posterior cruciate ligament 75%, 95%, 86%, 92%, 83%, for the medial collateral ligament 83%, 96%, 92%, 91%, 92%, for the lateral collateral ligament 67%, 97%, 94%, 67%, 97%, for the menisci 75%, 93%, 89%, 75%, 93%. The low tesla MRI is an accurate method in detection and evaluation of the internal derangement of the knee.

  14. Assessment of patient doses and image quality in X-ray diagnostics in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerud, H.M.

    1998-06-01

    Results from other industrialized countries indicate that the annual number of diagnostic procedures approaches one for every member of the population, and in many cases the individual radiation doses are higher than from any other human activity. Furthermore, the doses to patients for the same type of examination differ widely from place to place, suggesting that there is a considerable potential for dose reduction. This motivated an investigation of the diagnostic use of X-rays in Norway. The trends in the number of X-ray examinations performed annually have been studied. The patient doses (all diagnostics) and image quality (mammography and computed tomography) have been assessed for various radiological procedures. This form the basis for the assessment of total collective effective dose (CED) from X-rays in Norway, and further risk estimates. The radiological practice has then been evaluated according to the radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation. Based on the 1993 examination frequency, the total CED was assessed to 3400 manSv (0.78 mSv/inhabitant). It is estimated that this radiation burden may cause about 100 excess cancer deaths annually. The frequency of CT examination has doubled every fifth year, and did in 1993 represent 7% of the total number of examinations and 30% of the total CED. 129 refs.

  15. Diagnostic ability of differential diagnosis in ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst by imaging modalities and observers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Tae In; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Moon, Je Woon; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability in differentiating between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst according to the imaging modalities and observes. We evaluated thirty-six cases of ameloblastomas and forty-seven cases of odontogenic keratocysts all histologically confirmed. Six oral and maxillofacial radiologists diagnosed the lesions by 3 methods: using panoramic radiograph, using computed tomograph (CT), and using panoramic radiograph and CT. The observers were classified by 3 groups: group 1 had experienced over 10 years in oral and mazilofacial radiologic field, group 2 had experienced for 3-4 years, and group 3 was in the process of residentship. After over 2 weeks, the observers diagnosed them by the same methods. The ROC curve areas except for group 3 were the highest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph and CT, followed by interpretation using CT only, and the lowest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph only. The overall difference was not found in diagnostic ability among groups in using panoramic radiograph only, but there was difference in diagnostic ability of group 1 and 2 vs 3 in using CT only, and combination panoramic radiograph and CT. To differentiate between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst more accurately, the experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologist should diagnose with combination of panoramic radiograph and CT.

  16. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the patellar retinaculum: normal anatomy, common injury patterns, and pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thawait, Shrey K. [Yale University - Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Soldatos, Theodoros; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The medial patellar retinaculum (MPR) and the lateral patellar retinaculum (LPR) are vital structures for the stability of the patella. Failure to identify or treat injury to the patellar retinaculum is associated with recurrent patellar instability and contributes to significant morbidity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readily depicts the detailed anatomy of various components (layers) of the retinacula. In this review article, we discuss normal anatomy, important landmarks, common injury patterns, and other pathologies encountered in patellar retinacula. High field strength MRI is an excellent noninvasive tool for evaluation of patellar retinaculum anatomy and pathology. This article will help the reader become familiar with normal imaging findings and the most commonly occurring injuries/pathologies in MPR and LPR. (orig.)

  17. Use of an Online Education Platform to Enhance Patients' Knowledge About Radiation in Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph R; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shiao, Sue J; Wei, Wei; Shoemaker, Stowe; Parmar, Simrit

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of a digital interactive education platform and standard paper-based education on patients' knowledge regarding ionizing radiation. Beginning in January 2015, patients at a tertiary cancer center scheduled for diagnostic imaging procedures were randomized to receive information about ionizing radiation delivered through a web-based interactive education platform (interactive education group), the same information in document format (document education group), or no specialized education (control group). Patients who completed at least some education and control group patients were invited to complete a knowledge assessment; interactive education patients were invited to provide feedback about satisfaction with their experience. A total of 2,226 patients participated. Surveys were completed by 302 of 745 patients (40.5%) participating in interactive education, 488 of 993 (49.1%) participating in document education, and 363 of 488 (74.4%) in the control group. Patients in the interactive education group were significantly more likely to say that they knew the definition of ionizing radiation, outperformed the other groups in identifying which imaging examinations used ionizing radiation, were significantly more likely to identify from a list which imaging modality had the highest radiation dose, and tended to perform better when asked about the tissue effects of radiation in diagnostic imaging, although this difference was not significant. In the interactive education group, 84% of patients were satisfied with the experience, and 79% said that they would recommend the program. Complex information on a highly technical subject with personal implications for patients may be conveyed more effectively using electronic platforms, and this approach is well accepted. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  19. Effect of slice thickness on image noise and diagnostic content of single-source-dual energy computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshipli, Marwan; Kabir, Norlaili A.

    2017-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) employs X-ray radiation to create cross-sectional images. Dual-energy CT acquisition includes the images acquired from an alternating voltage of X-ray tube: a low- and a high-peak kilovoltage. The main objective of this study is to determine the best slice thickness that reduces image noise with adequate diagnostic information using dual energy CT head protocol. The study used the ImageJ software and statistical analyses to aid the medical image analysis of dual-energy CT. In this study, ImageJ software and F-test were utilised as the combination methods to analyse DICOM CT images. They were used to investigate the effect of slice thickness on noise and visibility in dual-energy CT head protocol images. Catphan-600 phantom was scanned at different slice thickness values;.6, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mm, then quantitative analyses were carried out. The DECT operated in helical mode with another fixed scan parameter values. Based on F-test statistical analyses, image noise at 0.6, 1, and 2 mm were significantly different compared to the other images acquired at slice thickness of 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm. However, no significant differences of image noise were observed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm. As a result, better diagnostic image value, image visibility, and lower image noise in dual-energy CT head protocol was observed at a slice thickness of 3 mm.

  20. MO-C-BRB-06: Translating NIH / NIBIB funding to clinical reality in quantitative diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, E. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  1. Wave-equation Migration Velocity Analysis Using Plane-wave Common Image Gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-06-01

    Wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag common image gathers (CIGs) requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, a WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs is presented. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the computational cost and memory storage because they are directly calculated from prestack plane-wave migration, and the number of plane waves is often much smaller than the number of shots. In the case of an inaccurate migration velocity, the moveout of plane-wave CIGs is automatically picked by a semblance analysis method, which is then linked to the migration velocity update by a connective function. Numerical tests on two synthetic datasets and a field dataset validate the efficiency and effectiveness of this method.

  2. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  3. Chronic pelvic pain: how does noninvasive imaging compare with diagnostic laparoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlapur, Seema A; Daniels, Jane P; Khan, Khalid S

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) has an annual prevalence of 38/1000 in the UK, with coexisting pathologies often present. Diagnostic laparoscopy has long been the gold standard diagnostic test, but with up to 40% showing no abnormality, we explore the value of noninvasive imaging, such as pelvic ultrasound and MRI. A literature review from inception until January 2015 of the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Excerpta Medica database, and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe were performed to identify published studies assessing the usefulness of ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy in the diagnosis of CPP. Three studies (194 women) addressed their comparative performance in patients with endometriosis, showing the sensitivity of ultrasound ranged between 58 and 88.5%; MRI was 56-91.5% and in the one study using histology as its reference standard, the sensitivity of laparoscopy was 85.7%. Noninvasive imaging has the additional benefit of being well tolerated, safer, and cheaper than surgery. CPP, by nature of its multifactorial causation, can be difficult to manage and often requires a multidisciplinary team. Ultrasound and MRI may provide information about the presence or lack of abnormality, which would allow general practitioners or office gynaecologists to initiate treatment and think about surgery as a second-line investigative tool.

  4. Imaging techniques used in the diagnostic workup of acute venous thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilve-Gómez, A; Rodríguez-Fernández, P; Trillo-Fandiño, L; Plasencia-Martínez, J M

    Early diagnosis is one of the most important factors affecting the prognosis of pulmonary embolism (PE); however, the clinical presentation of PE is often very unspecific and it can simulate other diseases. For these reasons, imaging tests, especially computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary arteries, have become the keystone in the diagnostic workup of PE. The wide availability and high diagnostic performance of pulmonary CTA has led to an increase in the number of examinations done and a consequent increase in the population's exposure to radiation and iodinated contrast material. Thus, other techniques such as scintigraphy and venous ultrasonography of the lower limbs, although less accurate, continue to be used in certain circumstances, and optimized protocols have been developed for CTA to reduce the dose of radiation (by decreasing the kilovoltage) and the dose of contrast agents. We describe the technical characteristics and interpretation of the findings for each imaging technique used to diagnose PE and discuss their advantages and limitations; this knowledge will help the best technique to be chosen for each case. Finally, we comment on some data about the increased use of CTA, its clinical repercussions, its "overuse", and doubts about its cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic Gas Puff Imaging Diagnostic for the XGC1 Turbulence Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, D. P.; Ku, S. H.; Zweben, S. J.; Churchill, R. M.; Chang, C. S.; Terry, J. L.

    2017-10-01

    The full- f edge gyrokinetic code XGC1 has been used recently to study problems of significant interest, such as the divertor heat flux width and the L-H transition. Moreover, XGC1 simulations of the heat flux width in ITER have different edge turbulence characteristics that lead to widths large relative to those based on empirical scalings. To be confident that this and other XGC1 predictions are accurate will require more detailed validation tests of the code against experimental data. One invaluable source of such data is the gas puff imaging (GPI) technique, which measures edge plasma turbulence. We have developed a synthetic GPI diagnostic for XGC1 based on the DEGAS 2 neutral transport code, allowing a direct comparison of simulated and observed turbulence characteristics, such as fluctuation amplitude, auto-correlation time, and correlation lengths. The DEGAS 2 simulations are 3-D and have sub-microsecond time resolution; both Alcator C-Mod fast camera and APD images are produced. We will describe the synthetic diagnostic and present an initial comparison of its results with the corresponding GPI data from two C-Mod discharges. This work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  6. Low-dose cerebral CT perfusion imaging (CTPI) of senile dementia: diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen; Chen, Feng; Huang, Jie; Shi, Linghua; Gong, H T; Fu, Hongmei; Qu, Zhengwan; Pi, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of low-dose cerebral CTPI in the diagnosis of senile dementia, as an attempt to develop a new imaging method to diagnose this disease and measure its severity. 95 patients of senile dementia (52 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 43 with vascular dementia (VD)) and 30 healthy subjects (control group) were underwent low-dose cerebral CTPI examinations with multi-slices spiral CT. The CTPI images were analyzed using perfusion software. Derived perfusion parameters including cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) were measured. Diagnostic value of perfusion parameters was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The CBV and CBF of both of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus and basal ganglial area in the patients with senile dementia were much lower than those in the healthy group. And MTT and TTP of the areas above-mentioned in the senile dementia group were higher than those in the control group. There was statistically significant difference between them (psenile dementia were 0.959, 0.920, 0.916, and diagnostic accuracy rate is higher. The areas under ROC curve of the left frontal MTT, the left basal ganglia CBV were 0.867 and 0.819, diagnosis accuracy medium. The results showed that cerebral CTPI is valuable for the diagnosis of senile dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CMR in patients with severe myocarditis: diagnostic value of quantitative tissue markers including extracellular volume imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunski, Ulf K; Lund, Gunnar K; Stehning, Christian; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Bohnen, Sebastian; Adam, Gerhard; Blankenberg, Stefan; Muellerleile, Kai

    2014-07-01

    with clinical evidence for subacute, severe myocarditis, ECV quantification with LGE imaging significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy of CMR compared with standard Lake-Louise criteria. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility and Diagnostic Value of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Acute Ischemic Stroke of Undetermined Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Karl Georg; Wollboldt, Christian; Bentheim, Laura Zu; Herm, Juliane; Jäger, Sebastian; Kunze, Claudia; Eberle, Holger-Carsten; Deluigi, Claudia Christina; Bruder, Oliver; Malsch, Carolin; Heuschmann, Peter U; Endres, Matthias; Audebert, Heinrich J; Morguet, Andreas J; Jensen, Christoph; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2017-05-01

    Etiology of acute ischemic stroke remains undetermined (cryptogenic) in about 25% of patients after state-of-the-art diagnostic work-up. One-hundred and three patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven acute ischemic stroke of undetermined origin were prospectively enrolled and underwent 3-T cardiac MRI and magnetic resonance angiography of the aortic arch in addition to state-of-the-art diagnostic work-up, including transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We analyzed the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and added value of cardiovascular MRI (cvMRI) compared with TEE for detecting sources of stroke. Overall, 102 (99.0%) ischemic stroke patients (median 63 years [interquartile range, 53-72], 24% female, median NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score on admission 2 [interquartile range, 1-4]) underwent cvMRI and TEE in hospital; 89 (86.4%) patients completed the cvMRI examination. In 93 cryptogenic stroke patients, a high-risk embolic source was found in 9 (8.7%) patients by cvMRI and in 11 (11.8%) patients by echocardiography, respectively. cvMRI and echocardiography findings were consistent in 80 (86.0%) patients, resulting in a degree of agreement of κ=0.24. In 82 patients with cryptogenic stroke according to routine work-up, including TEE, cvMRI identified stroke etiology in additional 5 (6.1%) patients. Late gadolinium enhancement consistent with previous myocardial infarction was found in 13 (14.6%) out of 89 stroke patients completing cvMRI. Only 2 of these 13 patients had known coronary artery disease. Our study demonstrated that cvMRI was feasible in the vast majority of included patients with acute ischemic stroke. The diagnostic information of cvMRI seems to be complementary to TEE but is not replacing echocardiography after acute ischemic stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01917955. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. System diagnosis using finite memory observers: Common Rail application; Diagnostic des systemes a l'aide d'observateurs a memoire finie: application au Common Rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graton, G.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work was to propose a fault detection method on the high pressure direct injection system (called Common Rail system) set up on Diesel vehicles. The importance of the fault detection procedure implementation was highlighted thanks to the description of the stakes (lowers consumption, reduction in the pollutant emissions and sound, increase of performances) and constraints dependent on Common Rail (high pressure, high frequency, gas oil lubrication, high precision machining, standards EURO respect,...) but also through a listing of failures which can occur on Common Rail. A synthesis on the different diagnosis methods of systems contributed to select a fault detection method with expected performances (detection of fault beginning, detection speed, isolation and characterization of detected fault and minimizing false alarm and bad detections). After a detailed study (properties, sequential formulations and sensitivity study) of the selected detection method (finite memory observers) and a modeling of the Common Rail various bodies behavior, the algorithm of detection was tested on three different models of the system Common Rail. Moreover, the comparison between the finite memory observer and a Luenberger observer and a Kalman filter allow to appreciate the residual robustness degree. Obtained results allow to conclude on good detection of actuator and sensor faults. (author)

  10. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Hong, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.

  11. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Jay E; Smith, Ethan A; Kunisaki, Shaun M; Dillman, Jonathan R

    2015-07-01

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (reconstruction method. CTDIvol was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose.

  12. Diagnostic and quality-assurance tools for low-contrast images obtained from array detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, D. B.; Sandel, Bill R.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate methods of estimating a background image frame for subtraction from a data frame for use when a more suitable measured background frame is not available. We define background as any signal component that is not attributable to the phenomenon currently under investigation. We describe a technique that is based on pixel-by-pixel least-squares regression of images for computing a background frame from available data. We argue that the same technique can be a useful quality-assurance tool for evaluating instrument performance. For example, it can help to separate image structure resulting from the reading process from structure resulting from the characteristics of the detector itself. We demonstrate that background estimation can be nontrivial by comparing the results of different background estimation procedures by using data obtained from a CCD array detector. We investigate the temperature-dependent contributions of the detector and readout electronics to the total signal as a demonstration of the diagnostic capabilities of least-squares image regression.

  13. MR imaging and proton spectroscopy of the breast: how to select the images useful to convey the diagnostic message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, A; Magaldi, A; Babaei Paskeh, B; Menicagli, L; Lupo, E N; Sardanelli, F

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a short way to summarise a breast magnetic resonance (MR) examination including a precontrast and contrast-enhanced dynamic study and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in order to convey the diagnostic message. At the Department of Radiology of the Policlinico San Donato (University of Milan), breast MR is routinely performed at 1.5 T as follows: 36-slice axial 2D short-time inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence; 128-partition 3D gradient-echo coronal sequence (1-mm3 siotropic voxel) before and after rapid automatic intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DOTA (one precontrast and four postcontrast phases). Postprocessing includes temporal subtraction (postcontrast minus precontrast), maximum intensity projections (MIPs), percent enhancement-to-time curves for small regions of interest, and axial and/or sagittal multiplanar reconstructions. Single-voxel 1H-MRS is acquired to characterise focal lesions. Applying this protocol, more than 1,200 images are generated for each examination. We select only four MIPs of an early subtracted dynamic phase: one axial similar to craniocaudal x-ray mammographic views, one coronal, and two lateral similar to lateral 90 degrees x-ray mammographic views. For each lesion described in the report, we select five items, including three images, one graph, and one table: STIR image, precontrast and subtracted postcontrast images (morphology), percent enhancement-to-time curves and a table of raw data generating the curves (dynamics). If 1H-MRS has been performed, we add other five items: two postprocessed spectra (metabolism) and three images localising the volume of interest. Only the selected items are printed on films and attached to the report. The selected items range usually from four (no detected lesion) to 14 (one lesion, studied also with 1H-MRS), to 44 (five lesions, one of them studied also with 1H-MRS). The percentage of items presented with the report if compared with the total number of

  14. Sodium and T1rho MRI for molecular and diagnostic imaging of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Arijitt; Mellon, Eric; Niyogi, Sampreet; Witschey, Walter; Kneeland, J Bruce; Reddy, Ravinder

    2006-11-01

    In this article, both sodium magnetic resonance (MR) and T1rho relaxation mapping aimed at measuring molecular changes in cartilage for the diagnostic imaging of osteoarthritis are reviewed. First, an introduction to structure of cartilage, its degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA) and an outline of diagnostic imaging methods in quantifying molecular changes and early diagnostic aspects of cartilage degeneration are described. The sodium MRI section begins with a brief overview of the theory of sodium NMR of biological tissues and is followed by a section on multiple quantum filters that can be used to quantify both bi-exponential relaxation and residual quadrupolar interaction. Specifically, (i) the rationale behind the use of sodium MRI in quantifying proteoglycan (PG) changes, (ii) validation studies using biochemical assays, (iii) studies on human OA specimens, (iv) results on animal models and (v) clinical imaging protocols are reviewed. Results demonstrating the feasibility of quantifying PG in OA patients and comparison with that in healthy subjects are also presented. The section concludes with the discussion of advantages and potential issues with sodium MRI and the impact of new technological advancements (e.g. ultra-high field scanners and parallel imaging methods). In the theory section on T1rho, a brief description of (i) principles of measuring T1rho relaxation, (ii) pulse sequences for computing T1rho relaxation maps, (iii) issues regarding radio frequency power deposition, (iv) mechanisms that contribute to T1rho in biological tissues and (v) effects of exchange and dipolar interaction on T1rho dispersion are discussed. Correlation of T1rho relaxation rate with macromolecular content and biomechanical properties in cartilage specimens subjected to trypsin and cytokine-induced glycosaminoglycan depletion and validation against biochemical assay and histopathology are presented. Experimental T1rho data from osteoarthritic specimens, animal models

  15. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, Jay E.; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kunisaki, Shaun M. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDI{sub vol} was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy in pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuppen, J. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olthof, D.C. [Trauma Unit Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wilde, J.C.H. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Emma' s Children Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beenen, L.F.M.; Rijn, R.R. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goslings, J.C., E-mail: j.c.goslings@amc.nl [Trauma Unit Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is an important but often unrecognized cause of death in children. Imaging plays a vital role in the early detection of abdominal trauma. The exact role of imaging in the management of BAT in children is still under research. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy, where the decision to observe or to perform an intervention depends on the vital parameters of the patient, in combination with the presence or absence of free fluid at Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and the findings on CT (performed selectively), for pediatric patients presenting to the ED with a blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: Consecutive patients aged ≤16 years admitted between January 2008 and December 2012 to a Dutch level 1 trauma centre were included in this retrospective study. Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV) and the negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of the imaging strategy were calculated. Results: The cohort consisted of 122 patients; 66 (54%) patients were discharged home after primary survey, 51 (41%) patients were admitted and observed, 3 (2%) patients underwent transarterial embolization and 2 (2%) patients underwent surgery. Treatment failed in 1 patient, initially selected for observation. The sensitivity of the imaging strategy was 0.833 (0.446–0.990). The NPV and LR− were 0.991 (0.963–1.000) and 0.167 (0.028–0.997), respectively. Conclusion: The step-up imaging strategy that is applied in our academic level 1 trauma centre has a high sensitivity and a high negative predictive value. No clinically relevant injuries were missed without doing unnecessary harm, e.g. radiation or an intervention.

  17. Learning with distribution of optimized features for recognizing common CT imaging signs of lung diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Liu, Xiabi; Fei, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    Common CT imaging signs of lung diseases (CISLs) are defined as the imaging signs that frequently appear in lung CT images from patients. CISLs play important roles in the diagnosis of lung diseases. This paper proposes a novel learning method, namely learning with distribution of optimized feature (DOF), to effectively recognize the characteristics of CISLs. We improve the classification performance by learning the optimized features under different distributions. Specifically, we adopt the minimum spanning tree algorithm to capture the relationship between features and discriminant ability of features for selecting the most important features. To overcome the problem of various distributions in one CISL, we propose a hierarchical learning method. First, we use an unsupervised learning method to cluster samples into groups based on their distribution. Second, in each group, we use a supervised learning method to train a model based on their categories of CISLs. Finally, we obtain multiple classification decisions from multiple trained models and use majority voting to achieve the final decision. The proposed approach has been implemented on a set of 511 samples captured from human lung CT images and achieves a classification accuracy of 91.96%. The proposed DOF method is effective and can provide a useful tool for computer-aided diagnosis of lung diseases on CT images.

  18. A basis of common approach to the development of universal steganalysis methods for digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla А. Kobozeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new common approach to the organization of steganalysis in digital images is developed. New features of formal parameters defining the image are identified, theoretically grounded and practically tested. For the first time characteristics of mutual disposition of the left and right singular vectors corresponding to the largest singular value of the matrix (block of matrix of an image and the vector composed of the singular values obtained as a result of normal singular decomposition of the matrix (block matrix are obtained. It is shown that for the majority of the blocks of the original image (regardless of the storage format — lossy, lossless the angle between the left (right singular vector and the vector composed of singular numbers is determined by the angle between the n-optimal vector and the standard space basis of the corresponding dimension. It is shown that the discovered feature is violated for the mentioned formal parameters in the disturbed image. This is an indicator of integrity violation, particularly steganotransformation, and it can be used to develop new universal steganalysis methods and algorithms. Their efficiency does not depend on the specifics of steganoalgorithm used for insertion of additional information.

  19. Injectable facial fillers: imaging features, complications, and diagnostic pitfalls at MRI and PET CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundada, Pravin; Kohler, Romain; Boudabbous, Sana; Toutous Trellu, Laurence; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Minerva

    2017-12-01

    Injectable fillers are widely used for facial rejuvenation, correction of disabling volumetric fat loss in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy, Romberg disease, and post-traumatic facial disfiguring. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the anatomy of facial fat compartments, as well as with the properties and key imaging features of commonly used facial fillers, filler-related complications, interpretation pitfalls, and dermatologic conditions mimicking filler-related complications. The distribution of facial fillers is characteristic and depends on the anatomy of the superficial fat compartments. Silicone has signature MRI features, calcium hydroxyapatite has characteristic calcifications, whereas other injectable fillers have overlapping imaging features. Most fillers (hyaluronic acid, collagen, and polyalkylimide-polyacrylamide hydrogels) have signal intensity patterns compatible with high water content. On PET-CT, most fillers show physiologic high FDG uptake, which should not be confounded with pathology. Abscess, cellulitis, non-inflammatory nodules, and foreign body granulomas are the most common filler-related complications, and imaging can help in the differential diagnosis. Diffusion weighted imaging helps in detecting a malignant lesion masked by injected facial fillers. Awareness of imaging features of facial fillers and their complications helps to avoid misinterpretation of MRI, and PET-CT scans and facilitates therapeutic decisions in unclear clinical cases. • Facial fillers are common incidental findings on MRI and PET-CT scans. • They have a characteristic appearance and typical anatomic distribution • Although considered as safe, facial filler injections are associated with several complications • As they may mask malignancy, knowledge of typical imaging features is mandatory. • MRI is a problem-solving tool for unclear cases.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography in stress fractures of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiyusufoglu, A.K., E-mail: kursady33@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Onat, L. [Department of Radiology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Karatoprak, O.; Enercan, M.; Hamzaoglu, A. [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Radiological and clinical data from 57 adolescents and young adults with a diagnosis of stress injury of the lumbar spine were retrospectively reviewed. All cases had undergone both 1.5 T MRI and 16-section CT examinations. All MRI and CT images were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated in separate sessions. The fracture morphology (complete/incomplete, localization) and vertebral levels were noted at both the CT and MRI examinations. Bone marrow/peri-osseous soft-tissue oedema was also determined at MRI. Results: In total, 73 complete and 32 incomplete stress fractures were detected with CT. Sixty-seven complete, 24 incomplete fractures and eight stress reactions were detected using MRI in the same study group. Marrow oedema was also seen in eight of the complete and 20 of the incomplete fractures. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of MRI in detecting fracture lines were 99.6, 86.7, and 97.2%, respectively. MRI was more accurate at the lower lumbar levels in comparison to upper lumbar levels. Conclusion: MRI has a similar diagnostic accuracy to CT in determining complete fractures with or without accompanying marrow oedema and incomplete fractures with accompanying marrow oedema, especially at the lower lumbar levels, which constitutes 94% of all fractures. At upper lumbar levels and in the incomplete fractures of the pars interarticularis with marked surrounding sclerosis, MRI has apparent limitations compared to CT imaging.

  1. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of infrared imaging of the breast: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Chin-Yu; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Wu, Yuh-Ming; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang

    2010-01-07

    The study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic performance of infrared (IR) imaging of the breast using an interpretive model derived from a scoring system. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. A total of 276 women (mean age = 50.8 years, SD 11.8) with suspicious findings on mammograms or ultrasound received IR imaging of the breast before excisional biopsy. The interpreting radiologists scored the lesions using a scoring system that combines five IR signs. The ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve and AUC (area under the ROC curve) were analyzed by the univariate logistic regression model for each IR sign and an age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression model including 5 IR signs. The cut-off values and corresponding sensitivity, specificity, Youden's Index (Index = sensitivity+specificity-1), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) were estimated from the age-adjusted multivariate model. The most optimal cut-off value was determined by the one with highest Youden's Index. For the univariate model, the AUC of the ROC curve from five IR signs ranged from 0.557 to 0.701, and the AUC of the ROC from the age-adjusted multivariate model was 0.828. From the ROC derived from the multivariate model, the sensitivity of the most optimal cut-off value would be 72.4% with the corresponding specificity 76.6% (Youden's Index = 0.49), PPV 81.3% and NPV 66.4%. We established an interpretive age-adjusted multivariate model for IR imaging of the breast. The cut-off values and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity can be inferred from the model in a subpopulation for diagnostic purpose. NCT00166998.

  2. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of infrared imaging of the breast: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuh-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic performance of infrared (IR imaging of the breast using an interpretive model derived from a scoring system. Methods The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. A total of 276 women (mean age = 50.8 years, SD 11.8 with suspicious findings on mammograms or ultrasound received IR imaging of the breast before excisional biopsy. The interpreting radiologists scored the lesions using a scoring system that combines five IR signs. The ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve and AUC (area under the ROC curve were analyzed by the univariate logistic regression model for each IR sign and an age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression model including 5 IR signs. The cut-off values and corresponding sensitivity, specificity, Youden's Index (Index = sensitivity+specificity-1, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV were estimated from the age-adjusted multivariate model. The most optimal cut-off value was determined by the one with highest Youden's Index. Results For the univariate model, the AUC of the ROC curve from five IR signs ranged from 0.557 to 0.701, and the AUC of the ROC from the age-adjusted multivariate model was 0.828. From the ROC derived from the multivariate model, the sensitivity of the most optimal cut-off value would be 72.4% with the corresponding specificity 76.6% (Youden's Index = 0.49, PPV 81.3% and NPV 66.4%. Conclusions We established an interpretive age-adjusted multivariate model for IR imaging of the breast. The cut-off values and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity can be inferred from the model in a subpopulation for diagnostic purpose. Trial Registration NCT00166998.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in post-traumatic brachial plexus injuries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzari, Helen K B; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle; Vilar, Clarice F; Sayão, Larissa B; Diniz, Paula R B; Souza, Fernando H; de Oliveira, Daniella A

    2017-11-11

    Computed Tomographic Myelography (CTM) is a gold-standard imaging test for evaluating the brachial plexus and has been used for a long time. Another imaging test more recently used is Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI), which is also part of the plexus evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of MRI in diagnosing post-traumatic injuries of the brachial plexus. We conducted a Systematic Review with cross-sectional studies of diagnostic accuracy. Studies with populations presenting post-traumatic brachial plexus injury, over 16 years old, both genders, and examined by CT Myelography and MRI were evaluated. The trial resulted in three studies that covered the inclusion criteria. The sample consisted of 46 participants. The tool Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) was used to evaluate the quality of the studies, and the software RevMan was used to identify the homogeneity of the studies that entered the analysis. The study was registered in PROSPERO under the number CRD42016041720. Studies showed moderate to high risk of bias, with low or very low quality of evidence due to the limitations of studies and differences in comparing the assessment groups. The heterogeneity of the studies made it impossible to create meta-analyzes. MRI has been an excellent test for assessing traumatic brachial plexus injuries in clinical practice; however, the quantitative analysis of studies identified a lack in methodological rigor. Future studies should focus on methodological rigor, providing more accurate assessments of modalities and their benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of pineal gland calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böker, Sarah M.; Bender, Yvonne Y.; Diederichs, Gerd; Fallenberg, Eva M.; Wagner, Moritz; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the detection of pineal gland calcifications (PGC) compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard. Methods 384 patients who received a 1.5 Tesla MRI scan including SWMR sequences and a CT scan of the brain between January 2014 and October 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. 346 patients were included in the analysis, of which 214 showed PGC on CT scans. To assess correlation between imaging modalities, the maximum calcification diameter was used. Sensitivity and specificity and intra- and interobserver reliability were calculated for SWMR and conventional MRI sequences. Results SWMR reached a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI: 91%-97%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 91%-99%) for the detection of PGC, whereas conventional MRI achieved a sensitivity of 43% (95% CI: 36%-50%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 91%-99%). Detection rates for calcifications in SWMR and conventional MRI differed significantly (95% versus 43%, p<0.001). Diameter measurements between SWMR and CT showed a close correlation (R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with a slight but not significant overestimation of size (SWMR: 6.5 mm ± 2.5; CT: 5.9 mm ± 2.4, p = 0.02). Interobserver-agreement for diameter measurements was excellent on SWMR (ICC = 0.984, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Combining SWMR magnitude and phase information enables the accurate detection of PGC and offers a better diagnostic performance than conventional MRI with CT as a reference standard. PMID:28278291

  5. Imaging mammary diagnostics. Diagnostic techniques, archetypical findings, differential diagnostcs and interventions.. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Bildgebende Mammadiagnostik. Untersuchungstechnik, Befundmuster, Differenzialdiagnose und Interventionen. Kartonierte Sonderausgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S. [Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Schreer, I. (eds.) [Mamma-Zentrum des UK Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Geburtshilfe und Gynaekologie

    2008-07-01

    The book includes the following chapters: I. Methodology: anamnesis and interview; clinical evidence, mammography, sonography, magnetic resonance tomography, new imaging techniques (scintigraphy, PET), transcutaneous biopsy, pre-operative marking; II. phenotypes: normal mammary glands, mastopathics, cysts, benign tumors, inflammatory diseases, in-situ carcinomas, invasive carcinomas, lymphomas, other semi-malign and malign tumors, post-traumatic, post-surgical and post-therapeutic changes, skin changes, male mamma, screening, continuative diagnostics of screening evidence and problem solving for symptomatic patients.

  6. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  7. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD): Development of Image Analysis Criteria and Examiner Reliability for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansur; Hollender, Lars; Odont; Anderson, Quentin; Kartha, Krishnan; Ohrbach, Richard K.; Truelove, Edmond L.; John, Mike T.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction As a part of a multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project, comprehensive TMJ diagnostic criteria were developed for image analysis using panoramic radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). Methods Inter-examiner reliability was estimated using the kappa (k) statistic, and agreement between rater pairs was characterized by overall, positive, and negative percent agreement. CT was the reference standard for assessing validity of other imaging modalities for detecting osteoarthritis (OA). Results For the radiological diagnosis of OA, reliability of the three examiners was poor for panoramic radiography (k = 0.16), fair for MRI (k = 0.46), and close to the threshold for excellent for CT (k = 0.71). Using MRI, reliability was excellent for diagnosing disc displacements (DD) with reduction (k = 0.78) and for DD without reduction (k = 0.94), and was good for effusion (k = 0.64). Overall percent agreement for pair-wise ratings was ≥ 82% for all conditions. Positive percent agreement for diagnosing OA was 19% for panoramic radiography, 59% for MRI, and 84% for CT. Using MRI, positive percent agreement for diagnoses of any DD was 95% and for effusion was 81%. Negative percent agreement was ≥ 88% for all conditions. Compared to CT, panoramic radiography and MRI had poor to marginal sensitivity, respectively, but excellent specificity, in detecting OA. Conclusion Comprehensive image analysis criteria for RDC/TMD Validation Project were developed, which can reliably be employed for assessing OA using CT, and for disc position and effusion using MRI. PMID:19464658

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT imaging in pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Punit; Dhull, Varun Singh; Arora, Saurabh; Kumar, Rajeev; Malhotra, Arun; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Poonam; Ammini, Ariachery C. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, New Delhi (India); Durgapal, Prashant [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology, New Delhi (India); Chumber, Sunil [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgical Disciplines, New Delhi (India)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in patients with suspicion of pheochromocytoma. Data of 62 patients [age 34.3 ± 16.1 years, 14 with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2)] with clinical/biochemical suspicion of pheochromocytoma and suspicious adrenal lesion on contrast CT (n = 70), who had undergone {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT, were retrospectively analyzed. PET/CT images were analyzed visually as well as semiquantitatively, with measurement of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), SUV{sub mean}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver}, and SUV{sub mean}/SUV{sub liver}. Results of PET/CT were compared with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging, which was available in 40 patients (45 lesions). Histopathology and/or imaging/clinical/biochemical follow-up (minimum 6 months) was used as reference standard. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT was 90.4, 85, and 88.7 %, respectively, on patient-based analysis and 92, 85, and 90 %, respectively, on lesion-based analysis. {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT showed 100 % accuracy in patients with MEN2 syndrome and malignant pheochromocytoma. On direct comparison, lesion-based accuracy of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT for pheochromocytoma was significantly higher than {sup 131}I-MIBG imaging (91.1 vs 66.6 %, p = 0.035). SUV{sub max} was higher for pheochromocytomas than other adrenal lesions (p = 0.005), MEN2-associated vs sporadic pheochromocytoma (p = 0.012), but no difference was seen between benign vs malignant pheochromocytoma (p = 0.269). {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT shows high diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspicion of pheochromocytoma and is superior to {sup 131}I-MIBG imaging for this purpose. Best results of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT are seen in patients with MEN2-associated and malignant pheochromocytoma. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of diagnostic quality and accuracy in color-coded versus gray-scale DCE-MR imaging display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, A. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), School of Medical Science and Technology, Kharagpur (India); Knopp, M.V. [The Ohio State University, Department of Radiology, Columbus (United States); Zechmann, C.M.; Owsijewitsch, M.; Tengg-Kobligk, H. von; Zamecnik, P.; Kauczor, H.U. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Choyke, P.L. [National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Bethesda (United States); Giesel, F.L. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Bethesda (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value and tumor-vascular display properties (microcirculation) of two different functional MRI post-processing and display (color and gray-scale display) techniques used in oncology. The study protocol was approved by the IRB and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. 38 dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data sets of patients with malignant pleural-mesothelioma were acquired and post-processed. DCE-MRI was performed at 1.5 tesla with a T1-weighted 2D gradient-echo-sequence (TR 7.0 ms, TE 3.9 ms, 15 axial slices, 22 sequential repetitions), prior and during chemotherapy. Subtracting first image of contrast-enhanced-dynamic series from the last, produced gray-scale images. Color images were produced using a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model. Eight raters, blinded to diagnosis, by visual assessment of post-processed images evaluated both diagnostic quality of the images and vasculature of the tumor using a rating scale ranging from -5 to +5. The scores for vasculature were assessed by correlating with the maximum amplitude of the total-tumor-ROI for accuracy. Color coded images were rated as significantly higher in diagnostic quality and tumor vascular score than gray-scale images (p<0.001, 0.005). ROI signal amplitude analysis and vascular ratings on color coded images were better correlated compared to gray-scale images rating (p<0.05). Color coded images were shown to have higher diagnostic quality and accuracy with respect to tumor vasculature in DCE-MRI, therefore their implementation in clinical assessment and follow-up should be considered for wider application. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Characterizing Lung Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Donmez, Muhammed; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Imaging plays a critical role not only in the detection, but also in the characterization of lung masses as benign or malignant. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. Patients and Methods Ninety-four masses were included in this prospective study. Five dynamic series of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FFE) images were obtained, followed by a T1-weighted FFE sequence in the late phase (5th minutes). Contrast enhancement patterns in the early (25th second) and late (5th minute) phase images were evaluated. For the quantitative evaluation, signal intensity (SI)-time curves were obtained and the maximum relative enhancement, wash-in rate, and time-to-peak enhancement of masses in both groups were calculated. Results The early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 78.2% of the benign masses, while heterogeneous in 74.4% of the malignant tumors. On the late phase images, 70.8% of the benign masses showed homogeneous enhancement, while most of the malignant masses showed heterogeneous enhancement (82.4%). During the first pass, the maximum relative enhancement and wash-in rate values of malignant masses were significantly higher than those of the benign masses (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The cutoff value at 15% yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, specificity of 61.2%, and positive predictive value of 68.7% for the maximum relative enhancement. Conclusion Contrast enhancement patterns and SI-time curve analysis of MRI are helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. PMID:27703654

  11. Modelling the transport of optical photons in scintillation detectors for diagnostic and radiotherapy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncali, Emilie; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Badano, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Computational modelling of radiation transport can enhance the understanding of the relative importance of individual processes involved in imaging systems. Modelling is a powerful tool for improving detector designs in ways that are impractical or impossible to achieve through experimental measurements. Modelling of light transport in scintillation detectors used in radiology and radiotherapy imaging that rely on the detection of visible light plays an increasingly important role in detector design. Historically, researchers have invested heavily in modelling the transport of ionizing radiation while light transport is often ignored or coarsely modelled. Due to the complexity of existing light transport simulation tools and the breadth of custom codes developed by users, light transport studies are seldom fully exploited and have not reached their full potential. This topical review aims at providing an overview of the methods employed in freely available and other described optical Monte Carlo packages and analytical models and discussing their respective advantages and limitations. In particular, applications of optical transport modelling in nuclear medicine, diagnostic and radiotherapy imaging are described. A discussion on the evolution of these modelling tools into future developments and applications is presented. The authors declare equal leadership and contribution regarding this review.

  12. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrence, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5/sup 0/, 20/sup 0/, and 60/sup 0/ field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented.

  13. Design of a phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Grulke, O.; Böttger, L.-G.; Sehren, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator at IPP Greifswald commenced operation in 2015, and while its design has been aimed at minimizing neoclassical transport, turbulent transport is expected to be strongly affected by the magnetic geometry. With this in mind, MIT and IPP-Greifswald scientists have undertaken a project to design and implement a phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic to measure turbulence in W7-X in the OP1.2 operating phase starting in 2017. The principle and design aspects of the PCI method have been described in numerous past publications. In W7-X the PCI system will have two imaging systems differing only in the angle of the spatial mask that selects for magnetic pitch angle, and will produce measurements of poloidal and radial correlations. A series of remotely controllable optics will allow the beam size and image magnification to be adjustable. We expect sensitivity to fluctuations in the range of 2 kHz to approximately 2 MHz and wavenumbers in the range of 1 cm-1 to 30 cm-1 which should allow us to detect ITG, TEM and possibly ETG turbulence. The MIT portion of this project is supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-SC0014229, and the IPP part is funded under Euratom Grant agreement No 633053.

  14. Investigation of the possibility of gamma-ray diagnostic imaging of target compression at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Daniel A; Baudet, Camille; Grim, Gary P; Barber, H Bradford; Miller, Brian W; Fasje, David; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-09-23

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's leading facility to study the physics of igniting plasmas. Plasmas of hot deuterium and tritium, undergo d(t,n)α reactions that produce a 14.1 MeV neutron and 3.5 MeV a particle, in the center of mass. As these neutrons pass through the materials surrounding the hot core, they may undergo subsequent (n,x) reactions. For example, (12)C(n,n'γ)(12)C reactions occur in remnant debris from the polymer ablator resulting in a significant fluence of 4.44 MeV gamma-rays. Imaging of these gammas will enable the determination of the volumetric size and symmetry of the ablation; large size and high asymmetry is expected to correlate with poor compression and lower fusion yield. Results from a gamma-ray imaging system are expected to be complimentary to a neutron imaging diagnostic system already in place at the NIF. This paper describes initial efforts to design a gamma-ray imaging system for the NIF using the existing neutron imaging system as a baseline for study. Due to the cross-section and expected range of ablator areal densities, the gamma flux should be approximately 10(-3) of the neutron flux. For this reason, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the gamma-ray imaging system because it will be gamma starved. As with the neutron imager, use of pinholes and/or coded apertures are anticipated. Along with aperture and detector design, the selection of an appropriate scintillator is discussed. The volume of energy deposition of the interacting 4.44 MeV gamma-rays is a critical parameter limiting the imaging system spatial resolution. The volume of energy deposition is simulated with GEANT4, and plans to measure the volume of energy deposition experimentally are described. Results of tests on a pixellated LYSO scintillator are also presented.

  15. Investigation of the possibility of gamma-ray diagnostic imaging of target compression at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Daniel A.; Baudet, Camille; Grim, Gary P.; Barber, H. Bradford; Miller, Brian W.; Fasje, David; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world’s leading facility to study the physics of igniting plasmas. Plasmas of hot deuterium and tritium, undergo d(t,n)α reactions that produce a 14.1 MeV neutron and 3.5 MeV a particle, in the center of mass. As these neutrons pass through the materials surrounding the hot core, they may undergo subsequent (n,x) reactions. For example, 12C(n,n’γ)12C reactions occur in remnant debris from the polymer ablator resulting in a significant fluence of 4.44 MeV gamma-rays. Imaging of these gammas will enable the determination of the volumetric size and symmetry of the ablation; large size and high asymmetry is expected to correlate with poor compression and lower fusion yield. Results from a gamma-ray imaging system are expected to be complimentary to a neutron imaging diagnostic system already in place at the NIF. This paper describes initial efforts to design a gamma-ray imaging system for the NIF using the existing neutron imaging system as a baseline for study. Due to the cross-section and expected range of ablator areal densities, the gamma flux should be approximately 10−3 of the neutron flux. For this reason, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the gamma-ray imaging system because it will be gamma starved. As with the neutron imager, use of pinholes and/or coded apertures are anticipated. Along with aperture and detector design, the selection of an appropriate scintillator is discussed. The volume of energy deposition of the interacting 4.44 MeV gamma-rays is a critical parameter limiting the imaging system spatial resolution. The volume of energy deposition is simulated with GEANT4, and plans to measure the volume of energy deposition experimentally are described. Results of tests on a pixellated LYSO scintillator are also presented. PMID:23420688

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging and low back pain in adults: a diagnostic imaging study of 40-year-old men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Per; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Korsholm, Lars; Sorensen, Joan Solgaard; Bendix, Tom

    2005-05-15

    Cross-sectional cohort study of a general population. To investigate "abnormal" lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and their prevalence and associations with low back pain (LBP). The clinical relevance of various "abnormal" findings in the lumbar spine is unclear. Distinguishing between inevitable age-related findings and degenerative findings with deleterious consequences is a challenge. Lumbar spine MRI was obtained in 412, 40-year-old individuals. Predefined "abnormal" MRI findings were interpreted without any knowledge of patient symptoms. Associations between MRI abnormalities and LBP were calculated using odds ratios. The "overall picture" of each MRI finding was established on the basis of the frequencies, diagnostic values, and the strength and consistency of associations. Most "abnormal" MRI findings were found at the lowest lumbar levels. Irregular nucleus shape and reduced disc height were common (>50% of individuals). Relatively common (25% to 50%) were hypointense disc signal, anular tears, high intensity zones, disc protrusions, endplate changes, zygapophyseal joint degeneration, asymmetry, and foraminal stenosis. Nerve root compromise, Modic changes, central spinal stenosis, and anterolisthesis/retrolisthesis were rare (anterolisthesis (odds ratios >4). Significantly positive associations with all LBP variables were seen for hypointense disc signals, reduced disc height, and Modic changes. All disc "abnormalities" except protrusion were moderately associated with LBP during the past year. Most degenerative disc "abnormalities" were moderately associated with LBP. The strongest associations were noted for Modic changes and anterolisthesis. Further studies are needed to define clinical relevance.

  17. Electric imaging through evolution, a modeling study of commonalities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraja, Federico; Aguilera, Pedro; Caputi, Angel A; Budelli, Ruben

    2014-07-01

    Modeling the electric field and images in electric fish contributes to a better understanding of the pre-receptor conditioning of electric images. Although the boundary element method has been very successful for calculating images and fields, complex electric organ discharges pose a challenge for active electroreception modeling. We have previously developed a direct method for calculating electric images which takes into account the structure and physiology of the electric organ as well as the geometry and resistivity of fish tissues. The present article reports a general application of our simulator for studying electric images in electric fish with heterogeneous, extended electric organs. We studied three species of Gymnotiformes, including both wave-type (Apteronotus albifrons) and pulse-type (Gymnotus obscurus and Gymnotus coropinae) fish, with electric organs of different complexity. The results are compared with the African (Gnathonemus petersii) and American (Gymnotus omarorum) electric fish studied previously. We address the following issues: 1) how to calculate equivalent source distributions based on experimental measurements, 2) how the complexity of the electric organ discharge determines the features of the electric field and 3) how the basal field determines the characteristics of electric images. Our findings allow us to generalize the hypothesis (previously posed for G. omarorum) in which the perioral region and the rest of the body play different sensory roles. While the "electrosensory fovea" appears suitable for exploring objects in detail, the rest of the body is likened to a "peripheral retina" for detecting the presence and movement of surrounding objects. We discuss the commonalities and differences between species. Compared to African species, American electric fish show a weaker field. This feature, derived from the complexity of distributed electric organs, may endow Gymnotiformes with the ability to emit site-specific signals to be

  18. Optimized T1- and T2-weighted volumetric brain imaging as a diagnostic tool in very preterm neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossin-Manor, Revital [Neurosciences and Mental Health, Research Institute, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Chung, Andrew D.; Morris, Drew; Thomas, Bejoy; Shroff, Manohar M. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Soares-Fernandes, Joao P. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Hospital de S. Marcos, Neuroradiology Department, Braga (Portugal); Cheng, Hai-Ling M. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Physiology Experimental Medicine, Research Institute, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Medical Biophysics Department, Toronto (Canada); Whyte, Hilary E.A. [Neurosciences and Mental Health, Research Institute, Neonatology Department, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Taylor, Margot J. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Neurosciences and Mental Health, Research Institute, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Sled, John G. [University of Toronto, Physiology Experimental Medicine, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Medical Biophysics, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    T1- and T2-W MR sequences used for obtaining diagnostic information and morphometric measurements in the neonatal brain are frequently acquired using different imaging protocols. Optimizing one protocol for obtaining both kinds of information is valuable. To determine whether high-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences optimized for preterm brain imaging could provide both diagnostic and morphometric value. Thirty preterm neonates born between 24 and 32 weeks' gestational age were scanned during the first 2 weeks after birth. T1- and T2-W high-resolution sequences were optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and scan time and compared to conventional spin-echo-based sequences. No differences were found between conventional and high-resolution T1-W sequences for diagnostic confidence, image quality and motion artifacts. A preference for conventional over high-resolution T2-W sequences for image quality was observed. High-resolution T1 images provided better delineation of thalamic myelination and the superior temporal sulcus. No differences were found for detection of myelination and sulcation using conventional and high-resolution T2-W images. High-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences can be used in clinical MRI in the very preterm brain to provide both diagnostic and morphometric information. (orig.)

  19. Isotropic 3D fast spin-echo imaging versus standard 2D imaging at 3.0 T of the knee - image quality and diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristow, Oliver; Steinbach, Lynne; Sabo, Gregory; Krug, Roland; Huber, Markus; Rauscher, Isabel; Ma, Ben [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, 400 Parnassus Ave., A 367, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to compare a newly developed fat-saturated intermediate-weighted (IM-w) 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) sequence with standard 2D IM-w FSE sequences regarding image quality and diagnostic performance in assessing abnormal findings of the knee. MR imaging was performed at 3.0 T in 50 patients. Images were assessed independently by three radiologists. Image quality was rated significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the 2D versus the 3D FSE sequences. Sensitivity for cartilage lesions was slightly higher for the 3D sequence, but specificity was lower. Low contrast objects were better visualized with 2D sequences, while high contrast objects were better shown with the 3D sequence. Confidence scores were higher for 2D than for 3D sequences, but differences were not significant. In conclusion, isotropic 3D FSE IM-w imaging may enhance standard knee MRI by increased visualization of high contrast lesions; however, 3D FSE image quality was lower. (orig.)

  20. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging increases the overall diagnostic accuracy in brain tumours: Correlation with histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Abul-Kasim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of multimodal MRI techniques, specifically perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI, and/or MR spectroscopy (MRS, in increasing the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in brain tumours.Methods: Forty-four patients with suspected brain tumours (27 (61% patients male, mean age 58±17 (mean±SD years were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were examined with conventional MR sequences, DWI, and with PWI and/or MRS. The concordance between the diagnoses obtained with multimodal MRI and with the conventional MR sequences, and the final diagnosis obtained by biopsy, was estimated. Fisher’s exact test and/or chi-square test was performed to estimate the added utility of multimodal MRI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.Results: With multimodal MRI, the diagnosis in 41 (93% patients was the same as that obtained by biopsy, compared with 39% (17/44 patients when the readers were allowed to give one diagnostic possibility during the evaluation of the conventional MR sequences alone (p<0.001. The concordance between the diagnoses provided by evaluating the multimodal MRIs and the final diagnoses was almost perfect (κ value 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 - 1. PWI primarily helped to differentiate lymphomas from other solid tumours, whereas MRS helped to differentiate malignant glioma from metastasis. Both PWI and MRS helped in grading astrocytomas.Conclusion: Multimodal MRI increases diagnostic accuracy and should, wherever available, be performed in the work-up of brain tumours, although this entails increased examination cost and time.

  1. Simultaneous determination of some common food dyes in commercial products by digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Sorouraddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and relatively fast image-analysis method using digital images, obtained with a flatbed scanner, has been described. The method was used for the simultaneous determination of four common food dyes, namely, carmoisine, brilliant blue, sunset yellow, and quinoline yellow, in binary mixtures in commercial products without a need for any prior separation steps. The results obtained were validated against a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method and a good agreement was obtained. The parameters affecting the experimental results were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method provided acceptable linear ranges (20–250 mg/L with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998, suitable precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 4.5%, and limits of detection between 4.82 and 8.05 mg/L.

  2. First results from the Wendelstein 7-X Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Eric; Porkolab, Miklos; Grulke, Olaf; von Stechow, Adrian; Böttger, Lukas-Georg

    2017-10-01

    Experiments in the first W7-X campaign achieved conditions of Te > 8 keV, Ti > 2 keV and line-integrated densities of 3 ×1019 m-2, with energy confinement times close to the ISS04 scaling at about 100 ms. The addition of an island divertor for the OP1.2 campaign is expected to lead to improved plasma performance. Experiments from this campaign will investigate the relative balance of neoclassical and turbulent transport of energy and particles and further test the ISS04 scaling. Gyrokinetic modeling indicates that there may be measurable differences in turbulence amplitude and quality as the mirror ratio and rotational transform of the magnetic geometry are changed. Among the new W7-X diagnostics is a Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) system, a joint effort between MIT and IPP. The PCI diagnostic measures electron density fluctuations that may arise from turbulence or coherent modes. The system is capable of detecting fluctuations spanning a frequency range of about 1 kHz to 2 MHz, and wavenumbers of about 0.5 cm-1 to 30 cm-1, depending on the optical configuration. We present initial PCI measurements of turbulent fluctuations in relation to global system parameters. This work is supported by the US DOE under Grant Number DE-SC0014229.

  3. Endoscopic Laser-Based 3D Imaging for Functional Voice Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Semmler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported on the in vivo application of a miniaturized measuring device for 3D visualization of the superior vocal fold vibrations from high-speed recordings in combination with a laser projection unit (LPU. As a long-term vision for this proof of principle, we strive to integrate the further developed laserendoscopy as a diagnostic method in daily clinical routine. The new LPU mainly comprises a Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm/CW/2 ω and a diffractive optical element (DOE generating a regular laser grid (31 × 31 laser points that is projected on the vocal folds. By means of stereo triangulation, the 3D coordinates of the laser points are reconstructed from the endoscopic high-speed footage. The new design of the laserendoscope constitutes a compromise between robust image processing and laser safety regulations. The algorithms for calibration and analysis are now optimized with respect to their overall duration and the number of required interactions, which is objectively assessed using binary classifiers. The sensitivity and specificity of the calibration procedure are increased by 40.1% and 22.3%, which is statistically significant. The overall duration for the laser point detection is reduced by 41.9%. The suggested semi-automatic reconstruction software represents an important stepping-stone towards potential real time processing and a comprehensive, objective diagnostic tool of evidence-based medicine.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  5. Molecular Imaging of the Brain Using Multi-Quantum Coherence and Diagnostics of Brain Disorders

    CERN Document Server

    Kaila, M M

    2013-01-01

    This book examines multi-quantum magnetic resonance imaging methods and the diagnostics of brain disorders. It consists of two Parts. The part I is initially devoted towards the basic concepts of the conventional single quantum MRI techniques. It is supplemented by the basic knowledge required to understand multi-quantum MRI. Practical illustrations are included both on recent developments in conventional MRI and the MQ-MRI. This is to illustrate the connection between theoretical concepts and their scope in the clinical applications. The Part II initially sets out the basic details about quadrupole charge distribution present in certain nuclei and their importance about the functions they perform in our brain. Some simplified final mathematical expressions are included to illustrate facts about the basic concepts of the quantum level interactions between magnetic dipole and the electric quadrupole behavior of useful nuclei present in the brain. Selected practical illustrations, from research and clinical pra...

  6. Comparative diagnostic imaging of the canine shoulder joint ultrasonography and radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, B

    2000-01-01

    radiographically. 6 of 17 supraspinatus insertion tendinopathies (35.3 %) and 4 of 5 bicipital tendon calcifications (80 %) were detected only with ultrasonography. Radiographic findings of bony proliferations in the intertuberal groove without signs of degenerative joint disease of the shoulder joint are indicative of severe or chronic biciptal tendon disease. In many cases, the stage and severity of cartilaginous and subchondral bone lesions with osteochondritis dissecans can be determined ultrasonographically. Osteochondritis dissecans defects not seen on radiographs are occasionally visible with ultrasound, although a negative finding is not always accurate. Ultrasonography of shoulder joint disease has been applied in humans for some time. In this study, the use of radiography and ultrasonography as diagnostic imaging modalities to determine shoulder joint lesions is presented. The ultrasonographic anatomy and pathology of the shoulder joint are described. Comparative radiographic and ultrasonographic fi...

  7. Aptamer-based radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of epithelial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences]. E-mail: s.missailidis@open.ac.uk; Perkins, Alan [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    In the continuous search for earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic modalities against cancer, based on our constantly increasing knowledge of cancer biology, aptamers hold the promise to expand on current antibody success, but overcoming some of the problems faced with antibodies as therapeutic or delivery agents in cancer. However, as the first aptamer reached the market as an inhibitor against angiogenesis for the treatment of macular degeneration, aptamers have found only limited applications or interest in oncology, and even less as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of tumours. Yet, the chemistry for the labelling of aptamers and the options to alter their pharmacokinetic properties, to make them suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals is now available and recent advances in their development can demonstrate that these molecules would make them ideal delivery vehicles for the development of targeted radiopharmaceuticals that could deliver their radiation load with accuracy to the tumour site, offering improved therapeutic properties and reduced side effects. (author)

  8. Diagnostic value of using multiplanar reformation images: Case report for rare endotracheal hamartomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhiming; Ai, Zhu; Zhong, Guimian; Deng, Yu; Malhi, Harshawn; Palmer, Suzanne; Zee, Chishing

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common benign tumor of the lung. Two types of pathologically similar hamartomas exist based on their location. These tumors have a low incidence, are rarely reported and frequently misdiagnosed because of lack of familiarity and/or understanding concerning their imaging features. Seventeen patients received treatment between June 2007 and May 2013 and had complete medical records. All of them had different degrees of cough and expectoration. Other symptoms include fever (5 cases), hemoptysis (4 cases), chest pain (3 cases), shortness of breath (2 cases), and dyspnea (1 case). These patients all have pathologically confirmed, and informed the diagnosis of endobronchial hamartoma. Unenhanced and enhanced CT scans were performed using Toshiba Aquilion 64-slice and GE Lightspeed 64-slice CT scanners. The scan was performed from the superior thoracic aperture to the lateral costophrenic angle. The transaxial CT data was inserted into a Volume Wizard workstation to reconstruct images using MPR technique. The relationship between the location of the tumor and bronchi was clearly displayed on the axial images in only 2 patients. In all 17 patients, reconstructed MPR images were able to display the tumor parallel to the long axis of bronchi, thus facilitating in tumor identification and positioning along the bronchial tree. MPR images are valuable tools in the diagnosis of endobronchial hamartomas. Chiefly, these reconstructions aid in the detection of intratumoral fat/calcification and clearly demonstrate the tumors relationship and effect with the adjacent bronchi.

  9. [Whole-body MRI and FDG-PET/CT imaging diagnostics in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G P; Haug, A; Reiser, M F; Rist, C

    2010-04-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced a systemic approach to oncologic imaging compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as whole-body scanners at 1.5 Tesla and also recently 3 Tesla, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made WB-MRI clinically feasible. With this method dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, high spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage.PET/CT has established itself as a powerful modality in the staging of patients suffering from malignant tumors. In addition to the morphologic information provided by the CT component of this hybrid modality, the PET component contributes invaluable metabolic information, which greatly enhances accuracy in the assessment of lymphatic spread and viability of tumor tissue. Whole-body MR diffusion imaging is a novel and promising technique which may contribute to superior sensitivity in the detection of tumor manifestations. In the assessment of distant metastatic spread WB-MRI is highly sensitive and has advantages over PET/CT, especially in those tumors frequently spreading to the liver, bone or brain. WB-MRI is also very attractive as a radiation-free alternative for imaging of pediatric tumor patients in whom multiple follow-up examinations may be required.WB-MRI allows for precise assessment of the bone marrow and has been proven to be highly accurate for the staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma. In this article recent developments and applications of WB-MRI in oncologic imaging are addressed and compared to the results of PET/CT.

  10. Viewing Exemplars of Melanomas and Benign Mimics of Melanoma Modestly Improves Diagnostic Skills in Comparison with the ABCD Method and Other Image-based Methods for Lay Identification of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Ella; Robertson, Karen; McIntosh, Robert D; Rees, Jonathan L

    2015-07-01

    Using an experimental task in which lay persons were asked to distinguish between 30 images of melanomas and common mimics of melanoma, we compared various training strategies including the ABC(D) method, use of images of both melanomas and mimics of melanoma, and alternative methods of choosing training image exemplars. Based on a sample size of 976 persons, and an online experimental task, we show that all the positive training approaches increased diagnostic sensitivity when compared with no training, but only the simultaneous use of melanoma and benign exemplars, as chosen by experts, increased specificity and diagnostic accuracy. The ABCD method and use of melanoma exemplar images chosen by laypersons decreased specificity in comparison with the control. The method of choosing exemplar images is important. The levels of change in performance are however very modest, with an increase in accuracy between control and best-performing strategy of only 9%.

  11. Diagnostic Efficacy in Knee MRI Comparing Conventional Technique and Multiplanar Reconstruction with One-Millimeter FSE PDW Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y.C.; Kim, S.S.; Chung, H.W.; Choe, B.K.; Ahn, J.H. [Dept. of Radiolog y, Kangwon National Univ. School of Medicine, Kangwon-do (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has proved to be an excellent tool in diagnosing injuries of the cruciate ligaments and menisci. However, multiple planes and sometimes optimal oblique or double-oblique scan planes are needed due to the variability in the positioning of important structures, which means there is a lower throughput and longer scanning time. Purpose: To compare the performance of a 1-mm-thickness fast spin-echo (FSE) proton-density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging technique with multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in diagnosing tears of the menisci and cruciate ligaments with that of conventional MR imaging. Material and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients underwent preoperative conventional and 1-mm-thickness FSE PDW MR imaging with subsequent knee arthroscopic surgery. Two musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated the status of the cruciate ligaments and menisci using two sets of MR images (method A: conventional images including seven sequences, taking 26 min; method B: 1-mm-thickness FSE PDW images with MPR, taking 7 min 20 s). The diagnostic efficacies of both methods for tears of the cruciate ligament and menisci were calculated and compared. Results: Arthroscopic surgery revealed 10 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, one posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear, and 26 meniscal tears. The diagnostic values of both methods were 100% for a cruciate ligament tear. The diagnostic values (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) for meniscal tears were 90%, 100%, 96%, 100%, and 94% for method A, and 95%, 100%, 98%, 100%, and 97% for method B, respectively. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic values between methods A and B. Conclusion: 1-mm-slice-thickness FSE PDW imaging with MPR showed comparable performance in diagnosing tears of the cruciate ligaments and menisci to conventional sequences but the scan time was much shorter. Therefore, this technique (method B) might

  12. Novel Infiltration Diagnostics based on Laser-line Scanning and Infrared Temperature Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-08

    This project targets the building energy efficiency problems induced by building infiltration/leaks. The current infiltration inspection techniques often require extensive visual inspection and/or whole building pressure test. These current techniques cannot meet more than three of the below five criteria of ideal infiltration diagnostics: 1. location and extent diagnostics, 2. building-level application, 3. least surface preparation, 4. weather-proof, and 5. non-disruption to building occupants. These techniques are either too expensive or time consuming, and often lack accuracy and repeatability. They are hardly applicable to facades/facades section. The goal of the project was to develop a novel infiltration diagnostics technology based on laser line-scanning and simultaneous infrared temperature imaging. A laboratory scale experimental setup was designed to mimic a model house of well-defined pressure difference below or above the outside pressure. Algorithms and Matlab-based programs had been developed for recognition of the hole location in infrared images. Our experiment based on laser wavelengths of 450 and 1550 nm and laser beam diameters of 4-25 mm showed that the location of the holes could be identified using laser heating; the diagnostic approach however could not readily distinguish between infiltration and non-infiltration points. To significantly improve the scanning throughput and recognition accuracy, a second approach was explored, developed, and extensively tested. It incorporates a liquid spray on the surface to induce extra phase change cooling effect. In this spray method, we termed it as PECIT (Phase-change Enhanced Cooling Infrared Thermography), phase-change enhanced cooling was used, which significantly amplifies the effect of air flow (infiltration and exfiltration). This heat transfer method worked extremely well to identify infiltration and exfiltration locations with high accuracy and increased throughput. The PECIT technique was

  13. Computer Archiving and Image Enhancement of Diagnostic Electron Micrographs Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope as Real-Time Digitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagaki, T.; Jones, M.H.; Clark, B.A.; Pan, T.; Ferro, J.M.; Hsing, R.; Tzou, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic electron micrographs were digitized in real time using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) controlled by a devoted front end processor at a resolution of 1K × 1K × 8. Various methods of image enhancement produced satisfactory results. From our experience, a faster front end processor with a larger memory size and 2K × 2K or 4K × 4K spatial resolution of an image are desirable. In order to facilitate storage and retrieval of an image archive, efficient data compression is necessary. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3

  14. Survey of Compliance with Radiation Protection Standards in Diagnostic Imaging Centers of Khuzestan Province in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farshid mahmoudi

    2017-03-01

    rooms in 32 diagnostic imaging centers in Khuzestan Province, Iran, 2015. The centers were chosen through random cluster sampling method. The data were obtained using open-ended interview and a checklist designed based on the recommendations of the International Commission for Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. Results: The compliance rates with regard to radiology room, radiology equipment, darkroom, and radiographer’s protection were 80.76%, 80.47%, 69.28%, and 93.12%, respectively. Maximum and minimum rates of compliance with the standards were related to performance of the cassette tray (100% and hopper status (25%, respectively. Comparison of public and private imaging centers in terms of safety standards showed no significant differences (P>0.05.Conclusion: The observance of the radiation protection standards in Khuzestan Province was in a relativly desirable condition. However, there are some shortcomings in compliance with the principles of protection in the darkroom. In this regard, with recommend adopting protection measures such as timelyreplacement of processing solution, appropriate ventilation of darkroom, provisionof protection equipment and appliances, and protection training required for entering the darkroom.

  15. Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Wolz

    Full Text Available The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC, 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI, 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI, 198 AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA and support vector machines (SVM. The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification, 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD, 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI. Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features.

  16. Dual-source dual-energy CT angiography with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding: Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hao, E-mail: sunhao_robert@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Hou, Xin-Yi, E-mail: hxy_pumc@126.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xue, Hua-Dan, E-mail: bjdanna95@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Xiao-Guang, E-mail: xglee88@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Jin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: zhengyu_jin@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Qian, Jia-Ming, E-mail: qjiaming57@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Jian-Chun, E-mail: yu-jch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhu, Hua-Dong, E-mail: huadongzhu@hotmail.com [Department of Emergency, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • GIB is a common gastrointestinal emergency with a high mortality rate. • Detection and localization of GIB source are important for imaging modality. • DSDECTA using a dual-phase scan protocol is clinically feasible. • DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map images can diagnose the active GIB source accurately. • DSDECTA can reduce radiation dose compared with conventional CT examination in GIB. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Methods: From June 2010 to December 2012, 112 consecutive patients with clinical signs of active GIB underwent DSDECTA with true non-enhanced (TNE), arterial phase with single-source mode, and portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs). Virtual non-enhanced CT (VNE) image sets and iodine map were reformatted from ‘Liver VNC’ software. The mean CT number, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose were compared between TNE and VNE image sets. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, interpreted images from DSDECTA with TNE (protocol 1), and DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map (protocol 2) respectively, with discordant interpretation resolved by consensus. The standards of reference included digital subtraction angiography, endoscopy, surgery, or final pathology reports. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated for CT protocols 1 and 2, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in mean CT numbers of all organs (including liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, abdominal aorta, and psoas muscle) (P > 0.05). Lower noise and higher SNR were found on VNE images than TNE images (P < 0.05). Image quality of VNE was lower than that of TNE without significant difference (P > 0.05). The active GIB source was identified

  17. Assessing the Content of YouTube Videos in Educating Patients Regarding Common Imaging Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Won, Eugene; Doshi, Ankur M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the content of currently available YouTube videos seeking to educate patients regarding commonly performed imaging examinations. After initial testing of possible search terms, the first two pages of YouTube search results for "CT scan," "MRI," "ultrasound patient," "PET scan," and "mammogram" were reviewed to identify educational patient videos created by health organizations. Sixty-three included videos were viewed and assessed for a range of features. Average views per video were highest for MRI (293,362) and mammography (151,664). Twenty-seven percent of videos used a nontraditional format (eg, animation, song, humor). All videos (100.0%) depicted a patient undergoing the examination, 84.1% a technologist, and 20.6% a radiologist; 69.8% mentioned examination lengths, 65.1% potential pain/discomfort, 41.3% potential radiation, 36.5% a radiology report/results, 27.0% the radiologist's role in interpretation, and 13.3% laboratory work. For CT, 68.8% mentioned intravenous contrast and 37.5% mentioned contrast safety. For MRI, 93.8% mentioned claustrophobia, 87.5% noise, 75.0% need to sit still, 68.8% metal safety, 50.0% intravenous contrast, and 0.0% contrast safety. For ultrasound, 85.7% mentioned use of gel. For PET, 92.3% mentioned radiotracer injection, 61.5% fasting, and 46.2% diabetic precautions. For mammography, unrobing, avoiding deodorant, and possible additional images were all mentioned by 63.6%; dense breasts were mentioned by 0.0%. Educational patient videos on YouTube regarding common imaging examinations received high public interest and may provide a valuable patient resource. Videos most consistently provided information detailing the examination experience and less consistently provided safety information or described the presence and role of the radiologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonography and Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Common Calcanean Tendon in a Rabbit Model for Tendinopathy Research: a Descriptive Study of Normal Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalec, A; Przyborowska-Zhalniarovich, P; Janus, I; Kirstein, K; Mieszkowska, M; Adamiak, Z; Chrószcz, A; Janeczek, M

    2016-09-01

    In spite of recent advances in treatment protocols, tendinopathies continue to challenge orthopaedists and surgeons. Due to the complexity of both tendon injuries and the healing processes, animal models are essential for addressing fundamental questions in tendinopathy research. Diagnostic imaging could contribute to the evaluation of animal models, thus providing information, which could be translated to human tendinopathies. The objective of our study was to evaluate in situ appearance of the rabbit common calcanean tendon with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, we sought to assess and compare the feasibility and usefulness of these techniques in a rabbit model while focusing on the imaging of the particular structures involved in calcaneal tendon disorders. Eight California rabbits were used for post-mortem sonographic and low-field magnetic resonance examination. Morphometry was performed on longitudinal sonograms and sagittal MRI scans. The craniocaudal diameter of the tendon was measured at four points of interest. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance provided good visualisation of the tendon origin, the paratenon and the pre-Achilles fat pad. Magnetic resonance images presented in more detail the structure of the calcaneal insertion. Both modalities failed to visualise the individual components of the common calcanean tendon and the bursa of the calcaneal tendon. Statistical analysis of measurements obtained showed that the craniocaudal diameter of the common calcanean tendon in a rabbit increases significantly with a growing length from the calcaneal tuber. Both magnetic resonance and ultrasonography are feasible, and should be considered complementary, not alternative imaging techniques in a rabbit common calcanean tendon model.

  19. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and pre-surgical evaluation in the assessment of traumatic intra-articular knee disorders in children and adolescents: what conditions still pose diagnostic challenges?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, Itai; Ganley, Theodore J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, 34th and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bedoya, Maria A.; Ho-Fung, Victor [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Diagnosis of intra-articular lesions in children based on clinical examination and MRI is particularly challenging. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation of the knee in pediatric patients relative to arthroscopic evaluation as the gold standard. We report diagnoses frequently missed or inaccurately diagnosed pre-operatively. We conducted a retrospective review of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation in children and adolescents ages 1-17 years who were treated by knee arthroscopy during a 21/2-year period. All MRIs were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical findings. Pediatric orthopedic clinic notes were reviewed for pre-surgical evaluation (based on physical exam, radiograph, MR images and radiologist's MRI report). Arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. We calculated the percentages of diagnoses at arthroscopy missed on both MRI and pre-surgical evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents and in patients with one pathological lesion vs. those with >1 lesion was analyzed. We performed a second review of MR images of the missed or over-called MRI diagnoses with knowledge of arthroscopic findings. We included 178 children and adolescents. The most common diagnoses missed on MRI or pre-surgical evaluation but found at arthroscopy were: discoid meniscus (8/30, or 26.7% of cases); lateral meniscal tears (15/80, or 18.8% of cases); intra-articular loose bodies (5/36, or 13.9% of cases), and osteochondral injuries (9/73, or 12.3% of cases). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation was 92.7% and 95.3%, respectively. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents was observed. When multiple intra-articular lesions were present, lateral meniscal tears were more likely to be inaccurately diagnosed (missed or over-called) on both MRI (P = 0.009) and pre-surgical evaluation (P < 0.001). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre

  20. Diagnostic confirmation of mild traumatic brain injury by diffusion tensor imaging: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Ranga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Traumatic brain injury is a form of acquired brain injury that results from sudden trauma to the head. Specifically, mild traumatic brain injury is a clinical diagnosis that can have significant effects on an individual's life, yet is difficult to identify through traditional imaging techniques. Case presentation This is the case of a 68-year-old previously healthy African American woman who was involved in a motor vehicle accident that resulted in significant head trauma. After the accident, she experienced symptoms indicative of mild traumatic brain injury and sought a neurological consultation when her symptoms did not subside. She was initially evaluated with a neurological examination, psychological evaluation, acute concussion evaluation and a third-party memory test using software from CNS Vital Signs for neurocognitive function. A diagnosis of post-concussion syndrome was suggested. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed decreased fractional anisotropy in the region immediately adjacent to both lateral ventricles, which was used to confirm the diagnosis. Fractional anisotropy is a scalar value between zero and one that describes the degree of anisotropy of a diffusion process. These results are indicative of post-traumatic gliosis and are undetectable by magnetic resonance imaging. Our patient was treated with cognitive therapy. Conclusion Minor traumatic brain injury is a common injury with variable clinical presentation. The system of diagnosis used in this case found a significant relationship between the clinical assessment and imaging results. This would not have been possible using traditional imaging techniques and highlights the benefits of using diffusion tensor imaging in the sub-acute assessment of minor traumatic brain injury.

  1. Cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic region of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Ajenjo, J M; Barreiro-Lois, A; Llarena-Reino, M; Degollada, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a detailed anatomical description of the thoracic region features in normal common (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and to compare anatomical cross-sections with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. CT and MRI were used to scan 7 very fresh by-caught dolphin cadavers: four common and three striped dolphins. Diagnostic images were obtained from dolphins in ventral recumbency, and after the examinations, six dolphins were frozen (-20°C) and sliced in the same position. As well as CT and MRI scans, cross-sections were obtained in the three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness), sagittal (5 cm thickness) and dorsal (5 cm thickness). Relevant anatomical features of the thoracic region were identified and labelled on each section, obtaining a complete bi-dimensional atlas. Furthermore, we compared CT and MRI scans with anatomical cross-sections, and results provided a complete reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies of common and striped dolphin's thoracic structures. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Detecting genetic association of common human facial morphological variation using high density 3D image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouneng; Tan, Jingze; Hu, Sile; Zhou, Hang; Guo, Jing; Jin, Li; Tang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ∼30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation.

  3. Backside imaging of a microcontroller with common-path digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Göring, Lena; Schellenberg, Falk; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin

    2017-03-01

    The investigation of integrated circuits (ICs), such as microcontrollers (MCUs) and system on a chip (SoCs) devices is a topic with growing interests. The need for fast and non-destructive imaging methods is given by the increasing importance of hardware Trojans, reverse engineering and further security related analysis of integrated cryptographic devices. In the field of side-channel attacks, for instance, the precise spot for laser fault attacks is important and could be determined by using modern high resolution microscopy methods. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a promising technique to achieve high resolution phase images of surface structures. These phase images provide information about the change of the refractive index in the media and the topography. For enabling a high phase stability, we use the common-path geometry to create the interference pattern. The interference pattern, or hologram, is captured with a water cooled sCMOS camera. This provides a fast readout while maintaining a low level of noise. A challenge for these types of holograms is the interference of the reflected waves from the different interfaces inside the media. To distinguish between the phase signals from the buried layer and the surface reflection we use specific numeric filters. For demonstrating the performance of our setup we show results with devices under test (DUT), using a 1064 nm laser diode as light source. The DUTs are modern microcontrollers thinned to different levels of thickness of the Si-substrate. The effect of the numeric filter compared to unfiltered images is analyzed.

  4. IN VITRO INDUCTION OF ENAMEL SUBSURFACE DEMINERALIZATION FOR EVALUATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rívea Inês; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a model of inducing enamel subsurface demineralization for evaluating diagnostic imaging methods. Fifty sound teeth had their crowns coated with acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 7 mm2 circular window of exposed enamel in one of the proximal surfaces. The specimens were assigned to 5 groups (4 experimental and the control) and were kept immersed in a buffer solution at pH 4.8, 50% saturated in relation to enamel, for 60, 75, 90 and 120 days, or were not exposed to the solution. Digital radiographs were taken, prior to and after each immersion period, and interpreted by a radiologist. For validation, the enamel was submitted to microhardness profiling. In addition, the solutions were analyzed for phosphorus (Pi) and calcium (Ca) concentrations. Microhardness data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA (pradiography was assessed by ROC analysis. The microhardness values for the control group ranged from 405 to 432 KHN. Of the 4 experimental groups, the 60-day group demonstrated the highest values (179-379 KHN) and the 120-day group, the lowest values (103-277 KHN). The lowest total concentrations of Pi and Ca (1.74 mM and 2.63 mM, respectively) were found in the solutions of the 60- day group, indicating the lowest rate of mineral loss, however, there was no significant difference among the other experimental groups. The performance for detecting images consistent with caries lesions was high (Az = 0.89). Therefore, this in vitro model of inducing demineralization may be considered suitable for research intended to evaluate imaging methods for the diagnosis of proximal caries lesions. PMID:19089167

  5. In vitro induction of enamel subsurface demineralization for evaluation of diagnostic imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rívea Inês Ferreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a model of inducing enamel subsurface demineralization for evaluating diagnostic imaging methods. Fifty sound teeth had their crowns coated with acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 7 mm² circular window of exposed enamel in one of the proximal surfaces. The specimens were assigned to 5 groups (4 experimental and the control and were kept immersed in a buffer solution at pH 4.8, 50% saturated in relation to enamel, for 60, 75, 90 and 120 days, or were not exposed to the solution. Digital radiographs were taken, prior to and after each immersion period, and interpreted by a radiologist. For validation, the enamel was submitted to microhardness profiling. In addition, the solutions were analyzed for phosphorus (Pi and calcium (Ca concentrations. Microhardness data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA (p<0.05 and Tukey's test. Pi and Ca concentrations were compared using one-way ANOVA (alpha = 0.05. The performance of radiography was assessed by ROC analysis. The microhardness values for the control group ranged from 405 to 432 KHN. Of the 4 experimental groups, the 60-day group demonstrated the highest values (179-379 KHN and the 120-day group, the lowest values (103-277 KHN. The lowest total concentrations of Pi and Ca (1.74 mM and 2.63 mM, respectively were found in the solutions of the 60-day group, indicating the lowest rate of mineral loss, however, there was no significant difference among the other experimental groups. The performance for detecting images consistent with caries lesions was high (Az = 0.89. Therefore, this in vitro model of inducing demineralization may be considered suitable for research intended to evaluate imaging methods for the diagnosis of proximal caries lesions.

  6. Common Carotid Artery Flow Measured by 3-D Ultrasonic Vector Flow Imaging and Validated with Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbek, Simon; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Bouzari, Hamed; Ewertsen, Caroline; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Thomsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) examination of the common carotid artery was compared with a through-plane magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to validate a recently proposed technique for 3-D US vector flow imaging. Data from the first volunteer examined were used as the training set, before volume flow and peak velocities were calculated for the remaining eight volunteers. Peak systolic velocities (PSVs) and volume flow obtained with 3-D US were, on average, 34% higher and 24% lower than those obtained with MRI, respectively. A high correlation was observed for PSV (r = 0.79), whereas a lower correlation was observed for volume flow (r = 0.43). The overall standard deviations were ±5.7% and ±5.7% for volume flow and PSV with 3-D US, compared with ±2.7% and ±3.2% for MRI. Finally, the data were re-processed with a change in the parameter settings for the echo-canceling filter to investigate its influence on overall performance. PSV was less affected by the re-processing, whereas the difference in volume flow between 3-D vector flow imaging and MRI was reduced to -9%, and with an improved overall standard deviation of ±4.7%. The results illustrate the feasibility of using 3-D US for precise and angle-independent volume flow and PSV estimation in vivo. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic performance of conventional diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging for the liver fibrosis and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Mesude, E-mail: mesude.tosun@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Inan, Nagihan, E-mail: inannagihan@ekolay.net [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin, E-mail: htssarisoy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Akansel, Gur, E-mail: gakansel@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gumustas, Sevtap, E-mail: svtgumustas@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gürbüz, Yeşim, E-mail: yesimgurbuz2002@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Demirci, Ali, E-mail: alidemirci@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (CDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven patients with histologic diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis and 34 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. All patients and healthy volunteers were examined by 3 T MRI. CDI and DTI were performed using a breath-hold single-shot echo-planar spin echo sequence with b factors of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADCs were obtained with CDI and DTI. Histopathologically, fibrosis of the liver parenchyma was classified with the use of a 5-point scale (0–4) and inflammation was classified with use of a 4-point scale (0–3) in accordance with the METAVIR score. Quantitatively, signal intensity and the ADCs of the liver parenchyma were compared between patients stratified by fibrosis stage and inflammation grade. Results: With a b factor of 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, the signal intensity of the cirrhotic livers was significantly higher than those of the normal volunteers. In addition, ADCs reconstructed from CDI and DTI of the patients were significantly lower than those of the normal volunteers. Liver ADC values inversely correlated with fibrosis and inflammation but there was only statistically significant for inflammatory grading. CDI performed better than DTI for the diagnosis of fibrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: ADC values measured with CDI and DTI may help in the detection of liver fibrosis. They may also give contributory to the inflammatory grading, particularly in distinguishing high from low grade.

  8. The current role of diagnostic imaging in the preoperative workup for refractory neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somashekar, Deepak K; Wilson, Thomas J; DiPietro, Michael A; Joseph, Jacob R; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Yang, Lynda J-S; Parmar, Hemant A

    2016-08-01

    Despite recent improvements in perinatal care, the incidence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) remains relatively common. CT myelography is currently considered to be the optimal imaging modality for evaluating nerve root integrity. Recent improvements in MRI techniques have made it an attractive alternative to evaluate nerve root avulsions (preganglionic injuries). We demonstrate the utility of MRI for the evaluation of normal and avulsed spinal nerve roots. We also show the utility of ultrasound in providing useful preoperative evaluation of the postganglionic brachial plexus in patients with NBPP.

  9. Diagnostic performance of stress myocardial perfusion imaging for coronary artery disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Jong (Marcus); T.S.S. Genders (Tessa); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan); A. Moelker (Adriaan); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To determine and compare the diagnostic performance of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), using conventional coronary angiography (CCA) as the reference standard. Methods We searched Medline and Embase for

  10. Assessment of structural lesions in sacroiliac joints enhances diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging in early spondylarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Lambert, Robert G W; Pedersen, Susanne J

    2010-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic utility of T1-weighted and STIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in early spondylarthritis (SpA) using a standardized approach to the evaluation of sacroiliac (SI) joints, and to test whether systematic calibration of readers directed at recognition of abnormal...

  11. Preliminary Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Residual Prostate Cancer Following Focal Therapy with Irreversible Electroporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltema, Matthijs J.; Chang, John I.; van den Bos, Willemien; Böhm, Maret; Delprado, Warick; Gielchinsky, Ilan; de Reijke, Theo M.; de la Rosette, Jean J.; Siriwardana, Amila R.; Shnier, Ron; Stricker, Phillip D.

    2017-01-01

    It is recommended to perform multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in the follow-up following focal therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). To determine the diagnostic accuracy of mpMRI to detect residual PCa following focal therapy with irreversible electroporation. Seventy-six patients with

  12. Conventional 3T brain MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the diagnostic workup of early stage parkinsonism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.J.A.; Rumund, A. van; Tuladhar, A.M.; Aerts, M.B.; Titulaer, I.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Verbeek, M.M.; Góraj, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the diagnostic accuracy of 3 T brain MRI is improved by region of interest (ROI) measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to differentiate between neurodegenerative atypical parkinsonism (AP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage parkinsonism.We

  13. Near Infrared Imaging as a Diagnostic Tool for Detecting Enamel Demineralization: An in vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Seth Adam

    Background and Objectives: For decades there has been an effort to develop alternative optical methods of imaging dental decay utilizing non-ionizing radiation methods. The purpose of this in-vivo study was to demonstrate whether NIR can be used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate dental caries and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of this method with that of conventional methods, including bitewing x-rays and visual inspection. Materials and Methods: 31 test subjects (n=31) from the UCSF orthodontic clinic undergoing orthodontic treatment with planned premolar extractions were recruited. Calibrated examiners performed caries detection examinations using conventional methods: bitewing radiographs and visual inspection. These findings were compared with the results from NIR examinations: transillumination and reflectance. To confirm the results found in the two different detection methods, a gold standard was used. After teeth were extracted, polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography were performed. Results: A total of 87 premolars were used in the study. NIR identified the occlusal lesions with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 77%, whereas, the visual examination had a sensitivity of only 40% and a specifity of 39%. For interproximal lesions halfway to DEJ, specificity remained constant, but sensitivity improved to 100% for NIR and 75% for x-rays. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that NIR is just as effective at detecting enamel interproximal lesions as standard dental x-rays. NIR was more effective at detecting occlusal lesions than visual examination alone. NIR shows promise as an alternative diagnostic tool to the conventional methods of x-rays and visual examination and provides a non-ionizing radiation technique.

  14. [Diagnostic significance of multi-slice computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Tian, Zhi-Liang; Lei, Zi-Qiao; Li, You-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usability of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. Fourty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were examined by a Somatom Sensation 16 (siemens, Germany) CT scanner with following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm collimation, 1 mm reconstruction increment, a pitch factor of 1 and a field of view of 100 mm. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment, and a field of view of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation (3D Virtuoso and Wizard,siemens). Twenty-five patients were normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were congenital inner ear malformations among 44 patients scanned with MSCT. Of the malformations, all the axial, MPR and VRT images can display the site and degree in 33 ears. VRT images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity, 5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations( 14 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate( 16 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations), the internal auditory canal malformation(8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). MSCT allows a comprehensively assessing various congenital ear malformations through high quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. VRT images can display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. It is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  15. Hepatic trauma: CT findings and considerations based on our experience in emergency diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Luigia; Giovine, Sabrina; Guidi, Guido; Tortora, Giovanni; Cinque, Teresa; Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it

    2004-04-01

    Abdominal blunt trauma represents the main cause of death in people of age less than 40 years; the liver injury occurs frequently, with an incidence varying from 3 to 10%. Isolated hepatic lesions are rare and in 77-90% of cases, lesions of other organs and viscera are involved. Right hepatic lobe is a frequent site of injury, because it is the more voluminous portion of liver parenchyma; posterior superior hepatic segments are proximal to fixed anatomical structures such as ribs and spine that may have an important role in determining of the lesion. The coronal ligaments' insertion in this parenchymal region augments the effect of acceleration-deceleration mechanism. Associated lesions usually are homolateral costal fractures, laceration or contusion of the inferior right pulmonary lobe, haemothorax, pneumothorax, renal and/or adrenal lesions. Traumatic lesions of left hepatic lobe are rare and usually associated with direct impact on the superior abdomen, such as in car-crash when the wheel causes a compressive effect on thorax and abdomen. Associated lesions to left hepatic lobe injuries correlated to this mechanism are: sternal fractures, pancreatic, myocardial, gastrointestinal tract injuries. Lesions of the caudal lobe are extremely rare, usually not isolated and noted with other large parenchymal lesions. The Institution of Specialized Trauma Centers and the technical progress in imaging methodology developed in the last years a great reduction of mortality. New diagnostic methodologies allow a reduction of negatives laparotomies and allow the possibility of conservative treatment of numerous traumatic lesions; however, therapy depends from imaging findings and clinical conditions of the patient. Computed tomography (CT) certainly presents a large impact on diagnosis and management of patients with lesions from blunt abdominal traumas. It is important to establish a prognostic criteria allowing decisions for conservative or surgical treatment; CT

  16. Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of 70 kVp whole brain volumetric CT perfusion imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiao Kun; Ni, Qian Qian; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Chen, Guo Zhong; Luo, Song; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States); Fuller, Stephen R.; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy for acute infarct detection and radiation dose of 70 kVp whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA) reconstructed from CTP source data. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 50 each): group A, 80 kVp, 21 scanning time points; groups B, 70 kVp, 21 scanning time points; group C, 70 kVp, 17 scanning time points. Objective and subjective image quality of CTP and CTA were compared. Diagnostic accuracy for detecting acute infarct and cerebral artery stenosis ≥ 50 % was calculated for CTP and CTA with diffusion weighted imaging and digital subtraction angiography as reference standards. Effective radiation dose was compared. There were no differences in any perfusion parameter value between three groups (P > 0.05). No difference was found in subjective image quality between three groups (P > 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy for detecting acute infarct and vascular stenosis showed no difference between three groups (P > 0.05). Compared with group A, radiation doses of groups B and C were decreased by 28 % and 37 % (both P < 0.001), respectively. Compared with 80 kVp protocol, 70 kVp brain CTP allows comparable vascular and perfusion assessment and lower radiation dose while maintaining high diagnostic accuracy in detecting acute infarct. (orig.)

  17. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic cancer is the 10thmost common malignancy and the 4thlargest cancer killer in adults. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, with the aim to compare these research findings to similar studies made in the developed countries. This is a retrospective research study done during the period of 2011-2015. Materials and Methodology: This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, examined in the period of 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The imaging diagnostics are performed with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens, MSCT Emotion 6 Siemens, and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens, biopsy guide with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK; while the histopathology diagnostics has been performed in Clinic of Pathology at UCCK and prevalence is taken from the number of cases Reported at the Institute of Oncology Institute of Statistics and NIPH (National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo). Results: Out of a total of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreas cancer, results is female 39.5% (n=143) and male 61.5% (n=219), report M: F (1: 1.6), 286 cases resulted in head and neck 79 % (n=286), 76 cases resulted in body and tail cancers (21%), distant metastases in first imaging modality were found in(n=155) patients 43 %, local infiltration was found in patients: gastric infiltration 15 % (n=54), duodenal and papilla infiltration 26% (n=94), local infiltration spleen 16% (n=57), local infiltration mesentery 43 % (n= 155), dilated biliary tree 34 % (n=123), regional lymph node infiltration 83 % (n= 300). Out of a total

  18. Iterative Reconstructions in Reduced-Dose CT: Which Type Ensures Diagnostic Image Quality in Young Oncology Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Bastien; Higashigaito, Kai; Lamri-Senouci, Aicha; Knebel, Jean-Francois; Berthold, Dominik; Verdun, Francis Robert; Alkadhi, Hatem; Schmidt, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    To compare adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithms for reduced-dose computed tomography (CT). Forty-four young oncology patients (mean age 30 ± 9 years) were included. After routine thoraco-abdominal CT (dose 100%, average CTDIvol 9.1 ± 2.4 mGy, range 4.4-16.9 mGy), follow-up CT was acquired at 50% (average CTDIvol 4.5 ± 1.2 mGy, range 2.2-8.4 mGy) in 29 patients additionally at 20% dose (average CTDIvol 1.9 ± 0.5 mGy, range 0.9-3.4 mGy). Each reduced-dose CT was reconstructed using both ASIR and MBIR. Four radiologists (two juniors and two seniors) blinded to dose and technique read each set of CT images regarding objective and subjective image qualities (high- or low-contrast structures), subjective noise or pixilated appearance, diagnostic confidence, and lesion detection. At all dose levels, objective image noise was significantly lower with MBIR than with ASIR (P image quality for low-contrast structures was significantly higher with MBIR than with ASIR (P images of patients with higher body mass index (BMI) were read with significantly higher diagnostic confidence than images of slimmer patients (P image quality, regardless of technique. Although MBIR images appeared significantly more pixilated than ASIR images, they were read with higher diagnostic confidence, especially by juniors (P body mass index does not hamper the quality of reduced-dose CT. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic usefulness of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast-enhancement in patients with localized prostate cancer. Mapping studies with biopsy specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Samma, Shoji; Joko, Masanori; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Takewa, Megumi [Nara Prefectural Nara Hospital (Japan); Kitano, Satoru; Okajima, Eigoro

    1999-12-01

    New diagnostic criteria for dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in prostate cancer are presented. The diagnostic usefulness of endorectal MR imaging with dynamic contrast-enhancement in localized prostate cancer and the validity of these criteria were evaluated. Eighteen untreated patients who were suspected of localized prostate cancer were included in the study. They received endorectal dynamic MR imaging before systematic sextant needle biopsy. First, a mapping study with the findings of MR images and histopathology of biopsy specimens was performed in eight patients out of 18 to compare the difference in T2-weighted images with the endorectal coil and the body coil in the same individuals. Second, another mapping study was performed in all 18 patients by analyzing the findings of endorectal dynamic MR images. For the diagnosis of prostate cancer in MR imaging, we offered diagnostic criteria from our experience in addition to those in plain T2-weighted images from the literature. The overall diagnostic rates of endorectal dynamic MR imaging were 88.9% in accuracy, 100% in sensitivity, and 81.8% in specificity. In the comparison of the endorectal and body coils in T2-weighted images in eight patients, there was no difference in the diagnostic rates except for one more histopathologic false positive portion in endorectal MR imaging. In the second mapping study in 18 patients, the diagnostic rates were 92.6% in accuracy, 88.9% in sensitivity and 93.3% in specificity. Endorectal dynamic imaging raised the diagnostic sensitivity from 77.8 to 88.9%. The data demonstrated the validity of this diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic usefulness of endorectal dynamic MR imaging in localized prostate cancer. (author)

  20. Cone beam computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic tool in determining root fracture in endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Terry R Farmakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vertical root fractures (VRFs of endodontically treated teeth are serious complications that are associated with a poor survival prognosis. The diagnosis of VRFs is difficult, because the clinical signs and symptoms are often obscure and periapical radiographs (PAs provide limited diagnostic information. Recently, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT has been used to address complicated cases of VRFs with an inconclusive diagnosis. Aim: To determine the clinical diagnostic accuracy of CBCT in detecting VRFs in complex failing cases of endodontically treated teeth, as an adjunct to PAs. Materials and Methods: Evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of CBCT in a series of clinical cases of suspected VRFs, presented via clinical photographs, PAs, and CBCT images. Results: CBCT imaging significantly aided the differential diagnosis in most cases. Conclusions: CBCT imaging provides a 3D image and information in many cases of VRF that 2-dimensional PAs fail to generate. The slice thickness and interslice interval of the CBCT image influence the perception of the normal anatomy and pathoses.

  1. Readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging in the assessment of orbital tumors: comparison with conventional single-shot echo-planar imaging in image quality and diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoquan; Wang, Yanjun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guoyi; Liu, Hu; Shi, Haibin; Wu, Feiyun

    2017-12-01

    Background Readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RS-EPI) could improve the imaging quality of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in various organs. However, whether it could improve the imaging quality and diagnostic performance for the patients with orbital tumors is still unknown. Purpose To compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of RS-EPI DWI with that of conventional single-shot EPI (SS-EPI) DWI in patients with orbital tumors. Material and Methods SS-EPI and RS-EPI DW images of 32 patients with pathologically diagnosed orbital tumors were retrospectively analyzed. Qualitative imaging parameters (imaging sharpness, geometric distortion, ghosting artifacts, and overall imaging quality) and quantitative imaging parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) were assessed by two independent radiologists, and compared between SS-EPI and RS-EPI DWI. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the diagnostic value of ADC in differentiating malignant from benign orbital tumors. Results RS-EPI DW imaging produced less geometric distortion and ghosting artifacts, and better imaging sharpness and overall imaging quality than SS-EPI DWI (for all, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, RS-EPI DWI produced significantly lower SNR ( P < 0.001) and ADC ( P < 0.001), and higher contrast ( P < 0.001) than SS-EPI DWI, while producing no difference in CNR ( P = 0.137). There was no significant difference on the diagnostic performance between SS-EPI and RS-EPI DWI, when using ADC as the differentiating index ( P = 0.529). Conclusion Compared with SS-EPI, RS-EPI DWI provided significantly better imaging quality and comparable diagnostic performance in differentiating malignant from benign orbital tumors.

  2. Posterior, Lateral, and Anterior Hip Pain Due to Musculoskeletal Origin: A Narrative Literature Review of History, Physical Examination, and Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Patrick J; D'Angelo, Kevin; Kettner, Norman W

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a narrative review of the literature of musculoskeletal causes of adult hip pain, with special attention to history, physical examination, and diagnostic imaging. A narrative review of the English medical literature was performed by using the search terms "hip pain" AND "anterior," "lateral," and "posterior." Additionally, specific entities of hip pain or pain referral sources to the hip were searched for. We used the PubMed search engine through January 15, 2016. Musculoskeletal sources of adult hip pain can be divided into posterior, lateral, and anterior categories. For posterior hip pain, select considerations include lumbar spine and femoroacetabular joint referral, sacroiliac joint pathology, piriformis syndrome, and proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Gluteal tendinopathy and iliotibial band thickening are the most common causes of lateral hip pain. Anterior hip pain is further divided into causes that are intra-articular (ie, labral tear, osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis) and extra-articular (ie, snapping hip and inguinal disruption [athletic pubalgia]). Entrapment neuropathies and myofascial pain should also be considered in each compartment. A limited number of historical features and physical examination tests for evaluation of adult hip pain are supported by the literature and are discussed in this article. Depending on the clinical differential, the gamut of diagnostic imaging modalities recommended for accurate diagnosis include plain film radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, skeletal scintigraphy, and ultrasonography. The evaluation of adult hip pain is challenging. Clinicians should consider posterior, lateral, and anterior sources of pain while keeping in mind that these may overlap.

  3. Diagnostic performance of breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI) for breast cancer: Usefulness of dual phase imaging with {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Sun; Lee, An Young; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sangn Kyun [Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI) with dual phase imaging for increasing diagnostic performance and interpreter confidence. We studied 76 consecutive patients (mean age: 49.3 years, range: 33-61 years) who received 925MBq (25mCi) {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi intravenously. Craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique planar images were acquired for all patients. Delayed images were obtained from all patients 1h after tracer injection, except for patients with no definite abnormal uptake. All images were classified into four categories: group 1 (definite negative) = no definite abnormal uptake; group 2 (possible negative) = symmetrically diffuse and amorphous uptake; group 3 (possible positive) = asymmetrically mild and nodular uptake; group 4 (definite positive) = asymmetrically intense and nodular uptake. To evaluate diagnostic performance, the BSGI studies were classified as positive (group 3 or 4) or negative (group 1 or 2) for malignancy according to a visual analysis. The final diagnoses were derived from histopathological confirmation and/or imaging follow up after at least 6 months (range: 6-14 months) by both ultrasonography and mammography. The patients' ages ranged from 33 to 61 years, with an average of 49.3 years. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with malignancy, and 63 patients were diagnosed as negative for malignancy. Using early images, 43 patients were classified as group 1, 12 as group 2, 10 as group 3 and 11 as group 4. Based on early images, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of BSGI were 77%, 83%, 48%, 95% and 82%, respectively. Dual phase BSGI had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 69%, 95%, 75%, significantly higher with dual phase imaging than with single phase imaging (p=0.0078), but the sensitivity did not differ significantly (p=1.0). Based on dual phase imaging, the sensitivity, specificity

  4. [Aspect of brain MRI in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. A diagnostic algorithm of the most common mitochondrial genetic mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux-Bricout, M; Grévent, D; Lebre, A-S; Rio, M; Desguerre, I; De Lonlay, P; Valayannopoulos, V; Brunelle, F; Rötig, A; Munnich, A; Boddaert, N

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are due to deficiency of the respiratory chain and are characterized by a broad clinical and genetic heterogeneity that makes diagnosis difficult. Some clinical presentations are highly suggestive of given gene mutations, allowing rapid genetic diagnosis. However, owing to the wide pattern of symptoms in mitochondrial disorders and the constantly growing number of disease genes, their genetic diagnosis is frequently difficult and genotype/phenotype correlations remain elusive. For this reason, brain MRI appears as a useful tool for genotype/phenotype correlations. Here, we report the most frequent neuroradiological signs in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency and we propose a diagnostic algorithm based on neuroimaging features, so as to direct molecular genetic tests in patients at risk of mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. This algorithm is based on the careful analysis of five areas on brain MRI: (1) basal ganglia (hyperintensities on T2 or calcifications); (2) cerebellum (hyperintensities on T2 or atrophy); (3) brainstem (hyperintensities on T2 or atrophy); (4) white matter (leukoencephalopathy); (5) cortex (sub-tentorial atrophy); (6) stroke-like episodes. We believe that the combination of brain MRI features is of value to support respiratory chain deficiency and direct molecular genetic tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Engenharia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues F, M. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, Av. Prof. Montenegro s/n, Rubiao Junior, 18601-970 Botucatu (Brazil); Vivolo, V., E-mail: chancez@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with {sup 7}Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  6. Protocol for diagnostic test accuracy study: the efficacy of screening for common dental diseases by Dental Care Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Richard; Walsh, Tanya; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen; Tickle, Martin; Ashley, James; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background The bulk of service delivery in dentistry is delivered by general dental practitioners, when a large proportion of patients who attend regularly are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. This represents a substantial and unnecessary cost, given that it is possible to delegate a range of tasks to dental care professionals, who are a less expensive resource. Screening for the common dental diseases by dental care professionals has the potential to release general dental practiti...

  7. Soft-tissue inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) of the limbs: potential and limits of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciocchi, Carlo; Lanni, Giuseppe; Conti, Laura; Conchiglia, Armando; Fascetti, Eva; Barile, Antonio [University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Department of Radiology, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Flamini, Stefano [S. Salvatore Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Coletti, Gino [S. Salvatore Hospital, Department of Pathology, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of diagnostic imaging in the identification, localization, and characterization of soft-tissue inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) of limbs with correlation to differential diagnosis and therapy. From a retrospective analysis of 324 histologically verified soft-tissue lesions of limbs and extremities diagnosed in our institute from January 2002 to July 2010, we selected seven cases of histologically proven IMT. These included six males and one female, aged between 28 and 81 years (mean age, 57 years). Lesions were localized in three cases to the thigh, in two cases to the popliteal space, and in the remaining two cases, to the shoulder girdle. All patients were evaluated on the basis of US, CT, and MRI. Ultrasound detected the presence of a non-homogeneous solid formation in all cases and calcifications in three cases. CT showed the presence and type of calcification/ossification and bone reaction. On MRI, all cases had low signal intensity on SE T1-weighted sequences and an intermediate-low signal intensity on SE and FSE T2-weighted sequences in six of them; only one case had an intermediate-high signal intensity on SE and FSE T2-weighted sequences. Both contrast-enhanced CT and MRI showed precocious enhancement in association with multiple peripheral hypertrophic blood vessels. On the basis of integrated imaging data obtained by US, CT, and MRI, it is possible to evaluate the lesion extension to provide a loco-regional staging, to characterize IMTs, and to allow an optimal therapeutical planning. (orig.)

  8. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging of extraocular muscles in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia: specific diagnostic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortube, Maria Carolina; Bhola, Rahul; Demer, Joseph L

    2006-10-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is characterized by slowly progressive bilateral ophthalmoplegia and blepharoptosis. Molecular diagnosis is problematic because sporadic mitochondrial DNA deletions can be causative. We sought findings using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that might support the diagnosis of CPEO. Two men (ages 31 and 47 years) and 3 women (ages 40-49 years) with CPEO and symptom durations of 8 months to 28 years underwent high-resolution (2-mm slice thickness, 312 micron pixels), surface coil, T1-weighted orbital MRI in coronal planes. Images were analyzed quantitatively to determine extraocular muscle (EOM) sizes and were compared with 10 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers, one subject with myasthenia gravis, and with 30 subjects having EOM paralysis caused by oculomotor, trochlear,0 and abducens neuropathies. EOM function was clinically diminished in CPEO, most markedly for the superior rectus (SR) and levator muscles. All EOMs in CPEO exhibited unusual qualitative T1 MRI signal abnormalities. Unlike the profound EOM atrophy typical of neurogenic paralysis, anterior volumes of medial rectus, lateral rectus, and inferior rectus muscles in CPEO were not smaller than normal (p>0.003). Anterior volumes of the SR muscle-levator complex and superior oblique were significantly reduced (pCPEO groups. Volume of the SR muscle-levator complex was the same in subjects with CPEO and oculomotor palsies. CPEO is associated with minimal EOM volume reduction despite clinically severe weakness. This combination of findings may be specific for CPEO and could resolve the diagnostic dilemma in difficult cases.

  9. Detecting genetic association of common human facial morphological variation using high density 3D image registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouneng Peng

    Full Text Available Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ∼30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation.

  10. A technology solution for the high-tech diagnostic imaging conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Leif I; Vinz, Cally; Trevis, Jim E

    2012-08-01

    (1) To describe a unique initiative to implement a standardized system of electronic decision support for ambulatory orders for hightech diagnostic imaging (HTDI) statewide, and (2) to evaluate the impact of a pilot version of that system, plus prior notification on the volume of such orders. Description of the initiative and analysis of aggregated claims data. Claims data for HTDI studies were aggregated from the main health plans in the state from 2003 to 2010 by the regional quality improvement collaborative that also facilitated the pilot and subsequent initiative being implemented in 2011 throughout Minnesota. Aggregate ambulatory statewide orders for HTDI tests increased from 32 to 41 per 1000 members from 2003 to 2006 (9% per year) at which point the rate leveled off through 2010. This trajectory change was simultaneous with implementation of an electronic medical record-based decision-support system for all ambulatory HTDI orders from 45% of the physicians in the state, as well as a prior notification/authorization approach by payers for the rest of the HTDI orders. Although it is not possible to disentangle the effects of these separate approaches, the much greater physician acceptance of the decision support system has led payers to financially support the creation of a unique statewide implementation of a version of this system to replace prior notification/authorization approaches.

  11. Localized measurement of short wavelength plasma fluctuations with the DIII-D phase contrast imaging diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, J R; Rost, J C; Porkolab, M

    2009-02-01

    A novel rotating mask system has been designed and implemented on the DIII-D phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic to produce the first spatially localized PCI measurements of a tokamak plasma. The localization technique makes use of the variation in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the viewing chord as a function of chord height. This new capability provides measurements in the range of 2

  12. Pedagogical Approaches to Diagnostic Imaging Education: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linaker, Kathleen L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine literature on how radiology is taught and learned by both radiology residents and undergraduates in the health professions. A review of the literature was performed using relevant key words. Articles were retrieved through December 2012 using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ERIC, Proquest, and ICL databases along with a manual review of references. Of the 4716 unique abstracts reviewed by the author, 91 were found to be relevant to the purpose of this study. The literature retrieved reported pedagogical approaches to teaching radiology including the following: problem solving, technology as teacher, independent learning tools, visiting lectureships, case based teaching, and conferences. There was some exploration of the relative effectiveness of educational formats. Suggestions for future research identify 7 areas of relative consistency. Radiology is a clinical skill that requires integration science, clinical information, clinical experiences, and information recorded on diagnostic imaging studies. The research in this area focuses on problem solving, the use of algorithm/scripts, introducing uncertainty in clinical scenarios, incorporating technology in learning environments, active learning techniques, and methods of independent learning. Although the literature in this area is still in its infancy, the research examining the relative effectiveness of these various educational formats is often contradictory, suggesting that this is a complex area of study with numerous factors influencing student learning.

  13. Radiation Exposure from Diagnostic Imaging in a Cohort of Pediatric Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Seal

    Full Text Available Recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT have extensive diagnostic imaging (DI. The purpose of this study was to quantify this exposure. Children from northern Alberta with SOTs at Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta January 1, 2006, to July 31, 2012, were included. Effective doses of radiation were estimated using published norms for DI performed post-transplant up to October 16, 2014. The 54 eligible children had 6215 DI studies (5628 plain films, 293 computerized tomography (CT scans, 149 positron emission topography (PET -CT scans, 47 nuclear medicine scans and 98 cardiac catheterizations. Children less than 5 years of age underwent more DI studies than did older children (median (IQR 140 (66-210 vs 49 (19-105, p = 0.010. Children with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (N = 8 had more CT scans (median (IQR 13 (5.5-36 vs 1 (0-5, p100 mSv. In conclusion, a significant proportion of pediatric transplant recipients have sufficient radiation exposure post-transplant for DI to be at potential risk for radiation-induced malignancies.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of migrating kebab (sosatie) sticks--a review of 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, N; Kirberger, R M

    2011-09-01

    Complications related to extraluminal migration of ingested kebab (sosatie) sticks are infrequently diagnosed in small animals. A total of 8 cases diagnosed with extragastric migration of ingested kebab sticks were retrospectively evaluated. No significant breed or sex predilection was found but there was a tendency for animals to present at a younger age (less than 3 years). Clinical signs (of variable duration) were non-specific and included haemoptysis, abdominal pain, regurgitation, subcutaneous abscessation and chronic draining sinus tracts, making a clinical diagnosis difficult. Ultrasonography proved invaluable in facilitating the diagnosis of kebab stick migration in 6 of the cases and computed tomography unexpectedly identified a kebab stick that had migrated into the thorax in 1 patient. Survey radiography was generally found to be insensitive in identifying the kebab sticks. The aim of this article is to alert veterinarians to a clinical syndrome that may not be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with non-specific inflammatory disease of the thorax, abdomen or pelvic regions and to illustrate the usefulness of the various diagnostic imaging modalities in facilitating a diagnosis of kebab stick ingestion and its possible secondary complications.

  15. A novel diagnostic aid for intra-abdominal adhesion detection in cine-MR imaging: Pilot study and initial diagnostic impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David; Joosten, Frank; ten Broek, Richard; Gillott, Richard; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Strik, Chema; Prins, Wiesje; van Goor, Harry; Fenner, John

    2017-07-14

    A non-invasive diagnostic technique for abdominal adhesions is not currently available. Capture of abdominal motion due to respiration in cine-MRI has shown promise, but is difficult to interpret. This article explores the value of a complimentary diagnostic aid to facilitate the non-invasive detection of abdominal adhesions using cine-MRI. An image processing technique was developed to quantify the amount of sliding that occurs between the organs of the abdomen and the abdominal wall in sagittal cine-MRI slices. The technique produces a 'sheargram' which depicts the amount of sliding which has occurred over 1-3 respiratory cycles. A retrospective cohort of 52 patients, scanned for suspected adhesions, made 281 cine-MRI sagittal slices available for processing. The resulting sheargrams were reported by two operators and compared to expert clinical judgement of the cine-MRI scans. The sheargram matched clinical judgement in 84% of all sagittal slices and 93-96% of positive adhesions were identified on the sheargram. The sheargram displayed a slight skew towards sensitivity over specificity, with a high positive adhesion detection rate but at the expense of false positives. Good correlation between sheargram and absence/presence of inferred adhesions indicates quantification of sliding motion has potential to aid adhesion detection in cine-MRI. Advances in Knowledge: This is the first attempt to clinically evaluate a novel image processing technique quantifying the sliding motion of the abdominal contents against the abdominal wall. The results of this pilot study reveal its potential as a diagnostic aid for detection of abdominal adhesions.

  16. Grading Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Injury after Ligament Reconstruction Surgery: Diagnostic Efficacy of Oblique Coronal MR Imaging of the Knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Gyu; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Jun, Woo Sun; Choi, Jung Ah; Park, Eun Ah; Kang, Heung Sik; Kwon, Jong Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of using additional oblique coronal MRI of the knee for grading anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft injury after ligament reconstruction surgery. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive MR knee examinations of 48 patients who underwent both ACL reconstruction and follow-up arthroscopy. The MR examinations included the orthogonal axial, sagittal, coronal images and the oblique coronal T2-weighted images, which were oriented in parallel with the course of the femoral intercondylar roof. Two radiologists independently evaluated the status of the ACL grafts with using the routine knee MRI and then with adding the oblique coronal imaging. The severity of ACL graft injury was graded using a 3-point system from MR images as intact, partial tear or complete tear, and the results were compared with the arthroscopic results. Weighted kappa statistics were used to analyze the diagnostic accuracies of the knee MRI with and without the additional oblique coronal imaging. For each evaluation, the observers reported a confidence level for grading the ACL graft injuries in the two imaging groups. Result : The weighted kappa values according to the routine knee MRI were 0.555 (reader 1) and 0.515 (reader 2). The inclusion of additional oblique coronal imaging increased the weighted kappa values to 0.666 (reader 1) and 0.611 (reader 2). The mean confidence levels by each reader were significantly higher (p < 0.01, paired t-test) with the additional oblique coronal imaging than by using the routine knee MRI alone. Conclusion : The additional use of oblique coronal MRI of the knee improves both the diagnostic accuracy and confidence for grading ACL graft injury.

  17. The efficacy of screening for common dental diseases by hygiene-therapists: a diagnostic test accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, R; Glenny, A; Walsh, T; Tickle, M; Worthington, H; Ashley, J; Brocklehurst, P

    2015-03-01

    Regularly attending adult patients are increasingly asymptomatic and not in need of treatment when attending for their routine dental examinations. As oral health improves further, using the general dental practitioner to undertake the "checkup" on regular "low-risk" patients represents a substantial and potentially unnecessary cost for state-funded systems. Given recent regulatory changes in the United Kingdom, it is now theoretically possible to delegate a range of tasks to hygiene-therapists. This has the potential to release the general dental practitioner's time and increase the capacity to care. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic test accuracy of hygiene-therapists when screening for dental caries and periodontal disease in regularly attending asymptomatic adults who attend for their checkup. A visual screen by hygiene-therapists acted as the index test, and the general dental practitioner acted as the reference standard. Consenting asymptomatic adult patients, who were regularly attending patients at 10 practices across the Northwest of England, entered the study. Both sets of clinicians made an assessment of dental caries and periodontal disease. The primary outcomes measured were the sensitivity and specificity values for dental caries and periodontal disease. In total, 1899 patients were screened. The summary point for sensitivity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87) and 0.89 (0.86 to 0.92), respectively. The summary point for specificity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92) and 0.75 (0.66 to 0.82), respectively. The results suggest that hygiene-therapists could be used to screen for dental caries and periodontal disease. This has important ramifications for service design in public-funded health systems. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnostic evaluation of hernia of an invertebral disk. Optimisation of imaging parameters by application of various magnetic field intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.K.; Oppel, G.; Bluemm, R.; Uhlenbrock, D.

    1988-02-01

    The article reports experience gained within three years with diagnostic NMR imaging of the lumbar spine. On the basis of results obtained by almost 500 examinations, an optimisation concept with regard to measuring sequences and orientation of sectional cuts is presented. Imaging of the spine in three planes, with sectional layer thickness between 3 and 5 mm, using a 1.5 Tesla system, seems to yield the diagnostic optimum, and in our opinion is superior over invasive myelography and CT scanning. A prospective study we made indicates a hit rate of 97.2%, and of 100% for evaluation of the results obtained with the 1.5 Tesla system together with an evaluation of the paraxial sections. The magnetic field intensity of 1.5 Tesla especially improves the quality of images of paraxial cuts as compared with the 0.5 Tesla field system, due to the better contrast-to-noise ratio, and thinner sections.

  19. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy; Eagle Syndrom - Bildgebende Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Sonnenburg, M. [Fachbelegarztpraxis fuer Mund, Kiefer, Gesichtschirurgie und Plastische Operationen, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Scheufler, O. [Klinik fuer Plastische, Wiederherstellungs- und Handchirurgie, Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [German] Bei klinischen Beschwerden wie Dysphagie, Fremdkoerpergefuehl und chronischen

  20. Selective common and uncommon imaging manifestations of blunt nonaortic chest trauma: when time is of the essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoos, Rola; Carr, Robert; Chung, Jonathan; Stern, Eric; Nevrekar, Dipti

    2015-01-01

    This is a pictorial essay in which we review and illustrate a variety of thoracic injuries related to blunt trauma. Non-aortic blunt thoracic trauma can be divided anatomically into injuries of the chest wall, lungs, pleura, mediastinum, and diaphragm. Some injuries involve more than one anatomic compartment, and multiple injuries commonly coexist. This article provides common imaging findings and discussion of both common and uncommon but critical thoracic injuries encountered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Imaging diagnostics of breast metastases from extramammary tumors; Bildgebende Diagnostik bei Brustmetastasen extramammaerer Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienbeck, S.; Lotz, J. [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Nemat, S. [Universitaet Homburg/Saar, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Surov, A. [Universitaet Leipzig, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Breast metastases of solid extramammary tumors are very rare in comparison to primary malignancies of the breast and account for only 0.33-6.3% of all malignant neoplasms of the breast. The most common primary tumors are malignant melanoma, distant sarcomas, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, renal cell cancer and thyroid cancer in decreasing order of frequency. This review article summarizes the clinical features and the different imaging findings of breast metastases from different extramammary solid tumors. Breast metastases are often incidental findings in computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) imaging. Mammography shows two different imaging patterns, namely focal lesions and diffuse architectural distortion with skin thickening. Breast metastases presenting as focal masses usually occur as solitary and more rarely as multiple round lesions with a smooth edge boundary. Associated calcifications are rare findings. Diffuse architectural distortion with skin thickening is more common in breast metastases from most gastric tumors, ovarian cancer and rhabdomyosarcoma. Using ultrasound most lesions are hypoechoic, oval or round with smooth boundaries and posterior acoustic enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of breast metastases show an inconstant signal behavior that cannot be safely classified as benign or malignant. In summary, in patients with known malignancies the presence of breast metastases should be considered even with imposing clinically and radiologically benign findings. (orig.) [German] Brustmetastasen solider extramammaerer Tumoren sind im Vergleich zu primaeren Malignomen der Brust mit einer Praevalenz von 0,33-6,3 % aller boesartigen Neubildungen in der Brust sehr selten. Die haeufigsten Primaertumoren sind dabei das maligne Melanom, ferner Sarkome, Bronchial-, Ovarial-, Nierenzell- und Schilddruesenkarzinome mit einer absteigenden Haeufigkeit ihres Auftretens. In dieser Uebersichtsarbeit werden die

  2. Diagnostic potential of iris cross-sectional imaging in albinism using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Viral; Gottlob, Irene; Mohammad, Sarim; McLean, Rebecca J; Maconachie, Gail D E; Kumar, Anil; Degg, Christopher; Proudlock, Frank A

    2013-10-01

    To characterize in vivo anatomic abnormalities of the iris in albinism compared with healthy controls using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to explore the diagnostic potential of this technique for albinism. We also investigated the relationship between iris abnormalities and other phenotypical features of albinism. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 55 individuals with albinism and 45 healthy controls. We acquired 4.37×4.37-mm volumetric scans (743 A-scans, 50 B-scans) of the nasal and temporal iris in both eyes using AS-OCT (3-μm axial resolution). Iris layers were segmented and thicknesses were measured using ImageJ software. Iris transillumination grading was graded using Summers and colleagues' classification. Retinal OCT, eye movement recordings, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual evoked potential (VEP), and grading of skin and hair pigmentation were used to quantify other phenotypical features associated with albinism. Iris AS-OCT measurements included (1) total iris thickness, (2) stroma/anterior border (SAB) layer thickness, and (3) posterior epithelial layer (PEL) thickness. Correlation with other phenotypical measurements, including (1) iris transillumination grading, (2) retinal layer measurements at the fovea, (3) nystagmus intensity, (4) BCVA, (5) VEP asymmetry, (6) skin pigmentation, and (7) hair pigmentation (of head hair, lashes, and brows). The mean iris thickness was 10.7% thicker in controls (379.3 ± 44.0 μm) compared with the albinism group (342.5 ± 52.6 μm; P>0.001), SAB layers were 5.8% thicker in controls (315.1 ± 43.8 μm) compared with the albinism group (297.7 ± 50.0 μm; P=0.044), and PEL was 44.0% thicker in controls (64.1 ± 11.7 μm) compared with the albinism group (44.5 ± 13.9 μm; Palbinism. Phenotypic features of albinism, such as skin and hair pigmentation, BCVA, and nystagmus intensity, were significantly correlated to AS-OCT iris thickness measurements. We have

  3. Diagnostic confidence and image quality of CT pulmonary angiography at 100 kVp in overweight and obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, B; Christe, A; Schindera, S T; Horkay, E; Sikula, J; Cullmann, J L; Kollar, J; Heverhagen, J T; Szucs-Farkas, Z

    2015-01-01

    To compare image quality and diagnostic confidence of 100 kVp CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with body weights (BWs) below and above 100kg. The present retrospective study comprised 216 patients (BWs of 75-99kg, 114 patients; 100-125kg, 88 patients; >125kg, 14 patients), who received 100 kVp CTPA to exclude pulmonary embolism. The attenuation was measured and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated in the pulmonary trunk. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) were evaluated. Three blinded radiologists rated subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence. Results between the BW groups and between three body mass index (BMI) groups (BMI 125kg groups (p = 0.892 and 1). Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence were not different among the BW groups (p = 0.225 and 1). CNR was lower (p confidence was not different in the BMI groups (p = 0.105). CTPA at 100 kVp tube voltage can be used in patients weighing up to 125kg with no significant deterioration of subjective image quality and confidence. The applicability of 100 kVp in the 125-150kg BW range needs further testing in larger collectives. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  5. Diagnostics of common microdeletion syndromes using fluorescence in situ hybridization: single center experience in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Kurtovic-Kozaric

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microdeletion syndromes are caused by chromosomal deletions of less than 5 megabases which can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We evaluated the most commonly detected microdeletions for the period from June 01, 2008 to June 01, 2015 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including DiGeorge, Prader-Willi/Angelman, Wolf-Hirschhorn, and Williams syndromes. We report 4 patients with DiGeorge syndromes, 4 patients with Prader-Willi/Angelman, 4 patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, and 3 patients with Williams syndrome in the analyzed 7 year period. Based on the positive FISH results for each syndrome, the incidence was calculated for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These are the first reported frequencies of the microdeletion syndromes in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  6. Populational brain models of diffusion tensor imaging for statistical analysis: a complementary information in common space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da Silva Senra Filho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The search for human brain templates has been progressing in the past decades and in order to understand disease patterns a need for a standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI dataset was raised. For this purposes, some DTI templates were developed which assist group analysis studies. In this study, complementary information to the most commonly used DTI template is proposed in order to offer a patient-specific statistical analysis on diffusion-weighted data. Methods 131 normal subjects were used to reconstruct a population-averaged template. After image pre processing, reconstruction and diagonalization, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors were used to reconstruct the quantitative DTI maps, namely fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, relative anisotropy (RA, and radial diffusivity (RD. The mean absolute error (MAE was calculated using a voxel-wise procedure, which informs the global error regarding the mean intensity value for each quantitative map. Results the MAE values presented a low MAE estimate (max(MAE = 0.112, showing a reasonable error measure between our DTI-USP-131 template and the classical DTI-JHU-81 approach, which also shows a statistical equivalence (p<0.05 with the classical DTI template. Hence, the complementary standard deviation (SD maps for each quantitative DTI map can be added to the classical DTI-JHU-81 template. Conclusion In this study, variability DTI maps (SD maps were reconstructed providing the possibility of a voxel-wise statistical analysis in patient-specific approach. Finally, the brain template (DTI-USP-131 described here was made available for research purposes on the web site (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/br7bhs4h7m.1, being valuable to research and clinical applications.

  7. Segmentation of common carotid artery with active appearance models from ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; He, Wanji; Fenster, Aaron; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue

    2013-02-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a major cause of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, a new segmentation method is proposed and evaluated for outlining the common carotid artery (CCA) from transverse view images, which were sliced from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) of 1mm inter-slice distance (ISD), to support the monitoring and assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. The data set consists of forty-eight 3D US images acquired from both left and right carotid arteries of twelve patients in two time points who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more at the baseline. The 3D US data were collected at baseline and three-month follow-up, where seven treated with 80mg atorvastatin and five with placebo. The baseline manual boundaries were used for Active Appearance Models (AAM) training; while the treatment data for segmentation testing and evaluation. The segmentation results were compared with experts manually outlined boundaries, as a surrogate for ground truth, for further evaluation. For the adventitia and lumen segmentations, the algorithm yielded Dice Coefficients (DC) of 92.06%+/-2.73% and 89.67%+/-3.66%, mean absolute distances (MAD) of 0.28+/-0.18 mm and 0.22+/-0.16 mm, maximum absolute distances (MAXD) of 0.71+/-0.28 mm and 0.59+/-0.21 mm, respectively. The segmentation results were also evaluated via Pratt's figure of merit (FOM) with the value of 0.61+/-0.06 and 0.66+/-0.05, which provides a quantitative measure for judging the similarity. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can promote the carotid 3D US usage for a fast, safe and economical monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  8. High pitch, low voltage dual source CT pulmonary angiography: assessment of image quality and diagnostic acceptability with hybrid iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Patrick D; Liang, T; Homiedan, M; Louis, L J; O'Connell, T W; Krzymyk, Karl; Nicolaou, S; Mayo, J R

    2015-04-01

    Increased use of CT Pulmonary angiography in suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) has driven research to minimize radiation dose while maintaining image quality and diagnostic accuracy. Following institutional review board approval, we performed a retrospective comparison study in patients with suspected PE. Patients were scanned using an ultra high pitch dual source technique (pitch = 2.6) using 120 kV (SVCTPA) (n = 54) or 100 kV (RV-CTPA) (n = 52). SV-CTPA images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (SV-wFBP) and RV-CTPA images were reconstructed using both FBP (RV-wFBP) and Iterative Reconstruction (RV-IR). Comparison of radiation dose, diagnostic ability, subjective image noise, quality, and sharpness, diagnostic agreement, signal to noise (SNR) and contrast to noise ratios (CNR) were performed. Mean effective dose was 2.56 ± 0.19 mSv for the RV protocol compared to 5.36 ± 0.60 mSv for the SV. The RV-CTPA protocol resulted in a mean DLP reduction of 52 % and mean CTDI reduction of 51 %. Pulmonary artery SNR and CNR were significantly higher on RV-IR images than SV-wFBP (p = 0.007, p = 0.003). Mean subjective image noise, quality and sharpness scores did not differ significantly between the SV-wFBP and RVIR images (p > 0.05). Subjective quality scores were significantly better for the RV-IR group compared to the RV-wFBP group (p perfect (κ = 0.891, p pitch dual source CTPA examinations acquired using a reduced voltage resulting in higher mean pulmonary artery SNR and CNR when compared to both RV-wFBP and SV-CTPA.

  9. Diagnostic imaging of the breast. Examination techniques, appearances, differential diagnosis and interventiones. 3. compl. rev. ed.; Bildgebende Mammadiagnostik. Untersuchungstechnik, Befundmuster, Differenzialdiagnose und Interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, Sylvia H. [Referenzzentrum Mammographie, Muenchen (Germany).; Schreer, Ingrid [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany).

    2015-07-01

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the breast covers the following topics: Part I: Techniques: anamnesis and dialogue, clinical indications, mammography, sonography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, new imaging techniques, image clarification and percutaneous breast biopsy, preoperative marking. Part II: Appearance: the normal mamma, benign mamma modifications, cysts, benign tumors, inflammatory diseases, lesions with uncertain biological potential (B3 lesions), in-situ carcinoma, invasive carcinoma. Lymph nodes, other semi-malign and malign tumors, post-traumatic, post-operative and post-therapeutic changes, imaging diagnostics for breast implants, skin changes, the male breast. Part III: Use of imaging breast diagnostics: continuative diagnostics of screening indications and problem solution for the symptomatic patient.

  10. Review: amebic liver abscess in children - the role of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, D.F.; Kirks, D.R.

    1984-12-01

    Amebiasis, infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, affects at least 10% of the world's population, with an incidence exceeding 30% in tropical and subtropical regions. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal form of invasive amebiasis and is a serious life-threatening disease in children. Recent experience indicates the prognosis of ALA in childhood to be improved with early identification of abscesses and prompt institution of treatment. The authors incorporate experience with a case of ALA in infancy with a review of current literature (1974-1983) to delineate clinical and radiologic features of ALA in childhood and further define the role of hepatic imaging in the diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Predictive capabilities of statistical learning methods for lung nodule malignancy classification using diagnostic image features: an investigation using the Lung Image Database Consortium dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Matthew C.; Magnan, Jerry F.

    2017-03-01

    To determine the potential usefulness of quantified diagnostic image features as inputs to a CAD system, we investigate the predictive capabilities of statistical learning methods for classifying nodule malignancy, utilizing the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and only employ the radiologist-assigned diagnostic feature values for the lung nodules therein, as well as our derived estimates of the diameter and volume of the nodules from the radiologists' annotations. We calculate theoretical upper bounds on the classification accuracy that is achievable by an ideal classifier that only uses the radiologist-assigned feature values, and we obtain an accuracy of 85.74 (+/-1.14)% which is, on average, 4.43% below the theoretical maximum of 90.17%. The corresponding area-under-the-curve (AUC) score is 0.932 (+/-0.012), which increases to 0.949 (+/-0.007) when diameter and volume features are included, along with the accuracy to 88.08 (+/-1.11)%. Our results are comparable to those in the literature that use algorithmically-derived image-based features, which supports our hypothesis that lung nodules can be classified as malignant or benign using only quantified, diagnostic image features, and indicates the competitiveness of this approach. We also analyze how the classification accuracy depends on specific features, and feature subsets, and we rank the features according to their predictive power, statistically demonstrating the top four to be spiculation, lobulation, subtlety, and calcification.

  12. Occurrence of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Common and Noninvasive Diagnostic Sampling from Parrots and Racing Pigeons in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.

  13. Acute ischemic stroke. Diagnostic imaging and interventional options; Der akute ischaemische Schlaganfall. Bildgebende Diagnostik und interventionelle Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenkler, J. [Ooesterreichische Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Linz (Austria) Institut fuer Radiologie

    2008-05-15

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death after myocardial infarction and neoplasms in industrialized countries and the most common cause for permanent disability with impairment of an independent life style. In addition to the socioeconomic problems caused by a disabling stroke, it is to be expected that with an increasing average age of the population, the number of stroke patients will increase as well [4]. The need for effective and widely available therapies against this severe disease is highly evident. Diagnostic imaging is indispensable in order to apply these therapies efficiently and precisely. In addition to the established intravenous thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA within the first 3 h, a therapeutic benefit can also be achieved with thrombolysis inside the time-window 3-6 h, whereas the rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages increases. Local intraarterial fibrinolysis (LIF) within 6 h is effective and safe and may lead to considerable improvement despite an initially severe medical condition [13]. Besides LIF, interventional techniques for mechanical recanalization of intracranial vessel occlusions are becoming increasingly more established. According to international guidelines for the treatment of acute stroke, computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the most important technical diagnostic tool if available round-the-clock. Alternatively, magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) may primarily be performed if carried out without delay and if the imaging protocol contains a sequence suitable for exclusion of hemorrhages. (orig.) [German] Der Schlaganfall ist in den Industrielaendern die dritthaeufigste Todesursache nach Herzinfarkt und Tumorneubildungen und die haeufigste Ursache fuer dauerhafte Behinderung mit Beeintraechtigung eines selbststaendigen Lebens. Neben den soziooekonomischen Problemen eines behindernden Schlaganfalls ist ausserdem zu erwarten, dass mit steigendem Durchschnittsalter der Bevoelkerung auch die Zahl der

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging tractography as a diagnostic tool in patients with spinal cord injury treated with human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Spinal cord injury is a cause of severe disability and mortality. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods used, are unable to improve the quality of life in spinal cord injury. Spinal disorders have been treated with human embryonic stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging and tractography were used as imaging modality to document the changes in the damaged cord, but the magnetic resonance imaging tractography was seen to be more sensitive in detecting the changes in the spinal cord. The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic modality of magnetic resonance imaging tractography to determine the efficacy of human embryonic stem cells in chronic spinal cord injury. Materials and methods The study included the patients with spinal cord injury for whom magnetic resonance imaging tractography was performed before and after the therapy. Omniscan (gadodiamide) magnetic resonance imaging tractography was analyzed to assess the spinal defects and the improvement by human embryonic stem cell treatment. The patients were also scored by American Spinal Injury Association scale. Results Overall, 15 patients aged 15-44 years with clinical manifestations of spinal cord injury had magnetic resonance imaging tractography performed. The average treatment period was nine months. The majority of subjects ( n = 13) had American Spinal Injury Association score A, and two patients were at score C at the beginning of therapy. At the end of therapy, 10 patients were at score A, two patients were at score B and three patients were at score C. Improvements in patients were clearly understood through magnetic resonance imaging tractography as well as in clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging tractography can be a crucial diagnostic modality to assess the improvement in spinal cord injury patients.

  15. MR imaging of myxofibrosarcoma and undifferentiated sarcoma with emphasis on tail sign; diagnostic and prognostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kang, Yusuhn; Choi, Ja-Young; Yi, Minkyong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han-Soo; Han, Ilkyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-City, Gyeongi-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To assess the prevalence of the tail sign in soft tissue sarcomas and determine whether the local recurrence rate differed based on the presence of the tail sign. In our retrospective study, myxofibrosarcoma (MFS, n = 25) and undifferentiated sarcoma (US, n = 38) comprised group 1, and the remaining tumours (n = 115) were assigned to group 2. Location, size, and imaging features of the tumours were assessed on MRI. The radiological-pathological correlation of the tail sign was analysed. The tail sign, thick fascial enhancement extending from the tumour margin, was more common and significantly thicker in group 1. In the subgroup analysis between MFS and US, there was no significant difference in the presence of a tail sign. Histological examination revealed extensive tumour cell infiltrations along the deep fascia from the main mass. Patients with a tail sign had a worse local recurrence-free survival than patients without it, not only in all tumours (p < 0.01), but also in group 1 (p = 0.019) The tail sign was a common MRI feature of both MFS and US, and was also associated with worse local recurrence-free survival. Radiologists should be aware of these MRI findings and inform the surgeon preoperatively in order to obtain a sufficient surgical margin to minimise the risk of local tumour recurrence. (orig.)

  16. Advanced and extended scope practice of diagnostic radiographers in Scotland: Exploring strategic imaging service imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, I; Mathers, S A; McConnell, J

    2017-08-01

    The development of diagnostic imaging services manifests features specific to the Scottish environment, in particular development of the radiographic workforce through implementing skills mix and role developments to enhance outcomes for patients. A component of a College of Radiographers Industry Partnership Scheme (CoRIPS) supported study, this research investigates perspectives of strategic service managers with Health Board responsibility for service delivery. A questionnaire survey was administered to strategic service managers across Scotland (N = 14), followed up with telephone interviews. There was a return rate of 57% (n = 8) for the questionnaires and n = 4 agreed to be interviewed. Data collected related to radiographer roles across their Board area; awareness and understanding of service development issues and features as well as perspective on opportunities and barriers in the context of Scottish Government policy, workforce logistics, attitudes and inter-professional relationships. The results indicate evidence of financial, logistical and political barriers to service evolution, offset by a sense of optimism that scope for beneficial change may be approaching. There are a range of significant initiatives in place and an appetite exists to pursue the development of radiographer roles and skill mix for the benefit of service users more generally. The difficulties in achieving change are well understood and there are basic issues related to finance and industrial relations. There are also however, cultural elements to contend with in the form of attitudes demonstrated by some radiographers and significantly, the radiological community whose influence on the practice of independently regulated radiographers seems incongruent. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual pathway impairment by pituitary adenomas: quantitative diagnostics by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Ylva; Gustafsson, Oscar; Ljungberg, Maria; Starck, Göran; Lindblom, Bertil; Skoglund, Thomas; Bergquist, Henrik; Jakobsson, Karl-Erik; Nilsson, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite ample experience in surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas, little is known about objective indices that may reveal risk of visual impairment caused by tumor growth that leads to compression of the anterior visual pathways. This study aimed to explore diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a means for objective assessment of injury to the anterior visual pathways caused by pituitary adenomas. METHODS Twenty-three patients with pituitary adenomas, scheduled for transsphenoidal tumor resection, and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study. A minimum suprasellar tumor extension of Grade 2-4, according to the SIPAP (suprasellar, infrasellar, parasellar, anterior, and posterior) scale, was required for inclusion. Neuroophthalmological examinations, conventional MRI, and DTI were completed in all subjects and were repeated 6 months after surgery. Quantitative assessment of chiasmal lift, visual field defect (VFD), and DTI parameters from the optic tracts was performed. Linear correlations, group comparisons, and prediction models were done in controls and patients. RESULTS Both the degree of VFD and chiasmal lift were significantly correlated with the radial diffusivity (r = 0.55, p visual pathways that were compressed by pituitary adenomas. The correlation between radial diffusivity and visual impairment may reflect a gradual demyelination in the visual pathways caused by an increased tumor effect. The low level of axial diffusivity found in the patient group may represent early atrophy in the visual pathways, detectable on DTI but not by conventional methods. DTI may provide objective data, detect early signs of injury, and be an additional diagnostic tool for determining indication for surgery in cases of pituitary adenomas.

  18. Emergency CT brain: preliminary interpretation with a tablet device: image quality and diagnostic performance of the Apple iPad.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices.

  19. Beyond complications: Comparison of procedural differences and diagnostic success between nurse practitioners and radiologists performing image-guided renal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandwana, Sadhna B; Walls, Deborah G; Ibraheem, Oluwayemisi; Murphy, Frederick; Tridandapani, Srini; Cox, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Radiology-trained nurse practitioners (NPs) may perform image-guided medical renal biopsies with computed tomography (CT). This study evaluates the procedural differences and diagnostic success between biopsies performed by NPs compared to radiologists. A retrospective study was performed on patients who underwent nontargeted, CT-guided renal biopsy between 2009 and 2014. Provider type (NP or radiologist), number of core specimens obtained, sedation medication dose, CT dose index (CTDI), and diagnostic success were recorded. Categorical and continuous variables were analyzed using χ 2 and Student's two-tailed t-test, respectively, comparing NPs with radiologists. A total of 386 patients were included; radiologists performed 215 biopsies and NPs performed 171 biopsies. There was no significant difference in diagnostic success, amount of tissue harvested (number of cores), radiation dose, or sedation dosage between NPs and radiologists performing CT-guided renal biopsies. Only 4% were nondiagnostic (n = 7, radiologists; n = 9, NPs; p = .325). Overall mean number of cores obtained was 3.7, mean CTDI was 176.5 mGy, mean fentanyl dose was 86.3 μg, and mean midazolam was dose 1.54 mg without a statistically significant difference between provider types. NPs perform image-guided medical renal biopsies in a similar fashion to radiologists with respect to diagnostic success, amount of tissue harvested, total radiation dose exposure, and administration of sedation. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froula, D H; Boni, R; Bedzyk, M; Craxton, R S; Ehrne, F; Ivancic, S; Jungquist, R; Shoup, M J; Theobald, W; Weiner, D; Kugland, N L; Rushford, M C

    2012-10-01

    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4ω) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. E. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75-80 (2006)]. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution (~1 - μm full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 10(4) with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 ± 2 nm measurement range.

  1. Patient dose measurement in common medical X-ray examinations and propose the first local dose reference levels to diagnostic radiology in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuli, Behrouz; Tabari Juybari, Raheleh; Forouzi, Meysam; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate patient dose in pelvic and abdomen x-ray examinations. This work also provided the LDRLs (local diagnostic reference levels) in Khuzestan region, southwest of Iran to help establish the NDRLs (national diagnostic reference levels). Methods: Patient doses were assessed from patient's anatomical data and exposure parameters based on the IAEA indirect dosimetry method. With regard to this method, exposure parameters such as tube output, kVp, mAs, FFD and patient anatomical data were used for calculating ESD (entrance skin dose) of patients. This study was conducted on 250 standard patients (50% men and 50% women) at eight high-patient-load imaging centers. Results: The results indicate that mean ESDs for the both pelvic and abdomen examinations were lower than the IAEA and EC reference levels, 2.3 and 3.7 mGy, respectively. Mean applied kVps were 67 and 70 and mean FFDs were 103 and 109, respectively. Tube loadings obtained in this study for pelvic examination were lower than all the corresponding values in the reviewed literature. Likewise, the average annual patient load across all hospitals were more than 37000 patients, i.e. more than 100 patients a day. Conclusions: The authors recommend that DRLs (diagnostic reference levels) obtained in this region, which are the first available data, can be used as local DRLs for pelvic and abdomen procedures. This work also provides that on-the-job training programs for staffs and close cross collaboration between physicists and physicians should be strongly considered.

  2. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Gröndahl, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm×4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm×4 cm and 6 cm×6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180° and 360° were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Intra-observer agreement was good (κw=0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κw=0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm×4 cm, 6 cm×6 cm followed by 3 cm×4 cm. This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180° gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effectiveness of diagnostic imaging methods for the assessment of soft tissue and articular disorders of the shoulder and elbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabpour, M. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Maryam@shahabpour.uzbrussel; Kichouh, M.; Laridon, E. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Gielen, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Universiteit Antwerpen, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); De Mey, J. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-02-15

    There are no clear guidelines for diagnostic imaging of articular and soft tissue pathologies of the shoulder and elbow. Several methods are used, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and ultrasound (US). Their cost-effectiveness is still unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of the relevant literature and discussed the role of MR imaging of the shoulder and elbow compared with other diagnostic imaging modalities. For the shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears, MRI and US have a comparable accuracy for detection of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. MRA and US might be more accurate for the detection of partial-thickness tears than MRI. Given the large difference in cost of MR and US, ultrasound may be the most cost-effective diagnostic method for identification of full-thickness tears in a specialist hospital setting (Evidence level 3). Both MRA and CT arthrography (CTA) are effective methods for the detection of labrum tears. More recently, multidetector CTA has offered the advantages of thinner slices than with MRA in a shorter examination time. Still, MRA has the advantage towards CTA to directly visualize the affected structures with a better evaluation of extent and location and to detect associated capsuloligamentous injuries. For the elbow pathologies, plain MRI or MRA have the advantage towards CTA to detect occult bone injuries. CTA is better for the assessment of the thin cartilage of the elbow. Both US and MRI are reliable methods to detect chronic epicondylitis; US is more available and far more cost-effective (Evidence level 2). MRA can differentiate complete from partial tears of the medial collateral ligament. US or MRI can detect partial and complete biceps tendon tears and/or bursitis. MRI can provide important diagnostic information in lesions of the ulnar, radial, or median nerve.

  4. Engineering of lipid-coated PLGA nanoparticles with a tunable payload of diagnostically active nanocrystals for medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J; Gianella, Anita; Cormode, David P; Zhao, Yiming; Meijerink, Andries; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2012-06-14

    Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable and therefore have been extensively investigated as therapeutic carriers. Here, we engineered diagnostically active PLGA nanoparticles that incorporate high payloads of nanocrystals into their core for tunable bioimaging features. We accomplished this through esterification reactions of PLGA to generate polymers modified with nanocrystals. The PLGA nanoparticles formed from modified PLGA polymers that were functionalized with either gold nanocrystals or quantum dots exhibited favorable features for computed tomography and optical imaging, respectively.

  5. Relationship between anxiety level and radiological investigation. Comparison among different diagnostic imaging exams in a prospective single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Re, Giuseppe; De Luca, Rossella; Muscarneri, Filippa; Dorangricchia, Patrizia; Picone, Dario; Vernuccio, Federica; Salerno, Sergio; La Tona, Giuseppe; Pinto, Antonio; Midiri, Massimo; Russo, Antonio; Lagalla, Roberto; Cicero, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Every patient could feel anxious when he waits in a radiological department to undergo diagnostic exams. The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of the radiological exams on patient anxiety. We evaluated 343 patients (mean age 54.83 years) who underwent different types of diagnostic exams in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging at our Hospital from April 2013 to August 2014. We administered to patients the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory Test, which detected with high sensitivity both state anxiety and trait anxiety. A team of clinical psychologists and radiologists evaluated the scores obtained. 83 out of 343 patients were excluded because refused to file the questionnaire. 31 % of the patients were submitted to MR, 18 % to breast imaging, 10 % to X-ray, 22 % Computer Tomography and 19 % to ultrasound, as previously described. 41 % of patients were submitted to the examination because of an oncologic disease, while 59 % because of non-oncological disease. Therefore, it was found that high levels of anxiety were present in most (about 91 %) of the patients and the scores varied according to the imaging examination and to the examination's reason: anxiety level was higher in non-oncological patients (54 %) and in patients waiting to undergo to MRI exams (29 %). Our data suggest that the diagnostic exams are stressful events for the patient, also in non-oncological patients. So, it is important to adequate the radiological staff to receive the patient, to inform him and perform exams with emotive involvement with a targeted education. Also, further studies are needed to evaluate the anxiety level and the quality of the images, because the anxiety can result in a somatic disorder with hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system which may affect the patient's physical examination, causing problems in the evaluation of radiological images making to non-cooperative patient. MRI imaging is the examination that more of all led to an anxious state of

  6. Imaging of the lumbosacral plexus. Diagnostics and treatment planning with high-resolution procedures; Bildgebung des Plexus lumbosacralis. Diagnostik und Therapieplanung mithilfe hochaufgeloester Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jengojan, S.; Schellen, C.; Bodner, G.; Kasprian, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    Technical advances in magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound-based neurography nowadays facilitate the radiological assessment of the lumbosacral plexus. Anatomy and imaging of the lumbosacral plexus and diagnostics of the most common pathologies. Description of the clinically feasible combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound diagnostics, case-based illustration of imaging techniques and individual advantages of MRI and ultrasound-based diagnostics for various pathologies of the lumbosacral plexus and its peripheral nerves. High-resolution ultrasound-based neurography (HRUS) is particularly valuable for the assessment of superficial structures of the lumbosacral plexus. Depending on the examiner's experience, anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve (e. g. relevant in piriformis syndrome) as well as more subtle variations, for example as seen in neuritis, can be sonographically depicted and assessed. The use of MRI enables the diagnostic evaluation of more deeply located nerve structures, such as the pudendal and the femoral nerves. Modern MRI techniques, such as peripheral nerve tractography allow three-dimensional depiction of the spatial relationship between nerves and local tumors or traumatic alterations. This can be beneficial for further therapy planning. The anatomy and pathology of the lumbosacral plexus can be reliably imaged by the meaningful combination of MRI and ultrasound-based high resolution neurography. (orig.) [German] Durch technische Fortschritte im Bereich der magnetresonanz- (MR-) und ultraschallbasierten Neurographie ist der Plexus lumbosacralis heute der radiologischen Abklaerung zugaenglich. Anatomie und Bildgebung des Plexus lumbosacralis, Abklaerung der haeufigsten Pathologien. Erlaeuterung der klinisch sinnvollen Kombination von MR- und Ultraschalldiagnostik, Darstellung der Untersuchungstechniken und der jeweiligen Vorteile von MRT und Ultraschall anhand fallbasierter Praesentation unterschiedlicher

  7. Image analysis as an adjunct to manual HER-2 immunohistochemical review: a diagnostic tool to standardize interpretation