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Sample records for common carotid intima

  1. Mean common or mean maximum carotid intima-media thickness as primary outcome in lipid-modifying intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Soner; Kastelein, Johannes Jacob Pieter; Grobbee, Diederick Egbertus; Bots, Michiel Leonardus

    2011-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements are used as a disease outcome in randomized controlled trials that assess the effects of lipid-modifying treatment. It is unclear whether common CIMT or mean maximum CIMT should be used as the primary outcome. We directly compared both measurements

  2. Factors associated with gender difference in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery

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    Tan, T.-Y.; Lu, C.-H.; Lin, T.-K.; Liou, C.-W. [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Y.-C., E-mail: tengyeowtan@yahoo.co [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Schminke, U. [Department of Neurology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Aim: To investigate the gender differences associated with a thinner intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) in women. Materials and methods: In a sample of 218 consecutive healthy volunteers comprising 110 men and 108 women, the IMT of the CCA was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, homocysteine, folic acid, uric acid, high sensitive C-reactive protein, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured and compared with each other in both genders. Results: The IMT of the CCA was significantly thinner in women than in men (p = 0.012). Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, BMI, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, folic acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in women compared with men. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher serum levels of homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS, and lower serum levels of HDL-C were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with male sex. Multiple linear regression analysis further revealed that age, sex, and BMI were independently associated with CCA IMT. Conclusions: The IMT of the CCA was thinner in women than in men. Traditional vascular risk factors explain only a small amount of variance in multivariate regression models supporting the hypothesis that other behavioural, sex hormone-related or genetic factors, which have not been sufficiently explored so far, may play a role in the gender differences of IMT.

  3. Factors associated with gender difference in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, T.-Y.; Lu, C.-H.; Lin, T.-K.; Liou, C.-W.; Chuang, Y.-C.; Schminke, U.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the gender differences associated with a thinner intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) in women. Materials and methods: In a sample of 218 consecutive healthy volunteers comprising 110 men and 108 women, the IMT of the CCA was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, homocysteine, folic acid, uric acid, high sensitive C-reactive protein, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured and compared with each other in both genders. Results: The IMT of the CCA was significantly thinner in women than in men (p = 0.012). Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, BMI, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, folic acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in women compared with men. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher serum levels of homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS, and lower serum levels of HDL-C were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with male sex. Multiple linear regression analysis further revealed that age, sex, and BMI were independently associated with CCA IMT. Conclusions: The IMT of the CCA was thinner in women than in men. Traditional vascular risk factors explain only a small amount of variance in multivariate regression models supporting the hypothesis that other behavioural, sex hormone-related or genetic factors, which have not been sufficiently explored so far, may play a role in the gender differences of IMT.

  4. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is as good as carotid intima-media thickness of all carotid artery segments in improving prediction of coronary heart disease risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

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    Nambi, Vijay; Chambless, Lloyd; He, Max; Folsom, Aaron R; Mosley, Tom; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque information can improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction when added to traditional risk factors (TRF). However, obtaining adequate images of all carotid artery segments (A-CIMT) may be difficult. Of A-CIMT, the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is relatively more reliable and easier to measure. We evaluated whether CCA-IMT is comparable to A-CIMT when added to TRF and plaque information in improving CHD risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Ten-year CHD risk prediction models using TRF alone, TRF + A-CIMT + plaque, and TRF + CCA-IMT + plaque were developed for the overall cohort, men, and women. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC), per cent individuals reclassified, net reclassification index (NRI), and model calibration by the Grønnesby-Borgan test were estimated. There were 1722 incident CHD events in 12 576 individuals over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years. The AUC for TRF only, TRF + A-CIMT + plaque, and TRF + CCA-IMT + plaque models were 0.741, 0.754, and 0.753, respectively. Although there was some discordance when the CCA-IMT + plaque- and A-CIMT + plaque-based risk estimation was compared, the NRI and clinical NRI (NRI in the intermediate-risk group) when comparing the CIMT models with TRF-only model, per cent reclassified, and test for model calibration were not significantly different. Coronary heart disease risk prediction can be improved by adding A-CIMT + plaque or CCA-IMT + plaque information to TRF. Therefore, evaluating the carotid artery for plaque presence and measuring CCA-IMT, which is easier and more reliable than measuring A-CIMT, provide a good alternative to measuring A-CIMT for CHD risk prediction.

  5. Individual common carotid artery wall layer dimensions, but not carotid intima-media thickness, indicate increased cardiovascular risk in women with preeclampsia: an investigation using noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound.

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    Akhter, Tansim; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Marita; Naessen, Tord

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) during or after PE has not indicated any increased cardiovascular risk. We used high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) to estimate the individual common carotid artery IMTs in 55 women at PE diagnosis and in 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar stage. All were re-examined about 1 year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media, and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. PE was associated with a significantly thicker mean common carotid artery intima, thinner media, and higher I/M ratio than in normal pregnancy (mean I/M difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.25; Pwomen with PE were negatively affected during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum compared with women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk. Estimation of intima thickness and I/M ratio seem preferable to estimation of common carotid artery IMT in imaging cardiovascular risk in PE. Results from this pilot study warrant further confirmation.

  6. An Improved Approach for Accurate and Efficient Measurement of Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Ultrasound Images

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    Qiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid artery (CCA can serve as an important indicator for the assessment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. In this paper an improved approach for automatic IMT measurement with low complexity and high accuracy is presented. 100 ultrasound images from 100 patients were tested with the proposed approach. The ground truth (GT of the IMT was manually measured for six times and averaged, while the automatic segmented (AS IMT was computed by the algorithm proposed in this paper. The mean difference ± standard deviation between AS and GT IMT is 0.0231 ± 0.0348 mm, and the correlation coefficient between them is 0.9629. The computational time is 0.3223 s per image with MATLAB under Windows XP on an Intel Core 2 Duo CPU E7500 @2.93 GHz. The proposed algorithm has the potential to achieve real-time measurement under Visual Studio.

  7. Regression of the increased common carotid artery-intima media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism after thyroid hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Se-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Sun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Yong-Wook

    2009-01-01

    The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease and the beneficial effect of levothyroxine replacement in subclinical hypothyroidism are still under debate. The present study was designed to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increase in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (C-IMT) and whether thyroid hormone replacement can reverse this change in the C-IMT. Patients with newly-diagnosed subclinical (n=36) and overt (n=40) hypothyroidism and healthy euthyroid individuals (n=32) participated in this study. All the patients were examined for clinical characteristics, and the serum lipid levels and the C-IMT were measured. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had a C-IMT measurement after 18 months of levothyroxine replacement. There were meaningful differences in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels between patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The subjects with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism had a greater C-IMT compared with euthyroid controls (0.66+/- 0.10 and 0.70+/- 0.11 vs. 0.57+/- 0.08 mm, respectively; P replacement significantly decreased the C-IMT (0.67+/- 0.11 to 0.60+/- 0.10 mm; P = 0.021) and improved the lipid profile. Based on multiple regression analysis, the decrement in LDL-cholesterol was independently associated with the regression of the C-IMT. Subclinical hypothyroidism was closely related to an increased C-IMT. Thyroid hormone replacement resulted in regression of the increased C-IMT, which was attributed to the improvement in the lipid profile.

  8. Ultrasonic Measurement of Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Ahmad; Roudbari, Ali; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Babaei Jandaghi, Ali; Bani Jamali, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease. Its vascular complications can be characterized by arteriosclerosis formation in carotid arteries. Due to its delayed diagnosis resulting in more complications in Iran, it seems that screening diabetic patients is mandatory. The aim of this study was to compare the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study, which included 80 participants (40 diabetics and 40 non-diabetics). By using ultrasound, bilateral IMTs of the distal carotid were measured and the data were analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate regression tests in SPSS 14. The mean IMT was 0.97 in diabetic patients and 0.63 in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). Age and gender had significant positive effects on the increase of IMT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively for age and gender). Past medical history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in diabetes is associated significantly with an increase in IMT (P =0.019 and 0.027 respectively). Other confounding variables such as smoking, history of hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) in diabetic patients showed no significant relationship with the increase of IMT. Although measuring the IMT of the carotid artery by sonography is a useful tool for screening diabetic patients, more studies are needed for determining how to use these measurements in promoting the patients outcomes

  9. Comparison of common carotid artery intima-media thickness between Brazilian Euro-descendants and Afro-descendants with atherosclerosis risk factors.

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    Casella, Ivan Benaduce; Sotelo, Fabio José Bonafé; Yamazaki, Yumiko; Presti, Calógero; Vassoler, Alecxander; Melo, Henry Augusto Hoffmann

    2009-01-01

    To compare common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) between the two major Brazilian ethnic groups (those of African descent and those of European descent) among individuals with one or more risk factors for atherosclerotic disease. Two hundred and six patients with one or more risk factors for atherosclerotic disease were evaluated in a cross-sectional study in which their clinical, ethnic and Demographic characteristics were collected. All patients underwent duplex ultrasound examination of their carotid vessels to obtain IMT measurements. One hundred and fifty-three patients (74.3%) had a carotid IMT greater than 1.0 mm at one or more point of measurement in at least one common carotid artery. There was a significant correlation between older age and mean carotid wall thickness (R=0.479 / PBrazilian individuals are similar to those in previously described populations. No differences were observed between the two main Brazilian ethnic groups. Longitudinal studies are required for a better evaluation of the incidence, etiologic factors and evolution of carotid intimomedial thickening in this population.

  10. EVALUATION OF THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

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    A.B. Sugak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic diseases in adults are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, and its early signs can be stated by the thickening of intima-media complex of common carotid arteries (CCA. This symptom is detected during ultrasound examination in 49% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus, in 24% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and in 13% of children with juvenile spondylarthritis. Besides, 36% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus and 17% — with systemic type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis had structure changes of CCA wall. A dependence of these disorders on cholesterol and glucose levels in blood serum, overweight and Cushing syndrome, age, duration and activity of a disease, levels of ESR, C-reactive protein and white blood cells was not showed. Authors detected a correlation between the thickness of intima-media complex of CCA and hemostasis parameters.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, intima-media complex, ultrasound diagnostics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:64-69

  11. Measurement of intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries using ultrasound in patients with familial and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia and correlation of intima-media thickness to obesity.

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    Nafikudin, M; Nawawi, H; Muid, S; Annuar, R; Yusoff, K; Khalid, B A

    2003-12-01

    Ultrasonographic measurements of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid arteries (CCA) were taken in 50 patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and 57 patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia (NFH). The lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) of each patient were recorded. In FH patients, the IMT was significantly higher in overweight and elevated WHR subgroups compared to the normal with significant correlations between BMI and WHR to the IMT. In NFH patients, the IMT was significantly higher in the elevated WHR compared to the normal subgroup but the correlations between either BMI or WHR to IMT were insignificant. These suggest that the environmentally modified anthropometric indices may have an effect on atherosclerosis in genetically determined hypercholesterolaemia in FH patients.

  12. Automated radiofrequency-based US measurement of common carotid intima-media thickness in RA patients treated with synthetic vs synthetic and biologic DMARDs.

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    Naredo, Esperanza; Möller, Ingrid; Corrales, Alfonso; Bong, David A; Cobo-Ibáñez, Tatiana; Corominas, Hector; Garcia-Vivar, Ma Luz; Macarrón, Pilar; Navio, Teresa; Richi, Patricia; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Garrido, Jesús; Martínez-Hernández, David

    2013-02-01

    To compare the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) assessed with automated radiofrequency-based US in RA patients treated with synthetic vs synthetic and biologic DMARDs and controls. Ninety-four RA patients and 94 sex- and age-matched controls were prospectively recruited at seven centres. Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and co-morbidities, RA characteristics and therapy were recorded. Common carotid artery (CCA)-IMT was assessed in RA patients and controls with automated radiofrequency-based US by the same investigator at each centre. Forty-five (47.9%) RA patients had been treated with synthetic DMARDs and 49 (52.1%) with synthetic and biologic DMARDs. There were no significant differences between the RA patients and controls in demographics, CV co-morbidities and CV disease. There were significantly more smokers among RA patients treated with synthetic and biologic DMARDs (P = 0.036). Disease duration and duration of CS and synthetic DMARD therapy was significantly longer in RA patients treated with synthetic and biologic DMARDs (P radiofrequency-based measurement of CCA-IMT can discriminate between RA patients treated with synthetic DMARDs vs RA patients treated with synthetic and biologic DMARDs.

  13. Comparing carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes between patients with and without retinopathy

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    Naroi Nejad M

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy seems to be associated with increased intima-media thickness of carotid arteries in T2DM. It may be a common denominator of pathogene-sis of microvascular complications and atherosclerosis in T2DM. Evaluations of carotid arteries are to be done by non-invasive methods such as color Doppler sonography for screening and preventing prospective cereberovascular accidents in patients with diabetic retinopathy, especially proliferative retinopathy, in routine ophthalmological examination of patients with T2DM.

  14. Relationship between leukoaraiosis, carotid intima-media thickness and intima-media thickness variability: Preliminary results

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    Lucatelli, Pierleone [University of Rome la Sapienza, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Raz, Eytan [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, Department of Radiology, di Cagliari - Polo di Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Department of Radiology, Cagliari (Italy); Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari - Polo di Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 1215 Lee Street-New Hospital, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); King, Kevin S. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Molinari, Filippo [Politecnico di Torino, Biolab, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Ikeda, Nobutaka [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suri, Jasjit S. [AtheroPoint trademark LLC, Diagnostic and Monitoring Division, Roseville, CA (United States); University of Idaho, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To assess the relationship between the degree of leukoaraiosis (LA), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and intima-media thickness variability (IMTV). Sixty-one consecutive patients, who underwent a brain MRI examination and a carotid artery ultrasound, were included in this retrospective study, which conformed with the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was waived. In each patient, right/left carotid arteries and brain hemispheres were assessed using automated software for IMT, IMTV and LA volume. The mean hemispheric LA volume was 2,224 mm{sup 3} (SD 2,702 mm{sup 3}) and there was no statistically significant difference in LA volume between the right and left hemispheres (p value = 0.628). The mean IMT and IMTV values were 0.866 mm (SD 0.170) and 0.143 mm (SD 0.100), respectively, without significant differences between the right and left sides (p values 0.733 and 0.098, respectively). The correlation coefficient between IMTV and LA volume was 0.41 (p value = 0.0001), and 0.246 (p value = 0.074) between IMT and LA volume. IMTV significantly correlates with LA volume. Further studies are warranted to verify whether this parameter can be used clinically as a marker of cerebrovascular risk. (orig.)

  15. Relationship Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Using Ultrasonography and Diagnostic Indices of Metabolic Syndrome

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    Ko, Kyung Sun; Heo, Kyung Hwa; Won, Yong Lim; Kim, Ki Woong [Center for Occupational Disease Reserach, Occupational Safety and Health Research Insurance, KOSHA, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the association between diagnostic indices of metabolic syndrome(MetS) with carotid intima-media thickness using ultrasonography. The participants in the study were 315 male employees without carotid atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disease. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical characteristics were done using each specific equipment and the NCEP-ATP III criteria were used to define MetS. They were examined by B-mode ultrasound to measure the carotid intima-media thickness(carotid IMT) at the near and far walls of common carotid and bifurcation(bulb). The mean carotid IMT was 0.739{+-}0.137 mm and it's thickness significantly increased with the increase in age. Also, amounts of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting glucose were significantly increased with the increase in age. Carotid IMT were significantly correlated with BMI(r=0.170, p=0.004), systolic(r=0.148, p=0.011) and diastolic blood pressure(r=0.123, p=0.036) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-0.164, p=0.005). On multiple logistic regression analysis for the diagnostic indices of MetS, carotid IMT were significantly associated with blood pressure(OR=4.220, p<0.01) and MetS(OR=1.301, p<0.05). The results indicate that blood pressure and MetS are important risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis.

  16. PREDICTORS OF CAROTID INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN OBESE ADOLESCENTS

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    Dusan Paripovic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to assess cardiovascular risk factors that may predict increased carotid intima media thickness (cIMT in obese children and adolescents. Children and adolescents were included in the cross-sectional study if they were aged 9-19 years and had primary obesity. Besides anthropometric and biochemical measurements, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, measurement of carotid intima media thickness and exercise stress test were performed. We included 103 obese patients and divided them according to the ambulatory blood pressure findings in two groups: obese patients with and without ambulatory hypertension. There were 49 obese patients with and 54 without ambulatory hypertension Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation of cIMT with age (r = 0.334, p= 0.001, body mass index (r = 0.288, p = 0.004, waist circumference (r = 0.352, p = 0.000, hip circumference (r = 0.288, p = 0.004, night-time systolic blood pressure (r = 0.226, p = 0.027, and peak diastolic blood pressure on exercise test (r = 0.241, p = 0.018. In a stepwise model, age, waist circumference and peak diastolic blood pressure on exercise test were independent predictors of cIMT.

  17. Does carotid intima-media thickness have relationship with polycystic ovary syndrome?

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    Zahra Allameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common reproductive endocrine disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and metabolic disturbances and a genetically heterogeneous disease. Intima-media thickness (IMT is an indicator of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the relation between IMT and PCOS in women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 44 PCOS patients and 44 healthy women. Data collection included lipid profiles, blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, and common and internal IMT of carotid artery which were measured in studied subjects. IMT was measured by a radiologist using a linear 12 MHz ultrasound probe (LOGIC S6, GE in carotid setting. Results: IMT of common carotid artery (56.8 ΁ 7.6 in cases versus 49.8 ΁ 7.3 in controls, internal carotid artery (56.9 ΁ 6.03 in cases versus 49.6 ΁ 6.9 in controls, and both common and internal carotid artery (56.6 ΁ 6.7 in cases versus 49.7 ΁ 6.9 in controls were significantly higher in PCOS patients than healthy women (P < 0.001. Conclusions: In summary, results demonstrated that carotid artery thickness as a risk for premature atherosclerosis in patients with PCOS is higher than healthy subjects. And hence care and monitoring of PCOS women with these risk factors sounds to be important and necessary.

  18. Effect of radioactive iodine therapy on carotid intima media thickness in patients with hyperthyroidism.

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    Şanal, Bekir; Işık, İlknur; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kucur, Cüneyt; Can, Fatma; Kilit, Türkan Paşalı; Kahraman, Cüneyt; Kaçar, Emre; Koçak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in patients with thyrotoxicosis who received radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment. This study was planned to be conducted with two different groups of people. There were 87 patients in the patient group and 98 controls. Participants were evaluated for atherosclerosis risk factors. Mean carotid IMT was measured from three consecutive traces at the common carotid artery bifurcation. The mean carotid IMT was 0.81 ± 0.20 in patient group and this was higher than the controls (0.68 ± 0.19) (p treatment group (p = 0.029). In patients with only HT, the data of the two groups showed a significant difference, with the average IMT being higher in the patient group than that of the control group (p: 0.011). RAI used in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis increases the IMT of carotid artery independent of age and sex. This treatment yields better results with higher doses, and this effect is more marked in patients with HT. Hence, we believe that it is necessary to calculate the dose properly for hyperthyroid cases in which treatment with RAI is planned. In particular, the patients with HT need to be treated with the minimum possible dose. Further, carotid arteries should be evaluated with US following RAI treatment.

  19. Periodontal Microbiota and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

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    Desvarieux, Moïse; Demmer, Ryan T.; Rundek, Tatjana; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Jacobs, David R.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic infections, including periodontal infections, may predispose to cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between periodontal microbiota and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Of 1056 persons (age 69±9 years) with no history of stroke or myocardial infarction enrolled in the Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST), we analyzed 657 dentate subjects. Among these subjects, 4561 subgingival plaque samples were collected (average of 7 samples/subject) and quantitatively assessed for 11 known periodontal bacteria by DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization. Extensive in-person cardiovascular risk factor measurements, a carotid scan with high-resolution B-mode ultrasound, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein values were obtained. In 3 separate analyses, mean carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) was regressed on tertiles of (1) burden of all bacteria assessed, (2) burden of bacteria causative of periodontal disease (etiologic bacterial burden), and (3) the relative predominance of causative/over other bacteria in the subgingival plaque. All analyses were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and LDL and HDL cholesterol. Overall periodontal bacterial burden was related to carotid IMT. This relationship was specific to causative bacterial burden and the dominance of etiologic bacteria in the observed microbiological niche. Adjusted mean IMT values across tertiles of etiologic bacterial dominance were 0.84, 0.85, and 0.88 (P=0.002). Similarly, white blood cell values increased across tertiles of etiologic bacterial burden from 5.57 to 6.09 and 6.03 cells × 109/L (P=0.01). C-reactive protein values were unrelated to periodontal microbial status (P=0.82). Conclusions Our data provide evidence of a direct relationship between periodontal microbiology and subclinical atherosclerosis. This relationship exists independent

  20. Cigarette smoking in military pilots and intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries

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    Jovelić Stojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that smoking is associated with an increase in arterial wall thickness. However, most studies of this problem have been undertaken in age and sex heterogeneous groups, as well as in patients with already present other conventional risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cigarette smoking on arterial wall thickness of the common carotid artery in asymptomatic pilots. Methods. The imaging of intima−media thickness of the posterior wall of the distal 1 cm of both common carotid arteries was performed using a B mode ultrasound device, in 39 pilots (37.05 ± 6.66 years, for whom smoking was the single cardiovascular risk factor. Comparisons were made with 49 non-smokers (35.12 ± 7.39 years. Results. The posterior walls of both common carotid arteries were thicker in smokers (left, p < 0.05; right, p > 0,05. Intima-media thickness was significantly lower on the right side than on the left side in both smokers and nonsmokers (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Cigarette smoking as the single cardiovascular risk factor was associated with the wall thickness of the carotid arteries in our study. This finding indicated that early atherosclerosis was already present in pilots - smokers entering middle age.

  1. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness and brain infarction : the Etude du Profil Génétique de l'Infarctus Cérébral (GENIC) case-control study. The GENIC Investigators.

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    Touboul, P J; Elbaz, A; Koller, C; Lucas, C; Adraï, V; Chédru, F; Amarenco, P

    2000-07-18

    BACKGROUND-The use of intima-media thickness (IMT) as an outcome measure in observational studies and intervention trials relies on the view that it reflects early stages of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. There is little knowledge concerning the relation between IMT and brain infarction (BI). METHODS AND RESULTS-We investigated the relation of IMT with BI and its subtypes in 470 cases and 463 controls. Cases with BI proven by MRI were consecutively recruited and classified into subtypes by cause of BI. Controls were recruited among individuals hospitalized at the same institutions and matched for age, sex, and center. IMT was measured at the far wall of both common carotid arteries (CCA) using an automatic detection system. Adventitia-to-adventitia diameters and CCA-IMT were measured on transverse views; lumen diameter was computed using these measures. Mean (+/-SEM) CCA-IMT was higher in cases (0.797+/-0.006 mm) than in controls (0.735+/-0.006 mm; P<0. 0001). This difference remained after adjustment for lumen diameter and when analyses were restricted to subjects free of previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular history. The difference in CCA-IMT between cases and controls was significant in the main subtypes. The risk of BI increased continuously with increasing CCA-IMT. The odds ratio per SD increase (0.150 mm) was 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 2.15); adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors slightly attenuated this relation (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS-An increased CCA-IMT was associated with BI, both overall and in the main subtypes. An increased IMT may help select patients at high risk for BI.

  2. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    AS in a prospective population-based study. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A random sample of participants (age, 45-68 years) in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study underwent B-mode ultrasound with measurements of IMT and the presence of plaque in the common carotid artery (n=5079). Potential risk factors...

  3. Evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness in children with migraine: a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazoglu, Hatice Gamze; Vurdem, Umit Erkan; Arslan, Alev; Uytun, Salih

    2016-10-01

    Migraine is a commonly seen neurovascular disorder during childhood. Inflammation induced by the activation of cytokines and neuropeptides is implied in its pathophysiology. There is an association between inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients with migraine. In addition, there is a strong correlation between early atherosclerotic wall lesions and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The study population consisted of 57 migraine patients aged 5-17 years, as well as 47 healthy children who served as the control group. Those migraine patients who were not receiving any medications at the interictal period were compared to healthy controls in terms of their measured lipid levels, thyroid function, vitamin B12 levels, serum iron levels, iron binding capacity, complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) scores, which may comprise risk factors for atherosclerosis. When children in the migraine and control groups were compared in terms of those risk factors that are known to be related to vascular changes, no significant differences were found. However, a significant difference was detected in CIMT values (P < 0.05). Atherosclerosis commences in childhood, and there is a long period of time before the onset of ischemic symptoms occurs. In children with migraine, an evaluation of CIMT can be used as a non-invasive imaging modality to detect atherosclerosis, which develops in the context of chronic inflammation. In this way, measures to reduce morbidity and mortality, which may result from cardiovascular diseases, can be implemented.

  4. Echolucency of the carotid artery intima-media complex and intima-media thickness have different cardiovascular risk factor relationships: the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Xue, Xiaonan; Mack, Wendy J; Anastos, Kathryn; Lazar, Jason M; Selzer, Robert H; Shircore, Anne M; Plankey, Michael; Tien, Phyllis; Cohen, Mardge; Gange, Stephen J; Hodis, Howard N; Kaplan, Robert C

    2015-02-19

    Adults infected with HIV have increased atherosclerosis potentially associated with both HIV and non-HIV associated factors. We characterized risk factors for atherosclerosis as measured by noninvasive vascular imaging. We used B-mode ultrasound to examine levels and correlates of echogenicity and vessel wall thickness of the carotid artery intima-media complex in 1282 HIV-infected and 510 HIV-uninfected women of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Levels of gray scale median (GSM, a measure of echogenicity) did not vary between HIV infection groups. In both groups, smokers had increased GSM, whereas age, diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and high BMI were associated with lower (rather than higher) GSM. Each of these non-lipid CVD risk factors, especially age and blood pressure, was also associated with higher levels of carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT). Higher serum triglyceride levels were associated with lower GSM in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups. Additional lipid risk factors for low GSM including high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels were identified in HIV uninfected but not in HIV infected women. In contrast to findings for GSM, among the lipid parameters only LDL cholesterol level had an association with cIMT, which was observed only in the HIV uninfected group. Lipid and non-lipid risk factor associations with echolucency of the carotid artery and the thickness of the common carotid artery intima-media layer suggest that these measures capture different aspects of atherosclerosis. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Carotid intima-media thickness in spondyloarthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Accelerated atherosclerosis has become a major problem in rheumatic inflammatory disease. The aim here was to analyze carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in spondyloarthritis (SpA patients and correlate this with clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional analytical study at Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic, Evangelical University Hospital, Curitiba. METHODS IMTs (measured using Doppler ultrasonography of 36 SpA patients were compared with controls. The IMT in SpA patients was associated with inflammatory markers, like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI; and with clinical parameters, like axial or peripheral involvement, dactylitis, HLA B27, uveitis occurrence, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI and lipid profile. RESULTS The mean IMT in SpA patients was 0.72 ± 0.21 mm; in controls, 0.57 ± 0.13 mm (P = 0.0007. There were no associations with ESR, CRP, BASDAI or clinical data. In univariate analysis, greater IMT was seen in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.014; Pearson R = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.06 to 0.65; higher triglycerides (P = 0.02; Spearman R = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.64; and older age (P = 0.0014; Pearson R 0.51; 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.72. CONCLUSION SpA patients have a higher degree of subclinical atherosclerosis than in controls, thus supporting clinical evidence of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients.

  6. [Lack of association between LDL-cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Elisa; Salvati, Maria Antonietta; Ferro, Yvelise; De Bonis, Daniele; Gorgone, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the association between LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the elderly is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue using carotid intima-media thickness as a marker of cardiovascular disease. Women aged 35-79 years were consecutively enrolled in the study. They underwent a questionnaire to assess cardiovascular disease, a clinical examination to assess blood pressure and anthropometric variables, a biochemical evaluation of lipid profile and glucose, and an ultrasound evaluation of carotid arteries. The study population was divided into two age groups (≤65 years and >65 years), and each group was then divided into two subgroups according to LDL-C level (normal and high). A Student's t-test was used to compare mean values between groups, and a chi square test was used to compare the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. A lack of association between LDL-C and carotid intima-media thickness was observed in subjects aged >65 years, with the intima-media thickness average being similar between those with and without high LDL-C. Conversely, a significant difference in carotid intima-media thickness was observed among adults with and without high LDL-C level. Our findings, similar to those obtained in other epidemiological studies, provide the rationale for revising the use of statins in elderly women without cardiovascular disease.

  7. Increased carotid intima thickness and decreased media thickness in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: an investigation by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D; Akhter, T; Nordmark, G; Rönnblom, L; Naessen, T

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether high-frequency ultrasound (US) yielding separate assessments of intima and media thickness gives additional information about the vascular morphology compared with the total common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Using a 22 MHz US instrument, we determined the near-wall CCA-IMT, the intima and media layers, and the intima/media (I/M) ratio in 47 premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 20 healthy women, and 17 postmenopausal women (mean ages 37, 40, and 69 years, respectively). In SLE, the carotid intima was thicker (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 mm), the media thinner (0.45 ± 0.12 vs. 0.68 ± 0.24 mm), the I/M ratio higher (0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.20 ± 0.07) (all p women (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.14 ± 0.03 mm, p media, and a higher I/M ratio in women with SLE compared to healthy controls and indicated an artery wall status in SLE comparable to 30-years-older healthy women. Separate estimates of carotid intima and media layers may be preferable to CCA-IMT in SLE patients.

  8. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of oxcarbazepine treatment on serum lipids and carotid intima media thickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Uluç; Doğan, Mustafa

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the carotid intima media thickness and serum lipids in pediatric patients with epilepsy treated with oxcarbazepine. The study included 21 pediatric epileptic and 22 healthy children. Intima media thickness and fasting lipid profile were assessed. Although the median value of total cholesterol was in normal limits in the oxcarbazepine group, it was significantly higher when compared with the control group. We did not observe any differences regarding triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima media thickness. We suggest that oxcarbazepine treatment in children has a minor effect on serum lipids and it does not seem to have an atherogenic effect. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness and its associations with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular events. Few studies in Africa have evaluated CIMT and its associations in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study measured CIMT in a sample of mainly black South African ...

  11. Manual B-mode versus automated radio-frequency carotid intima-media thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Soner; Plantinga, Yvonne; Dijk, Joke M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.; Algra, N. N.; Doevendans, P. A.; Eikelboom, C.; van der Graaf, Y.; Grobbee, E.; Kappelle, L. J.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F. L.; Rutten, G. E. H. M.; Visseren, F. L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) serves as an indicator of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. Manual measurements of B-mode ultrasound images are the most applied method. Automated measurements with radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound have been suggested as an alternative. The aim of this

  12. Carotid intima-media thickness in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Almdal, Thomas P; Carstensen, Bendix

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of carotid intima-media thickness (carotid IMT) as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease is increasing and the method has now also been applied in several trials investigating patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Even though knowledge about methodology is of highest...... importance in order to make accurate power calculations and analyses of results, no reproducibility studies have been performed in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the variability of the measurement of carotid IMT in individuals with and without T2D. METHODS: We used B...

  13. Insulin sensitivity and carotid intima-media thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Natali, Andrea; Dekker, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Despite a wealth of experimental data in animal models, the independent association of insulin resistance with early carotid atherosclerosis in man has not been demonstrated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied a European cohort of 525 men and 655 women (mean age, 44±8 years) free of conditions known...... to affect carotid wall (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia). All subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test, a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (M/I as a measure of insulin sensitivity), and B-mode carotid ultrasound. In 833 participants (380 men), the carotid ultrasound was repeated...

  14. Comparison of semi-automated and manual measurements of carotid intima-media thickening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Ananey, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickening (CIMT) is a marker of both arteriosclerotic and atherosclerotic risks. Technological advances have semiautomated CIMT image acquisition and quantification. Studies comparing manual and automated methods have yielded conflicting results possibly due to plaque inclusion in measurements. Low atherosclerotic risk subjects (n = 126) were recruited to minimise the effect of focal atherosclerotic lesions on CIMT variability. CIMT was assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound (Philips HDX7E, Phillips, UK) images of the common carotid artery using both manual and semiautomated methods (QLAB, Phillips, UK). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the mean differences of paired measurements (Bland-Altman method) were used to compare both methodologies. The ICC of manual (0.547 ± 0.095 mm) and automated (0.524 ± 0.068 mm) methods was R = 0.74 and an absolute mean bias ± SD of 0.023 ± 0.052 mm was observed. Interobserver and intraobserver ICC were greater for automated (R = 0.94 and 0.99) compared to manual (R = 0.72 and 0.88) methods. Although not considered to be clinically significant, manual measurements yielded higher values compared to automated measurements. Automated measurements were more reproducible and showed lower interobserver variation compared to manual measurements. These results offer important considerations for large epidemiological studies.

  15. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with head and neck irradiation for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, N.M.C.; Lam, W.W.M.; Chook, P.; Woo, K.S.; Liu, K.H.; Leung, S.F.; Wong, K.S.; Metreweli, C

    2002-07-01

    AIM: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown to be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients at risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to examine the IMT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy, and compared them with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one NPC patients (aged between 39 and 69 years) and a group of 51 age-and sex-matched controls were studied by ultrasound. The IMT at the far wall of the common carotid artery was measured three times and the average value taken in each subject. The IMT of both groups were compared. Risk factors for IMT thickness, including hypertension, smoking, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, history of cerebrovascular accidents and cardiovascular disease, were also studied. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT of patients in the NPC group (2.2+/-1.5 mm) was statistically greater than that in normal controls (0.7+/-0.15 mm) (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the IMT in the right and left common carotid arteries within each group of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patients with irradiation have increased arterial IMT. As they are asymptomatic the clinical relevance is not clear. So, N.M.C. et al. (2002)

  16. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with head and neck irradiation for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, N.M.C.; Lam, W.W.M.; Chook, P.; Woo, K.S.; Liu, K.H.; Leung, S.F.; Wong, K.S.; Metreweli, C.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown to be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients at risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to examine the IMT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy, and compared them with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one NPC patients (aged between 39 and 69 years) and a group of 51 age-and sex-matched controls were studied by ultrasound. The IMT at the far wall of the common carotid artery was measured three times and the average value taken in each subject. The IMT of both groups were compared. Risk factors for IMT thickness, including hypertension, smoking, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, history of cerebrovascular accidents and cardiovascular disease, were also studied. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT of patients in the NPC group (2.2+/-1.5 mm) was statistically greater than that in normal controls (0.7+/-0.15 mm) (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the IMT in the right and left common carotid arteries within each group of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patients with irradiation have increased arterial IMT. As they are asymptomatic the clinical relevance is not clear. So, N.M.C. et al. (2002)

  17. Radiation-induced bilateral common carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Yoku; Tashiro, Kunio; Abe, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    A case of radiation-induced bilateral common carotid artery stenosis is reported. This 60 years old housewife was hospitalized in 1982 because of sudden onset of mild left hemiparesis. Twenty-five years ago, she underwent radiation therapy of approximately 5,000 rads to the anterior cervical region because of thyroid cancer. Angiograms in 1982 revealed bilateral common carotid artery stenosis, especially in the right common carotid artery, the legion of which were included within the field of radiation performed in 1952. Right thromboendarterectomy was performed in 1983. At operation, slight periarterial fibrosis with calcified arteriosclerotic change was found, and dissection between the thickened intima and the media was not so difficult. Histological change of resected thromboendarterium was similar to the one observed in the pure arteriosclerotic disease. (author)

  18. Association of hyperandrogenemic and metabolic phenotype with carotid intima-media thickness in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vryonidou, Andromachi; Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Tavridou, Anna; Terzi, Thomais; Loi, Vasiliki; Vatalas, Ioannis-Anastasios; Batakis, Nikolaos; Phenekos, Constantinos; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, Amalia

    2005-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrinopathy of women of reproductive age, is associated with the early appearance of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, premature atherosclerosis of the carotid artery has not yet been demonstrated in young women with PCOS. Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is considered an easy and reliable index of subclinical atherosclerosis, which is predictive of subsequent myocardial infarction and stroke. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of PCOS and the participation of the hyperandrogenemic and metabolic pattern, we measured carotid IMT by B-mode ultrasound as well as hormonal and several cardiovascular disease-associated parameters in 75 young women with PCOS and 55 healthy, age- and body mass index-matched women. The PCOS women had significantly increased carotid IMT (0.58 vs. 0.47 mm, P PCOS status, age, body mass index, and parental history of coronary heart disease were strong positive predictors of carotid IMT, whereas dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was a strong negative predictor. In PCOS patients lower delta4-androstenedione and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were additionally strong positive predictors of carotid IMT, whereas in control women only total cholesterol was the additional positive predictor of carotid IMT. In conclusion, young women with PCOS have an early increase of cardiovascular risk factors and greater carotid IMT, both of which may be responsible for subclinical atherosclerosis. The hyperandrogenemic phenotype of the syndrome may attenuate the consequences of the dysmetabolic phenotype on the vascular wall.

  19. Carotid intima-media thickness in children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheissari, A; Sirous, M; Hajzargarbashi, T; Kelishadi, R; Merrikhi, A; Azhir, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are common in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. There is scarce data on carotid and bulb intima-media thickness (IMT-C and IMT-B) as an early marker of atherosclerosis and related factors in children on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since we did not have enough information about our patients, this study was carried on all ESRD children (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) in a referral center. Data was collected from 16 ESRD children under 18 years with seven patients on PD and nine on HD. Lab tests and biochemical parameters including serum von Willebrand factor (vWF), homocystein, apo lipoprotein A, apo lipoprotein B and quantitative CRP were measured in fasting patients just before initiating dialysis. IMT-C and IMT-B were measured by gray scale ultrasound using 7.5 MHZ probe. The mean of age was 12.76+/-4.5 years. The mean duration of dialysis in HD and PD patients were not significantly different; 11.88+/-3.25 months and 10.14+/-2.4 months respectively. Mean of systolic blood pressure in HD group was significantly higher than PD group, 135.55+/-25.54 mmHg versus 121.42+/-12.14 mmHg, Phomocystein and IMT-C. However, we could not demonstrate any difference between IMT-B in case and control group. After adjusting for age, partial correlation showed significant correlation between IMT-C and following factors: N-PTH and serum alkaline phosphatase. Longitudinal studies with large size samples are needed to clarify the contributing factors with intima-media thickness in ESRD children.

  20. Vitamin D, carotid intima-media thickness and bone structure in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winckler, Karoline; Tarnow, Lise; Lundby-Christensen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) still have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between total (25-hydroxy vitamin D (25...... of diabetes 12±6 years), including 294 patients (71%) treated with insulin. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness (carotid artery distensibility coefficient (DC) and Young's elastic modulus (YEM)) were measured by ultrasound scan as indicators of CVD. Bone health was assessed by bone...

  1. Carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of aortas in normotensive children of hypertensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Sahin, Fezan Mutlu; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    A significant correlation between hypertension history and high blood pressure has been observed with regard to age, race and gender. Investigating carotid intima-media thickness and aortic stiffness prior to the development of hypertension in children of hypertensive parents enabled us to evaluate these patients for subclinical atherosclerosis. We compared carotid intima-media thickness, aortic strain, distensibility, stiffness indices and elastic modulus in 67 normotensive children whose parents had a diagnosis of essential hypertension and 39 normotensive children with no parental history of hypertension. Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, average blood pressure and pulse pressure (P>0.05), systolic blood pressures were higher among patients 15 years and older in the study group. No significant differences were noted between the control and study groups regarding interventricular septal thickness, left-ventricular posterior wall thickness, left-ventricular systolic and diastolic diameter and aortic annulus diameter (P>0.05). The left atrium diameter was larger in the study group compared with that in the control group, mainly because of the values of the 15-year-old and older children (P=0.01). The mean, maximum and minimum values of carotid intima-media thickness were significantly different in the study group compared with the control group among all age groups (Pchildren of hypertensive parents compared with the control group (P=0.014, P=0.001, respectively). Although there were no differences between the study and control groups regarding aortic strain, aortic distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness indices (P>0.05), aortic distensibility was lower, and aortic stiffness indices were higher among children 15 years and older in the study group. An increase in the carotid intima-media thickness in all age groups and a decrease in aortic elastic properties in

  2. Association between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness in prepubertal Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazolla, Fernanda Mussi; Neves Bordallo, Maria Alice; Madeira, Isabel Rey; de Miranda Carvalho, Cecilia Noronha; Vieira Monteiro, Alexandra Maria; Pinheiro Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina; Borges, Marcos Antonio; Collett-Solberg, Paulo Ferrez; Muniz, Bruna Moreira; de Oliveira, Cecilia Lacroix; Pinheiro, Suellen Martins; de Queiroz Ribeiro, Rebeca Mathias

    2015-05-01

    Early exposure to cardiovascular risk factors creates a chronic inflammatory state that could damage the endothelium followed by thickening of the carotid intima-media. To investigate the association of cardiovascular risk factors and thickening of the carotid intima. Media in prepubertal children. In this cross-sectional study, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 129 prepubertal children aged from 5 to 10 year. Association was assessed by simple and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In simple logistic regression analyses, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were positively associated with increased left, right, and average cIMT, whereas diastolic blood pressure was positively associated only with increased left and average cIMT (p<0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses increased left cIMT was positively associated to BMI z-score and SBP, and increased average cIMT was only positively associated to SBP (p<0.05). BMI z-score and SBP were the strongest risk factors for increased cIMT.

  3. Childhood family psychosocial environment and carotid intima media thickness: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Taylor, Shelley E; Polak, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Aude; Kalra, Preety; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about whether the childhood family psychosocial environment (characterized by cold, unaffectionate interactions, conflict, aggression, neglect and/or low nurturance) affects coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to evaluate associations of childhood family psychosocial environment with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. The study population included 2659 CARDIA study participants, aged 37-52 years. Childhood family psychosocial environment was measured using a risky family questionnaire via self-report. Carotid IMT was calculated using the average of 20 measurements of mean common carotid, bulb and internal carotid IMT, assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images. Utilizing linear regression analyses adjusted for age, a 1-unit (range 0-21) increase in risky family score was associated with 0.0036 (95% CI: 0.0006,0.0066 mm) and 0.0020 (95% CI: 0.0002,0.0038) mm increase in mean IMT in white males and females, respectively. Formal mediation analyses and covariate adjustments suggested childhood socioeconomic position and smoking may be important mechanisms in white males and females, as well as education and depressive symptomatology in white males. No associations were found in black participants. Formal statistical tests for interaction between risky family score and sex, and between risky family score and race/ethnicity, demonstrated borderline evidence of interactions for both sex (p = 0.12) and race/ethnicity (p = 0.14) with risky family score for associations with mean IMT. In conclusion, childhood family psychosocial environment was positively associated with IMT in white participants, with little evidence of association in black participants. Mechanisms in white participants may include potential negative impacts of socioeconomic constraints on parenting quality, potentially influencing offspring's cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), socioeconomic position (e

  4. Vitamin D modulates the association of circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 with carotid artery intima-media thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameri, P.; Canepa, M.; Fabbi, P.; Leoncini, G.; Milaneschi, Y.; Mussap, M.; AlGhatrif, M.; Balbi, M.; Viazzi, F.; Murialdo, G.; Pontremoli, R.; Brunelli, C.; Ferrucci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Experimental evidence indicates that circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) counteracts vascular aging and atherosclerosis, for which increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker. Yet, IGF-1 concentrations have been inconsistently associated with carotid IMT

  5. Completeness of Carotid Intima Media Thickness Measurements Depends on Body Composition: The RADIANCE 1 and 2 trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Soner; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Grobbee, E. Diederick; Kastelein, John J. P.; Shear, Charles L.; Evans, Gregory W.; Visseren, Frank L.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) differ considerably with regard to the inclusion of the number of carotid segments and angles used. Detailed information on the completeness of CIMT information is often lacking in published reports, and at most, overall

  6. Triglycerides and carotid intima-media thickness in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batluk, Jana; Leonards, Christopher O; Grittner, Ulrike; Lange, Kristin Sophie; Schreiber, Stephan J; Endres, Matthias; Ebinger, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is an established marker for atherosclerosis. The role of triglycerides in CCA-IMT remains controversial. We sought to determine if elevated fasting and post-challenge triglycerides are associated with CCA-IMT. All acute ischemic stroke patients who participated in the Berlin "Cream & Sugar" study in the Charité Virchow and Charité Mitte Campuses between January 2009 and January 2014 and underwent carotid artery ultrasound studies were eligible for inclusion. A combined oral glucose and triglyceride tolerance test was performed 3-7 days after first ever ischemic stroke. Patients were classified according to triglyceride metabolism-namely, (1) patients reaching a maximum triglyceride levels 3 h post-challenge ("fast metabolizers," n = 37), (2) patients with increasing triglycerides 4 (medium metabolizers, n = 64), and (3) 5 h post-challenge ("slow metabolizers," n = 44; 13 missing). We included 158 patients (34% female; mean age 63 years, SD 14). Absolute non-fasting triglyceride levels were positively associated with CCA-IMT. A final multiple regression model revealed that older age, more severe strokes, and higher levels of fasting triglycerides were significantly and independently associated with higher mean CCA-IMT. Older age, higher waist-to-hip ratio, and higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone were independently associated with higher maximum CCA-IMT. Fasting triglycerides but not post-challenge triglycerides associate with CCA-IMT. An oral fat challenge may not add information on atherosclerotic status in ischemic stroke patients. The Berlin "Cream & Sugar" study is registered with EudraCT (2009-010356-97) and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01378468). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pregnancy Loss and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartasanchez, Sandra A; Flores-Torres, Mario; Monge, Adriana; Yunes, Elsa; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Colaci, Daniela; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martin

    2018-01-13

    Cardiovascular disease in women often develops without conventional risk factors. Prenatal loss is a common pregnancy outcome that may result in physiological changes can increase the potential future risk of cardiovascular disease. Insufficient information exists regarding the impact of pregnancy loss on early markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Cross-sectional analysis of 1767 disease-free women from the MTC (Mexican Teachers' Cohort) who had been pregnant was used to evaluate the relationship between pregnancy loss and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Participants responded to a questionnaire regarding their reproductive history, risk factors, and medical conditions. We defined pregnancy loss as history of miscarriage and/or stillbirth. Trained neurologists measured IMT using ultrasound. We log-transformed IMT and defined subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (SCA) as IMT ≥0.8 mm and/or plaque. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to assess the relation of pregnancy loss, IMT, and SCA. The mean age of participants was 49.8±5.1 years. The prevalence of pregnancy loss was 22%, and we observed SCA in 23% of participants. Comparing participants who reported a pregnancy loss and those who did not, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for SCA was 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.06). Women who experienced a stillbirth had 2.32 higher odds (95% confidence interval, 1.03-5.21) of SCA than those who did not. Mean IMT appeared to be higher in women who reported a pregnancy loss relative to those who did not; nevertheless, this was not statistically significant. Pregnancy loss could be linked to cardiovascular disease later in life. The key findings of our study await confirmation and further investigation of the potential underlying mechanisms for this association is required. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Exposure to Violence and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Torres, Mario H; Lynch, Rebekka; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Yunes, Elsa; Monge, Adriana; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Lajous, Martín

    2017-08-17

    Violence against women has become a global public health threat. Data on the potential impact of exposure to violence on cardiovascular disease are scarce. We evaluated the association between exposure to violence and subclinical cardiovascular disease in 634 disease-free women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort who responded to violence-related items from the Life Stressor Checklist and underwent measures of carotid artery intima-media thickness in 2012 and 2013. We defined exposure to violence as having ever been exposed to physical and/or sexual violence. Intima-media thickness was log-transformed, and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as intima-media thickness ≥0.8 mm or plaque. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for several potential confounders. Mean age was 48.9±4.3 years. Close to 40% of women reported past exposure to violence. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 7.1%, and prevalence of physical violence was 23.5% (7.7% reported both sexual and physical violence). Relative to women with no history of violence, exposure to violence was associated with higher intima-media thickness (adjusted mean percentage difference=2.4%; 95% confidence interval 0.5, 4.3) and subclinical atherosclerosis (adjusted odds ratio=1.60; 95% confidence interval 1.10, 2.32). The association was stronger for exposure to physical violence, especially by mugging or physical assault by a stranger (adjusted mean % difference=4.6%; 95% confidence interval 1.8, 7.5, and odds ratio of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis=2.06; 95% confidence interval 1.22, 3.49). Exposure to violence, and in particular assault by a stranger, was strongly associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in Mexican middle-aged women. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Endothelial dysfunction but not increased carotid intima-media thickness in young European women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Campo, Sebastiano; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Tondi, Paolo; Campo, Vincenzo; Flex, Andrea; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Santoliquido, Angelo

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic and degenerative disease developing typically in the elderly; nonetheless, a condition of accelerated atherosclerosis can be observed precociously in the presence of some diseases. Endometriosis, a chronic benign gynecological disorder, shows some characteristics, such as oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, which could increase the risk of developing accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in young European women with endometriosis. This cross-sectional study included 37 women with endometriosis and 31 control subjects. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was investigated by ultrasound evaluation of common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD); in addition, serum levels of lipids, inflammatory and coagulation parameters, as well as markers of endothelial inflammation and activation, were determined. Women with endometriosis showed significantly lower values of FMD compared with controls [mean difference: -4.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.52, -2.73; P women with endometriosis had significantly higher values of inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (P women with endometriosis have more subclinical atherosclerosis, resulting in a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction can occur in the absence of structural atherosclerotic changes; its evaluation might be helpful in young women with endometriosis.

  10. Increased common carotid artery wall thickness is associated with rapid progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Marina; Scacciatelli, Daria; Misaggi, Giulia; Balestrini, Simona; Balucani, Clotilde; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Di Legge, Silvia; Stanzione, Paolo; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasound imaging predictors of progression of carotid luminal narrowing in subjects with asymptomatic moderate internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A total of 571 subjects with asymptomatic moderate (50-69%) ICA stenoses were enrolled. They underwent ultrasound examination at baseline and after 12 months. Demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, plaque characteristics (surface and echogenicity) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were collected. At the follow-up examination, any change of ICA stenosis was graded in three categories (i) ≥70% to near occlusion, (ii) near occlusion, and (iii) occlusion. Progression of stenosis was defined as an increase in the stenosis degree by at least one category from baseline to follow-up. At 12 months, progression occurred in 142 subjects (prevalence rate 25%). At the multivariable logistic model, pathological IMT values (considered as binary variable: normal: ≤1 mm vs. pathologic: >1 mm) significantly predicted the risk for plaque progression after adjusting the model for possible confounders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.43, P = .014, multivariable logistic model). Our results confirm the role of carotid wall thickening as a marker of atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT measurement should be considered to implement risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease.

  11. Correlation between Common Carotid Artery Intima-media Thickness and Degree of Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%2型糖尿病视网膜病变程度与颈总动脉内-中膜厚度的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 邓又斌; 杨顺实

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估2型糖尿病患者(diabetes mellitus,DM)视网膜病变程度与颈总动脉内-中膜厚度(common carotid artery inti-ma-media thickness,CCA IMT)的相关性,以期早期发现糖尿病视网膜病变(diabetic retinopathy,DR)并评估其病变程度.方法 筛选2型糖尿病患者84例.根据眼底荧光造影的结果分为糖尿病无视网膜病变(non-diabetic retinopathy,NDR)组、非增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变(non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,NPDR)组及增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变(proliferative di-abetic retinopathy,PDR)组三组.记录各组病例的性别、年龄、糖尿病病程,测量其CCA IMT、空腹血糖(fasting blood glu-cose,FBG)、糖化血红蛋白(glycosylated hemoglobin,HbA1c)、血清甘油三脂(serum triglycerides,TG)、总胆固醇(totalcholesterol,TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(low-density lipoprotein cholestero,LDL-C)及高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(high-density lipo-protein cholesterol,HDL-C).结果 CCA IMT、FBG、HbA1c及糖尿病病程均同DR的程度具有正相关性(P<0.05);且排除了FBG、HbA1c及糖尿病病程的影响后,CCA IMT仍与DR程度相关(P<0.01).结论 2型糖尿病患者DR的程度同CCA IMT具有正相关性.%Objective To estimate the correlation between the degree of the diabetic retinopathy(DR)and the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT)in type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM)for early detection of DR and the the extent of their lesions. Methods A total of 84 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,according to the result of fundus fluorescein angiography,were divided into three groups:non-diabetic retinopathy(NDR)group,non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR)group and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR)group. In each group, gender, age and duration of diabetes were recorded, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness(CCA IMT), fasting blood glucose (FBG) ,glycosylated hemoglobin( HbAlc), serum triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low

  12. Menopausal Hot Flashes and Carotid Intima Media Thickness Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; Landsittel, Doug P; Santoro, Nanette; von Känel, Roland; Matthews, Karen A

    2016-12-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations. A total of 295 nonsmoking women free of clinical CVD underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash assessments; a blood draw; and carotid ultrasound measurement of intima media thickness and plaque. Associations between hot flashes and subclinical atherosclerosis were tested in regression models controlling for CVD risk factors and estradiol. More frequent physiologic hot flashes were associated with higher carotid intima media thickness (for each additional hot flash: β [SE]=0.004 [0.001]; P=0.0001; reported hot flash: β [SE]=0.008 [0.002]; P=0.002, multivariable) and plaque (eg, for each additional hot flash, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] plaque index ≥2=1.07 [1.003-1.14]; P=0.04, relative to no plaque, multivariable] among women reporting daily hot flashes; associations were not accounted for by CVD risk factors or by estradiol. Among women reporting hot flashes, hot flashes accounted for more variance in intima media thickness than most CVD risk factors. Among women reporting daily hot flashes, frequent hot flashes may provide information about a woman's vascular status beyond standard CVD risk factors and estradiol. Frequent hot flashes may mark a vulnerable vascular phenotype among midlife women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in a Colombian Population With Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argote, A; Mora-Hernández, O; Milena Aponte, L; Barrera-Chaparro, D I; Muñoz-Ruiz, L M; Giraldo-Mordecay, L; Camargo, D

    2017-10-01

    Psoriasis is now known to have a clear association with metabolic syndrome and its components. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and increased carotid intima-media thickness in psoriasis patients seen in the dermatology department of a quaternary hospital. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of psoriasis patients aged over 18 years seen in the dermatology department of Hospital de San José in Bogota, Colombia, between March and August, 2015. Directed medical history and physical examination were performed to detect CVRFs, laboratory studies to exclude metabolic syndrome, and ultrasound examination to measure carotid intima-media thickness. Forty patients with psoriasis were included in the study. The prevalence of the distinct CVRFs was 35% for systemic hypertension, 17.5% for dyslipidemia, 17.5% for smoking, and 10% for type 2 diabetes mellitus. A history of acute myocardial infarction was detected in 12.5% of patients. Metabolic syndrome was found in 20 patients (50%), and blood biochemistry revealed dyslipidemia in 32 patients (80%). Based on the Framingham score, the cardiovascular risk was low in 11 patients (31.4%), intermediate in 22 (62.8%), and high in 2 (5.7%). Mean (SD) carotid intima-media thickness was 0.7 (0.12) mm, with thickening observed in 6 patients (15%). This study provides evidence of the high prevalence of CVRFs in psoriasis patients and indicates the need for strict clinical control to monitor cardiovascular risk in this population. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Regression of the carotid intima media thickness by propylthiouracil therapy in Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Cemil; Gökosmanoglu, Feyzi; Caliskan, Mustafa; Cinemre, Hakan; Akdemir, Ramazan

    2012-04-01

    One of the cardiovascular effects of hyperthyroidism is increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study is to investigate the CIMT in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and the effect of propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy on CIMT. Twenty-six patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and 33 healthy controls were included in the study. CIMT was measured at the right and left external carotid arteries in every patient in both groups. CIMT was measured before and after the PTU therapy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. There was a significant difference in CIMT between the group of Graves' hyperthyroid patients and the control group (0.72 versus 0.55 mm, P treatment, CIMT decreased significantly compared with the baseline values [0.84 (0.54-1.3) to 0.72 (0.50-1.2), change 0.12 mm, P hyperthyroidism is associated with atherosclerosis as assessed by CIMT. Treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism with PTU decreases the CIMT.

  16. Homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness in ischemic stroke patients are not correlated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ntaios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available George Ntaios1, Christos Savopoulos1, Apostolos Hatzitolios1, Ippoliti Ekonomou2, Evangelos Destanis2, Ioannis Chryssogonidis2, Anastasia Chatzinikolaou3, Ifigenia Pidonia3, Dimitrios Karamitsos11First Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Radiology; 3Department of Biochemistry, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceIntroduction: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by numerous authors. Whether this association is causal or not remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of hyperhomocysteinemia with the degree of carotid atherosclerosis in stroke patients.Methods: We studied 97 Greek patients in our stroke unit who were hospitalized as a result of ischemic stroke between March 2006 and May 2007. The patients were divided into two groups: the first (52 patients included stroke patients with serum levels of homocysteine below 15 µmol/L, but in the second group (45 patients serum homocysteine exceeded this value. We measured carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in all patients and correlated it with serum homocysteine.Results: The mean homocysteine concentration was 11.5 µmol/L in the first group and 21.5 µmol/L in the second group. Carotid IMT was 1.012 mm in the first group, and 1.015 mm in the second group, an insignificant difference. On the contrary, serum folate concentration was 21.3 nmol/L in the first group compared with 16.7 nmol/L in the second group (p < 0.001. VitB12 was 401 pmol/L in the first group and 340 pmol/L in the second group, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001.Conclusions: Serum levels of homocysteine were not correlated with cIMT in ischemic stroke patients. Both folate and vitB12 were decreased in hyperhomocysteinemic ischemic stroke patients.Keywords: homocysteine, carotid intima-media thickness, ischemic stroke

  17. Differences in left and right carotid intima-media thickness and the associated risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.; Yang, Y.; Cao, T.; Li, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the difference between the left and right carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) with increasing age and to analyse the importance of the various risk factors associated with left and right CIMT, respectively. Materials and methods: Four hundred and forty-seven people were assigned into six groups based on age. CIMT and haemodynamic parameters of both carotid arteries were measured using the Quality Intima-Media Thickness (QIMT) technique. In addition, biochemical and anthropometric indices were also measured. Their associations were evaluated using simple and partial correlation analysis, adjusted for age. Results: Bilateral CIMTs became thicker with age (p < 0.001) and the left CIMT was significantly thicker compared with the right between the ages of 35 and 65 years (p = 0.01-0.05). In addition, the right CIMT thickened 10 years later compared with the left. Partial correlation analysis showed that the right CIMT correlated better with haemodynamic parameters compared with the left CIMT, but the left CIMT showed better correlation with biochemical indices. Conclusion: Haemodynamic and biochemical changes had different effects on the CIMT depending on the side affected. In addition, the left CIMT was thicker than the right between the ages of 35 and 65 years old.

  18. The Short-Term Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Elastic Properties of the Carotid Artery and the Aorta in Epileptic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; İşgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur; Uysal, Utku

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the effect of a 6-month-long ketogenic diet on carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery, and aortic vascular functions. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were being treated with ketogenic diet were enrolled. Fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations were measured and echocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning of ketogenic diet and at the sixth month of treatment. The body weight, height, body mass index, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein increased significantly at month 6 when compared to baseline values (P ketogenic diet has no effect on carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Common carotid artery disease in Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Nabil; Calderon, Luis I; Castro, Pablo and others

    2004-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a disease of unknown etiology with main involvement of the common carotid 5 artery and its branches. we report the case of a 69 years old female patient with Tokays arteritis with 2 bilateral involvements of the common carotid arteries, treated with percutaneous angioplasty and Stent implantation

  1. Soluble CD93 Is Involved in Metabolic Dysregulation but Does Not Influence Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strawbridge, Rona J.; Hilding, Agneta; Silveira, Angela; Osterholm, Cecilia; Sennblad, Bengt; McLeod, Olga; Tsikrika, Panagiota; Foroogh, Fariba; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Giral, Phillipe; Kurl, Sudhir; Mannarino, Elmo; Grossi, Enzo; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Humphries, Steve E.; de Faire, Ulf; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hamsten, Anders; Backlund, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are complex disorders involving metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Here we investigated whether sCD93, a group XIV c-type lectin of the endosialin family, plays a role in metabolic dysregulation or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Although no

  2. Relationship of apelin, procalcitonin, and fetuin-A concentrations with carotid intima-media thickness in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, S; Akin, F; Turgut, S; Yaylali, G F; Herek, D; Ayada, C

    2015-07-01

    Acromegaly is characterized by excess growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. There is conflicting evidence as to whether acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Apelin is an adipose tissue-derived peptide that may be associated with hyperinsulinemia. Fetuin-A is a hepatocyte produced plasma glycoprotein that has an important role as a calcification inhibitor. The aim of this study was to examine apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin concentrations and to assess their relationship with carotid intima medial thickness (cIMT) in subjects with acromegaly. Apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin serum concentrations were measured in 37 (20 inactive and 17 active) subjects with acromegaly and 30 control subjects, along with carotid intima medial thickness. The concentrations of apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin were increased in subjects with acromegaly. There were significant correlations between apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin in subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness values were similar between control subjects and subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness was not increased in subjects with acromegaly. It is possible that the increased apelin and fetuin-A concentrations observed play a protective role against the development of atherosclerosis in subjects with acromegaly. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Soya isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese equol excretors aged 40-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun; Guo, Kaiping; Chen, Chaogang; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Quan; Mei, Fang; Su, Yixiang

    2012-11-14

    Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors. Subjects (n 572; women n 362, men n 210) were recruited for the present study. An overnight urine sample was provided by each subject on their usual diet to quantify urinary concentrations of daidzein and equol. Far-wall IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound in the right carotid at two sites, carotid bulb (CB-IMT) and common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), and fasting serum lipids were measured. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated with a FFQ, and soya isoflavone intake derived from the FFQ was assessed. Of the 572 subjects, the proportion of equol excretors on their usual diet was 25·0 % (n 143). Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG (-38·2 (95 % CI -70·4, -5·9) %, P = 0·012) and CCA-IMT (-4·9 (95 % CI -9·7, -0·3) %, P = 0·033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes (-5·4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT (-16·2 %, P = 0·035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1·5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only.

  4. Long-term effects on carotid intima-media thickness after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tai-Lin; Huang, Chi-Ren; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Yu-Jih; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Hui-Chun; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities are the predominant histologic changes associated with radiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study examined if the duration after radiotherapy correlates with the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and investigated its relationship with inflammatory markers. One hundred and five NPC patients post-radiotherapy for more than one year and 25 healthy control subjects were examined by B-mode ultrasound for IMT measurement at the far wall of the common carotid artery (CCA). Surrogate markers including lipid profile, HbA1c, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. The IMT of CCA was significantly increased in NPC patients and carotid plaque was detected in 38 NPC patients (38/105, 36.2%). Significant risk factors for carotid plaques included age, duration after radiotherapy, and HbA1c levels. Age, duration after radiotherapy, hs-CRP, HbA1c, and platelet count positively correlated with IMT. The cut-off value of age and duration after radiotherapy for the presence of plaque was 52.5 years and 42.5 months, respectively. In NPC subjects, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age, gender, duration after radiotherapy and platelet counts were independently associated with CCA IMT. After adjustments for age, gender and platelet counts, IMT increased in a linear manner with duration after radiotherapy. Radiation-induced vasculopathy is a dynamic and progressive process due to late radiation effects. Extra-cranial color-coded duplex sonography can be part of routine follow-up in NPC patients aged ≥50 years at 40 months post-radiotherapy

  5. Comparison of the effects of surgical and natural menopause on carotid intima media thickness, osteoporosis, and homocysteine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Enis; Cakir, Evrim; Okuyan, Erhan; Cakir, Caner; Ustün, Gülnihal; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors. We designed this study to compare common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and homocysteine level between women who had natural menopause and those who had surgical menopause and to correlate IMT, bone mineral density (BMD), and homocysteine level with time since menopause. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women aged 50 to 78 years who were not on hormone therapy (45 women who did not have a prior hysterectomy or oophorectomy and 45 women who had undergone hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy) were included in the study. B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid artery, BMD, and serum homocysteine level analysis were completed to evaluate the relationship between type of menopause, time since menopause, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Mean ± SD carotid artery IMT measurements were 0.72 ± 0.002 mm among women experiencing natural menopause and 0.88 ± 0.003 mm among women having bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.002). After adjusting for time since menopause and age, the mean IMT also differed between the two groups: 0.76 ± 0.003 mm in the natural menopause group and 0.84 ± 0.003 mm in the bilateral oophorectomy group (P = 0.038). The age-adjusted carotid IMT was significantly positively associated with years since menopause (P = 0.001). Mean homocysteine measurements were 10.3 ± 5 μmol/L among women experiencing natural menopause and 9.1 ± 4 μmol/L among women who had bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.216). Age-adjusted femur total, trochanter, and shaft BMDs were significantly lower in the surgical menopause group (P = 0.041, P = 0.034, and P = 0.046, respectively). Oophorectomy before natural menopause increases IMT but not homocysteine levels independent of age and time since menopause and is associated with lower BMD values after adjustment for age.

  6. Improvement in HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of reduced carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Elias, Natália; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; de Piano, Aline; Carnier, June; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether a 1-year interdisciplinary weight-loss program improved common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether insulin resistance and/or inflammation (as measured by the markers plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and adiponectin) might underlie obesity in adolescents. A group of 29 post-pubescent obese adolescents were submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery IMT was determined ultrasonographically. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), glycemia, insulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipokine concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. The interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a significant improvement in body composition, insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, BP and inflammatory state, in addition to significantly decreasing the common carotid artery IMT. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the difference between baseline and final values of HOMA-IR (ΔHOMA-IR) was negatively correlated with concomitant changes in the adiponectin concentration (Δadiponectin; r=-0.42; P=0.02) and positively correlated with changes in common carotid artery IMT (Δcarotid IMT; r=0.41; P=0.03). Multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers showed that ΔHOMA-IR was an independent predictor of significant changes in common carotid artery IMT. This investigation demonstrated that an interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a reduction of the common carotid artery IMT in obese Brazilian adolescents, and the improvement of HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of carotid IMT changes in this population.

  7. Changes in arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, and epicardial fat after L-thyroxine replacement therapy in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Busto-Mesa, Abdel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio Oscar; Carrero-Fernández, Lisván; Hernández-Roca, Cristina Victoria; González-Valdés, Jorge Luis; de la Rosa-Pazos, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between primary hypothyroidism and subclinical atherosclerosis and its potential changes with L-thyroxine replacement therapy. A prospective cohort study including 101 patients with primary hypothyroidism and 101 euthyroid patients as controls was conducted from July 2011 to December 2013. Clinical, anthropometrical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic parameters were assessed at baseline and after one year of L-thyroxine replacement therapy. At baseline, hypothyroid patients had significantly greater values of blood pressure, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, left ventricular mass, epicardial fat, and carotid intima-media thickness as compared to controls. Total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, ventricular diastolic function, epicardial fat, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid local pulse wave velocity, pressure strain elastic modulus, and β arterial stiffness index showed a significant and positive correlation with TSH levels. After one year of replacement therapy, patients with hypothyroidism showed changes in total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, TSH, carotid intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness parameters. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk. In these patients, L-thyroxine replacement therapy for one year is related to decreased dyslipidemia and improvement in markers of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasound Common Carotid Artery Segmentation Based on Active Shape Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Jin, Jiaoying; Xu, Mengling; Wu, Huihui; He, Wanji; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue

    2013-01-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a major reason of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, a segmentation method based on Active Shape Model (ASM) is developed and evaluated to outline common carotid artery (CCA) for carotid atherosclerosis computer-aided evaluation and diagnosis. The proposed method is used to segment both media-adventitia-boundary (MAB) and lumen-intima-boundary (LIB) on transverse views slices from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) images. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17 × 2 × 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and nine with placebo), who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. Manually outlined boundaries by expert are adopted as the ground truth for evaluation. For the MAB and LIB segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 94.4% ± 3.2% and 92.8% ± 3.3%, mean absolute distances (MAD) of 0.26 ± 0.18 mm and 0.33 ± 0.21 mm, and maximum absolute distances (MAXD) of 0.75 ± 0.46 mm and 0.84 ± 0.39 mm. It took 4.3 ± 0.5 mins to segment single 3D US images, while it took 11.7 ± 1.2 mins for manual segmentation. The method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression. PMID:23533535

  9. Ultrasound Common Carotid Artery Segmentation Based on Active Shape Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is a major reason of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, a segmentation method based on Active Shape Model (ASM is developed and evaluated to outline common carotid artery (CCA for carotid atherosclerosis computer-aided evaluation and diagnosis. The proposed method is used to segment both media-adventitia-boundary (MAB and lumen-intima-boundary (LIB on transverse views slices from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US images. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17 × 2 × 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and nine with placebo, who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. Manually outlined boundaries by expert are adopted as the ground truth for evaluation. For the MAB and LIB segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC of 94.4% ± 3.2% and 92.8% ± 3.3%, mean absolute distances (MAD of 0.26 ± 0.18 mm and 0.33 ± 0.21 mm, and maximum absolute distances (MAXD of 0.75 ± 0.46 mm and 0.84 ± 0.39 mm. It took 4.3 ± 0.5 mins to segment single 3D US images, while it took 11.7 ± 1.2 mins for manual segmentation. The method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness in HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette; Wiinberg, Niels; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth

    2007-01-01

    of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in non-smoking HIV patients with high or low serum cholesterol levels as well as in healthy volunteers. METHODS: HIV patients in ART with normal cholesterol (or=6 x 5 mmol l(-1); n=12) as well as healthy controls (n=14) were included. All were non-smokers...... and had never received medication for dyslipidaemia or hypertension. IMT was measured by ultrasonography. RESULTS: In HIV patients with normal cholesterol (or=6 x 5 mmol l(-1)) and in controls (5 x 1 +/- 0 x 9 mmol l(-1)) IMT were 683 +/- 119, 656 +/- 99 and 657 +/- 99 microm, respectively. Thus...... no correlation was found with total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: In non-smoking HIV patients receiving ART no sign of accelerated atherosclerosis was found as assessed by IMT even not in hypercholesterolaemic HIV patients. IMT correlated with HDL cholesterol but not with LDL cholesterol. Based...

  11. The Effect of Radioiodine on the Intima Media Thickness of the Carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sürücü

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The radiation can induce vessel injury. The result of this injury can be severe and life-threatening. There are a few studies demonstrating an increase in intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA after radiotherapy, especially in head and neck cancers. We evaluated the effect of I-131 to the IMT of the CCA in the patients who were treated for hyperthyroidism. Methods: 38 patients (25M, 13W referred to our department for radioiodine treatment with the diagnosis of nodular goitre (25 patients and diffuse hyperplasia (Graves disease (GD, 13 patients were included to the prospective study. An USG was performed for all the patients before therapy, 3, 6 and 12 months after radioiodine therapy in order to measure IMT of CCA and the femoral artery (FA. The IMT was measured at the level of proximal part of bulbus anteriorly on the left and right side. The IMT of FA was measured just before the bifurcation. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in IMT of both CCA and FA bilaterally in nodular hyperthyroid patients. However, in the patients with Graves disease, there was only statistically significant increase in the left IMT of CCA at 0-3rd, 0-6th month measurements and in the right IMT of FA at 0-3rd month measurements. Conclusion: Though the limitation of the study is the interobserver and intraobserver variability, it was seen that I-131 therapy might affect the IMT of CCA in the patients with NG. I-131 effect on the IMT of CCA in patients with nodular goitre was higher than the IMT of CCA in patients with GD. I-131 effect on the IMT of CCA might be due to administered dose and adjacency. The interesting point of our study was the increased thickness of IMT in FA. We think that the increase in IMT is due to the systemic effect of radioactivity circulating in the blood vessel. I-131 effect on the IMT of FA in patients with nodular goitre was higher than the IMT of FA in the patients with GD due to I-131 uptake

  12. Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Angka, N; Khositseth, A; Vilaiyuk, S; Tangnararatchakit, K; Prangwatanagul, W

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial stiffness index (CASI) act as the surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. We aim to assess CIMT and CASI in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients ≤ 20 years old fulfilling diagnostic criteria for SLE were enrolled. Patients with active smoking, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, arterial thrombosis, family history of hypercholesterolemia, chronic liver disease, or other chronic severe diseases were excluded. The patients were categorized into four groups: active SLE, age- and sex-matched control (control A), inactive SLE, and age- and sex-matched control (control I), according to the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). All subjects underwent ultrasound of carotid arteries to evaluate CIMT and CASI. Results One hundred and two SLE patients (26 active and 76 inactive) and one hundred and three healthy controls (26 control A and 77 control I) were enrolled. The median CIMT in all groups were not significantly different (0.43, 0.41-0.44; 0.43, 0.41-0.44; 0.42, 0.41-0.43; and 0.42, 0.41-0.43 mm, respectively).The CASI in active SLE (13.5, 11.4-17.3) was significantly higher than in control A (8.2, 7.2-9.2) ( p < 0.0001), whereas CASI in inactive SLE (12.7, 10.9-15.7) was significantly higher than in control I (8.9, 7.6-9.8). However, the CASI in active and inactive SLE was not significantly different. Conclusions The higher CASI in active and inactive pediatric SLE, implying functional change of carotid arteries, may be early evidence of increased atherosclerosis in pediatric SLE. This functional dysfunction has been found both in inactive and active SLE.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS, AND CAROTID INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Yılmaz, Nusret; Yanıkoğlu, Atakan; Özdem, Sebahat; Yıldırım, Aytül Belgi; Süleymanlar, Gültekin; Altunbaş, Hasan Ali

    2017-05-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly, may be an efficient approach to extending the lifespan of affected patients. Therefore, it is crucial to determine any cardiovascular diseases in the subclinical period. The study objectives were to determine markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and asses heart structure and function. This was a cross-sectional, single-center study of 53 patients with acromegaly and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and echocardiographic data were compared between these groups. CIMT and PWV were higher in the acromegaly group than in the healthy group (P = .008 and P = .002, respectively). Echocardiography showed that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was present in 11.3% of patients. Left ventricular mass index and left atrial volume index were higher in the patients (P = .016 and Pacromegaly and the control group. Our results showed that subclinical atherosclerosis (i.e., CIMT and PWV markers) and heart structure and function were worse in patients with acromegaly than in healthy individuals. Because there were no differences in these parameters between patients with controlled and uncontrolled acromegaly, our results suggest that the structural and functional changes do not reverse with biochemical control. AA = active acromegaly BSA = body surface area CA = biochemically controlled acromegaly CH = concentric hypertrophy CIMT = carotid intima-media thickness DBP = diastolic blood pressure DM = diabetes mellitus ECHO = echocardiography EDV = enddiastolic volume EF = ejection fraction ESV = endsystolic volume GH = growth hormone HC = healthy control HL = hyperlipidemia HT = hypertension IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 LA = left atrial LAV = left atrial volume LAVI = left atrial volume index LV = left ventricular LVDD = left ventricular diastolic dysfunction LVEF = left

  14. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  15. Correlation between coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness, assessed by radio-frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone Marco M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT is a validated marker of systemic atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary artery disease (CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and CCA-IMT, assessed by Radio Frequency-Quality Intima Media Thickness (RFQIMT method, the next generation of IMT real-time measurement, based on the direct analysis of the radiofrequency signal and endowed with high accuracy and reproducibility in early detection of arterial wall thickness. Methods 115 patients (76 men, mean age: 65.1 ± 12 years referred to our department and shown significant (≥ 70% luminal obstruction stenosis at least in one major epicardial coronary artery were studied. Coronary angiograms were divided for severity and extent of the disease: 79 patients (69% had one, 24 patients (21% two, 12 patients (10% three major epicardial coronary arteries with ≥ 70% stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound examination, assessed by RF. Results Dividing RFQIMT data in tertiles, dyslipidaemia (31 patients with IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 16 with IMT = 0.91-1.19 vs 25 with IMT ≤ 0.9, p = 0.004, LVMI (153.5 ± 20.6 g/m2 in IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 131.2 ± 8.4 g/m2 in IMT = 0.91-1.19 mm vs 114.3 ± 11.1 g/m2 in IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, P 2 = 0.88, RFQIMT remained significantly associated with the dyslipidemia (regression coefficient ± standard error [SE]: 0.057 ± 0.023; p = 0.017, LVMI (regression coefficient ± SE: 0.01 ± 0.001; P Conclusions RFQIMT is a sophisticated method for carotid ultrasound evaluation. Its evaluation in patients with at least one important major epicardial coronary vessel stenosis would help the accuracy in the general assessment of the number of coronary lesions in these patients.

  16. Major dietary patterns and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Parvez, Faruque; Wu, Fen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rani Paul, Rina; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a validated surrogate marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and is predictive of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Research on the association between IMT and diet, however, is lacking, especially in low-income countries or low-BMI populations. Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intakes were measured using a validated, thirty-nine-item FFQ at baseline cohort recruitment. IMT measurements were obtained from 2010-2011. Rural Bangladesh. Participants (n 1149) randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study, an ongoing, population-based, prospective cohort study established in 2000. Average age at IMT measurement was 45·5 years. Principal component analysis of reported food items yielded a 'balanced' diet, an 'animal protein' diet and a 'gourd and root vegetable' diet. We observed a positive association between the gourd/root vegetable diet and IMT, as each 1 sd increase in pattern adherence was related to a difference of 7·74 (95 % CI 2·86, 12·62) μm in IMT (Pbalanced pattern was associated with lower IMT (-4·95 (95 % CI -9·78, -0·11) μm for each 1sd increase of adherence; P=0·045). A gourd/root vegetable diet in this Bangladeshi population positively correlated with carotid IMT, while a balanced diet was associated with decreased IMT.

  17. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma fibrinogen among subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bayanfar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of plasma fibrinogen, a key regulator of inflammation processes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS is currently under investigation. We assessed differences in the indicators of cIMT and also plasma fibrinogen level between MetS and non-MetS subjects. We also assessed the role of these two parameters for independently relationship with MetS state. METHODS: The subjects in this cross-sectional survey were population-based samples of 93 men and women aged ≥ 35 years and over who were selected from the Isfahan cohort study, Isfahan, Iran. Fibrinogen was measured by the clotting assay of Clauss. Ultrasound studies of the carotid artery were performed to measure cIMT. MetS defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III. RESULTS: The mean level of plasma fibrinogen was not different in the two groups with and without MetS (240.10 ± 27.80 vs. 242.56 ± 35.82, P = 0.714, but the mean of cIMT was considerably higher in MetS group than in non-MetS group (0.85 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.66 ± 0.09 mm, P < 0.001. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, high cIMT could effectively predict MetS state with the presence of different components of MetS (odds ratio = 17.544, 95% confidence interval: 2.151-142.860, P = 0.008. The optimal cutoff point of cIMT for discriminating these two clinical states was 0.6 mm yielding a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 59.6%. CONCLUSION: Individuals with MetS demonstrated increased cIMT values compared with those without MetS. However, high plasma fibrinogen level may not be associated with MetS state.   Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Fibrinogen, Prediction 

  18. Biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness and plaques in long-term survivors of ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Næss, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Marøy, Tove Helene; Mazengia, Kibret Yimer; Eide, Geir Egil; Vedeler, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle risk factors, inflammation and genetics play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We therefore studied Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms, interleukin (IL)-10 polymorphisms and other biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with ischemic stroke at a young age. Patients were evaluated 12 years after stroke occurrence. Patients (n = 232) 49 years of age or younger with an index stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected. Bloo...

  19. FLOW MEDIATED DILATION AND CAROTID INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC GASTRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaki, Arezo; Norozi, Siros; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Ghavam, Samira Mis; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Rahmani, Asghar

    2017-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the early stages of vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. By a cross sectional study, basic and clinical information of 120 participants (40 patients with positive H. pylori infection, 40 patients with negative H. pylori infection and 40 healthy people) were analyzed. Carotid intima media thickness and flow-mediated dilation levels were measured in all patients and controls. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured with Elisa for all subjects. IgG level was assessed in chronic gastritis patients. The flow-mediated dilation level in patients with positive H. pylori infection (0.17%±0.09) was significantly lower than those with negative H. pylori infection (0.21% ±0.10, Pgastritis. The levels of flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima media thickness and sICAM-1 were higher among patients with positive H. pylori infection. Patients with chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection are at risk of endothelial dysfunction due to flow-mediated dilation and carotid intima media thickness abnormalities and increased level of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1.

  20. Echogenicity of the carotid intima-media complex and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blois, Jonathan; Stranden, Einar; Jogestrand, Tomas; Henareh, Loghman; Agewall, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. A measure of echogenicity, the grey scale median (GSM), has been shown to be inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and to be predictive of mortality in a community-based cohort. We assessed the factors associated with carotid IM-GSM in younger, non-diabetic patients with a recent MI. A total of 122 patients (women, 25%) aged 31-80 years (61) were recruited 2-3 days after an acute MI. Ultrasound examinations of the carotid arteries were performed 1-12 months after the MI. IMT was 0·78 (SD 0·17) mm on the right side and 0·81 (0·20) mm on the left side (P = 0·05). GSM was 88·60 (range 46-132, SD 18·32) on the right side and 82·10 (40-126, 17·89) on the left side (P = 0·002). Triglycerides (TG) correlated with GSM on both sides (right, r = -0·27, P = 0·003; left, r = -0·18, P = 0·05). On the right side, GSM was 92·15 and 82·26 (P = 0·05) in patients with TG < and ≥1·7, and on the left side, it was 84·04 and 74·55 (P = 0·02) in patients with TG < and ≥2·3. On multivariate analysis, TG were significantly associated with GSM, both on the right side (P = 0·01) and on the left side (P = 0·009). We found a negative association between TG and carotid IM-GSM on both sides in patients with a recent MI. Our results also suggest that atherosclerosis progression may be faster on the left side in patients with coronary heart disease. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  1. Identification of the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus as a determinant of carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ohrvik, John; Zabaneh, Delilah; Shah, Sonia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Fava, Cristiano; Kavousi, Maryam; McLachlan, Stela; Kivimäki, Mika; Bolton, Jennifer L; Folkersen, Lasse; Gigante, Bruna; Leander, Karin; Vikström, Max; Larsson, Malin; Silveira, Angela; Deanfield, John; Voight, Benjamin F; Fontanillas, Pierre; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Colombo, Gualtiero I; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nick J; Uitterlinden, André G; Gabrielsen, Anders; Hedin, Ulf; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Savonen, Kai; Smit, Andries J; Giral, Philippe; Mannarino, Elmo; Robertson, Christine M; Talmud, Philippa J; Hedblad, Bo; Hofman, Albert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Farrall, Martin; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Hansson, Göran K; Eriksson, Per; Samani, Nilesh J; Watkins, Hugh; Price, Jacqueline F; Hingorani, Aroon D; Melander, Olle; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Baldassarre, Damiano; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Humphries, Steve E; Hamsten, Anders

    2012-12-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a widely accepted marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. To date, large-scale investigations of genetic determinants of cIMT are sparse. To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the Illumina 200K CardioMetabochip was conducted in 3430 subjects with detailed ultrasonographic determinations of cIMT from the IMPROVE (Carotid Intima Media Thickness [IMT] and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High Risk European Population) study. Segment-specific IMT measurements of common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid arteries, and composite IMT variables considering the whole carotid tree (IMT(mean), IMT(max), and IMT(mean-max)), were analyzed. A replication stage investigating 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with common carotid IMT was undertaken in 5 independent European cohorts (total n=11,590). A locus on chromosome 16 (lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4888378, intronic in CFDP1) was associated with cIMT at significance levels passing multiple testing correction at both stages (array-wide significant discovery P=6.75 × 10(-7) for IMT(max); replication P=7.24×10(-6) for common cIMT; adjustments for sex, age, and population substructure where applicable; minor allele frequency 0.43 and 0.41, respectively). The protective minor allele was associated with lower carotid plaque score in a replication cohort (P=0.04, n=2120) and lower coronary artery disease risk in 2 case-control studies of subjects with European ancestry (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.83 [0.77-0.90], P=6.53 × 10(-6), n=13 591; and 0.95 [0.92-0.98], P=1.83 × 10(-4), n=82 297, respectively). Queries of human biobank data sets revealed associations of rs4888378 with nearby gene expression in vascular tissues (n=126-138). This study identified rs4888378 in the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus as a novel genetic determinant of cIMT and coronary artery disease risk in individuals

  2. Comparison of carotid artery intima - media thickness and risk factors of atherosclerosis in lacunar versus non-lacunar cerebral infarcts

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    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Increases in the thickness of the intima-media of the carotid artery have been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease. Lacunar infarcts, one of the most common subtypes of ischemic stroke, show unique pathological and clinicoradiological characteristics. The present study examined the relationship between the vascular risk factors, including carotid artery intimamedia thickness (IMT, and lacunar versus non-lacunar infarcts.
    METHODS: We collected data from patients admitted to hospital with acute ischemic stroke. 195 Patients and 96 control subjects underwent B-mode ultrasonographic measurements of IMT of the common carotid artery. We examined the association of lacunar and non-lacunar infarcts with age, sex, and potential vascular risk factors.
    RESULTS: Of 195 adult patients with acute ischemic stroke, 87 were considered lacunar and 108 were considered nonlacunar strokes. Between these two groups of patients, we did not find a significantly different percentage of diabetes,
    smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction, or previous history of ischemic stroke, alcohol, obesity,
    atherogen diet, exercise, and IMT. However, patients with lacunar infarct, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02, and hypertension
    (P = 0.02 had a significantly higher percentage of history of prior CVA (P = 0.03 and a significantly higher percentage
    of non-lacunar infarct.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicated that diabetes mellitus and hypertension are more common in patients with lacunar infarcts, and history of CVA is more common in patients with non–lacunar infarcts. We further concluded that IMT cannot differentiate subtypes of ischemic stroke. Because risk factors and clinical presentation of ischemic stroke differ among races, more national studies

  3. Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia in GCK-MODY Patients Does Not Increase Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

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    Stepanka Pruhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. GCK-MODY is an autosomal dominant form of diabetes caused by heterozygous mutations in the glucokinase gene leading to a lifelong mild hyperglycemia. The risk of macrovascular complications is considered low, but studies are limited. We, therefore, investigated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT as an indicator of macrovascular complications in a group of patients with GCK-MODY. Methods. Twenty-seven GCK mutation carriers and 24 controls recruited among their first-degree relatives were compared, all aging over 35 years. The CIMT was tested using a high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasonography. Medical history, anthropometry, and biochemical blood workup were obtained. Results. The mean CIMT was 0.707 ± 0.215 mm (mean ± SD in GCK mutation carriers and 0.690 ± 0.180 mm in control individuals. When adjusted for age, gender, and family status, the estimated mean difference in CIMT between the two groups increased to 0.049 mm (P=0.19. No difference was detected for other characteristics, with the exception of fasting blood glucose (GCK-MODY 7.6 mmol/L ± 1.2 (136.4 mg/dL; controls 5.3 mmol/L ± 0.3 (95.4 mg/dL; P<0.0001 and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c (GCK-MODY 6.9% ± 1.0%, 52 mmol/mol ± 10; controls 5.7% ± 0.4%, 39 mmol/mol ± 3; P<0.0001. The frequency of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Our data indicate that the persistent hyperglycemia in GCK-MODY is associated with a low risk of developing diabetic macrovascular complications.

  4. Relationship of carotid intima-media thickness and duration of vegetarian diet in Chinese male vegetarians.

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    Yang, Shu-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Liu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xue-Jun

    2011-09-19

    Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians. One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P vegetarians were divided according to duration of vegetarian diet ( 11 years), those in tertile 1 (vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.

  5. Carotid intima-media thickness value distributions in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

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    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Oliveira, Ilka R S; Souza, Angelita G; Meireles, Danilo P; Rundek, Tatjana; Foppa, Murilo; Bezerra, Daniel C; Freire, Cláudia M V; Roelke, Leonard H; Carrilho, Sayonara; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2014-11-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a noninvasive measurement of early atherosclerosis. Most IMT studies have involved populations with low rates of racial blending. The aim of the present article is to describe IMT value distributions and analyze the influence of sex and race on IMT values in a large Brazilian sample, a setting with a high rate of racial admixture. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter cohort of 15,105 adult (aged 35-74 years) civil servants in six Brazilian cities. Baseline assessment included IMT measurements in both common carotid arteries. Race was self-reported. We studied the association between sex and race with IMT values using multiple linear regression models. We conducted analyses in all and low-risk individuals, defined as those without classical cardiovascular risk factors. We analyzed complete IMT data from 10,405 ELSA-Brasil participants. We present nomograms by age for all and low-risk individuals, stratified by sex and race. We found that men had significantly higher maximal IMT values compared with women (β = 0.058; P < 0.001). This association remained for low-risk individuals (β = 0.027; P = 0.001). In addition, Brown and White individuals had lower maximal IMT values compared with Black individuals for all (β = -0.034 and β = -0.054, respectively; P < 0.001) and low-risk individuals (β = -0.027; P = 0.013 and β = -0.035; P < 0.001, respectively). We found significantly higher IMT values in men. We found significantly higher IMT values in Black individuals than White and Brown individuals. These results persisted when analyses were restricted to low-risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in Brazilian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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    Fusaro, Maria Fernanda Gontijo Sepulveda; Zanini, Jovita Lane Soares Santos; Silva, Ivani Novato

    2016-01-01

    Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, and has been reported in children with various chronic diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Evaluate CIMT and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents with DM1. Cross-sectional study of 118 adolescents, 57 with DM1 and no chronic complications related to the disease, and 61 healthy individuals. Clinical, biochemical, and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluations according to the Consensus Statement of the American Society of Echocardiography CIMT Task Force were performed. Adolescents with diabetes (66.6% female) were 14.5 ± 2.9 years old and had 9.0 ± 4.0 years of disease duration. The healthy adolescents (62.3% female) were 14.3 ± 2.6 years old. All the adolescents had blood pressure within their reference ranges. In 66% of DM1 adolescents the systolic blood pressure was >50th percentile. Increased CIMT was observed in adolescents with diabetes compared with those in the control group: 0.53 vs 0.51 mm (p Brazilian adolescents with DM1, and was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. CIMT assessment may be useful for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular risk in this age group.

  7. Carotid intima-media thickness and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

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    Sothornwit, J; Somboonporn, W; Soontrapa, S; Kaewrudee, S; Wongwiwatchai, J; Soontrapa, S

    2018-03-09

    To explore the difference in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis and the risk of elevated CIMT and plaque presentation. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 45 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women. CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. There was no statistically significant difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and those without osteoporosis (p > 0.05). Risk for elevated CIMT in the osteoporosis group was comparable to that of the non-osteoporosis group (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). The risk for the presence of plaque was three times higher in osteoporotic women than in normal individuals. However, after adjusting for age and underlying diseases that would predispose the women to cardiovascular disease, there was no significant difference in terms of presence of plaque between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). There was no difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis. Risk of elevated CIMT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was comparable to that of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the presence of plaque.

  8. Association of intima-media thickness of carotid arteries with remnant lipoproteins in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piťha, J; Kovář, J; Škodová, Z; Cífková, R; Stávek, P; Červenka, L; Šejda, T; Lánská, V; Poledne, R

    2015-01-01

    The subclass of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins - remnant-like particles (RLP) seems to be strong and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the role of RLP and other risk factors (RF) with sonographically measured intima-media thickness of carotid arteries (IMT CCA) in a cohort of Czech population including women defined according to the time after menopause. We investigated relation of IMT CCA to age, weight, central obesity, plasma lipids including remnant-like particles cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglycerides (RLP-TG) in 136 men and 160 women. Using multiple linear regression analysis, significant association between IMT CCA and RLP-C was found in women 1-7 years after menopause. In the whole group of women, only age and fasting blood glucose were independently associated with IMT CCA. In men only age significantly correlated with IMT CCA. Significant decrease of all plasma lipids between 1988 and 1996 in men was detected, while in women significant increase in triglycerides and no change in non-HDL cholesterol was observed. RLP-C was the strongest independent RF for atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women but its association with IMT CCA was limited to several years after menopause. In conclusion, women changing reproductive status could be more sensitive to atherogenic impact of remnant lipoproteins.

  9. Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Miklós Káplár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL activates complement system and has been suggested to play a role in vascular complications in diabetics. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT detects subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association of MBL and IMT in type 2 diabetic (T2DM patients. Methods. Serum MBL levels and cIMT were measured in a total of 103 diabetics and in 98 age-matched healthy controls. Results. There was no significant difference in MBL level in T2DM versus controls. As expected, IMT was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in controls (P=0.001. In T2DM, the lowest cIMT was seen in patients with normal MBL level (500–1000 while cIMT continuously increased with both high MBL and absolute MBL deficiency states. This was especially significant in high MBL versus normal MBL T2DM patients (P=0.002. According to multiple regression analysis the main predictors of IMT in T2DM are age (P<0.003, ApoA level (P=0.023, and the MBL (P=0.036. Conclusions. Our results suggest a dual role of MBL as a risk factor for cIMT in T2DM. MBL may also be used as a marker of macrovascular disease, as both low and high levels indicate the susceptibility for atherosclerosis in T2DM.

  10. Carotid artery intima-media thickness measurement in children with normal and increased body mass index: a comparison of three techniques.

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    El Jalbout, Ramy; Cloutier, Guy; Cardinal, Marie-Hélène Roy; Henderson, Mélanie; Lapierre, Chantale; Soulez, Gilles; Dubois, Josée

    2018-05-09

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In children, increased intima-media thickness is associated with obesity and the risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. To compare intima-media thickness measurements using B-mode ultrasound, radiofrequency (RF) echo tracking, and RF speckle probability distribution in children with normal and increased body mass index (BMI). We prospectively measured intima-media thickness in 120 children randomly selected from two groups of a longitudinal cohort: normal BMI and increased BMI, defined by BMI ≥85th percentile for age and gender. We followed Mannheim recommendations. We used M'Ath-Std for automated B-mode imaging, M-line processing of RF signal amplitude for RF echo tracking, and RF signal segmentation and averaging using probability distributions defining image speckle. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Children were 10-13 years old (mean: 11.7 years); 61% were boys. The mean age was 11.4 years (range: 10.0-13.1 years) for the normal BMI group and 12.0 years (range: 10.1-13.5 years) for the increased BMI group. The normal BMI group included 58% boys and the increased BMI group 63% boys. RF echo tracking method was successful in 79 children as opposed to 114 for the B-mode method and all 120 for the probability distribution method. Techniques were weakly correlated: ICC=0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.39). Intima-media thickness was significantly higher in the increased BMI than normal BMI group using the RF techniques and borderline for the B-mode technique. Mean differences between weight groups were: B-mode, 0.02 mm (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04), P=0.05; RF echo tracking, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.01; and RF speckle probability distribution, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.002. Though techniques are not interchangeable, all showed

  11. Androgen excess is associated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness observed in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Mendieta-Azcona, Covadonga; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as an early marker of atherosclerosis, as well as its main determinants among androgen excess, obesity and insulin resistance, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We selected 40 PCOS patients and 20 non-hyperandrogenic women who were similar in terms of age and grade of obesity. Complete clinical, metabolic and hormonal profiles and left common CIMT measurements were obtained. Patients with PCOS presented with increased mean CIMT values when compared with controls (F = 8.575; P = 0.005), and this was independent of obesity. Five PCOS patients but no controls had increased CIMT values. CIMT correlated directly with serum total and free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels and mean 24-h heart rate (HR), and inversely with the insulin sensitivity index (ISI), but no correlation was observed with the body mass index (BMI). Multiple stepwise linear regression models showed that in PCOS patients, the main determinants of CIMT were serum total testosterone or androstenedione concentrations, with no influence of ISI or the mean 24-h HR. Compared with control women, PCOS patients present with an increased CIMT, independent of obesity and related directly to androgen excess; this suggests that hyperandrogenism is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in these women.

  12. Plasma creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate and carotid intima media thickness in middle-aged women: a population based cohort study.

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    Gentile, M; Panico, S; Mattiello, A; de Michele, M; Iannuzzi, A; Jossa, F; Marotta, G; Rubba, P

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between high Creatinine (Cr) levels or low estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) and common carotid Intima Media thickness (IMT) have been evaluated in a population-based cohort study in women, aged 30-69 (Progetto ATENA). Serum Cr and eGFR were measured in 310 women, as a part of 5.062. In this group carotid ultrasound examination (B-Mode imaging) was performed and mean max IMT was calculated. Women were classified by Cr levels >1 mg/dL or eGFR Women with Cr > 1 mg/dL (90th percentile of creatinine distribution) or eGFR less than 56 ml/min (5th percentile of eGFR distribution) had relatively more carotid plaques as compared to the rest of the cohort. Multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for age, demonstrated a significant association between Cr (>1 mg/dL) and IMT (≥1.2 mm): OR 4.12 (C.I 1.22-13.86), p = 0.022; or eGFR (women, independently of age, suggest the value of screening for early carotid disease in asymptomatic middle aged-women with mild renal insufficiency, in order to predict those at relatively higher risk for future cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is a sleep-related breathing disorder associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular complications in OSA patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and inflammatory markers plasma levels in OSA patients. We enrolled 80 OSA patients and 40 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI. The presence and severity of sleep apnea was determined by in-laboratory portable monitoring (PM. Demographic data, blood pressure, heart rate, and cIMT were measured. High-sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP, interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and pentraxin (PTX-3 serum concentrations were detected. cIMT was higher in OSA patients than controls (0.89 ± 0.13 mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.1 mm, p < 0.01. Moderate-severe OSA patients (0.95 ± 0.09 mm had significantly increased cIMT than mild OSA (0.76 ± 0.1 mm; p < 0.01 and control (0.65 ± 0.1 mm; p < 0.01. hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and PTX-3 in patients with OSA (1.67 ± 0.66 mg/L, 2.86 ± 1.39 pg/mL, 20.09 ± 5.39 pg/mL, 2.1 ± 0.59 ng/mL, respectively were significantly higher than in controls (1.08 ± 0.53 mg/L, p < 0.01; 1.5 ± 0.67 pg/mL, p < 0.01; 12.53 ± 3.48 pg/mL, p < 0.01; 1.45 ± 0.41 ng/mL, p < 0.01, respectively. Carotid IMT was significantly correlated to CRP (r = 0.44; p < 0.01, IL-6 (r = 0.42; p < 0.01, TNF-α (r = 0.53; p < 0.01, and PTX-3 (r = 0.49; p < 0.01. OSA patients showed increased cIMT, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and PTX-3 levels. Inflammatory markers levels are correlated to cIMT in OSA patients.

  14. Predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Rosane; Larrúbia, Manuella Rangel; Bussade, Isabela; Pereira, Joana Rodrigues Dantas; Lima, Giovanna A Balarini; Epifanio, Marcio Antonio; Schettino, Claudio Domenico Sahione; Momesso, Denise Prado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM. The study included 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (aged 36 ± 9 years) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound evaluation to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to assess the occurrence of carotid artery plaques. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The cohort had a mean age of 36 ± 9 years, diabetes duration of 18.1 ± 9.5 years, and body mass index (BMI) of 24.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. MS was present in 44.4% of the participants. The CIMT was 0.25 ± 0.28 mm, and the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was 13%. CIMT correlated positively with hypertension (p = 0.04) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.37, p = 0.012). The presence of carotid artery plaques correlated positively with age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.017). eGDR correlated negatively with CIMT (r = -0.39, p = 0.009) and carotid plaques (p = 0.04). Albuminuria showed a correlation trend with CIMT (p = 0.06). Patients with carotid artery plaques were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension, and lower eGDR. No correlation was found between CIMT and carotid plaques with diabetes duration, MS, BMI, cholesterol profile, glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or fibrinogen. Insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, and older age were predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM.

  15. Associations of serum LDL particle concentration with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Maryam; Miura, Katsuyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Abbott, Robert D; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Sentaro; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Sekikawa, Akira; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Horie, Minoru; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) has recently been found to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Whether LDL-P is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C, as well as other lipid measures has not been fully examined. We aimed to analyze LDL-P associations with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined 870 Japanese men randomly selected from Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan, aged 40-79 years from 2006-2008, free of clinical CVD and not using lipid-lowering medication. Cross-sectional associations of lipid measures with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC; >0 Agatston score) were examined. LDL-P was significantly positively associated with cIMT and maintained this association after adjustments for LDL-C and other lipid measures. Although these lipid measures were positively associated with cIMT, model adjustment for LDL-P removed any significant relationships. Higher LDL-P was associated with a significantly higher odds ratio of CAC and further adjustment for LDL-C did not affect this relationship. In contrast, the LDL-C association with CAC was no longer significant after adjustment for LDL-P. Other lipid measures attenuated associations of LDL-P with CAC. Likewise, associations of these measures with CAC were attenuated when model adjustments for LDL-P were made. In a community-based sample of Japanese men, free of clinical CVD, LDL-P was a robust marker for subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C and other lipid measures. Associations of LDL-C and other lipid measures with either cIMT or CAC were generally not independent of LDL-P. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  17. Perirenal fat is related to carotid intima-media thickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J-M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Xargay-Torrent, S; Lizarraga-Mollinedo, E; Feliu-Alsina, M; Riera-Pérez, E; Osiniri, I; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that increased abdominal fat is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. Perirenal fat has been recently associated with CV risk in adults. However, studies with children are lacking. We investigated the relationship of perirenal fat and other abdominal fat depots (including preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT-a surrogate marker of CV risk) in prepubertal children, so as to identify novel markers that can be easily assessed and used in the early prevention of cardiovascular disease. Subjects were 702 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children (418 lean, 142 overweight and 142 obese) who were recruited in a primary care setting. Ultrasound measurements (perirenal, preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat and cIMT), clinical (body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure) and metabolic parameters (insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and serum lipids) were assessed. Perirenal fat was associated with diverse metabolic and CV risk factors in all the studied subjects. However, in overweight and obese children, perirenal fat was mostly associated with cIMT (Pfat depot that showed independent associations with cIMT in multivariate analyses (overweight chidren: β=0.250, P=0.003, r 2 =12.8%; obese children: β=0.254, P=0.002, r 2 =15.5%) after adjusting for BMI, gender, age and metabolic parameters. Perirenal fat was also the only fat depot that showed independent associations with HMW-adiponectin in obese children (β=-0.263, P=0.006, r 2 =22.8%). Perirenal fat is the main abdominal fat depot associated with cIMT, especially in overweight and obese children, and may thus represent a helpful parameter for assessing CV risk in the pediatric population.

  18. Carotid intima-media thickness correlation with lipid profile in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia versus controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.P.; Ahmed, K.Z.; Ghani, R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the variations in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients and its use as predictive marker for premature cardiovascular diseases. Familial hypercholesterolemia was clinically diagnosed by premature coronary diseases, xanthomas, arcus cornealis and family history of premature coronary heart diseases. Controls were age matched normal individuals without hypercholesterolemia. Their lipid profile was tested after overnight fasting. CIMT was measured in mm using B-mode ultrasonography using linear probe. Student t-test was applied to compare mean CIMT of cases and the control. The mean CIMT values of the FH cases were correlated with LDL using Pearson's correlation test. Forty cases with hypercholesterolemia gave consent to participate in the study. These patients had total cholesterol 200 mg/dL and LDL 160 mg/dL as compared to twenty controls of similar age with total cholesterol ? 200 mg/dL and LDL 130 mg/dL. Mean CIMT for the cases was 0.77 + 0.18 mm while mean CIMT for control was 0.59 + 0.08 mm. The mean CIMT for the cases ranged from 0.7-1.83 mm and 0.48-0.73 mm for controls. Among the FH cases, 25% (n=11) had arterial plaques. Mean CIMT was significantly correlated to LDL-cholesterol (r 0.725**, p < 0.001). In this study, CIMT was found to be significantly increased in familial hypercholesterolemia and it correlated with raised LDL-cholesterol. Both are predictive of premature cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  19. The relationships of markers of cholesterol homeostasis with carotid intima-media thickness.

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    Oliver Weingärtner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship of cholesterol homeostasis and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT is unknown. To address this, we assessed markers of cholesterol homeostasis (serum plant sterols and cholesterol precursor concentrations as surrogate measures of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, respectively and cIMT in a middle-aged, statin-naive population. METHODS: In this prospective study of primary prevention cIMT was measured by ultrasound in 583 hospital employees aged 25-60 years without prevalent cardiovascular disease or lipid-modifying medication. The serum concentrations of plant sterols (as markers of cholesterol absorption were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Lathosterol serum concentrations were quantitated to assess hepatic cholesterol synthesis. RESULTS: cIMT correlated positively with serum cholesterol (r = 0.22, P<0.0005 and lathosterol-to-cholesterol (r = 0.18, P<0.001. In contrast, plant sterols, as markers of cholesterol absorption, showed a weak negative correlation to cIMT measurements (r = -0.18; P<0.001 for campesterol-to-cholesterol. Stratifying subjects by serum sterol levels, we found that cIMT increased continuously over quintiles of serum cholesterol (P<0.0005 and was positively associated to serum lathosterol-to-cholesterol levels (P = 0.007, on the other hand, plant sterol levels showed a weak negative association to cIMT (P<0.001 for campesterol-to-cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: In this population without prevalent cardiovascular diseases or lipid-modifying medication, markers of increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis correlated positively with cIMT, while markers of cholesterol absorption showed a weakly negative correlation. These data suggest that not only total serum cholesterol levels but also differences in cholesterol homeostasis are associated with cIMT.

  20. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

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    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  1. Carotid intima-medial thickness and glucose homeostasis in Indian obese children and adolescents

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    Aashima Dabas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate for subclinical atherosclerosis and its risk factors in Indian obese children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, case–control study was conducted to recruit 80 children aged 6–17 years with constitutional obesity as cases and 23 age- and gender-matched controls with normal body mass index (BMI. Anthropometric and clinical evaluation was followed by biochemical analysis and body fat estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in cases. Similar evaluation was performed for controls except laboratory parameters. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT was measured with B-mode ultrasonography in both cases and controls to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis. Results: The mean age of cases was 12.8 ± 3 years, with mean BMI of 29.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2. The mean CIMT was significantly higher in cases than controls (0.54 ± 0.13 vs. 0.42 ± 0.08; P < 0.001 across all ages. CIMT was significantly higher in participants who were hypertensive than nonhypertensive (0.6 ± 0.11 vs. 0.53 ± 0.11 mm; P = 0.04. CIMT showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.23, P = 0.02, percentage body fat and fat mass index (r = 0.28 and 0.3 respectively; P < 0.001, but not with waist: hip ratio. CIMT showed significant positive correlation with blood glucose at 60 min (r = 0.22; P = 0.04, serum insulin at 60 min (r = 0.28; P = 0.01 while negative correlation with whole body insulin sensitivity (r = −0.27; P = 0.01. Conclusion: CIMT correlated significantly to blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and body fat in Indian obese children.

  2. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in Brazilian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Maria Fernanda Gontijo Sepulveda Fusaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, and has been reported in children with various chronic diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1. Objectives Evaluate CIMT and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents with DM1. Methods Cross-sectional study of 118 adolescents, 57 with DM1 and no chronic complications related to the disease, and 61 healthy individuals. Clinical, biochemical, and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluations according to the Consensus Statement of the American Society of Echocardiography CIMT Task Force were performed. Results Adolescents with diabetes (66.6% female were 14.5 ± 2.9 years old and had 9.0 ± 4.0 years of disease duration. The healthy adolescents (62.3% female were 14.3 ± 2.6 years old. All the adolescents had blood pressure within their reference ranges. In 66% of DM1 adolescents the systolic blood pressure was >50th percentile. Increased CIMT was observed in adolescents with diabetes compared with those in the control group: 0.53 vs 0.51 mm (p < 0.004 on the right side, and 0.55 vs 0.51 mm (p < 0.001 on the left side. CIMT presented independent and positive associations with diabetes duration, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and systolic blood pressure percentile in DM1 adolescents. Conclusions Increased CIMT was observed in young Brazilian adolescents with DM1, and was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. CIMT assessment may be useful for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular risk in this age group.

  3. Data on carotid intima-media thickness and lipoprotein subclasses in type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1DM is associated with increased risk of macrovascular complications. We examined longitudinal associations of serum conventional lipids and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-determined lipoprotein subclasses with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in adults with T1DM (n=455 enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT. Data on serum lipids and lipoproteins were collected at DCCT baseline (1983–89 and were correlated with common and internal carotid IMT determined by ultrasonography during the observational follow-up of the DCCT, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC study, at EDIC ‘Year 1’ (199–1996 and EDIC ‘Year 6’ (1998–2000. This article contains data on the associations of DCCT baseline lipoprotein profiles (NMR-based VLDL & chylomicrons, IDL/LDL and HDL subclasses and ‘conventional’ total, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides with carotid IMT at EDIC Years 1 and 6, stratified by gender. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of DCCT baseline lipids and lipoprotein profiles with EDIC Year 12 carotid IMT (Basu et al. in press [1]. Keywords: Lipids and lipoproteins, Carotid intima-media thickness, Type 1 diabetes

  4. Effects of 6 months of aerobic and resistance exercise training on carotid artery intima media thickness in overweight and obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-12-01

    We studied the effects of exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, and flow velocity in overweight and obese older women, and the associations between carotid parameters changes and other variables. A total of 41 overweight and obese older women (aged 65-77 years, fat mass percent ≥ 32%), who were divided into a control group (n = 20) and a supervised combined exercise group (n = 21). The 24-week combined exercise program (aerobic and resistance exercise) consisted of sessions 40-80 min in length 5 days per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist. Body composition, blood pressure, physical function and carotid variables were assessed. The differences in all variables, and the relative changes between baseline and 24 weeks' follow up were evaluated. Carotid intima-media thickness, systolic carotid luminal diameter, peak systolic flow velocity and end diastolic flow velocity showed a significant group × time interaction. No interaction was observed for diastolic luminal diameter. In the exercise group, the change of carotid intima-media thickness was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, maximal walking speed, 1-mile walking time and maximal oxygen uptake. Also, the change of peak systolic flow velocity was significantly associated with skeletal muscle mass, diastolic blood pressure and maximum walking speed. Combined exercise can effectively improve carotid intima-media thickness in overweight and obese older women. In addition, exercise training increases the systolic carotid luminal diameter and flow velocity in older women. Therefore, regular combined exercise might help prevent atherosclerotic disease by improving the carotid artery. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2304-2310. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Does the new International Diabetes Federation definition of metabolic syndrome improve prediction of coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Ana; Santos, Rui; Lima, Sandra; Mamede, Andreia; Fernandes, Rita; Ferreira, Rui

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic complications. The new definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) increases the population with this entity, compared to the NCEP ATP III definition. To study the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with and without MS, according to the NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions, and the predictive ability of carotid IMT for CAD. We studied 270 consecutive patients admitted for elective coronary angiography due to suspicion of CAD. All patients underwent ultrasound study of the carotid arteries to measure IMT (the highest value between the right and left common carotid arteries was used in the analysis). Coronary stenosis of > or =70% (or 50% for the left main coronary artery) was considered significant. By the ATP III definition, 14% of the patients had MS, and these patients had a higher prevalence of CAD (87% vs. 63%, p = 0.004), but no significant difference was found for carotid IMT (1.03 +/- 0.36 mm vs. 0.95 +/- 0.35 mm, p=NS). With the IDF definition, 61% of the patients had MS; this group was slightly older and included more women. There were no differences in terms of CAD (68% vs. 63%) or carotid IMT (0.97 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.39 mm). On multivariate analysis, the ATP III definition of MS predicts CAD (OR 4.76, 95% CI 1.71-13.25, p = 0.003), but the IDF definition does not (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.74-2.27, p = 0.37). On ROC curve analysis, an IMT of > or = 0.95 mm predicts CAD (AUC 0.66, p definition increases the population with MS, decreasing the capacity to predict the presence of CAD. In our population, neither the ATP III nor the IDF definition showed differences in terms of carotid IMT. Carotid IMT can predict CAD, but with only modest sensitivity.

  6. Carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo Henrique Sena; Santos Neto, Pedro José Dos; Santos, Itamar de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has been used in large studies as a non-invasive marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a cohort of 15,105 civil servants in six Brazilian cities that included CIMT evaluation in its baseline assessment. The aim of the present narrative review was to provide an overview of ELSA-Brasil CIMT articles published up to July 31, 2017. Narrative review of ELSA-Brasil CIMT studies using baseline assessment data. We searched PubMed for the terms "ELSA-Brasil" and "intima-media". This search yielded 21 published articles using CIMT data from the ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment, which were included in this review. We also present information about intima-media thickness assessment from ongoing onsite reevaluations of the study participants. Most published studies focused on the association with traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors. Studies also presented information about the ELSA-Brasil CIMT protocol at baseline and CIMT value distribution in this large sample. Analyses on the ELSA-Brasil data led to important insights on CIMT interpretation and physiology. Besides the highlighted contributions which have already been made in this field, new data gathered during the ongoing third onsite assessment will enable investigation of substantially new research questions.

  7. Metformin improves endothelial function and carotid intima media thickness in patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yildirim, Sumeyra; Calapkorur, Bekir; Akpek, Mahmut; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2015-05-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCP) are widely used for treating women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin has beneficial effects on insulin resistance and endothelial functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment with drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol (EE) alone or in combination with metformin on the flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in women with PCOS. Fifty women with PCOS (mean age 23 ± 5) were randomized to oral treatment of OCP alone (n = 25) or an OCP combination with metformin (n = 25) for 6 months. FMD from the brachial artery and CIMT were calculated. The hormonal profile, HOMA-IR score, basal insulin and glucose levels were studied in both groups. Before and after 6 months' treatment, echocardiographic measurements and laboratory tests were also obtained. After 6 months' treatment we observed a small decrease in FMD in the OCP group (14.9 ± 9.4 versus 14.4 ± 9.9, p = 0.801) and a slight increase in the combination group (14.5 ± 9.1 versus 15.0 ± 8.0, p = 0.715) but neither of them reached significance. CIMT increased in the OCP group (0.048 ± 0.011 to 0.050 ± 0.010 cm, p = 0.433) and decreased slightly in the combination group (0.049 ± 0.012, 0.048 ± 0.011 cm, p = 0.833). We demonstrated that adding metformin to OCP treatment may have beneficial effect on FMD and CIMT that represent vascular function in patients with PCOS. These results suggest that adding metformin to OCP treatment for PCOS could preserve the cardiovascular system and improve it.

  8. Carotid intima-media thickness and calcification in relation to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women-the OSTPRE-BBA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Värri, Miika; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Honkanen, Risto; Rikkonen, Toni; Niskanen, Leo; Kröger, Heikki; Tuppurainen, Marjo T

    2014-08-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) and osteoporosis are common diseases in elderly people and may be metabolically related. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to explore the association between common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid artery calcification (CAC), and BMD in postmenopausal women. In addition, the association of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and selected diseases with cIMT and carotid calcification was studied. The 290 women (mean age 73.6 years) included in this Bone Brain Atherosclerosis study (OSTPRE-BBA) were randomly selected from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study cohort, Finland. For this cross-sectional study, cIMT was measured with B-mode ultrasound; femoral neck and total body BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no statistically significant associations between mean cIMT and femoral neck T-score (p>0.05). However, an increased maximum cIMT was significantly associated with low femoral neck T-score. In the osteoporotic group (T-score -1, n=122), it was 1.93±0.64mm (p=0.001). The odds of having CAC were approximately four-fold higher in the osteoporotic group compared with the group with a normal femoral neck T-score (odds ratio [OR]=4.2, p=0.038). The maximum cIMT was smaller in HT users (1.98±0.56mm, n=190) than in non-users (2.16±0.74mm, n=156, p=0.036). The results of our population-based study suggest that BMD is related to AS, at least in carotid arteries. They indirectly support the hypothesis of partially shared pathophysiological mechanisms between these two disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation of body mass index with carotid intima-media thickness and diameter is independent of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Mediterranean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Marco; Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Covetti, Giuseppe; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; De Michele, Mario; Rubba, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether overweight and obesity are associated with arterial abnormalities in postmenopausal women and the contribution of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 390 postmenopausal women (mean age, 63.1 ± 7.7 y) living in the metropolitan area of Naples, Southern Italy, and participating in a population-based cohort study (Progetto Atena) were offered an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries; 370 women accepted. Blood pressure, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in all participants. Women in the second and third tertiles of body mass index showed a greater common carotid intima-media thickness compared with those in the first tertile (tertile II vs I, odds ratio, 2.15; P = 0.013; tertile III vs I, odds ratio, 2.24; P = 0.018), adjusted for age and metabolic syndrome. Obese and overweight postmenopausal women showed greater common carotid lumen diameters as compared with lean postmenopausal women (mean ± SD, 6.36 ± 0.86, 6.16 ± 0.65, and 5.96 ± 0.59 mm, respectively; P women. The statistical significance between obese and lean postmenopausal women was retained even after adding the components of the metabolic syndrome as covariates. These findings indicate an association between overweight, obesity, and preclinical carotid artery abnormalities, independently of the metabolic syndrome, in a population of postmenopausal women.

  10. Influence of arterial wave reflection on carotid blood pressure and intima-media thickness in older endurance trained men and women with pre-hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Tomayko, Emily; Ishaque, Muhammad R; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2009-05-01

    Increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) with aging is a significant predictor of mortality. Older endurance trained (ET) individuals have lower carotid artery stiffness but similar carotid IMT when compared to sedentary (SED) age-matched peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of arterial wave reflections to carotid hemodynamics and IMT in older ET and SED with pre-hypertension. Subjects consisted of endurance-trained master athletes and age-matched sedentary controls (mean age 67 years). Carotid artery Beta-stiffness index and IMT was assessed with ultrasonography. Carotid pressure and augmented pressure from wave reflections (obtained from pulse contour analysis) was measured with applanation tonometry. Carotid systolic blood pressure (SBP) and IMT were not different between groups (P>0.05). Carotid stiffness was significantly lower in ET versus SED (7.3 +/- 0.8 versus 9.9 +/- 0.6, Phypertension have reduced carotid artery stiffness, but similar carotid SBP and carotid IMT when compared to SED. The lack of change in carotid SBP and IMT in older ET may be related to the inability of chronic exercise training to reduce bradycardia-related augmented pressure from wave reflections with aging.

  11. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  12. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  13. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati...

  14. Association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima-media thickness and cardiac dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; Goda, Mohammad; Galal, Islam; Ghareb, Mohamed S

    2018-05-23

    Background & hypothesis: We hypothesized that exaggerated morning blood pressure surge, may contribute in cardiac dysfunction and arterial stiffness in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Thus we investigated the impact of morning blood pressure surge on cardiac function and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with cardiac syndrome X. We studied patients with cardiac syndrome X using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and investigated the association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima thickness, left atrial volume index and left ventricular filling (E/e'). Seventy patients with cardiac syndrome X were enrolled for the study and compared with 70 age and sex matched controls. Patients with cardiac syndrome X were stratified based on the systolic morning blood pressure surge value of control subjects to patients with exaggerated blood pressure surge (n = 42) and those with normal morning blood pressure surge (n = 28). Basal heart rate (p blood pressure surge group than those with morning blood pressure surge group. Morning blood pressure surge was significantly correlated with carotid intima-media thickness, high sensitive C-reactive protein, left atrial volume index and E/e' ratio in patients with cardiac syndrome X. In multivariate analysis, exaggerated morning blood pressure surge was the only independent predictor of increased carotid intima-media thickness (OR = 2.379; p blood pressure surge is an independent predictor for arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome X.

  15. Diminished heart rate reactivity to acute psychological stress is associated with enhanced carotid intima-media thickness through adverse health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Williams, Sarah E; Jones, Alexander; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca C; Carroll, Douglas; de Rooij, Susanne R

    Recent evidence demonstrates that individuals with low heart rate (HR) reactions to acute psychological stress are more likely to be obese or smokers. Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was to examine the

  16. Identification of the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A Locus as a Determinant of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Disease Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Oehrvik, John; Zabaneh, Delilah; Shah, Sonia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Fava, Cristiano; Kavousi, Maryam; McLachlan, Stela; Kivimaeki, Mika; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Folkersen, Lasse; Gigante, Bruna; Leander, Karin; Vikstrom, Max; Larsson, Malin; Silveira, Angela; Deanfield, John; Voight, Benjamin F.; Fontanillas, Pierre; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Colombo, Gualtiero I.; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nick J.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Gabrielsen, Anders; Hedin, Ulf; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Nyyssonen, Kristiina; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Savonen, Kai; Smit, Andries J.; Giral, Philippe; Mannarino, Elmo; Robertson, Christine M.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Hedblad, Bo; Hofman, Albert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Farrall, Martin; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Hansson, Goran K.; Eriksson, Per; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Price, Jacqueline F.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Melander, Olle; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Humphries, Steve E.; Hamsten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background-Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a widely accepted marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. To date, large-scale investigations of genetic determinants of cIMT are sparse. Methods and Results-To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the

  17. Antibodies Against β2-Glycoprotein I Complexed With an Oxidised Lipoprotein Relate to Intima Thickening of Carotid Arteries in Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. J. Ames

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether antibodies against β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI complexed to 7-ketocholesteryl-9-carboxynonanoate (oxLig-1 and to oxidised low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL relate to paraoxonase activity (PONa and/or intima media thickness (IMT of carotid arteries in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS. As many as 29 thrombotic patients with PAPS, 10 subjects with idiopathic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL without thrombosis, 17 thrombotic patients with inherited thrombophilia and 23 healthy controls were investigated. The following were measured in all participants: β2GPI−oxLDL complexes, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLig-1, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLDL antibodies (ELISA, PONa, (para-nitrophenol method, IMT of common carotid (CC artery, carotid bifurcation (B, internal carotid (IC by high resolution sonography. β2GPI−oxLDL complex was highest in the control group (p < 0.01, whereas, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLig1 and IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLDL were highest in PAPS (p < 0.0001. In healthy controls, β2GPI−oxLDL complexes positively correlated to IMT of the IC (p = 0.007 and negatively to PONa after correction for age (p < 0.03. PONa inversely correlated with age (p = 0.008. In PAPS, IgG anti-2GPI−oxLig-1 independently predicted PONa (p = 0.02 and IMT of B (p = 0.003, CC, (p = 0.03 and of IC (p = 0.04. In PAPS, PONa inversely correlated to the IMT of B, CC and IC (p = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.003, respectively. IgG anti-2GPI−oxLig-1 may be involved in PAPS related atherogenesis via decreased PON activity.

  18. Prospective association of polycystic ovary syndrome with coronary artery calcification and carotid-intima-media thickness: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Women's study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Siscovick, David; Merkin, Sharon S; Wang, Erica; Daviglus, Martha L; Schreiner, Pamela J; Sternfeld, Barbara; Williams, O Dale; Lewis, Cora E; Azziz, Ricardo; Schwartz, Stephen M; Wellons, Melissa F

    2014-12-01

    To study the independent associations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and its 2 components, hyperandrogenism and anovulation, with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). At the year 20 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based multicenter cohort of young adults, women (mean age, 45 years) with information on menses and hirsutism in their twenties were assessed for CAC (n=982) and IMT (n=988). We defined PCOS as women who had both irregular menses and hyperandrogenism (n=55); isolated oligomenorrhea (n=103) as women who only had irregular menses; and isolated hyperandrogenism (n=156) as women who had either hirsutism or increased testosterone levels. Logistic regressions and general linear models were used to estimate the associations between components of PCOS and subclinical CVD. The prevalence of CAC was 10.3% overall. Women with PCOS had a multivariable adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-5.60) for CAC. Women with either isolated oligomenorrhea or isolated hyperandrogenism had no increased risk of CAC when compared with unexposed women. Women with PCOS had significantly increased bulb and internal carotid-IMT measurements; however, no significant differences were noted in bulb or internal carotid artery IMT among women with either isolated oligomenorrhea or isolated hyperandrogenism when compared with unexposed women. There were no differences in common carotid-IMT among the 4 study groups. In this study, women with PCOS, manifested as both anovulation and hyperandrogenism, but not women with one of these manifestations alone, were at increased risk for the development of subclinical CVD. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liira Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of atherosclerosis in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS has not previously been addressed in population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, and clinical atherosclerotic diseases with CTS. Methods In this cross sectional study, the target population consisted of subjects aged 30 or over who had participated in the national Finnish Health Survey in 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4% were included in our study. Carotid IMT was measured in a sub-sample of subjects aged 45 to 74 (N = 1353. Results Obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-5.4, high LDL cholesterol (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.1 for >190 vs. 200 vs. Conclusions Our findings suggest an association between CTS and cardiovascular risk factors in young people, and carotid IMT and clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease in older people. CTS may either be a manifestation of atherosclerosis, or both conditions may share similar risk factors.

  20. Continuous assessment of carotid intima-media thickness applied to estimate a volumetric compliance using B-mode ultrasound sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascaner, A F; Craiem, D; Casciaro, M E; Graf, S; Danielo, R; Guevara, E

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the carotid artery wall had significant movements not only in the radial but also in the longitudinal direction during the cardiac cycle. Accordingly, the idea that longitudinal elongations could be systematically neglected for compliance estimations became controversial. Assuming a dynamic change in vessel length, the standard measurement of cross-sectional compliance can be revised. In this work, we propose to estimate a volumetric compliance based on continuous measurements of carotid diameter and intima-media thickness (IMT) from B-mode ultrasound sequences. Assuming the principle of conservation of the mass of wall volume (compressibility equals zero), a temporal longitudinal elongation can be calculated to estimate a volumetric compliance. Moreover, elongations can also be estimated allowing small compressibility factors to model some wall leakage. The cross-sectional and the volumetric compliance were estimated in 45 healthy volunteers and 19 asymptomatic patients. The standard measurement underestimated the volumetric compliance by 25% for young volunteers (p < 0.01) and 17% for patients (p < 0.05). When compressibility factors different from zero were allowed, volunteers and patients reached values of 9% and 4%, respectively. We conclude that a simultaneous assessment of carotid diameter and IMT can be employed to estimate a volumetric compliance incorporating a longitudinal elongation. The cross-sectional compliance, that neglects the change in vessel length, underestimates the volumetric compliance. (paper)

  1. Association between betel quid chewing and carotid intima-media thickness in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Parvez, Faruque; Wu, Fen; Wang, Weijia; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Areca nut, more commonly known as betel nut, is the fourth most commonly used addictive substance in the world. Though recent evidence suggests it may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease, no studies have investigated whether betel nut use is related to subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association between betel nut use and subclinical atherosclerosis in 1206 participants randomly sampled from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Frequency and duration of betel nut use were assessed at baseline, and carotid IMT was measured on average 6.65 years after baseline. A positive association was observed between duration and cumulative exposure (function of duration and frequency) of betel nut use and IMT, with above-median use for duration (7 or more years) and cumulative exposure (30 or more quid-years) corresponding to a 19.1 μm [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.3-32.8; P ≤ 0.01] and 16.8 μm (95% CI: 2.9-30.8; P betel use such that the joint exposure was associated with a 42.4 μm (95% CI: 21.6-63.2; P ≤ 0.01) difference in IMT. Betel nut use at long duration or high cumulative exposure levels is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis as manifested through carotid IMT. This effect is especially pronounced among men and cigarette smokers. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Associations of Psychological Well-Being With Carotid Intima Media Thickness in African American and White Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Leila; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-05-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed to a) examine associations between measures of psychological well-being, specifically life satisfaction and life engagement, and intima media thickness, a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis; b) investigate if the interaction of psychological well-being and life events correlated with intima media thickness; and c) explore these relationships across race. A sample of 485 women (38% African American and 62% white; mean [standard deviation] age = 50.2 [2.9] years) underwent ultrasonography to assess carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). The women completed self-report measures of life satisfaction, life engagement, and life events. Average (standard deviation) IMT was 0.666 (0.10) mm. Life satisfaction showed a significant, independent, inverse relationship with IMT, after controlling for demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cardiovascular covariates (β = -0.105, p = .039), such that each 1-point higher life satisfaction score was correlated with a significant 0.008-mm lower level of mean IMT. No significant association was seen between life events and IMT (r = 0.05, p = .32), and life satisfaction did not interact with life events on IMT (β = -0.036, p = .46). No significant interaction between life satisfaction and race on IMT was observed (β = 0.068, p = .37). In contrast to life satisfaction, life engagement was not a significant correlate of IMT (r = -0.07, p = .12). Life satisfaction, a measure of psychological well-being, is an important independent correlate of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women.

  3. Sphygmomanometric and ambulatory blood pressures as forerunners of carotid and femoral intima-media thickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechering, D.G.; Wizner, B.; Adiyaman, A.; Nawrot, T.; Jin, Y.; Richart, T.; Kuznetsova, T.; Struijker-Boudier, H.A.; Thien, Th.; Staessen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies directly comparing the associations of intima-media thickness with blood pressure (BP) on manual sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurement (SBPM) and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) are scarce and have a cross-sectional design. METHODS: At baseline, we

  4. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness Predicts Major Cardiovascular Events During 7-Year Follow-Up in 64-Year-Old Women Irrespective of Other Glucometabolic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Caroline; Bergström, Göran

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CV events are caused by atherosclerosis. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with greater carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and increased risk for CVD. The present study examined if common carotid artery IMT (CCAIMT) is predictive of CVD irrespective of glucose tolerance category and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of 639 women with different glucose tolerance categories. During 7-year follow-up, 30 events in the cardiac and 32 events in the cerebral territory were documented. Unadjusted Cox hazard models showed that CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c were associated with increased risk. An adjusted and extended model, including CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c, showed that CCAIMT was still associated with events with an almost unchanged hazard ratio. In conclusion, this study suggests that CCAIMT is predictive of major CV events during 7-year follow-up, irrespective of glucose tolerance category, HbA1c, and other established risk factors in a cohort of 64-year-old women.

  5. Inconsistent Correlation Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Peripheral Arterial Tonometry: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sara P; Passos, Valéria Maria A; Brant, Luisa C C; Bensenor, Isabela J M; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the association between 2 markers for atherosclerosis, measurements of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and to evaluate the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this association.We applied the 2 diagnostic tests to 588 participants from the ELSA-Brazil longitudinal study cohort. The PAT measurements, obtained with the EndoPAT2000, were the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the Framingham RHI (F-RHI), and the mean basal pulse amplitude (BPA). We used the mean of the mean scores of carotid IMT of the distal layers of the left and right common carotids obtained by ultrasonography after 3 cardiac cycles. We used linear regression and the Spearman correlation coefficient to test the relationship between the 2 markers, and multiple linear regressions to exam the relationship between the RHI/F-RHI scores and the mean BPA and IMT scores after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors.In the multivariate analysis, RHI (but not F-RHI) was positively correlated with the mean of the means of the IMT values after adjusting for sex and risk factors connected with both measures (β = 0.05, P = 0.02). Mean BPA did not remain significantly associated with IMT after adjusting for common risk factors.We found that the higher the IMT (or the worse the IMT), the higher the RHI (or the better the endothelial function). F-RHI was not associated with IMT. These 2 results are against the direction that one would expect and may imply that digital endothelial function (RHI and F-RHI) and IMT correspond to distinct and independent stages of the complex atherosclerosis process and represent different pathways in the disease's progression. Therefore, IMT and PAT measures may be considered complementary and not interchangeable.

  6. Inverse association of serum vitamin D in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaping; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Zhu, Jiaan; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D level and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in Chinese postmenopausal women. Nine hundred and twenty six Chinese postmenopausal women without carotid artery plaque or history of cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis. Measurements of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and C-IMT were made by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. Trend analysis was conducted according to tertiles of C-IMT. The median serum 25(OH)D3 level was 11.03 ng/mL, with an interquartile range of 8.22-14.70. A decreasing trend of serum 25(OH)D3 level was accompanied by increased C-IMT tertiles (P for trend = 0.001). Correlation analysis found an inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D3 level and C-IMT (r = -0.113, P = 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D3 level independently and negatively associated with C-IMT (Standard β = -0.112, P women with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure and body mass index, and without undergoing lipid-lowering therapy (standard β = -0.140, P = 0.018). Serum 25(OH)D3 level was inversely correlated with C-IMT in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  7. Effect of prior oophorectomy on changes in bone mineral density and carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucowski, Sara J; Mack, Wendy J; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Paulson, Richard; Hodis, Howard N

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effect of prior oophorectomy in healthy postmenopausal women on the rate of loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and rate of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). Secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial. University-based research clinic. Two hundred twenty-two healthy postmenopausal women in the Greater Los Angeles area. Baseline and annual screening of BMD and assessment of CIMT every 6 months for a total of 3 years. Changes in BMD and CIMT during postmenopausal years. Among women who were menopausal for more than 10 years, the rate of CIMT progression was statistically significantly less in women with intact ovaries compared with those in women with prior oophorectomy. In women 5-10 years postmenopause, there was a trend toward a slower loss of BMD in those who retained their ovaries, and in women more than 10 years postmenopause there was significantly less BMD loss in those who retained their ovaries. As time from menopausal transition increases, retained ovaries are associated with a slower rate of bone loss and a slower rate of thickening of the carotid artery wall compared with rates in menopausal women with oophorectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; padulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  9. Relationship between Waist Circumference and Elevation of Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Newly-diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIA Wei Ping; SHEN Yun; ZHOU Jian; PAN Jie Min; YU Hao Yong; CHEN Hai Bing; LI Qing; LI Ming; BAO Yu Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. Results After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P Conclusion Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. The Influence of Abdominal and Ectopic Fat Accumulation on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Chongqing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xu; Liu, Yu-Hui; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Deng, Juan; Liu, Juan; He, Hong-Bo; Xu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-16

    To investigate the effects of abdominal obesity (AO) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without AO on carotid arteries by determining carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). A total of 2745 Chinese Han adults (aged between 40 and 50 years old) were recruited and divided into 4 groups: (1) NW-no NAFL group: the normal body weight without NAFLD (n = 1888); (2) AO-no NAFL group: AO without NAFLD (n = 259); (3) NW-with NAFL group: NAFLD without AO (n = 93); and (4) AO-with NAFL group: AO with NAFLD (n = 505). The CIMT rate of each group was compared among 4 groups and the regression analysis was further used to correct confounders. We found that the NW-with NAFL group had a significantly higher CIMT rate than the AO-no NAFL group ([.87 ± .31] versus [.72 ± .29] P < .01) and the AO-with NAFL group ([.87 ± .31] versus [.79 ± .26], P < .01). The ectopic liver fat accumulation may increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Therefore, screening NAFLD in the population with normal weight may be beneficial for the prevention of atherosclerosis at an early stage. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of the carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness with serum illness indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Rong Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation of the carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness with serum illness indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 118 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were treated in this hospital between February 2016 and August 2017 were selected as the diabetes group, and 100 healthy volunteers who received physical examination in this hospital during the same period were selected as normal control group. The differences in carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness levels as well as serum levels of insulin resistance indexes and inflammatory adipocytokines were compared between the two groups of subjects. Pearson test was used to assess the correlation between carotid intima-media parameter levels and above serum illness index levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results: IMIsqrt and PWV levels in diabetes group were higher than those in normal control group; serum FINS and IRI levels were higher than those in normal control group whereas ISI level was lower than that in normal control group; serum APN content was lower than that in normal control group whereas LEP and SAA contents were higher than those in normal control group. Pearson test showed that the IMIsqrt and PWV levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were directly correlated with serum insulin resistance index levels and inflammatory adipocytokine contents. Conclusion: Carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness both increase in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and could objectively reflect the insulin resistance and systemic micro-inflammatory state.

  12. Successful Endovascular Treatment of a Left Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm Following Failed Surgery of a Right Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cil, Barbaros E.; Ucar, Ibrahim; Ozsoy, Fatma; Arat, Anil; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Boeke, Erkmen

    2005-01-01

    Aneurysm of the common carotid artery is a rare and serious disease requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid neurologic complications. A 39-year-old man presented with voice impairment and a pulsatile mass at the right side of his neck and was found by color Doppler examination to have bilateral common carotid artery aneurysms of unknown origin. The right-sided large aneurysm was treated with placement of an 8 mm interposition Gore-Tex graft between the right common and internal carotid arteries. The surgical graft thrombosed 7 days after the surgery but the left-sided aneurysm was successfully treated by a Jostent peripheral stent-graft. Color Doppler examination showed a patent stent and no filling of the aneurysm on his first and sixth-month follow-up. Bilateral common carotid artery aneurysm is an exceptionally unusual condition and endovascular treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with covered stents may become an effective treatment alternative for these lesions

  13. Lipoprotein(a) and HIV: Allele-Specific Apolipoprotein(a) Levels Predict Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in HIV-Infected Young Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chin-Shang; Kaplan, Robert; Lazar, Jason; Merenstein, Dan; Karim, Roksana; Aouizerat, Brad; Cohen, Mardge; Butler, Kenneth; Pahwa, Savita; Ofotokun, Igho; Adimora, Adaora A; Golub, Elizabeth; Berglund, Lars

    2017-05-01

    In the general population, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been established as an independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) levels are to a major extent regulated by a size polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene. The roles of Lp(a)/apo(a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related elevated cardiovascular disease risk remain unclear. The associations between total plasma Lp(a) level, allele-specific apo(a) level, an Lp(a) level carried by individual apo(a) alleles, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed in 150 HIV-infected and 100 HIV-uninfected women in the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study). Linear regression analyses with and without adjustments were used. The cohort was young (mean age, ≈31 years), with the majority being Blacks (≈70%). The prevalence of a small size apo(a) (≤22 Kringle repeats) or a high Lp(a) level (≥30 mg/dL) was similar by HIV status. Total plasma Lp(a) level ( P =0.029) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.022) were significantly associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness in the HIV-infected women only. After accounting for confounders (age, race, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, hepatitis C virus coinfection, menopause, plasma lipids, treatment status, CD4 + T cell count, and HIV/RNA viral load), the association remained significant for both Lp(a) ( P =0.035) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.010) in the HIV-infected women. Notably, none of the other lipids/lipoproteins was associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Lp(a) and allele-specific apo(a) levels predict carotid artery intima-media thickness in HIV-infected young women. Further research is needed to identify underlying mechanisms of an increased Lp(a) atherogenicity in HIV infection. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Effect of a Mediterranean diet on endothelial progenitor cells and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes: Follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Gicchino, Maurizio; Caputo, Mariangela; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Background We assessed the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet on circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design This was a parallel, two-arm, single-centre trial. Methods Two hundred and fifteen men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet ( n = 108) or a low-fat diet ( n = 107). The primary outcome measures were changes in the EPC count and the CIMT of the common carotid artery after the treatment period defined as the end of trial (EOT). Results At the EOT, both the CD34 + KDR + and CD34 + KDR + CD133 + counts had increased with the Mediterranean diet compared with the low-fat diet ( p Mediterranean diet. Compared with the low-fat diet, the rate of regression in the CIMT was higher in the Mediterranean diet group (51 vs. 26%), whereas the rate of progression was lower (25 vs. 50%) ( p = 0.032 for both). Changes in the CIMT were inversely correlated with the changes in EPC levels (CD34 + KDR + , r = -0.24, p = 0.020; CD34 + KDR + CD133 + , r = -0.28, p = 0.014). At the EOT, changes in levels of HbA1c, HOMA, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater with the Mediterranean diet than with the low-fat diet. Conclusion Compared with a low-fat diet, a long-term trial with Mediterranean diet was associated with an increase in circulating EPCs levels and prevention of the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  15. Long-term dietary patterns and carotid artery intima media thickness: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Vera; Räsänen, Leena; Laaksonen, Marika M L; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Pietinen, Pirjo; Raitakari, Olli T

    2009-11-01

    A whole-diet approach has proven useful for characterising dietary exposure in cardiovascular epidemiology research. In our previous analyses, we found dietary patterns to be significant determinants of CVD risk factor levels among the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort. We investigated the associations of major dietary patterns with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical predictor of CVD, in healthy adults. The Young Finns Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up to date. The subjects were children and adolescents at baseline in 1980 (aged 3-18 years), and all had reached adulthood by the latest follow-up in 2001 (aged 24-39 years). Complete dietary data from the years 1980, 1986 and 2001 and outcome data from the year 2001 were obtained from 785 subjects. The long-term average pattern score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of rye, potatoes, butter, sausages, milk and coffee) was associated with IMT especially among subjects with a low score for the health-conscious dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of vegetables, legumes and nuts, rye, tea, cheese and other dairy products). In multivariable regression analyses using long-term pattern scores as predictors, the traditional dietary pattern was independently associated with IMT in men (P < 0.01), but not in women (P = 0.66). Long-term adherence to traditional food choices seems to increase the risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis among Finnish men.

  16. An unusual case of common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    pseudoaneurysm involving the right common carotid artery. Sewing needle ( ... displacement of tracheal shadow towards the left ... CT scan of brain was not done in this case as there are no .... function and allergies to CT contrast material12.

  17. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid intima thickness: sedentary occupation as risk factor for atherosclerosis and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, R; Foshag, P; Strauß, M; Garg, P; Dworrak, B; Littwitz, H; Lazic, J S; Horlitz, M

    2015-09-01

    The influence of occupational physical activity on markers of atherosclerosis, prevalence of metabolic syndrome and physical performance has been understudied in current literature. Main aim of this study was to examine the association between physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity, metabolic parameters and carotid atherosclerosis among German career firefighters and sedentary clerks. We prospectively examined and recruited 143 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]). Correlation for each parameter for the groups were compared using a linear regression model adjusted for age. 97 firefighters (FFs) showed higher maximal aerobic power (VO2max) of 3.17 ± 0.44 L/min compared to 46 sedentary clerks (SCs) 2.85 ± 0.52 L/min (-0.21 CI -0.39-0.04, p = 0.018). Physical activity (PA, in METS/week) in FFs was 3953 ± 2688 and in SC 2212 ± 2293 (-1791.86 CI -2650--934, p = 0.000). Body fat was 17.7 ± 6.2% in FFs and in SCs 20.8 ± 6.5% (1.98 CI -0.28-4.25, p = 0.086). Waist circumference was 89.8 ± 10.0 cm in FFs and in SCs 97.3 ± 11.7 (-4.89 CI 1.24-8.55, p = 0.009). Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) showed significant difference for the left carotid artery 0.69 ± 0.19 mm in FFs vs. SCs 0.81 ± 0.20 (0.07 CI 0.01-0.14, p = 0.030). Metabolic syndrome was found in 12 out of 98 FFs (13.4%), and in 14 out of 46 SCs (30.43%). FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. SCs had higher cardiovascular risk profile, higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, higher waist circumference and significantly higher IMT than FFs. In conclusion, sedentary occupations have higher cardiovascular risk secondary to accelerated atherosclerosis.

  18. Common carotid artery thrombosis; Clinical and radiological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Takeshi; Hakusui, Shigetaka; Yanagi, Tsutomu (Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Ito, Eiichi

    1994-02-01

    Common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) is not common. We studied 4 patients with CCAT to clarify the clinical and radiological features of this disorder. Case 1 had only episodes of TIA. Case 2 was diagnosed by chance as having CCAT at the time of admission due to cerebellar infarction. On the contrary, Cases 3 and 4 were admitted because of disturbance of consciousness and hemiparesis. Case 4 died soon after his stroke because of complications. We evaluated cases 1, 2 and 3 using head CT, head MRI, neck MRI, MR angiography, SPECT and cerebral angiography. Case 4, who was evaluated with head CT and cerebral angiography, was autopsied to confirm the occlusion of the common carotid artery. The clinical severity of CCAT varies from asymptomatic to severe, because each case differs in the time taken for complete occlusion of the common carotid artery; the development of collateral circulation; and hemodynamics of the brain. As for the collaterals their contribution is variable; for example, the thyrocervical and other arteries function as the bypass. We can diagnose CCAT easily and noninvasively using MR angiography and neck MRI based on disappearance of the flow void in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery. On physical examination, it is important to detect faded pulsation of the superficial temporal artery that is ipsilateral to the occluded common carotid artery. (author).

  19. Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Daniel H; Reuwer, Anne Q; Nissen, Steven E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Deanfield, John E; Brown, Michael W; Zhou, Rong; Zabbatino, Salvatore M; Job, Bernard; Kastelein, John J P; Visseren, Frank L J

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to determine whether obese patients benefit from treatment with rimonabant in terms of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in patients who are obese. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Atherosclerosis Underlying Development assessed by Intima-media Thickness in patients On Rimonabant (AUDITOR)) randomised 661 patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome to rimonabant or placebo for 30 months of treatment. The absolute change in the average value for six segments of far wall carotid intima-media thickness from baseline to month 30 was 0.010 ± 0.095 mm in the rimonabant group and 0.012 ± 0.091 mm in the placebo group (p=0.67). The annualised change was an increase of 0.005 ± 0.042 mm for the rimonabant-treated group and 0.007 ± 0.043 mm for the placebo-treated group (p=0.45). There was no difference in atherosclerosis progression between patients receiving rimonabant for 30 months and those receiving placebo for the primary efficacy measure (absolute change in carotid intima-media thickness). These findings are consistent with a similar study using coronary intravascular ultrasound and another study evaluating the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Our findings suggest that a 5% loss of body weight over a 30-month period with rimonabant is insufficient to modify atherosclerosis progression in the carotid artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Clinical trial registration information clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00228176.

  20. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  1. [Distribution of carotid intima media thickness in men and women with and without coronary heart disease. Cross-sectional data of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Hoffmann, B; Möhlenkamp, S; Lehmann, N; Moebus, S; Roggenbuck, U; Berg, C; Kälsch, H; Mahabadi, A A; Kara, K; Jöckel, K-H; Erbel, R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce population-based sex and age-stratified distributions of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), to compare fixed cut-off and percentile values for subjects with and without known coronary heart disease (CHD) and to describe CIMT percentiles. Between 2000 and 2003, a total of 4,814 subjects aged 45-75 years were recruited into the Heinz Nixdorf recall study (HNR). Ultrasound examination of extracranial arteries was performed and the CIMT was measured manually over a distance of 1 cm proximal to the bulb in the common carotid artery (CCA). Both sides were measured and the average of the right and left artery were calculated (mean CIMT). The CIMT was measured for 1,749 men and 1,802 women without prevalent CHD and 177 men and 50 women with prevalent CHD. Mean CIMT values were higher in men compared to women (men 0.71 ± 0.14 mm vs. women 0.65 ± 0.11 mm, p ≤ 0.0001) and in subjects with CHD compared to those without (men with and without CHD: 0.76 ± 0.14 mm and 0.70 ± 0.14 mm, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively; women with and without CHD: 0.73 ± 0.15 mm and 0.64 ± 0.11 mm, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively). In men the mean CIMT increased from 0.62 ± 0.10 mm in the youngest (45-49 years old) up to 0.79 ± 0.13 mm in the highest age group (≥ 70 years) (0.57 ± 0.08 mm up to 0.71 ± 0.12 mm in women, p ≤ 0.0001 for both). Compared to international studies similar CIMT distributions were found in this study using both continuous and percentile distributions. However, lower CIMT values were observed in older participants, which can be explained by exclusion of carotid plaque formation in CIMT measurements.

  2. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Cutaneous Microvascular Function are Associated With Vitamin C Levels in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermarsky, Michal; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Liuba, Petru

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction and accelerated thickening of arterial intima contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity in type 1 diabetes. Although vitamin C has important antioxidant functions, and increased oxidative stress is a central mechanism of vascular abnormalities......, lower plasma levels of vitamin C appears to predispose to more pronounced adverse changes in both microcirculation and peripheral arteries. Further studies are needed to investigate whether dietary supplementation with vitamin C could retard the development of microvasculopathy and atherosclerosis...... in diabetes, the relationship between these two in young patients with this disease has not been yet investigated. Methods: Carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cutaneous microvascular reactivity to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACH) and independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) were...

  3. Assessment of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as an Early Marker Of Vascular Damage In Hypertensive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Baroncini, Camila Varotto; Pecoits, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis in adults and describes vascular abnormalities in both hypertensive children and adolescents. To assess CIMT as an early marker of atherosclerosis and vascular damage in hypertensive children and adolescents compared with non-hypertensive controls and to evaluate the influence of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) on CIMT on each group. Observational cohort study. A total of 133 hypertensive subjects (male, n = 69; mean age, 10.5 ± 4 years) underwent carotid ultrasound exam for assessment of CIMT. One hundred and twenty-one non-hypertensive subjects (male, n = 64; mean age, 9.8 ± 4.1 years) were selected as controls for gender, age (± 1 year), and BMI (± 10%). There were no significant difference regarding gender (p = 0.954) and age (p = 0.067) between groups. Hypertensive subjects had higher BMI when compared to control group (p = 0.004), although within the established range of 10%. Subjects in the hypertensive group had higher CIMT values when compared to control group (0.46 ± 0.05 versus 0.42 ± 0.05 mm, respectively, p valores de EMIC quando comparados ao grupo-controle (0,46 ± 0,05 versus 0,42 ± 0,05 mm, respectivamente, p valores da EMIC não foram influenciados por sexo, idade e IMC quando analisados em ambos os grupos separadamente (Teste t de Student para amostras independentes). De acordo com o coeficiente de determinação (R²) ajustado, apenas 11.7% das variações da EMIC são devidas às variações em cada grupo, incluindo idade, sexo e IMC. A espessura médio-intimal das carótidas apresentou-se aumentada em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos quando comparados ao grupo controle. A presença de hipertensão aumentou a EMIC independentemente de idade, sexo e IMC.

  4. Reassessment of carotid intima-media thickness by standard deviation score in children and adolescents after Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Nobutaka; Kato, Masataka; Abe, Yuriko; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that used carotid ultrasound have been largely conflicting in regards to whether or not patients after Kawasaki disease (KD) have a greater carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than controls. To test the hypothesis that there are significant differences between the values of CIMT expressed as absolute values and standard deviation scores (SDS) in children and adolescents after KD and controls, we reviewed 12 published articles regarding CIMT on KD patients and controls. The mean ± SD of absolute CIMT (mm) in the KD patients and controls obtained from each article was transformed to SDS (CIMT-SDS) using age-specific reference values established by Jourdan et al. (J: n = 247) and our own data (N: n = 175), and the results among these 12 articles were compared between the two groups and the references for comparison of racial disparities. There were no significant differences in mean absolute CIMT and mean CIMT-SDS for J between KD patients and controls (0.46 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.44 ± 0.04 mm, p = 0.133, and 1.80 ± 0.84 vs. 1.25 ± 0.12, p = 0.159, respectively). However, there were significant differences in mean CIMT-SDS for N between KD patients and controls (0.60 ± 0.71 vs. 0.01 ± 0.65, p = 0.042). When we assessed the nine articles on Asian subjects, the difference of CIMT-SDS between the two groups was invariably significant only for N (p = 0.015). Compared with the reference values, CIMT-SDS of controls was within the normal range at a rate of 41.6 % for J and 91.6 % for N. These results indicate that age- and race-specific reference values for CIMT are mandatory for performing accurate assessment of the vascular status in healthy children and adolescents, particularly in those after KD considered at increased long-term cardiovascular risk.

  5. Association of branched-chain amino acids with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery disease risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyue Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have determined that branched-chain (BCAAs and aromatic (AAAs amino acids are strongly correlated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia and are strong predictors of diabetes. However, it is not clear if these amino acids are capable of identifying subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk of developing CAD. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy two Chinese subjects (272 males and 200 females, 42-97 y of age undergoing physical exams were recruited at random for participation in the cross-sectional study. Serum BCAAs and AAAs were measured using our previously reported isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Bilateral B-mode carotid artery images for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT were acquired at end diastole and cIMT values more than 0.9 mm were categorized as increased. Correlations of BCAAs with cIMT and other CAD risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: BCAAs and AAAs were significantly and positively associated with risk factors of CAD, e.g., cIMT, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, TG, apoB, apoB/apoAI ratio, apoCII, apoCIII and hsCRP, and were significantly and negatively associated with HDL-C and apoAI. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.175, P<0.001, log BCAA (β = 0.147, P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.141, P = 0.012 were positively and independently associated with cIMT. In the logistic regression model, the most and only powerful laboratory factor correlated with increased cIMT was BCAA (the odds ratio of the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile was 2.679; P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: BCAAs are independently correlated with increased cIMT. This correlation would open a new field of research in the mechanistic understanding and risk assessment of CAD.

  6. Association Between Short-Term Systolic Blood Pressure Variability and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in ELSA-Brasil Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adèle H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fujita, André; Goulart, Alessandra C; Chor, Dora; Mill, José G; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-10-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), but few studies have explored the association between BP variability and CIMT. We aimed to investigate this association in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 7,215 participants (56.0% women) without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) or antihypertensive use. We included 10 BP readings in varying positions during a 6-hour visit. We defined BP variability as the SD of these readings. We performed a 2-step analysis. We first linearly regressed the CIMT values on main and all-order interaction effects of the variables age, sex, body mass index, race, diabetes diagnosis, dyslipidemia diagnosis, family history of premature CVD, smoking status, and ELSA-Brasil site, and calculated the residuals (residual CIMT). We used partial least square path analysis to investigate whether residual CIMT was associated with BP central tendency and BP variability. Systolic BP (SBP) variability was significantly associated with residual CIMT in models including the entire sample (path coefficient [PC]: 0.046; P < 0.001), and in women (PC: 0.046; P = 0.007) but not in men (PC: 0.037; P = 0.09). This loss of significance was probably due to the smaller subsample size, as PCs were not significantly different according to sex. We found a small but significant association between SBP variability and CIMT values. This was additive to the association between SBP central tendency and CIMT values, supporting a role for high short-term SBP variability in atherosclerosis. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Daily marital interaction quality and carotid artery intima-medial thickness in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria Tennille; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time ecological momentary assessments for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT (b = -0.02, F(1,275) = 9.18, p = .002), and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT (b = 0.02 F(1,275) = 10.29, p = .001). These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological CVD risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical CVD in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the use of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health.

  8. The anti-inflammatory protein kallistatin is associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calan, Mehmet; Guler, Aslı; Unal Kocabas, Gokcen; Alarslan, Pınar; Bicer, Merve; Imamoglu, Cetin; Yuksel, Arif; Bozkaya, Giray; Bilgir, Oktay

    2017-03-14

    Kallistatin is a secreted protein that acts as a tissue kallikrein inhibitor. It has antiinflammatory, antioxidant and vasoprotective properties. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disease associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether circulating kallistatin levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between kallistatin and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) as well as inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). This cross-sectional study included 75 women with PCOS and 75 age- and BMI-matched controls without PCOS. Circulating kallistatin and TNF-α levels were measured using ELISA. Metabolic and hormonal parameters, hs-CRP levels and cIMT were also determined. All subjects underwent the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2-h OGTT). Circulating kallistatin levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared to controls (6.31 ± 2.09 vs. 4.79 ± 2.26 ng/ml, Pwomen with PCOS. Kallistatin levels positively correlated with insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), free androgen index, hs-CRP, TNF-α and cIMT in both PCOS and control groups. Kallistatin levels did not show correlation with BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, 2-h OGTT or HbA1C. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that kallistatin is an independent predictor for cIMT (β = 0.131, 95% CI = 0.114 - 0.150, P = 0.019). Kallistatin levels may provide useful information regarding cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS.

  9. Whole Blood ω-3 Fatty Acids Are Inversely Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Indigenous Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Adriana; Harris, William S; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Yunes, Elsa; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Catzin-Kuhlmann, Andres; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martín

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. The association between n-3 PUFAs and cardiovascular disease may vary across different populations, and there is limited information on Hispanic individuals with mixed Amerindian and European origin. We evaluated the cross-sectional relations between whole blood n-3 PUFAs and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Mexican women living in Mexico and assessed whether this relation was different in women who spoke an indigenous language compared with women who did not. In 2012-2013, we assessed the association between blood n-3 PUFAs and IMT in 1306 women free of disease in Chiapas and Yucatan, Mexico. We categorized blood n-3 PUFAs (% of total FAs) in quartiles and adjusted linear regression models by age, indigenous language, site, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, menopause, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, physical activity, and diet. We stratified analyses by indigenous/nonindigenous language speakers (n = 315 of 991). Whole blood n-3 PUFAs (means ± SDs) were 3.58% ± 0.78% of total FAs. We did not observe a significant association between n-3 PUFAs and IMT in the overall study population. However, the adjusted mean difference of IMT was -6.5% (95% CI: -10.7%, -2.3%; P-trend women in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of blood n-3 PUFAs. In nonindigenous women, we did not observe an association (-0.6%; 95% CI: -3.0%, 1.8%, comparing extreme quartiles; P-trend = 1.00). Overall, circulating n-3 PUFAs were not associated with IMT. However, we observed a strong statistically significant inverse association with IMT in indigenous Mexican women. Future studies should evaluate genetic markers that may reflect differences in n-3 PUFA metabolism across populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness in mainly non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min; Kang, Jin Hwa; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Chae, Soo Jin; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic disturbances are well-recognized clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CIMT in women with PCOS has been investigated in many studies, but there has been only one report in the Korean population. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in young untreated Korean women with PCOS and age-matched controls, specifically by measuring their CIMT. CIMT was measured by one radiologist in 56 PCOS patients and 56 controls. To compare the CIMT according to PCOS phenotypes, women with PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of hyperandrogenism. Although PCOS patients were more obese and had higher blood pressure and insulin resistance index than the age-matched controls, the CIMT was not different between the two groups (0.49 ± 0.09 mm in PCOS patients vs. 0.50 ± 0.11 mm in controls, respectively, p = 0.562). When the CIMT in the control group was compared with hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS groups, also no significant differences were found. Despite the significant differences in some vascular risk factors between women with PCOS and controls, PCOS patients did not have a significantly higher CIMT (even in the hyperandrogenic subgroups). Although our study did not show the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in PCOS patients, the role of CIMT continues to be investigated considering the importance of screening and monitoring CVD risk factors in women with PCOS.

  11. Effects of intravenous zoledronate and ibandronate on carotid intima-media thickness, lipids and FGF-23 in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, S; Caffarelli, C; Tanzilli, L; Pondrelli, C; Lucani, B; Franci, B M; Nuti, R

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are interconnected entities and share also some pathophysiological mechanisms. Moreover, recent literature data have supported the hypothesis that bisphosphonates (BPs) may have some antiatherogenic actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of one year with zoledronate or ibandronate given intravenously on lipid profile and on carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT). Sixty postmenopausal osteoporotic women (mean age: 66.6±7.8years) were randomly assigned to 1-year treatment with zoledronate 5mg i.v. annually or ibandronate 3mg i.v. every 3 months. In all patients at baseline and after 12months we measured CA-IMT, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I collagen β carboxy telopeptide (βCTX), osteocalcin (OC), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and sclerostin. The osteoporotic women treated with zoledronate showed a greater reduction in CA-IMT than those treated with ibandronate. HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio showed a significant (pwomen treated with zoledronate and in those treated with ibandronate. At the end of the study period sclerostin serum levels showed a higher increase in the patients treated with zoledronate than in those treated with ibandronate. In osteoporotic women both zoledronate and ibandronate given intravenously resulted in an increase in HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and a reduction of CA-IMT which was significant only for zoledronate. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify whether the change in FGF-23 and sclerostin levels is a marker or a potential mechanism of the action of BPs at a vascular level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Atherosclerosis is Associated Comorbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Ultrasound Assessment of Carotid Intima Media Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal R. Hafez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess atherosclerotic comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and its relationship to COPD severity, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. Methods: A hospital-based observational case-control study was conducted on 86 male COPD patients, and 86 age-matched healthy subjects (non-COPD group. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT was assessed by Doppler ultrasound; in addition, spirometry and arterial blood gas tests were done. Results: CIMT was significantly increased in the COPD group compared to the non-COPD group (0.84±0.15 vs. 0.63±0.076, p<0.001. When the CIMT value of ≥0.8 mm was defined as a cutoff value for a thickened CIMT complex, 64% of COPD patients versus 8.1% of non-COPD subjects had a thickened CIMT. COPD patients with a thickened CIMT were older and had a higher PaCO2, lower FEV1%, FVC, and FEF25–75% compared to COPD patients with a normal CIMT. Thickened CIMT in COPD patients was significantly associated with hypoxemia (p=0.008, OR=8.2, hypercapnia (p=0.04, OR=6.2, and airflow limitation (p=0.11, OR=2.1. There was no significant difference in CIMT in relation to COPD severity (p=0.83. Conclusion: Atherosclerosis is prevalent in COPD patients, even in the early stages of the disease. Hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and airflow limitation are risk factors of atherosclerosis in COPD patients.

  13. Effects of 24-Week Aerobic and Resistance Training on Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Flow Velocity in Elderly Women with Sarcopenic Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Kwon, Yoochan; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-11-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly women. Increases in body fat and decreases in muscle mass are closely associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a 24-week aerobic and resistance training program on carotid parameters in SO. Fifty elderly women (74.1±6.1 years) with SO were randomly divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed combined exercise over 24 weeks, consisting of resistance and aerobic training for 50-80 min, 5 times a week. Carotid variables were measured using B-mode ultrasound. The differences in the carotid variables and the relative changes between baseline and after 24 weeks were evaluated. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, CIMT (p=0.013), systolic flow velocity (p=0.007), diastolic flow velocity (p=0.006), and wall shear rate (p=0.010) showed significant interactions. In paired t-test results of the exercise group, CIMT significantly decreased (p<0.01) and systolic flow velocity (p<0.01), diastolic flow velocity (p<0.001), and wall shear rate (p<0.05) significantly increased after 24 weeks. The 24-week combined exercise effectively decreased CIMT and increased carotid flow velocity and wall shear ratio. Therefore, combined exercise is thought to contribute to the improvement of the risk of CVD in elderly women with SO.

  14. The Effect of Sitagliptin on the Regression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickening in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Sitagliptin Preventive Study of Intima-Media Thickness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Mita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors on the regression of carotid IMT remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to clarify whether sitagliptin, DPP-4 inhibitor, could regress carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. This is an exploratory analysis of a randomized trial in which we investigated the effect of sitagliptin on the progression of carotid IMT in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Here, we compared the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment on the number of patients who showed regression of carotid IMT of ≥0.10 mm in a post hoc analysis. Results. The percentages of the number of the patients who showed regression of mean-IMT-CCA (28.9% in the sitagliptin group versus 16.4% in the conventional group, P = 0.022 and left max-IMT-CCA (43.0% in the sitagliptin group versus 26.2% in the conventional group, P = 0.007, but not right max-IMT-CCA, were higher in the sitagliptin treatment group compared with those in the non-DPP-4 inhibitor treatment group. In multiple logistic regression analysis, sitagliptin treatment significantly achieved higher target attainment of mean-IMT-CCA ≥0.10 mm and right and left max-IMT-CCA ≥0.10 mm compared to conventional treatment. Conclusions. Our data suggested that DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with the regression of carotid atherosclerosis in insulin-treated T2DM patients. This study has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000007396.

  15. Ultrasonographic study of common carotid arteries in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Viktoriya Nikolaevna Panfilova

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To elucidate sonographic characteristics of common carotid arteries in adolescents with type1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 depending on the duration of the disease and thepresence of chronic complications. Materials and methods. A total of 56 adolescents having DM1 of different duration were examined to evaluate conditions of common carotid arteries (CA in the systole anddiastole during at least 3 cardiac cycles. The following parameters were measured: CA diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT, estimated stretch and stiffness coefficients, Youngsmodulus. The control group comprised 16 healthy adolescents. Results. Bilateral increase of IMT was recorded in patients with DM duration over 5 years. Youngs modulus, stretch and stiffness coefficients were virtually unrelated to diseaseduration. In patients having DM for more than 10 years, stretch coefficient was 5.38 (95% DI 4.82-5.8 compared with 5.82 (95% DI 5.63-7.38 in those with DM for less than 3years (p = 0.04. The level of albuminuria correlated with IMT (r=0.32, p=0.03, stiffness coefficient (r = 0.43, p=0.001, stretch coefficient (r= -0.48, p

  16. Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Vaag, Allan; Tarnow, Lise

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of 3 insulin analogue regimens on change in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2×3 factorial design, conducted at 8 hospitals in Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Participants with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol), body mass index >25 kg/m(2)) were, in addition to metformin versus placebo, randomised to 18 months open-label biphasic insulin aspart 1-3 times daily (n=137) versus insulin aspart 3 times daily......: Carotid IMT change did not differ between 3 insulin regimens despite differences in HbA1c, weight gain and insulin doses. The trial only reached 46% of planned sample size and lack of power may therefore have affected our results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00657943....

  17. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness. Cross-sectional analysis from ELSA-Brasil baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-06-01

    Studies focusing on the association between anxiety/depressive symptoms and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis have yielded mixed results. Our aim is to examine associations between anxiety/depressive symptoms, common mental disorder (CMD), major depression disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort baseline. The ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment included CIMT measurements and the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R), a validated questionnaire for anxiety/depressive symptoms/diagnoses. We analyzed participants without previous coronary heart disease or stroke, and with high-quality CIMT images. We built regression models to determine whether the CIS-R score, CMD, MDD or GAD were associated with maximal CIMT levels. The study sample comprised 9744 participants. We found that individuals with higher CIS-R scores (Odds ratio for one standard deviation increase [OR]:1.12; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.06-1.19), CMD (OR:1.22; 95%CI:1.07-1.38) and GAD (OR:1.19; 95%CI:1.01-1.41) had significantly higher odds of being classified in the highest age, sex and race-specific CIMT quartile. In the linear models, after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, higher CIS-R scores (β:0.005; P = 0.010) and GAD (β:0.010; P = 0.049) were independently associated with CIMT values. Individuals with more symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, or diagnoses of CMD or GAD, had higher CIMT values, compared to peers of same age, sex and race. CIS-R scores and GAD were independently associated with higher CIMT values. These results suggest an association between anxiety/depressive symptoms (and, most notably, GAD) and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Hodis, Howard N; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-03-01

    Decreases in endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemic index (RHI) correlated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in recently menopausal women with a low risk cardiovascular profile. Factors linking this association are unknown. Assess, longitudinally, markers of platelet activation and cell-derived, blood-borne microvesicles (MV) in relationship to RHI and CIMT in asymptomatic, low risk menopausal women. RHI by digital pulse tonometry (n = 93), CIMT by ultrasound (n = 113), measures of platelet activation and specific cell-derived, blood-borne MV were evaluated in women throughout the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. CIMT, but not RHI, increased significantly over 4 years. The average change in CIMT correlated significantly with the average follow-up values of MV positive for common leukocyte antigen [CD45; ρ = 0.285 (P = 0.002)] and VCAM-1 [ρ = 0.270 (P = 0.0040)]. Using principal components analysis (PC) on the aggregate set of average follow-up measures, the first derived PC representing numbers of MV positive for markers of vascular endothelium, inflammatory cells (leukocyte and monocytes), pro-coagulant (tissue factor), and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) associated with changes in RHI and CIMT. Changes in RHI associated with another PC defined by measures of platelet activation (dense granular ATP secretion, surface expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors). MV derived from activated endothelial and inflammatory cells, and those expressing cell adhesion and pro-coagulant molecules may reflect early vascular dysfunction in low risk menopausal women. Assays of MV as non-conventional measures to assess cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic women remain to be developed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and fasting blood glucose level: A population-based cross-sectional study among low-income adults in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liu; Bai, Lingling; Shi, Min; Ni, Jingxian; Lu, Hongyan; Wu, Yanan; Tu, Jun; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Yukun

    2017-11-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an established predictor of cardiovascular disease and stroke. We aimed to identify the association between CIMT and blood glucose, as well as the risk factors associated with increased CIMT in a low-income Chinese population. Stroke-free and cardiovascular disease-free residents aged ≥45 years were recruited. B-mode ultrasonography was carried out to measure CIMT. There were 2,643 participants (71.0%) in the normal group, 549 (14.7%) in the impaired fasting glucose group and 533 (14.3%) in the diabetes mellitus group. The determinants of increased CIMT were older age; male sex; low education; hypertension; smoking; high levels of systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and low levels of diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, after adjusting for covariates. Age and hypertension were the common risk factors for increased CIMT in all three groups. Furthermore, male sex, smoking and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were positively associated with the mean CIMT in the normal group; high triglycerides levels were negatively associated with the mean CIMT in the impaired fasting glucose group; and alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for mean CIMT in the diabetes mellitus group. Hypertension was the greatest risk factor for increased CIMT. These findings suggest that it is crucial to manage and control traditional risk factors in low-income populations in China in order to decelerate the recent dramatic increase in stroke incidence, and to reduce the burden of stroke. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Diez Roux, Ana V; Macdonald, Leslie; Foy, Capri G; Andrew, Michael E; Stukovsky, Karen H; Baron, Sherry

    2012-10-01

    Long working hours may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective was to investigate cross-sectional associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants were 1694 women and 1868 men from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. CIMT and ABI were measured using standard protocols. Information on work hours was obtained from questionnaires. Mean values of CIMT and ABI were examined across five categories of hours worked per week (≤20, 21-39, 40, 41-50 and >50) using analysis of variance/analysis of covariance. p Values for trend were obtained from linear regression models. Mean age of participants was 56.9±8.4 years; 52.4% were men. Distinct patterns of association between work hours and the subclinical CVD biomarkers were found for women and men, although this heterogeneity by gender was not statistically significant. Among women only, work hours were positively associated with common (but not internal) CIMT (p=0.073) after full risk factor adjustment. Compared with women working 40 h, those working >50 h were more likely to have an ABI work hours and ABI were inversely associated (p=0.046). There was some evidence that the association between work hours and ABI was modified by occupational category (interaction p=0.061). Among persons classified as management/professionals, longer work hours was associated with lower ABI (p=0.015). No significant associations were observed among other occupational groups. Working longer hours may be associated with subclinical CVD. These associations should be investigated using longitudinal studies.

  1. Triglyceride glucose index and common carotid wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Scavelli, Faustina B; de Franceschi, Maria S; Esposito, Teresa; Carallo, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in wall shear stress contribute to both clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. Several conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity can impair shear stress, but the role of insulin resistance has never been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin resistance assessed by TyG Index associates with wall shear stress in the common carotid artery. One hundred six individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and cigarette smoking were evaluated. TyG Index was calculated as log[fasting triglycerides × fasting glucose / 2]. Subjects underwent blood viscosity measurement and echo-Doppler evaluation of carotid arteries to calculate wall shear stress. The association between TyG Index and carotid wall shear stress was assessed by simple and multiple regression analyses. TyG Index was significantly and inversely associated with carotid wall shear stress both in simple (r = -0.44, P glucose greater than 100 mg/dL, and triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL. The present findings suggest that increasing insulin resistance, as assessed by TyG Index, associates with atherosclerosis-prone shear stress reduction in the common carotid artery.

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness at age 30, birth weight, accelerated growth during infancy and breastfeeding: a birth cohort study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012-13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ≥ 1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <-1 s.d.) was 3.62 μm (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ≥ 1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <-1 s.d) was 3.83 μm (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ≥ 1 s.d. in relation to <-1 s.d. was 4.19 μm (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ≥ 1 s.d. in relation to <-1 s.d. was 4.28 μm (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2-4 was 1.26 μm (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years.

  3. Circulating adiponectin increases in obese women after sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass driving beneficial metabolic changes but with no relationship with carotid intima-media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martin, Jesús M; Balsa, José A; Aracil, Enrique; Insenser, María; Priego, Pablo; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2017-10-12

    Obesity surgery induces beneficial effects in metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Adiponectin increase might be associated with some of these changes. However, direct comparison between different surgical techniques has not been extensively performed. We studied 20 obese women submitted to laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 20 to sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Twenty control women matched for age and baseline metabolic profiles were also included. Both patients and controls were followed up for one year after surgery or conventional treatment with diet and exercise, respectively. Serum adiponectin was measured at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after, as well as lipid profiles, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), fasting glucose and insulin. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasonography at baseline and after 1 year. Circulating adiponectin increased after obesity surgery (more markedly following RYGB than after SG), whereas no changes were observed in the controls (Wilks' λ = 0.659, P media thickness (r = -0.055, P = 0.679). RYGB induces a higher increase in adiponectin than SG, which parallels SHBG, the reduction of fasting insulin and insulin resistance. On the other hand, no association was found with carotid intima-media, lipid profiles or blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Thicker carotid intima-media thickness and increased plasma VEGF levels suffered by post-acute thrombotic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueniwati Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuyun Yueniwati,1 Ni Komang Darmiastini,1 Eko Arisetijono2 1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 2Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Background and objectives: Atherosclerosis causes reduction of the oxygen supply to structures in the far arterial wall, provoking the release of factors that drive angiogenesis of vasa vasorum, including VEGF. Other studies have revealed the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and the role of platelet factor 4 (PF4 as an anti-angiogenic chemokine through the inhibition of VEGF. This cross-sectional study aims at measuring the effect of atherosclerosis assessed through carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT against plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. Materials and methods: CIMT was assessed sonographically using GE Logiq S6 with 13 MHz frequency linear probe. VEGF-A plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Differences among variables were compared statistically. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 25 patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke were identified in days 7 to 90. CIMT thickening was indicated in 88% of patients (1.202 ± 0.312 mm, while an increase in plasma VEGF was identified in all patients (178.28 ± 93.96 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke (p=0.741. A significant correlation was recognized between CIMT and total cholesterol (p=0.029 and low-density lipoprotein (p=0.018. Conclusion: There were no significant correlations between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. However, plasma VEGF increased in patients with thrombotic stroke. CIMT measurement is a promising noninvasive modality to assess the vascular condition of patients with stroke and diabetes, while plasma VEGF

  5. Biomarkers Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques in Long-Term Survivors of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Maroy, Tove Helene; Mazengia, Kibret Yimer; Eide, Geir Egil; Vedeler, Christian Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle risk factors, inflammation and genetics play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We therefore studied Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms, interleukin (IL)-10 polymorphisms and other biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with ischemic stroke at a young age. Patients were evaluated 12 years after stroke occurrence. Patients (n = 232) 49 years of age or younger with an index stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected. Blood samples were taken at a first follow-up 6 years after the stroke. At a second follow-up, additional arterial events were registered for 140 patients, new blood samples were taken, and measurements of cIMT and blood pressure (BP) were performed. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis showed that cIMT ≥1 mm was associated with age, male gender, additional arterial events, BP, cholesterol, sedimentation rate, haemoglobin, triglycerides, creatinine, glycolysed haemoglobin (HbA1c) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII. Adjusted backward stepwise logistic regression showed significance for age (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to1.23, p = 0.003), male gender (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.15 to 14.5, p = 0.030), HbA1c (OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.21 to 36.5, p = 0.029) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.08 to 14.3, p = 0.037). In this long-term follow-up study of patients with ischemic stroke at a young age, FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII was identified as a possible contributing factor for cIMT ≥1 mm together with known risk factors, such as age, male gender, systolic BP, additional arterial events and HbA1c.

  6. Lack of Association between ABO, PPAP2B, ADAMST7, PIK3CG, and EDNRA and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaques, and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel López-Mejías

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV mortality. Recent studies have identified the ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, and ADAMTS7 rs3825807 polymorphisms as genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease and the PIK3CG rs17398575 and EDNRA rs1878406 polymorphisms as the most significant signals related to the presence of carotid plaque in nonrheumatic Caucasian individuals. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential relationship between these 5 polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis (assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and presence/absence of carotid plaques and CV disease in RA. Material and Methods. 2140 Spanish RA patients were genotyped for the 5 polymorphisms by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated in 620 of these patients by carotid ultrasonography technology. Results. No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to cIMT values and presence/absence of carotid plaques in RA, after adjusting the results for potential confounders. Moreover, no significant differences were obtained when RA patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of CV disease after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion. Our results do not confirm association between ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, ADAMTS7 rs3825807, PIK3CG rs17398575, and EDNRA rs1878406 and subclinical atherosclerosis and CV disease in RA.

  7. Timing of menarche related to carotid artery intima-media thickness in black and white young adult women: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary mycotic aneurysm of the common carotid artery: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasiewicz, A.; Molski, S.; Jundzill, W.; Meder, G.; Lasek, W.

    2006-01-01

    Aneurysms of the common carotid artery are relatively rare. Mycotic aneurysms in such location occur even less frequently. Causative factors can be sepsis, recent surgery, or dental procedures. Immunosuppression may also be a burdening factor. The authors present the case of a 70-year-old male patient with primary mycotic carotid artery aneurysm. The patient was diagnosed with ultrasound and multidetector spiral computed tomography and treated operatively with a PTFE prosthesis. Culture-appropriate antibiotic therapy was administered during the perioperative period. The rarity of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms might cause diagnostic and treatment difficulties. Open surgery is the recommended method, although the endovascular approach is gaining more acceptance. The choice of treatment modality might be facilitated by a detailed morphologic description of the aneurysm and its surroundings. Available methods of imaging are described. (author)

  9. Association of Microalbuminuria and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehdashti Shahrokh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases, and its risk enhances in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT by carotid artery ultrasonography and assess its correlation with microalbuminuria and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was included 205 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. We recorded clinical and biochemical data such as FBS, lipid profile, and urinary albumin. Intima-media thickness of carotid arteries was measured in all patients by high frequency ultrasound. Results In simple correlation coefficients analysis, CIMT was significantly associated with total cholesterol (r = 0.197, P = 0.008, serum creatinine (r = 0.240, P = 0.001, and urinary albumin (r = 0.420, P = 0.000. Also, CIMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of chronic kidney disease (0.67 ± 0.15 mm in stage 1, 0.73 ± 0.22 mm in stage 2, and 0.82 ± 0.21 mm in stage 3 (P value = 0.024. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the duration of diabetes, weight, HDL, serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR were independently associated with CIMT (P value < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Our study shows a relationship between CIMT and renal parameters, including eGFR and albuminuria. This study confirms the importance of intensive examinations for early detection of atherosclerosis and treatment of risk factors.

  10. Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima-media thickness in trials; comparison of reproducibility, rate of progression, and effect of intervention in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia and subjects with mixed dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Soner; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Shear, Charles L.; Evans, Greg W.; Visseren, Frank L.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Current ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in trials rather differ. The ideal protocol combines high reproducibility with a high precision in the measurement of the rate of change in CIMT over time and with a precise estimate of a treatment effect. To

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAROTID INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS WITH SOME INFLAMMATORY BIOMARKERS, GHRELIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN IRANIANS WITH AND WITHOUT METABOLIC SYNDROME IN ISFAHAN COHORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Hajmohammadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have confirmed inflammatory factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS as important cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. Recently measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT has been used for evaluation of early atherosclerosis. This study was designed to assess the correlation between IMT with some inflammatory biomarkers, ghrelin and adiponectin in people with and without MetS in a cohort sample in Isfahan province.    METHODS: Among participants of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS by random sampling, 88 participants were selected and divided into case (with MetS and control (without MetS   groups. A questionnaire including demographic data and CVD risk factors was completed for all of the participants. Physical examination and blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference measurements were done for all subjects. Vascular echocardiography was done for evaluation of IMT of each carotid artery of both sides. Interlukin-6 (IL-6, interlukin-10 (IL-10, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, ghrelin and adiponectin levels were measured using ELIZA method. Data were entered in SPSS version 15 and analyzed by t test, chi square, Pearson correlation and linear regression analyze.    RESULTS: The mean waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hs –CRP and IMT of left carotid artery were significantly higher in participants with Mets. There was significant correlation between left carotid IMT and IL-6 level in all patients (P=0.03. After adjustment for age and sex, significant relationship in groups with MetS was only reported between the left IMT and IL-6 (P=0.02. There was no relation between IMT and other inflammatory markers in subjects with and without MetS.    CONCLUSION: Significant correlation between IL-6 and IMT was reported in patients with MetS. While no significant correlation between IL-10, adiponectin and ghrelin with IMT was observed in metabolic syndrome

  12. Beta-cell function is associated with carotid intima-media thickness independently of insulin resistance in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roussel, Ronan; Natali, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is a common belief that early atherosclerosis in prediabetes is causally linked to endothelial insulin resistance. Another condition, a low insulin secretion, may be associated with insufficient insulin action on the vascular wall and consequently favor atherosclerosis. Our aim...... was to test this hypothesis in people without diabetes, taking into account the gold-standard measurement of insulin sensitivity, a major confounder in the relationship between insulin secretion and atherosclerosis. Methods: We studied the European Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular...... Risk cohort of 451 men and 593 women (44±8 years, mean±SD) who were free of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and other known chronic or acute conditions. All underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (M/I measured insulin sensitivity), and B-mode carotid...

  13. Improvement in cardiovascular risk in women after bariatric surgery as measured by carotid intima-media thickness: comparison of sleeve gastrectomy versus gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martin, Jesús M; Aracil, Enrique; Galindo, Julio; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Balsa, José A; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2017-05-01

    Bariatric surgery may diminish cardiovascular risk (CVR) and its associated mortality. However, studies that compare these effects with different techniques are scarce. To evaluate the changes in CVR as estimated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) after obesity surgery in women with high CVR as defined by the presence of metabolic syndrome. Academic hospital. We studied 40 severely obese women, of whom 20 received laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 20 received sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Twenty control women matched for age and cardiovascular risk were also included. Patients and controls were evaluated at baseline and 1 year after surgery or conventional treatment with diet and exercise, respectively. Only 18 of the 20 women in the control group were available for analysis after 1 year. None of the women who had bariatric surgery was lost to follow-up. Mean carotid IMT decreased 1 year after surgery irrespective of the surgical technique used, whereas no changes were observed in the control women who had conventional therapy (Wilks´ λ = .802, P = .002 for the interaction, P = .011 for RYGB versus controls, P = .002 for SG versus controls, P = .349 for RYGB versus SG). Both RYGB and SG decrease CVR as measured by carotid IMT in obese women. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

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    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  15. Carotid and femoral B-mode ultrasound intima-media thickness measurements in adult post-coarctectomy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, J. J. W.; de Groot, E.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Aim. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in adult post-coarctectomy patients is increased even after successful surgical repair of the aorta. B-mode ultrasound intima-media thickness (IMT), a validated marker for atherosclerosis and vascular disease risk, was used to measure

  16. Diminished heart rate reactivity to acute psychological stress is associated with enhanced carotid intima-media thickness through adverse health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginty, Annie T; Williams, Sarah E; Jones, Alexander; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca C; Carroll, Douglas; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that individuals with low heart rate (HR) reactions to acute psychological stress are more likely to be obese or smokers. Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was to examine the potential pathways linking intima-media thickness, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and HR stress reactivity. A total of 552 participants, 47.6% male, M (SD) age = 58.3 (0.94) years, were exposed to three psychological stress tasks (Stroop, mirror drawing, and speech) preceded by a resting baseline period; HR was recorded throughout. HR reactivity was calculated as the average response across the three tasks minus average baseline HR. Smoking status, BMI, and IMT were determined by trained personnel. Controlling for important covariates (e.g., socioeconomic status), structural equation modeling revealed that BMI and smoking mediated the negative relationship between HR reactivity and IMT. The hypothesized model demonstrated a good overall fit to the data, χ(2) (8) = 0.692, p = .403; CFI = 1.00; TLI = 1.00 SRMR = .01; RMSEA stress reactivity appears to be a marker for enlarged IMT and appears to be exerting its impact through already established risks. Future research should examine this relationship longitudinally and aim to intervene early. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Coronary atherosclerosis burden is not advanced in patients with β-thalassemia despite premature extracardiac atherosclerosis: a coronary artery calcium score and carotid intima-media thickness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahalis, George; Zacharioglou, Evangelia; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Koniari, Ioanna; Kalogeropoulou, Chistina; Tsota, Irene; Rigopoulou, Aspasia; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Gkizas, Vasilios; Davlouros, Periklis; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Leopoulou, Marianna; Gogos, Charalampos; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-02-01

    Thalassemic patients demonstrate an increased rate of extracardiac vascular complications and increased carotid wall intima-media thickness (cIMT), but very low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the atheroma burden by assessing the coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cIMT in these patients. We examined 37 patients with β-thalassemia and 150 healthy control volunteers with multi-detector computer tomography (CT) and ultrasonography to determine CAC score and cIMT, respectively. Propensity score matching (C-statistic: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.93) resulted in 27 pairs of patients; severe CAC was observed in 2 (7.4%) and 0 of β-thalassemia patients and healthy volunteers respectively (P = 0.5). Median calcium score was 0 (0-0) in β-thalassemia patients and 0 (0-4) in healthy volunteers (P = 0.8). Median intima-media thickness was higher in β-thalassemia patients compared to control group [0.45 (0.06-0.65) vs. 0.062 (0.054-0.086); P = 0.04]. Patients with β-thalassemia in comparison with healthy control subjects exhibit similar CAC score and increased cIMT. Our findings indicate a disparate rate of progression of atherosclerosis between coronary and extracardiac arteries in these patients lending support to the epidemiological evidence.

  18. Bone Mineral Density Is Positively Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Findings From a Population-Based Study in Adolescents and Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysz, Monika; Deere, Kevin; Lawlor, Debbie A; Benfield, Li; Tobias, Jon H; Gregson, Celia L

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are both common causes of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies, mainly of people older than 60 years, suggest a relationship between these conditions. Our aim was to determine the association between bone characteristics and CVD markers in younger and middle-aged individuals. Women (n = 3366) and their adolescent offspring (n = 4368) from the UK population-based cohort study, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were investigated. We measured total body (TB) and hip bone mineral density (BMD), TB bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by high-resolution ultrasound. Arterial distensibility was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic arterial diameters. Linear regression determined associations between bone exposures and cIMT (in adolescents) and both cIMT and arterial distensibility (in women), generating partial correlation coefficients. Mean (SD) age of women was 48 (4.2) years, body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 (5.0) kg/m 2 , and 71% were premenopausal. In confounder-adjusted analyses (age, height, lean mass, fat mass, menopause, smoking, estrogen replacement, calcium/vitamin D supplementation, and education) TB and hip BMD were both positively associated with cIMT (0.071 [0.030, 0.112], p = 0.001; 0.063 [0.025, 0.101], p = 0.001, respectively). Femoral neck BMD and TB BMD, BMC, and BA were positively associated with arterial distensibility. Mean (SD) age of adolescents was 17 (0.4) years, BMI was 23 (4.1) kg/m 2 , and 44.5% were male. Total hip and TB measurements were positively associated with cIMT, with similar magnitudes of association to those found in their mothers. In contrast to most published findings, we identified weak positive associations between BMD and cIMT in predominantly premenopausal women and their adolescent offspring. We found greater femoral neck

  19. Evaluation of a new carotid intima-media thickness measurement by B-mode ultrasonography using an innovative measurement software, intimascope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanase, Toshihiko; Nasu, Shigeru; Mukuta, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Yutaka; Nishihara, Tetsu; Okabe, Taijiro; Nomura, Masatoshi; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Nawata, Hajime

    2006-12-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) is usually evaluated by eye measurement under B-scope carotid artery ultrasonography. However, the axial resolution of this system is >/=0.1 mm, which causes difficulties in respect to accuracy and reproducibility. We evaluated a newly developed B-scope carotid artery ultrasonography programmed by an innovative measurement software, Intimascope (Media Cross Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), which measures IMT with 10 times higher axial resolution at an estimated scale of 0.01 mm. Intraobserver or interobserver coefficient of variation (CV) of the computer-based average IMT (aver-IMT) value and 3-point IMT value were much smaller than the corresponding value by conventional eye-measurement method (3-point value). We measured IMT of 427 asymptomatic subjects undergoing medical checkups (243 men and 184 women, 23 to 73 years of age). Although the mean values of aver-IMT and 3-point IMT of 427 subjects were comparable with that of the eye measurement method, the aver-IMT showed the smallest SD (standard deviation) and CV values. In both men and women, multivariate regression analysis revealed significant contributions of age and LDL-C to the aver-IMT value. Univariate regression analysis revealed that the aver-IMT value of total subjects showed the highest correlation coefficient values with most risk factors and risk assessment score, Framingham Risk Assessment, or Prospective Cardiovascular Munster study (PROCAM) Risk Score. These results may suggest superiority of computer-based aver-IMT over 3-point IMT by either computer-based or eye measurement method. Carotid aver-IMT measurement using the new Intimascope software may provide a more precise and reproducible index of atherosclerosis than does conventional IMT measurement.

  20. Polymorphism AvaII of the LDL receptor (rs5925 is associated with carotid-intima media thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Nikolajević-Starčević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increased serum level of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol is a well established risk factor for atherosclerosis development and progression. Genetic variation in the LDL receptor gene could modulate serum LDL level and response to statin treatment thus affecting atherosclerosis development and progression. The present study was designed to investigate the association between polymorphism AvaII (rs5925 of the LDL receptor gene with serum lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Methods 595 patients with DM2 (399 on statin therapy and 196 without were enrolled in the study. The carotid intima-media thickness was assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. AvaII (rs5925 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR. Results Genotype distribution and allele frequencies were not statistically significantly different between DM2 patients with regard to statin therapy. In DM2 patients using statins the highest serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol were observed in homozygous carriers of the A+ allele. After adjustment for well established cardiovascular risk factors homozygosity for the A+ allele (β=0.441 and p=0.04, statin treatment as well as serum levels of HDL, triglycerides, hsCRP and fibrinogen were independently associated with CIMT. Interactions of AvaII genotypes A-A+ and A+A+ with statin treatment were not statistically significant.Conclusion Homozigosity for the A+ allele of the AvaII polymorphism is associated with greater CIMT in DM2 patients.

  1. Effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on carotid artery intima-media thickness as a risk factor for atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahandi, Maryam Zaare; Ramazanzadeh, Elham; Abbaszadeh, Leili; Javadrashid, Reza; Shirazi, Koorosh Masnadi; Gholami, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on CIMT as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Background The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide due to rise of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence. Non-invasive assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by high-resolution carotid B-mode ultrasonography is widely used for determining the atherosclerosis. Patients and methods In this case-control setting, 151 subjects were categorized in three groups: group I including 49 patients with NAFLD and DM; group II including 50 non-diabetic NAFLD patients; and the control including 52 normal subjects as group III. The right and left CIMTs and its maximum reading (CIMTmax) were measured by a skilled sonographist blind to the groups. The sonographic grading of the NAFLD was determined in group I and II. Results Median CIMTmax was significantly higher in group I comparing with group II and control group (pliver enzymes (in both groups, 0.6 mm, p= 0.402). Conclusion Based on our findings, there is a significant association between the presence of NAFLD and atherosclerosis. This association was independent to the DM presence. The grade of NAFLD and elevated liver function tests had no effect on severity of atherosclerosis. PMID:25436098

  2. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: the Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Dekker, J M; Diamant, M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P G; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J

    2008-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare the associations of postprandial glucose (ppGL) and postprandial triglycerides (ppTG) with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in women with normal glucose metabolism (NGM) and type 2 diabetes (DM2). Post-menopausal women (76 with NGM, 78 with DM2), received two consecutive fat-rich and two consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h following breakfast; lunch was given at t=4. Ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery was performed to measure cIMT. In women with NGM, an increase of 1.0 mmol/l glucose following the fat-rich meals was associated with a 50 microm cIMT increase (p=0.04), and following the carbohydrate meals, an increase of 1.8 mmol/l glucose was associated with a 50 microm larger cIMT (p=0.08). These associations were not explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors. However, no association between ppGL and cIMT was found in women with DM2 and ppTG were not associated with cIMT. The association between ppGL and cIMT in normoglycaemic women suggests that ppGL in the normal range is a marker or a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Postprandial glucose levels might be a better indicator of risk than post-OGTT glucose levels or triglyceride levels.

  3. Diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid/femoral intima-media thickness independently of markers of insulin resistance and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose regulation (IGR is associated with detrimental cardiovascular outcomes such as cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD risk factors or intima-media thickness (IMT. Our aim was to examine whether these associations are mediated by body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (waist or fasting serum insulin (insulin in a population in the African region. Methods Major CVD risk factors (systolic blood pressure, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, were measured in a random sample of adults aged 25–64 in the Seychelles (n = 1255, participation rate: 80.2%. According to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association, IGR was divided in four ordered categories: 1 normal fasting glucose (NFG, 2 impaired fasting glucose (IFG and normal glucose tolerance (IFG/NGT, 3 IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT, and 4 diabetes mellitus (DM. Carotid and femoral IMT was assessed by ultrasound (n = 496. Results Age-adjusted levels of the major CVD risk factors worsened gradually across IGR categories (NFG Conclusion We found graded relationships between IGR categories and both major CVD risk factors and carotid/femoral IMT. These relationships were only partly accounted for by BMI, waist and insulin. This suggests that increased CVD-risk associated with IGR is also mediated by factors other than the considered markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. The results also imply that IGR and associated major CVD risk factors should be systematically screened and appropriately managed.

  4. LOX-1 ligands containing apolipoprotein B and carotid intima-media thickness in middle-aged community-dwelling US Caucasian and Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Tomonori; Sekikawa, Akira; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Kadowaki, Takashi; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Mackey, Rachel H; Kadota, Aya; Evans, Rhobert W; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Higashiyama, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Abbott, Robert D; Miura, Katsuyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Fujita, Yoshiko; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Kakino, Akemi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Horie, Minoru; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kuller, Lewis H; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    The serum level of LOX-1 ligand containing ApoB (LAB) may reflect atherogenicity better than LDL cholesterol (LDLC), total LDL particles and usual measurement of oxidized LDL. The association between LAB and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery was investigated by ultrasound in US and Japan men. Participants were 297 US Caucasian and 310 Japanese men, aged 40-49 years without past history of cardiovascular disease. Serum LAB levels were measured by ELISAs with recombinant LOX-1 and monoclonal anti-apolipoprotein B antibody. Serum LAB levels [median (interquartile range), μg/L] were 1321 (936, 1730) in US Caucasians and 940 (688, 1259) in Japanese. For Caucasian men, average IMT was higher in higher LAB quartile, which was 0.653, 0.667, 0.688, and 0.702 mm, respectively (p for trend = 0.02). Linear regression analysis showed serum LAB was significantly associated with IMT after adjustment for LDLC or total LDL particles in addition to other traditional or novel risk factors for atherosclerosis such as C-reactive protein. However, there was no significant relationship between LAB and IMT in Japanese men. Serum LAB, a new candidate biomarker for residual risk, was associated with an increased carotid IMT in US Caucasian men independently of various risk factors; however, ethnic difference should be clarified in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Carotid intima-media thickness distribution according to the stratification of cardiovascular risk by means of Framingham-REGICOR and score function charts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-Ameijeiras, Á; López-Paz, J E; Riveiro-Cruz, M A; Calvo-Gómez, C

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been suggested as a further tool for risk function charts. The aim of this study was to describethe relationship between cIMT and cardiovascular risk (CVR) estimation according to Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE equations. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study from 362 hypertensive subjects. Demographic and clinical information were collected as well as laboratory, ultrasonographic and CVR estimation by the Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE functions. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 20,0). To analyze the data, statistical tests such as Chi-square, T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. According to both functions, differences on mean cIMT were found between low CVR group and intermediate to high groups. No differences were found between intermediate and high risk groups (cIMT: 0,73mm low risk patients vs. 0,89 or 0,88mm respectively according to SCORE function and cIMT: 0,73 vs. 0,85 or 0,87mm respectively according to Framingham-REGICOR function). cIMT correlated positively with CVR estimation according to both SCORE (r=0,421; P<.01), and Framingham-REGICOR functions (r=0,363; P<.01). cIMT correlates positively with CVR estimated by SCORE and Framingham-REGICOR functions. cIMT in those subjects at intermediate risk is similar to those at high risk. Our findings highlight the importance of carotid ultrasound in identifying silent target-organ damage in those patients at intermediate CVR. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ABNORMALITIES IN COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IMAGES USING MULTIWAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nandakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the report given by World Health Organization, by 2030 almost 23.6 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases (CVD, mostly from heart disease and stroke. The main objective of this work is to develop a classifier for the diagnosis of abnormal Common Carotid Arteries (CCA. This paper proposes a new approach for the analysis of abnormalities in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound CCA images using multiwavelets. Analysis is done using HM and GHM multiwavelets at various levels of decomposition. Energy values of the coefficients of approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal details are calculated and plotted for different levels. Plots of energy values show high correlation with the abnormalities of CCA and offer the possibility of improved diagnosis of CVD. It is clear that the energy values can be used as an index of individual atherosclerosis and to develop a cost effective system for cardiovascular risk assessment at an early stage.

  8. Insulin resistance and carotid intima-media thickness mediate the association between resting-state heart rate variability and executive function: A path modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew H; López, Santiago Rodríguez; Passos, Valeria M A; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Dantas, Eduardo M; Mill, José G; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Thayer, Julian F; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-05-01

    Research has linked high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) to cognitive function. The present study adopts a modern path modelling approach to understand potential causal pathways that may underpin this relationship. Here we examine the association between resting-state HF-HRV and executive function in a large sample of civil servants from Brazil (N=8114) recruited for the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). HF-HRV was calculated from 10-min resting-state electrocardiograms. Executive function was assessed using the trail-making test (version B). Insulin resistance (a marker of type 2 diabetes mellitus) and carotid intima-media thickness (subclinical atherosclerosis) mediated the relationship between HRV and executive function in seriatim. A limitation of the present study is its cross-sectional design; therefore, conclusions must be confirmed in longitudinal study. Nevertheless, findings support that possibility that HRV provides a 'spark' that initiates a cascade of adverse downstream effects that subsequently leads to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations are Inversely Associated with Elevated Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulin; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Baihui; Huang, Xiaolin; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    Increased carotid artery intima media thickness (C-IMT) is an early feature of atherosclerosis. It has been reported to be altered in patients with thyroid dysfunction, and the evidence is still controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between C-IMT and possible variations in thyroid function in Chinese adults aged 40 years and above. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2276 non-diabetic participants. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of elevated C-IMT decreased according to FT3 quartiles (29.8%, 24.3%, 24.2%, and 22.2%, P for trend=0.005). In both univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, FT3 levels were inversely associated with C-IMT (both P values ≤ 0.002). Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that high FT3 levels were associated with low prevalent elevated C-IMT. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated C-IMT was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99, P=0.04) when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of FT3. Serum FT3 levels were inversely associated with elevated C-IMT in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults without diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  10. A case of Behcet's disease with aneurysms of common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Sung Jae

    1984-01-01

    One case of Behcet's disease with multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta is presented with brief review of the literatures. A 26-year-old woman had slowly enlarging pulsatile masses in both sides of neck and recurrent ulcerations in oral cavity and genitalia. One day prior to admission, aphasia, right facial nerve palsy and right hemiplegia suddenly developed. Brain CT showed acute infarction in left basal ganglia. Both Carotid Angiography and abdominal Aortography demonstrated multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta with organizing thrombi and thromboembolism of internal carotid artery

  11. Results of subclavian to carotid artery bypass for occlusive disease of the common carotid artery: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco G; Masci, Federica; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Peschillo, Simone

    2018-05-01

    Optimal treatment of significant atherosclerosis of the common carotid artery (CCA) is not well-defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of prosthetic subclavian to carotid bypass for occlusive disease of the CCA. From January 1994 to December 2015, 45 patients, mean age 67 years, underwent an ipsilateral subclavian to carotid bypass for occlusive disease of the CCA. Thirty-eight patients (84%) presented with neurologic symptoms, including transitory ischemic attacks in 29 cases and minor strokes in 9 cases. The graft material consisted of a 7 mm polytetrafluoroethylene conduit, and the distal anastomosis was done on the carotid bulb in 21 patients, on the internal carotid artery in 19 cases, and on the distal CCA in 5 cases. Median length of follow-up was 58 months. Study endpoints were the combined postoperative stroke/mortality rate, graft infection, overall late survival, freedom from ipsilateral stroke, and graft patency. Postoperative stroke/mortality rate was 2%. No graft infection was observed throughout follow-up. At 60 months, overall survival, freedom from stroke, and graft patency were 71% (standard error [SE] = 0.07), 98% (SE = 0.02), and 95.5% (SE = 0.06), respectively. Subclavian to carotid bypass allows very good patency rates and excellent protection from postoperative and late stroke, remaining a benchmark for any other treatment method. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Pseudoaneurysm of the Common Carotid Artery in an Infant due to Swallowed Fish Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulion Tapouh Jean Roger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition, particularly in the paediatric population. Only about 30 cases of carotid artery aneurysms in infants have been published until now. This paper reports the case of a giant pseudoaneurysm of the left common carotid artery due to swallowed fish bone by an 8-year-old boy. This pseudoaneurysm was 5.5 cm transverse-diameter and resulted in severe respiratory distress. It was treated by resection and end-to-end anastomosis with satisfactory outcome after one-year follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest carotid artery pseudoaneurysm ever described in children.

  13. Effects of CPAP therapy on visceral fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness and adipokines in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Susanna S S; Liu, Eric K H; Ma, Ronald C W; Chan, Tat-On; To, Kin-Wang; Chan, Ken K P; Ngai, Jenny; Yip, Wing-Ho; Ko, Fanny W S; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Hui, David S C

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study explores the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with OSA on visceral and mesenteric fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adipokines. A randomized controlled study was conducted at a teaching hospital on 90 patients newly diagnosed with OSA to receive either therapeutic CPAP or subtherapeutic CPAP for 3 months. Visceral fat thickness and carotid IMT were measured with B-mode ultrasound; adipokine levels were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Altogether, 45 patients received therapeutic CPAP and 45 received subtherapeutic CPAP without significant differences in age 50.3 (10.1) versus 48.7 (9.0) years, BMI 28.2 (3.9) versus 28.2 (4.5) kg/m 2 , Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) 12.4 (5.9) versus 11.3 (4.7), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 30.6 (21.4) versus 35.2 (25.5) /h, minimum SaO 2 79.6 (10.8) versus 76.7 (12.4) % and existing co-morbidities. CPAP usage was therapeutic 4.2 (2.1) versus subtherapeutic 4.1 (2.0) h/night over 3 months. Adiponectin and irisin levels changed significantly following therapeutic CPAP for 3 months versus subtherapeutic CPAP (-1.6 vs 7.3, P = 0.042; 0.1 vs -0.1, P = 0.028 respectively) while only serum level of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) at baseline was positively correlated with AHI (r = 0.278). No significant changes were observed in other adipokines, visceral fat thickness and IMT. Short-term therapeutic CPAP versus subtherapeutic CPAP does not significantly reduce visceral fat thickness and IMT, although it reduces adiponectin and increases irisin. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M da; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G; Moreira, Rodrigo de C; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls-FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events.

  15. Insulin resistance is associated with carotid intima-media thickness in non-diabetic subjects. A cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil cohort baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Diniz, Maria de Fátima H S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have analyzed the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and insulin resistance, glucose levels or glycated hemoglobin with mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the association between CIMT and homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting and post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We included 8028 participants (aged 35-74 years) without diabetes or overt cardiovascular disease who had complete CIMT data at baseline. We built crude and adjusted linear and binary logistic models to evaluate the association between CIMT and (a) HOMA-IR; (b) fasting plasma glucose; (c) post-load plasma glucose; and (d) glycated hemoglobin. We also built post-hoc models, stratified by sex. In the fully-adjusted linear models, only the association between CIMT (in mm) and HOMA-IR remained significant (β = 0.004; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:0.001 to 0.006). Consistent with these results, only the association between the highest age- sex- and race-specific CIMT quartile and HOMA-IR was significant in the adjusted logistic model (odds ratio [OR]:1.10; 95% CI:1.04-1.17). The association between HOMA-IR and the highest CIMT quartile remained significant in sex-specific analyses (OR:1.10; 95% CI:1.02-1.20 for men and OR:1.10; 95% CI:1.02-1.20 for women). We did not find an independent association between CIMT and glucose or glycated hemoglobin. We found a direct association between HOMA-IR and CIMT in a large sample of non-diabetic participants. Mechanisms unrelated to glucose homeostasis, as a direct effect of insulin on atherosclerosis, or medial hypertrophy, may be involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of life course socioeconomic position and job stress with carotid intima-media thickness. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane V; Giatti, Luana; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; Benseñor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-09-01

    The association between life course socioeconomic position (SEP) and subclinical atherosclerosis is not consistent across studies. Socioeconomic adversities early in life are related to an increased probability of a low occupational grade and more stressful jobs in adulthood. However, the role of job stress in explaining the life course social gradient in subclinical atherosclerosis is unknown. To examine whether life course SEP is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and to investigate whether this association is partially mediated by job stress. This study used baseline data (2008-2010) for 8806 current workers from ELSA-Brasil. Maternal education, social class of first occupation and social class of current occupation were used to evaluate childhood, youth and adulthood SEP, respectively. Accumulation of risk across the life course was also evaluated. Job stress was assessed by the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Directed acyclic graph and linear regression models were used. Low childhood SEP was associated with increased IMT only in women, but low youth and adulthood SEP were associated with higher IMT in both genders. The simultaneous adjustment for all SEP indicators showed that only adulthood SEP continued to be associated with IMT. However, higher IMT values were observed among men and women sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. High-strain jobs and low job control were not associated with IMT independent of SEP. Our results support a model of the cumulative effects of exposures to SEP across the life span because the highest IMT values were observed in individuals sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. We did not find that job stress explained the association between life course SEP and IMT, suggesting that strategies to address socioeconomic inequalities in CVD should target additional steps beyond reducing job stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Cardiovascular Health Score and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Baseline Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Pereira, Alexandre C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-12-01

    The American Heart Association aims to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in this decade by improving seven ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) characteristics in the population. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between the American Heart Association's CVH score and values for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline assessment. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health is a multicenter cohort study of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years in Brazil. In this study, the investigators analyzed 9,662 individuals with no previous cardiovascular disease. The distribution of CIMT values (categorized into age-, sex-, and race-specific quartiles) was analyzed according to CVH scores using χ 2 trend tests. Linear and multinomial regression models were built to evaluate the association between CIMT and CVH score. A significant increase was observed in the proportion of individuals within the first and second CIMT quartiles, as well as a decrease within the fourth quartile with higher CVH score strata (P for trend < .001). A 1-point increase in CVH score was associated in adjusted models with a decrease of 0.011 mm in CIMT and an odds ratio of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.77-0.81) of having CIMT in the fourth quartile. However, nearly 16% of individuals with optimal CVH scores had CIMT values in the highest quartile. In this study, significant associations were found between CIMT and CVH score in a large sample of middle-aged adults. However, a high CVH score did not warrant the absence of a significant subclinical atherosclerotic burden. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Thyroxin Treatment on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Reduction in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH): a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Kandimalla, Yugandhar; Machavarapu, Archana; Saxena, Anshul; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Nguyen, Michelle; Malik, Rehan; Anugula, Dixitha; Latif, Muhammad A; Humayun, Choudhry; Khan, Idrees M; Adus, Ali; Rasool, Aisha; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-07-01

    Research shows that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is related to an increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is controversial whether or not SCH should be treated to reduce CVD morbidity and mortality. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether SCH is associated with an increase in CIMT as compared to Euthyroidism (EU) and whether thyroxin (T4) treatment in SCH can reverse the change in CIMT. Two independent reviewers conducted an extensive database research up to December 2016. A total of 12 clinical trials discussed the effect of Thyroxin on CIMT values at pre- and post-treatment in subjects with SCH. CIMT was significantly higher among SCH (n=280) as compared to EU controls (n=263) at baseline; the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of CIMT was 0.44 mm [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14, 0.74], p=0.004; I 2 =65%. After treatment with thyroxin in subjects with SCH (n=314), there was a statistically significant decrease in CIMT from pre- to post-treatment; the pooled WMD of CIMT decrease was [WMD -0.32; 95% CI (-0.47, -0.16), p=<0.0001; I 2 =2%], and it was no longer different from EU controls [WMD 0.13 mm; 95% CI (-0.04, 0.30); p=0.14; I 2 =27%]. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were higher in SCH as compared to EU controls and decreased significantly after treatment with thyroxin. This meta-analysis shows that thyroxin therapy in subjects with SCH significantly decreases CIMT and improves lipid profile, modifiable CVD risk factors. Thyroid hormone replacement in subjects with SCH may play a role in slowing down or preventing the progression of atherosclerosis.

  19. Carotid intima-media thickness and cognitive function in a middle-aged and older adult community: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anxin; Chen, Guojuan; Su, Zhaoping; Liu, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Ruixuan; Cao, Yibin; Chen, Shuohua; Luo, Yanxia; Guo, Xiuhua; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between atherosclerosis and cognitive function is less well studied in Chinese populations. In addition, the results among middle-aged adults have been mixed. We aimed to investigate the association of atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from a Chinese community. Participants in the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community study (APAC) who had completed the CIMT detection and cognitive function measurements in 2012/2013 were included. Cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between CIMT and MMSE. Then, a stratified analysis was performed separately in middle-aged and older adults. A total of 3227 participants were included in this study (mean age 57.9 years, range 43-93 years); 56.6 % of them were men, 66.0 % were middle-aged adults. After adjusting for potential confounders, larger CIMT was associated with lower MMSE scores, with a 0.75-point decrease in MMSE score for every 1-mm increase in CIMT (β = - 0.75, P = 0.0020). The association remained statistically significant in middle-aged adults (β = - 0.57, P = 0.0390), and was stronger in older adults and adults with low education levels. There is a significant association between CIMT and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults sampled from a Chinese population. This association was stronger in older adults and adults with low education levels.

  20. Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study (KEEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Mathew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, Joann E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional analysis. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Recently menopausal women (n = 868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). None. Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum E2 levels, and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using coronary artery calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n = 771) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, E2, CAC, and CIMT were assessed. In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations and depression approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and E2. Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine whether baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Large artery stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness in relation to markers of calcium and bone mineral metabolism in African women older than 46 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafane, L F; Schutte, R; Kruger, I M; Schutte, A E

    2015-03-01

    Vascular calcification and cardiovascular diseases have been associated with altered bone metabolism. We explored the relationships of arterial pressures and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and their ratio (PTH:25(OH)D3) as well as a marker of bone resorption (CTX) in lean and overweight/obese African women. A population of 434 African women older than 46 years was divided into lean and overweight/obese groups. We assessed brachial blood pressure, central pulse pressure (cPP) and CIMT, and determined PTH, 25(OH)D3 and CTX concentrations. Overweight/obese women had elevated PTH and PTH:25(OH)D3 compared with lean women (both Pwomen had higher CTX (Pwomen CIMT was independently associated with PTH:25(OH)D3 (R(2)=0.22; β=0.26; P=0.003), whereas in obese women cPP was associated with both PTH:25(OH)D3 (R2=0.20; β=0.17; P=0.017) and CTX (R2=0.20; β=0.17; P=0.025). In conclusion, we found that in African women with increased adiposity, cPP (as a surrogate measure of arterial stiffness), was positively associated with alterations in bone metabolism and calciotropic hormones, whereas CIMT of lean women was positively associated with PTH:25(OH)D3. Our results suggest that alterations in bone and calcium metabolism may contribute to arterial calcification in older African women.

  2. Both serum apolipoprotein B and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio are associated with carotid intima-media thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that apolipoprotein measurements predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk; however, associations between apolipoproteins and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT were less explored. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cross-sectional study included 6069 participants aged 40 years or older with NGT from Shanghai, China. Serum fasting traditional lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and triglycerides [TG], apoA-I and apoB were assessed. A high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure CIMT. We found CIMT increased progressively across the quartiles of serum apoB (p for trend <0.0001. In logistic regression, concentrations of apoB (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.36, TC (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.32, LDL-C (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.34 and TG (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.20 were significantly related to elevated CIMT after adjusted for age and sex. Meanwhile, the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17-1.34 related to elevated CIMT. ApoB (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.51 and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36 remained significantly associated with elevated CIMT, after adjusted for the traditional CVD risk factors including traditional lipids. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: There were significant associations between serum apoB, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and elevated CIMT. Serum apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio might be independent predictors of early atherosclerosis in NGT.

  3. Oxidative damage markers are significantly associated with the carotid artery intima-media thickness after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between oxidative damage markers and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in multiple logistic regression models.Fifty-one case male participants (CIMT ≥ 0.9 mm were enrolled during their visits to Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study of Wonju centers between May 1 and August 31, 2011, along with 51 control participants (CIMT < 0.9 mm selected using frequency matching by age group. The levels of oxidative damage markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquuanosine (8-OHdG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (Isoprostane, were measured. Conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative relationships between the oxidative damage markers and the risk of high CIMT.The markers of oxidative lipid (Isoprostane and MDA and DNA (8-OHdG damage were associated with CIMT after controlling for the conventional risk factors, including age, low density lipoprotein, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and metabolic syndrome (ORs [95% CI] for Isoprostane: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for MDA: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for 8-OHdG: 3rd tertile, 5.58 [1.79-17.33]. When all the oxidative damage markers were incorporated in the same logistic regression model, only Isoprostane was significantly related to CIMT (OR [95% CI]: 4.22 [1.31-13.53] in 2nd tertile and 14.21 [3.34-60.56] in 3rd tertile.In this nested case-control study, the oxidative damage markers of lipid and DNA were associated with CIMT even after controlling for the conventional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with Low Disease Activity Compared to Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah F van Breukelen-van der Stoep

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA has been identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The importance of risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia in the generation of atherosclerosis in RA patients is unclear. This study analyzed clinical parameters associated with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT in patients with RA.Subjects with RA and healthy controls without RA, both without known cardiovascular disease, were included. Participants underwent a standard physical examination and laboratory measurements including a lipid profile. cIMT was measured semi-automatically by ultrasound.In total 243 RA patients and 117 controls were included. The median RA disease duration was 7 years (IQR 2-14 years. The median DAS28 was 2.4 (IQR 1.6-3.2 and 114 (50.4% of the RA patients were in remission. The presence of RA and cIMT were not associated (univariate analysis. Multivariable regression analysis showed that cIMT in RA patients was associated with age (B = 0.006, P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (B = 0.003, P = 0.003. In controls, cIMT was associated with age (B = 0.006, P<0.001 and smoking (B = 0.097, P = 0.001.cIMT values were similar between RA patients and controls. Hypertension was strongly associated with cIMT in RA patients. After adjustment, no association between cIMT and specific RA disease characteristics was found in this well treated RA cohort.

  5. Self-Reported Menopausal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Calcification and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232

  6. Differential incremental value of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and cardiac calcium to predict angiographic coronary artery disease across Framingham risk score strata in the APRES multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Rigo, Fausto; Facchetti, Rita; Carerj, Scipione; Giannattasio, Cristina; Moreo, Antonella; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Grolla, Elisabetta; Faden, Giacomo; Cesana, Francesca; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2016-09-01

    According to recent data, more accurate selection of patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is needed. From the Active PREvention Study multicentre prospective study, we further analyse whether carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid plaques (cPL), and echocardiographic cardiac calcium score (eCS) have incremental discriminatory and reclassification predictive value for CAD over clinical risk score in subjects undergoing coronary angiography, specifically depending on their low, intermediate, or high class of clinical risk. In eight centres, 445 subjects without history of prior CAD but with chest pain of recent onset and/or a positive/inconclusive stress test for ischaemia prospectively underwent clinically indicated elective coronary angiography after cardiac and carotid ultrasound assessments with measurements of cIMT, cPL, and eCS. The study population was divided into subjects at low (10%), intermediate (10-20%), and high (>20%) Framingham risk score (FRS). Ultrasound parameters were tested for their incremental value to predict CAD over FRS, in each pre-test risk category. No significant difference could be appreciated between the discrimination value of FRS and Diagnostic Imaging for Coronary Artery Disease score for the presence of CAD. eCS or cPL demonstrated significant incremental prediction over FRS, consistently in the three FRS categories (P risk subjects, in whom cPL was apparently not incremental over FRS, and eCS was only of borderline significance for better discrimination. Ultrasound eCS and cPL assessments were significant predictors of angiographic CAD in patients without prior CAD but with signs or symptoms suspect for CAD, independently and incrementally to FRS, across all pre-test risk probability strata, although in high-risk subjects, only eCS maintained an incremental value. The use of cIMT was not significantly incrementally useful in any FRS risk category. Published on behalf of the

  7. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women With Remote Histories of Preeclampsia: Results From a Rochester Epidemiology Project-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garovic, Vesna D; Milic, Natasa M; Weissgerber, Tracey L; Mielke, Michelle M; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; White, Wendy M; Hodis, Howard N; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-09-01

    To measure carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in postmenopausal women with and without histories of preeclampsia and to synthesize these results with those from prior studies of CIMT performed 10 or more years after preeclamptic pregnancies. Forty women (median age, 59 years) with histories of preeclampsia and 40 with histories of normotensive pregnancy (confirmed by medical record review) were selected from women who resided and gave birth in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1982. The participants were identified and recruited in 2014-2015, and CIMT was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Meta-analysis included CIMT studies that were performed 10 or more years after preeclamptic pregnancies and which were identified through PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 statistic. Standardized mean difference was used as a measure of effect size. Carotid artery intima-media thickness, expressed as a median (interquartile range), was greater in the preeclamptic than in the normotensive group (0.80 mm [0.75-0.85 mm] vs 0.73 mm [0.70-0.78]; P=.004); the odds of having CIMT higher than threshold (0.77 mm) was statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.10-9.14). A meta-analysis of 10 studies conducted 10 or more years post partum included 813 women with and 2874 without histories of preeclampsia. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was greater among women with histories of preeclampsia, with a standardized mean difference of 0.18 and 95% CI of 0.05 to 0.30 mm (P=.004). Among women with histories of preeclampsia, CIMT may identify those with subclinical atherosclerosis, thus offering an opportunity for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of the structure and function of the common carotid artery in hypertriglyceridemic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-data technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Hai-Jun; Wang, Yan; Sha, Hai-Jing; Wen, Shu-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of the properties of blood-vessel walls by ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-data technology is an innovative technique. We quantitatively evaluated the intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in asymptomatic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) using RF-data technology. Thirty HTG subjects and 30 matched controls were enrolled in the study. The common carotid arterial systolic diameter, diastolic diameter, IMT, carotid distensibility (CD), local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ), and stiffness (β) were compared between the two groups, as was the correlation between triglyceride level and the parameters mentioned above. The HTG group had significantly higher values of CCA-IMT compared with the control group (p 0.05). The level of triglycerides had significant positive correlations with CCA-IMT (r = 0.493, p < 0.001), whereas significant correlations with CD, PWVβ, and β were not observed in the HTG group. Ultrasound RF-data technology can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively detect the change in the structure and function of the CCA in asymptomatic HTG subjects for evaluating preclinical atherosclerosis.

  9. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  10. Management of radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftus, C.M.; Biller, J.; Hart, M.N.; Cornell, S.H.; Hiratzka, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with long survival following cervical irradiation are at risk for accelerated carotid atherosclerosis. The neurologic presentation in these patients mimics naturally occurring atheromatous disease, but patients often present at younger ages and with less concurrent coronary or systemic vascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia also contributes to this accelerated arteriosclerosis. Angiographic findings in this disorder include disproportionate involvement of the distal common carotid artery and unusually long carotid lesions. Pathologic findings include destruction of the internal elastic lamina and replacement of the normal intima and media with fibrous tissue. This article describes two surgical patients with radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis who typify the presentation and characteristics of this disease

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness and oxidative stress markers for assessment of atherosclerosis in children with β thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Jindal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT in children with β thalassemia major to assess atherosclerosis and its relation to the underlying proposed causative mechanisms via lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized lowdensity lipoproteins (LDL, total antioxidant level, and lipid profile. A cross sectional study was conducted on 62 children (31 cases and 31 controls. CIMT by high resolution ultrasound and biochemical parameters i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, LDL, Oxidized LDL, lipoprotein (a, lipid peroxidation product MDA and total antioxidant were measured in enrolled subjects and compared. In our study, CIMT was significantly increased in β thalassemia major patients’ as compared to healthy controls. Mean CIMT in cases was 0.69±0.11 mm and in controls 0.51±0.07 mm. Mean oxidized LDL (EU/mL in cases 39.3±34.4 (range 14.4 to 160 was significantly raised (P=0.02, t test as compared to controls 23.9±13.4 (range 12 to 70. In our study we found MDA levels (nmol/mL to be increased in β thalassemia patients as compared to controls. Mean MDA was 10.0±3.27 (4.41 to 17.48 in cases while in controls was 6.87±4.55 (1.5 to 17.9. Our study results show CIMT as an early marker of atherogenesis in β thalassemia major. Oxidative stress markers are also increased in β thalassemia major patients and lipoprotein (a shows a positive correlation with CIMT. The present study points towards various atherogenetic mechanisms in β thalassemia major. 本研究评价β重型地中海贫血患儿颈动脉内膜中层厚度(CIMT),以评估动脉粥样硬化,以及与潜在通过血脂过氧化反应产物丙二醛(MDA)、氧化低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、总抗氧化水平和血脂谱所提出致病机制之间的关系。 在62名儿童(31例病例和31例对照)中进行了一项横断面研究。 在入组受试者中通过高分辨率超声和生化指标(

  12. [Basic laws of blood screw motion in human common carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, V P; Kirsanov, R I

    2008-08-01

    The basic laws of blood screw motion in common carotid arteries in people were determined by means of modern ultrasound techniques for the first time. 92 healthy adults, aged 18-30, were examined. The blood flow in the middle one-third of common carotid arteries was registered by means of Color Doppler Imaging and impulse Doppler with the help of ultrasound Medison 8000EX scanner by linear transducer of 5-9 MHz. The steady registration of blood screw motion in both common carotid arteries in Color Doppler Imaging regimen was observed in 54.3 % of cases. The direction of screw stream rotation in most cases (54%) was multi-directed: in the right common carotid artery it was right, in the left common carotid artery--left (48%), and in 6% of cases it was reverse. For 46% of cases blood rotation in both common carotid arteries was one-directed (26%--right, 20%--left). The velocity parameters of rotation component of blood motion were determined, maximum velocity being 19.68 +/- 5.84 cm/sec, minimum--4.57 +/- 2.89 cm/sec, average--7.48 +/- 2.49 cm/sec, angular--10.7 +/- 2.49 sec(-1). The rated velocity of blood cells motion in screw motion with regard of screw current lines to the vessel vertical axis makes up from 158.67 +/- 32.79 to 224.39 +/- 46.37 cm/sec.

  13. [Association between the level of fasting blood glucose over 35-year-old and carotid intima-media thickness in Han, Uygur and Kazak population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2007 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Li, Haixia; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Yang, Yining; Ma, Yitong

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the relationship between different levels of fasting blood glucose over 35-year old and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. From October 2007 to April 2010, the present study was performed in 13 935 inhabitants among Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population of aged 35 years old and over by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling principles from 7 regions in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous and we excluded the IMT over 0.9 millimeter, long-term out and the floating population. All subjects were measured fasting blood glucose and IMT values of carotid artery. The subjects were divided into three groups according to different fasting blood glucose levels: normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) and we used the analysis of variance to compare the differences among groups of IMT. Multiple linear regression model was used to explore factors of carotid IMT. The IMT of males of Han, Uygur and Kazak were (0.81 ± 0.29), (0.71 ± 0.27) and (0.79 ± 0.21) mm respectively, the differences were significant (F = 88.50, P blood pressure (β = 0.101, P blood glucose (β = 0.023, P = 0.009) were independent risk factors of IMT. The level of fasting blood glucose was an independent influence factor of carotid IMT and had a positive correlation in Han, Uygur and Kazak population of Xinjiang Autonomous Region.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, É J F; Bittencourt, M S; Pereira, A C; Goulart, A C; Santos, I S; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2016-10-01

    Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is scarce data about subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with SCH. We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We included subjects with normal thyroid function (TSH: 0.4-4.0 mIU/l, and normal free thyroxine (FT4): 0.8-1.9 ng/dl) and SCH (TSH ≥ 4.0 mIU/l and normal FT4) evaluated for IMT in a cross-sectional analysis. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and those with a history of cardiovascular disease. We performed logistic and linear regression models to evaluate the association with IMT (mean values and categorized at the 75th percentile) as a dependent variable and SCH as an independent variable, adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors. From 8623 subjects (median age of 50 years; interquartile range: 44-57), 4624 (53.6%) were women, 8095 (93.9%) were euthyroid, and 528 (6.1%) had SCH. Groups varied in age, body mass index, Framingham risk score, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, as well as, IMT, that were all higher in SCH compared to euthyroid participants. SCH is associated with IMT as a continuous variable (β = 0.010, P = 0.036) and IMT >75th percentile: OR = 1.30 (95% CI = 1.06-1.59) in logistic models. Individuals with SCH presented higher IMT compared with euthyroid subjects, even after adjustment for potential confounders. IMT was independently associated with SCH in the baseline of the ELSA-Brasil study. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m 2 , p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  16. Correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and carotid intima-media thickness in a Brazilian population descended from African slaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Júnior, F C; Mandarino, N R; Santos, E M; Santos, A M; Salgado, J V; Brito, D J A; Salgado, B J L; Lages, J S; Castelo Branco, G; Salgado Filho, N

    2018-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as a possible new cardiovascular risk factor. However, the results of studies correlating serum vitamin D levels with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to correlate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in Afro-descendants. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 382 individuals from a cohort of descendants of African slaves, inhabitants of "Quilombola" communities, with a mean age of 57.79 ±15.3 years, 54.5% of whom were women. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected and biochemical tests were performed, including serum levels of 25(OH)D by electrochemiluminescence and urinary albumin excretion, evaluated by the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in a spot urine sample. All participants underwent high-resolution ultrasonography for C-IMT measurement. Hypovitaminosis D was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/mL. The mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 50.4±13.5 ng/mL, with a low prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (4.86%). By simple linear correlation, a significant inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and C-IMT (r=-0.174, P=0.001) was observed. However, after multiple linear regression analysis, the significance of the association between serum levels of 25(OH)D and C-IMT measurement was lost (β=-0.039, P=0.318) and only male gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, glucose and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol remained significantly associated with C-IMT. Levels of 25(OH)D were independently and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol and inversely associated with age and ACR. In conclusion, no independent association between 25(OH)D levels and C-IMT was observed in this population. On the other hand, there was an inverse association with albuminuria, a marker of endothelial lesion.

  17. Antioxidant enzyme activity is associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness in black men and women: The SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Caitlynd; Huisman, Hugo W; Mels, Catharina M C

    2016-05-01

    In the urbanized black population of South Africa, oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Since oxidative stress may result from impaired antioxidant capacity we aimed to investigate antioxidant enzyme activity as well as its associations with vascular function and structure in a bi-ethnic population. Participants included 409 subjects almost equally stratified by ethnicity and sex. Blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were determined. GR activity was significantly higher in black men (7.71 nmol/min/ml vs 2.23 nmol/min/ml) and women (6.46 nmol/min/ml vs 2.86 nmol/min/ml) (p women, GPx activity was significantly lower (p women (31.9 nmol/min/ml vs 37.1 nmol/min/ml). In black men, cIMT was positively and independently associated with GR activity (R(2) = 0.30; β = 0.18; p = 0.048). In black women, systolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.21; β = -0.24; p = 0.014), diastolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.11; β = -0.20; p = 0.044) and mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.20; β = -0.31; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with GPx activity. No associations were found in the white groups. The positive association between GR activity and cIMT in black men may be the result of a compensatory response to prevent arterial remodelling. The inverse association between GPx activity and blood pressure in black women may indicate a role for decreased GPx activity in hypertension development in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-density lipoprotein subfraction, carotid artery intima-media thickness, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor alpha are associated with newly diagnosed ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Cumhur Cure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Small dense (sd low-density lipoprotein (LDL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha (a, and nitric oxide (NO have recently emerged as important stroke risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of increased levels of small LDL particle size, TNF-a and NO on the developed ischemic stroke and increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 women and 25 men (a total of 54 ischemic stroke patients and a similar age group of 50 controls (29 females and 21 males were included in the study. CIMT, C-reactive protein (CRP, TNF-a, NO, and lipid subfraction test of the two groups were measured. Results: The mean LDL particle size was smaller in patients with stroke than in the controls (26.8 ± 0.31 nm vs. 27.0 ± 0.31 nm, P = 0.003. sd-LDL, TNF-a, NO, CRP, right CIMT, and left CIMT were higher in patients with stroke than in the controls (respectively; 8.2 ± 7.8 mg/dL vs. 3.3 ± 3.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001;75.6 ± 25.0 pg/mL vs. 65.4 ± 9.1 pg/mL, P = 0.009;76.4 ± 53.3 mmol/L vs. 41.5 ± 27.0 mmol/L, P < 0.001;1.9 ± 2.6 mm vs. 0.4 ± 0.3 mm P < 0.001;0.97 ± 0.38 mm vs. 0.83 ± 0.15 mm, P = 0.007;1.04 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.87 ± 0.19 mm, P = 0.010. Conclusion: These results show that sd-LDL is independently associated with the incidence of stroke and may be a risk factor in the development of stroke. In addition, TNF-a, NO, right CIMT, and left CIMT may be a risk factor in the development of ischemic stroke.

  19. Increased carotid intima-media thickness associated with antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Masiá

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship of the Herpesviridiae with inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Prospective study including virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. IgG antibodies against herpesviruses, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT, endothelial function through flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery, and blood atherosclerosis biomarkers (hsCRP, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, MDA, sCD14, sCD163, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, D-dimer, and PAI-1 were measured. RESULTS: 136 patients with HIV viral load <200 copies/ml were included. 93.4% patients were infected with herpes simplex virus type-1, 55.9% with herpes simplex virus type-2, 97.1% with varicella-zoster virus, 65.4% with human herpesvirus-6, 91.2% with cytomegalovirus, and 99.3% with Epstein-Barr virus. Previous AIDS diagnosis was associated with higher cytomegalovirus IgG titers (23,000 vs 17,000 AU, P = 0.011 and higher varicella-zoster virus IgG titers (3.19 vs 2.88 AU, P = 0.047, and there was a positive correlation of the Framingham risk score with IgG levels against cytomegalovirus (Spearman's Rho 0.216, P = 0.016 and Herpes simplex virus-2 (Spearman's Rho 0.293, P = 0.001. IgG antibodies against cytomegalovirus correlated in adjusted analysis with the cIMT (P = 0.030. High seropositivity for varicella-zoster virus (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.05-8.01, P = 0.039, and for cytomegalovirus (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.20-11.97, P = 0.023 were predictors for the highest quartile of the cIMT in adjusted analyses. PAI-1 levels were independently associated with cytomegalovirus IgG titers (P = 0.041, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels with varicella-zoster virus IgG (P = 0.046 and P = 0.035 respectively, and hsCRP levels with Herpes simplex virus-2 IgG (P = 0.035. CONCLUSION: In virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients, antibody responses against herpesviruses are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, and with increased inflammation and coagulation

  20. IGF-1 and Insulin Resistance Are Major Determinants of Common Carotid Artery Thickness in Morbidly Obese Young Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Anca; Nicolae, Horia; Martin, Sorina; Barbu, Carmen; Copaescu, Catalin; Florea, Suzana; Panea, Cristina; Fica, Simona

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the relationship between insulin resistance, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and common carotid intima-media thickness (CC-IMT) in morbidly obese young patients. A total of 249 patients (aged 37.9 ± 9.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 45.6 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) were evaluated (metabolic tests, serum IGF-1 measurements, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and ultrasonographically assessed CC-IMT) in a research program for bariatric surgery candidates. After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, systolic blood pressure, uric acid, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic class, both HOMA-IR and IGF-1 z-score were significantly associated with CC-IMT. These results were confirmed in logistic regression analysis, in which age (β = 1.11, P = .001), gender (β = 3.19, P = .001), HOMA-IR (β = 1.221, P = .005), and IGF-1 z-score (β = 1.734, P = .009) were the only independent determinants of abnormal CC-IMT, presumably modulating the effect of the other risk factors included in the regression. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.841 (confidence interval: 0.776-0.907; P IGF-1 z-score are significantly associated with CC-IMT, independent of other major cardiovascular risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Can Emergency Physicians Perform Common Carotid Doppler Flow Measurements to Assess Volume Responsiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolz, Lori A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Common carotid flow measurements may be clinically useful to determine volume responsiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of emergency physicians (EP to obtain sonographic images and measurements of the common carotid artery velocity time integral (VTi for potential use in assessing volume responsiveness in the clinical setting. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we showed a five-minute instructional video demonstrating a technique to obtain common carotid ultrasound images and measure the common carotid VTi to emergency medicine (EM residents. Participants were then asked to image the common carotid artery and obtain VTi measurements. Expert sonographers observed participants imaging in real time and recorded their performance on nine performance measures. An expert sonographer graded image quality. Participants were timed and answered questions regarding ease of examination and their confidence in obtaining the images. Results: A total of 30 EM residents participated in this study and each performed the examination twice. Average time required to complete one examination was 2.9 minutes (95% CI [2.4-3.4 min]. Participants successfully completed all performance measures greater than 75% of the time, with the exception of obtaining measurements during systole, which was completed in 65% of examinations. Median resident overall confidence in accurately performing carotid VTi measurements was 3 (on a scale of 1 [not confident] to 5 [confident]. Conclusion: EM residents at our institution learned the technique for obtaining common carotid artery Doppler flow measurements after viewing a brief instructional video. When assessed at performing this examination, they completed several performance measures with greater than 75% success. No differences were found between novice and experienced groups. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:255–259.

  2. Novel flow quantification of the carotid bulb and the common carotid artery with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    technique transverse oscillation the blood velocities of both the axial and the transverse directions are obtained and the complexity of blood flow can be visualized. The aim of the study was to determine the technical performance and interpretation of vector concentration as a tool for estimation of flow...... (US) using a commercial vector flow ultrasound scanner (ProFocus, BK Medical, Denmark) with a linear 5 MHz transducer transverse oscillation vector flow software. CCA and CB areas were marked in one cardiac cycle from each volunteer. The complex flow was assessed by medical expert evaluation...... and by vector concentration calculation. A vortex with complex flow was found in all carotid bulbs, whereas the CCA had mainly laminar flow. The medical experts evaluated the flow to be mainly laminar in the CCA (0.82 +/- 0.14) and mainly complex (0.23 +/- 0.22) in the CB. Likewise, the estimated vector...

  3. Childhood Age and Associations Between Childhood Metabolic Syndrome and Adult Risk for Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Carotid Intima Media Thickness: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Juha; Magnussen, Costan G; Sinaiko, Alan; Woo, Jessica; Urbina, Elaine; Jacobs, David R; Steinberger, Julia; Prineas, Ronald; Sabin, Matthew A; Burns, Trudy; Berenson, Gerald; Bazzano, Lydia; Venn, Alison; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Dwyer, Terence; Juonala, Markus

    2017-08-16

    There is paucity of knowledge concerning the specific age in youth when the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) begin to be operative. Thus, we investigated the relation of age to the associations of childhood MetS with adult MetS, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high carotid intima-media thickness. Five thousand eight-hundred three participants were analyzed in 4 cohort studies (Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns, Bogalusa Heart Study, Princeton Lipid Research Study, Insulin Study). International cutoffs and previously used 75th percentile cutoffs were used for children to define MetS and its components. Mean follow-up period was 22.3 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Childhood MetS and overweight were associated with over 2.4-fold risk for adult MetS from the age of 5 years onward. Risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was increased from the age of 8 (risk ratio, 2.6-4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-6.76 and 1.12-7.24, respectively) onward for the 2 childhood MetS criteria based on international cut-off values and for childhood overweight. Risk for high carotid intima-media thickness was significant at ages 11 to 18 years in relation to childhood MetS or overweight (risk ratio, 2.44-4.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.55 and 2.55-5.66, respectively). Continuous childhood MetS score was associated with adult MetS from the age of 5, with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the age of 14 and with high carotid intima-media thickness from the age of 11 years onward. Adult MetS was predicted by MetS in childhood beginning at age 5. However, adult type 2 diabetes mellitus and subclinical atherosclerosis were not predicted by childhood data until after age 8. Body mass index measurement alone at the same age points provided similar findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern Finnish men.

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    Jouni Karppi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. METHODS: We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between concentrations of serum carotenoids, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall was explored in 840 middle-aged men (aged 46-65 years from Eastern Finland. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries were performed at baseline and 7-year follow-up. Serum levels of carotenoids were analyzed at baseline. Changes in mean and maximum intima media thickness of carotid artery wall were related to baseline serum carotenoid levels in covariance analyses adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: In a covariance analysis with adjustment for age, ultrasound sonographer, maximum intima media thickness, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, serum LDL cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease, antihypertensive medication and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, 7-year change in maximum intima media thickness was inversely associated with lycopene (p = 0.005, α-carotene (p = 0.002 and β-carotene (p = 0.019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that high serum concentrations of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis.

  5. The Diameter of the Left and Right Common Carotid Arteries in a Young Adult Population: An Imaging Based Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries. Non-invasive measurement of arterial diameter could become imperative in identifying individuals at risk. Therefore, we aimed to determine the parietal stress and normal values of left and right common carotid arteries in a young adult population and to evaluate their correlation with anthropometric variables (weight, height, BM[, BSA, and age and also determine if sexual dimorphism exists in the values of common carotid artery diameter. Sixty (60 young adults with age range 18-35 were recruited for the study. B-Mode ultrasound was used to assess diameter of carotid arteries. Results showed that the diameter of the common carotid artery increased with age. The right common carotid artery had a larger diameter than the left (P and lt;0.05. Males had larger common carotid diameter in both RCCA and LCCA than the females. The size of the common carotid artery however does not relate to height and blood pressure. Females showed a greater parietal stress than males. The study is the first to establish normal values of diameter of carotid arteries in an African population and will be a guide to further investigations into the possible relationship between the artery and the individuals at risk of carotid aneurysm.

  6. Absent right common carotid artery associated with aberrant right subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Uwabe, Kazuhiko; Osawa, Iichiro

    2018-06-01

    Rarely, the external and internal carotid arteries arise separately from the brachiocephalic trunk and right subclavian artery (SA) or the aortic arch and reflect the absence of a common carotid artery (CCA). We report a 45-year-old man with absent right CCA associated with aberrant right SA, an extremely rare combination, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) angiography during follow-up for postoperative aortic dissection. Retrospective careful observation of preoperative postcontrast CT revealed the absent right CCA. Previously reported arch variations associated with absent CCA include cervical aortic arch, double aortic arch, and right aortic arch.

  7. Isolated anomalous origin of the vertebral artery from the common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, William W; Sabat, Shyamsunder B

    2018-04-18

    Anomalous origins of the vertebral arteries are uncommon and typically associated with other abnormalities of the great vessels. We present a case of an isolated origin of the right vertebral artery from the ipsilateral common carotid artery detected using magnetic resonance angiography. Such variants can significantly affect endovascular and surgical planning.

  8. Subclavian Aberrant right artery aneurysm causing a common carotid trunk: findings in CT and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga Gomez, S.; Alvarez Castells, A.; Dominguez Oronoz, R.; Gifre Bassols, L.

    1995-01-01

    We present a case of aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm causing dysphagia, dysphonia, and Claude-Bernard-Horner's syndrome by compression of adjacent structures, initially diagnosed with plain chest radiography and barium-swallow examination. CT and MRI confirmed this vascular anomaly and showed a common carotid trunk, associated to aberrant subclavian artery in 29% of cases. (Author) 10 refs

  9. "Classical Blalock-Taussig shunt" gone wrong: Confusing the right common carotid with right subclavian artery

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    A Mohammed Idhrees

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl underwent classical Blalock-Taussig shunt at 5 months of age. Computed tomography evaluation showed "Adachi type H" pattern of aortic arch vessels with the right common carotid artery being anastomosed to the right pulmonary artery mistaking it for the right subclavian artery.

  10. "Classical Blalock-Taussig shunt" gone wrong: Confusing the right common carotid with right subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idhrees, A Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, Karunakaran

    2015-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl underwent classical Blalock-Taussig shunt at 5 months of age. Computed tomography evaluation showed "Adachi type H" pattern of aortic arch vessels with the right common carotid artery being anastomosed to the right pulmonary artery mistaking it for the right subclavian artery.

  11. Management of carotid Dacron patch infection: a case report using median sternotomy for proximal common carotid artery control and in situ polytetrafluoroethylene grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 58-year-old male who presented with an enlarging cervical hematoma 3 months following carotid endarterectomy with Dacron patch repair, due to septic disruption of the Dacron patch secondary to presumed infection. The essential features of this case are the control of the proximal common carotid artery gained through a median sternotomy, because the patient was markedly obese with minimal thyromental distance, and the treatment consisting of in situ polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting, due to the absence of a suitable autogenous saphenous vein. Median sternotomy is rarely required in case of reintervention for septic false aneurysms and hematomas following carotid endarterectomy but should be considered whenever difficult control of the common carotid artery, when entering the previous cervicotomy, is anticipated. In situ polytetrafluoroethylene grafting can be considered if autogenous vein material is lacking.

  12. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  13. Carotid intima-media thickness in spondyloarthritis patients Espessamento da camada média-íntima da carótida em pacientes com espondiloartrite

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    Thelma Larocca Skare

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Accelerated atherosclerosis has become a major problem in rheumatic inflammatory disease. The aim here was to analyze carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in spondyloarthritis (SpA patients and correlate this with clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional analytical study at Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic, Evangelical University Hospital, Curitiba. METHODS IMTs (measured using Doppler ultrasonography of 36 SpA patients were compared with controls. The IMT in SpA patients was associated with inflammatory markers, like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI; and with clinical parameters, like axial or peripheral involvement, dactylitis, HLA B27, uveitis occurrence, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI and lipid profile. RESULTS The mean IMT in SpA patients was 0.72 ± 0.21 mm; in controls, 0.57 ± 0.13 mm (P = 0.0007. There were no associations with ESR, CRP, BASDAI or clinical data. In univariate analysis, greater IMT was seen in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.014; Pearson R = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.06 to 0.65; higher triglycerides (P = 0.02; Spearman R = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.64; and older age (P = 0.0014; Pearson R 0.51; 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.72. CONCLUSION SpA patients have a higher degree of subclinical atherosclerosis than in controls, thus supporting clinical evidence of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients. CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO A aterogênese acelerada tem se tornado um grande problema nas doenças reumáticas inflamatórias. O objetivo foi analisar a espessura da camada íntima-média (ECIM da carótida em pacientes com espondiloartrite (ES e relacioná-la com parâmetros clínicos e marcadores inflamatórios. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL Estudo transversal analítico no Ambulatório de Reumatologia do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de

  14. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onbas, Omer; Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT

  15. Resistência insulínica pode prejudicar a redução da espessura mediointimal em adolescentes obesos Insulin resistance can impair reduction on carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Lima Sanches

    2012-10-01

    (IR n=39 and without insulin resistance (NIR n=27, and submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue was determined by ultrasound. Body composition, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and adipokines concentrations [leptin, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type (PAI-1] were analyzed before and after the therapy. RESULTS: Both groups presented significant improvements in body composition, inflammatory state (reduction of leptin and PAI-1 concentration; increasing of plasma adiponectin and reduction of cIMT. Only NIR group showed positive correlation between changes in visceral fat (∆Visceral and changes in cIMT (∆ cIMT (r = 0.42; p < 0.05. Simple linear regression analyze revealed ∆Visceral to be an independent predictor to reduction of cIMT in this group (R2 adjusted = 0.14, p = 0.04. The final values of cIMT remained significantly higher in IR group when compared to NIR group. CONCLUSION: The presence of insulin resistance can impair changes in cIMT leading to early development of atherosclerosis in obese adolescents submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention..

  16. Delayed rupture of common carotid artery following rugby tackle injury: a case report

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    Abbas Saleh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common Carotid Artery (CCA is an uncommon site of injury following a blunt trauma, its presentation with spontaneous delayed rupture is even more uncommon and a rugby tackle leading to CCA injury is a rare event. What makes this case unique and very rare is combination of all of the above. Case presentation Mr H. presented to the Emergency Department with an expanding neck haematoma and shortness of breath. He was promptly intubated and had contrast CT angiography of neck vessels which localized the bleeding spot on posteromedial aspect of his Right CCA. He underwent emergency surgery with repair of the defect and made an uneventful recovery post operatively. Conclusion Delayed post traumatic rupture of the CCA is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which can be caused by unusual blunt injury mechanism. A high index of suspicion and low threshold for investigating carotid injuries in the setting of blunt trauma is likely to be beneficial.

  17. Asymmetrical distribution of atherosclerosis in the carotid artery: identical patterns across age, race, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Parvin; Meijer, Rudy; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Kastelein, John J.; Visseren, Frank J.; Crouse, John R.; Palmer, Mike K.; Raichlen, Joel S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Small autopsy studies and clinical practice indicated that carotid atherosclerosis develops in an asymmetrical helical pattern coinciding with regions of low shear stress. We investigated the distribution of carotid atherosclerosis as determined by maximum carotid intima-media thickness

  18. Long-term calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Li, Ying; Gong, Liya; Yuan, Feifei; Niu, Yucun; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Changhao

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have focused on the effects of calcium intake on serum lipid concentrations in postmenopausal women. However, many premenopausal women are taking calcium supplements in China. To our knowledge, no studies have assessed whether the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipids are similar between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipid concentrations in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia. A total of 190 premenopausal women (30-40 y old) and 182 postmenopausal women (50-60 y old) with dyslipidemia were given 800 mg Ca/d or a placebo for 2 y in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipid concentrations, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), dietary nutrient intakes, and physical activity levels were determined at baseline and after 2 y. There was a significant interaction between calcium supplementation and menopausal status on serum cholesterol concentrations (P women (P women with dyslipidemia increases serum total cholesterol concentrations and CIMT. In postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia, calcium supplements should be prescribed with caution. This trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org/cn/ as ChiCTR-TRC-12002806.

  19. Primary gastric cancer presenting with a metastatic embolus in the common carotid artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although about 30% of gastric cancers have distant metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis, metastatic tumor embolus in the main blood vessels is not common, especially in the main artery. The report presents, for the first time, an extremely rare clinical case of a metastatic embolus in the common carotid artery (CCA from primary gastric cancer. Metastatic embolus from the primary tumor should be considered when patients present with gastric cancer accompanied by intravascular emboli. The patient should be actively examined further so as to allow early detection and treatment.

  20. Radiographically occult perforation and dissection of the common carotid artery following stab injury to the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many diagnostic algorithms have been devised to reduce the rate of negative explorations associated with indiscriminate surgical management of penetrating neck injuries. In hemodynamically stable patients, the need for surgical intervention is usually determined by integrating both clinical signs and radiological findings; if such investigations remain unremarkable, recommended treatment consists in close observation and sequential physical examinations. We report on a 29-year-old male who was admitted to a Swiss tertiary care hospital after sustaining a penetrating injury to his left neck following a knife attack. Disregarding a pre-hospital account of hemorrhage from the wound and slight dysphagia, no manifest symptoms or signs of internal organ damage were present on primary survey. Moreover, there was no evidence of vascular or aerodigestive tract injury on initial CT angiography. We nonetheless proceeded with immediate surgical exploration, exposing a significant perforation of the left common carotid artery with concomitant dissection of the said vessel. Surgical repair was successfully performed and the patient suffered no long-term sequelae. We thus recommend that a high level of suspicion be upheld in both asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic patients with PNI and that clinical practitioners remain cautious in the face of deceptively reassuring radiologic findings. Keywords: Penetrating neck injury, Carotid artery perforation, Carotid artery dissection, CT angiography

  1. Interleukin-1/toll-like receptor-induced nuclear factor kappa B signaling participates in intima hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in goto-kakizaki rats: a potential target therapy pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    Full Text Available The value of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is recognized worldwide, especially for diabetic patients. Interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR signaling is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but whether and how the IL-1/TLR-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB pathway plays key roles in intimal formation is unclear. The underlying mechanism of intima hyperplasia was investigated with a model of carotid balloon injury in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats and with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Elastic-van Gieson staining showed the medial area peakedon Day 3 post-injury and decreased by Day 7 post-injury in both GK and Wistar rats. The N/M at Day 7 in GK rats was significantly higher than in Wistar rats (p<0.001. The percent of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU staining-positive cells on Day 3 post-injury was greater than seen on Day 7 post-injury in GK and Wistar rats. The percent of EdU-positive cells on Days 3 and 7 post-injury in Wistar rats was less than that found in GK rats (p<0.01; p<0.05. NFκBp65 immunostaining had increased by Day 7 post-injury. Agilent Whole Genome Oligo Microarray verified that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway was activated by carotid balloon injury. TLR4, IL-1 receptor associated kinase, inhibitors α of NFκB, human antigen R, c-Myc (Proto-Oncogene Proteins, EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 and Interleukin-6 were up-regulated or down-regulated according to immunochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we conclude that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway participates in the intimal hyperplasia after carotid injury in GK and Wistar rats and that GK rats respond more intensely to the inflammation than Wistar rats.

  2. Physical Activity and Characteristics of the Carotid Artery Wall in High-Risk Patients-The SMART (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, H Myrthe; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Bots, Michiel L; de Borst, Gert Jan; Cramer, Maarten J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2017-07-23

    Physical activity reduces the risk of vascular disease. This benefit is not entirely explained through an effect on vascular risk factors. We examined the relationship of physical activity and characteristics of the carotid artery wall in patients with vascular disease or risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 9578 patients from the SMART (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) study, a prospective cohort study among patients with vascular disease or risk factors. Physical activity was assessed using questionnaires. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid artery stenosis of both common carotid arteries was measured. In a subset of 3165 participants carotid diastolic diameter and distension were assessed. Carotid stiffness was expressed as the distensibility coefficient and Young's elastic modulus. Regression analyses adjusted for vascular risk factors showed that physical activity was inversely associated with diastolic diameter (fifth versus first quintile B=-0.13 mm; 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.05) and decreased risk of carotid artery stenosis (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48-0.69). A light level of physical activity was associated with less carotid stiffness (second versus first quintile; Young's elastic modulus B=-0.11 kPa -1 ×10 -3 ; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.06; distensibility coefficient B=0.93 kPa×10 3 ; 95% CI, 0.34-1.51), but there was no additional benefit with increasing levels of physical activity. In patients with vascular disease, physical activity was inversely associated with common carotid intima-media thickness, but not in patients with vascular risk factors. In patients with vascular disease or risk factors, increased physical activity was associated with smaller carotid diastolic diameter, decreased risk of carotid artery stenosis, and less carotid stiffness, but it only showed benefits on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with vascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  3. Hybrid treatment of tandem, common carotid/innominate artery and ipsilateral carotid bifurcation stenoses by simultaneous, retrograde proximal stenting and eversion carotid endarterectomy: Preliminary results of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Macrina, Francesco; Calio', Francesco

    2018-04-01

    Tandem stenoses of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and proximal, ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) or innominate artery can be treated with a hybrid approach, combining conventional carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and retrograde stenting of the proximal stenosis, through surgical exposure of the carotid bifurcation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of combining eversion CEA with retrograde CCA/innominate artery stenting. From January 2015 to July 2017, 7 patients, 6 men of a mean age of 72 years (range 59-83 years) underwent simultaneous, retrograde stenting of the proximal CCA/innominate artery and an eversion CEA of the ipsilateral ICA, through surgical exposure of the carotid bifurcation, for severe tandem stenoses. The proximal stenosis involved the left proximal CCA in 4 patients, the proximal innominate artery in 2 patients and the right CCA in one patient. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia in a conventional operating room equipped with a mobile C-arm. A covered, balloon expandable stent was deployed over the proximal stenosis via a 6-F sheath directly introduced into the proximal CCA through the obliquely transected carotid bulb. After removing the sheath, debris were flushed through the carotid bulb and eversion CEA completed the procedure. Study endpoints were: postoperative stroke/mortality rate, cardiac mortality and morbidity, peripheral nerve injury, cervical hematoma, overall late survival, freedom from ipsilateral stroke and patency of arterial reconstruction. No postoperative mortality or neurologic morbidity was observed in any patient. Cervical hematomas and peripheral nerve injuries were likewise absent. At a mean follow-up of 18 months, all the patients were alive, free from neurologic events of new onset and free from restenosis. Combined proximal stenting and eversion CEA for tandem lesions seems a valid treatment, with the advantages of eversion CEA over other techniques of carotid bifurcation

  4. A rare and lethal case of right common carotid pseudoaneurysm following whiplash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Bello, Stefania; Serinelli, Serenella; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    Whiplash trauma from a car crash is one of the most common causes of neck injury, resulting in pain and dysfunction. We report on an unusual case of post-whiplash pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery, which led to acute massive hemorrhage and death days after the initial trauma. A post-mortem computed tomography angiography showed rupture of the pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery with the contrast agent leaking out into the mouth. The subsequent autopsy confirmed a large hemorrhagic clot extending to the right side of the neck and mediastinum. A rupture of the right wall of the oropharynx was identified with massive bronchial hemoaspiration. The case demonstrates a rare but lethal clinical entity, and is important in providing a better understanding of the potentially fatal consequences of minor trauma, such as whiplash injury, and its physiopathological mechanisms. Thus, changing symptoms after a whiplash injury should be carefully evaluated since they can be related to the underlying severe consequences of a rapid hyperextension-hyperflexion of the neck, as in the reported case.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS WITH INCREASING THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX AND VASCULAR MICRO INFLAMMATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study relationship of psycho-emotional factors and indicators of intravascular microinflammation and vascular changes in healthy patients.Materials and methods. To study psycho-emotional status in 239 healthy patients aged 30 to 60 years, markers of inflammation (C-reactiveprotein — CRP and cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-α — TNF-α, interleukins — IL-1, -4, - 8 and ultrasonography of the vascular wall of the common carotid artery with the definition of the thickness of intimamedia.Results. In group with high levels of emotional stress significant increase in the thickness of intima media and increase in plasma concentrationsof markers of vascular mikrovospaleniya — CRP, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α were showed. These correlation analysis indicated relationship between thickness of intima-media, psychoemotional factors and markers of vascular microinflamation. Calculating odds ratios revealed that thickening of the intima-media process such psycho-emotional disorders like anxiety, depression and fatigue are of great importance.Conclusion. Otherwise development of latent intravascular inflammation and thickening intima-media complex of common carotid artery is registered inhealthy patients with presence of psycho-emotional disorders (depression, anxiety, fatigue.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS WITH INCREASING THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX AND VASCULAR MICRO INFLAMMATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study relationship of psycho-emotional factors and indicators of intravascular microinflammation and vascular changes in healthy patients.Materials and methods. To study psycho-emotional status in 239 healthy patients aged 30 to 60 years, markers of inflammation (C-reactiveprotein — CRP and cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-α — TNF-α, interleukins — IL-1, -4, - 8 and ultrasonography of the vascular wall of the common carotid artery with the definition of the thickness of intimamedia.Results. In group with high levels of emotional stress significant increase in the thickness of intima media and increase in plasma concentrationsof markers of vascular mikrovospaleniya — CRP, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α were showed. These correlation analysis indicated relationship between thickness of intima-media, psychoemotional factors and markers of vascular microinflamation. Calculating odds ratios revealed that thickening of the intima-media process such psycho-emotional disorders like anxiety, depression and fatigue are of great importance.Conclusion. Otherwise development of latent intravascular inflammation and thickening intima-media complex of common carotid artery is registered inhealthy patients with presence of psycho-emotional disorders (depression, anxiety, fatigue.

  7. Association of fasting triglyceride concentration and postprandial triglyceride response with the carotid intima-media thickness in the middle aged: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Tim; de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin B; Rensen, Patrick C N; de Koning, Eelco; Rosendaal, Frits R; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter

    People are in a postprandial state for the majority of the day, postprandial triglyceride (TG) response may be more important in the etiology of atherosclerosis than fasting TGs. The objective of the study was to investigate the associations of fasting TG concentration (TGc) and postprandial TG response after a meal challenge with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by intima-media thickness (IMT) in a middle-aged population. A total of 5574 participants (57% women) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 56 (6) years were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study. Serum TGc was measured fasting and 30 and 150 minutes after a liquid mixed meal, and the incremental area under the curve (TGiAUC) was calculated. With linear regression analyses, we calculated the differences in IMT with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for confounding factors, and additionally for TGc or TGiAUC. Per SD of TGc (0.82 mmol/L), IMT was 8.5 μm (2.1, 14.9) greater after adjustment for TGiAUC and confounding factors. Per SD of TGiAUC (24.0 mmol/L × min), the difference in IMT was -1.7 μm (-8.5, 5.0) after adjustment for fasting TG and confounding factors. The association between TG response after a mixed meal and IMT disappeared after adjusting for TGc. The association between fasting TG concentration and IMT persisted after adjustment for postprandial TG response. These findings imply that it is not useful to perform a meal challenge in cardiovascular risk stratification. Our results support use of fasting TGc instead of postprandial TG responses for cardiovascular risk stratification in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of periodontal treatment on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with lifestyle-related diseases: Japanese prospective multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Chieko; Shin, Wee Soo; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Harai, Kazuo; Kato, Kai; Seino, Hiroaki; Goke, Eiji; Fujino, Takemasa; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Pearce, Youko Onuki; Taira, Masato; Matsushima, Ryoji; Minabe, Masato; Takashiba, Shogo

    2018-01-12

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease in arterial blood vessels, is one of the major causes of death in worldwide. Meanwhile, periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by infection with periodontal pathogens such as P. gingivalis (Porphyromonas gingivalis). Several studies have reported association between periodontal infection and atherosclerosis, but direct investigation about the effects of periodontal treatment on atherosclerosis has not been reported. We have planned Japanese local clinics to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis under collaborative with medical and dental care. A prospective, multicentre, observational study was conducted including 38 medical patients with lifestyle-related diseases in the stable period under consultation at participating medical clinics and 92 periodontal patients not undergoing medical treatment but who were consulting at participating dental clinics. Systemic and periodontal examinations were performed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels and percentage (%) of mobile teeth were positively related to plasma IgG (immunoglobulin) antibody titer against P. gingivalis with multivariate analysis. Corresponding to improvements in periodontal clinical parameters after treatment, right and left max IMT (maximum intima-media thickness) levels were decreased significantly after treatment (SPT-S: start of supportive periodontal therapy, SPT-1y: at 1 year under SPT, and SPT-3y: at 3 years under SPT). The present study has clarified our previous univariate analysis results, wherein P. gingivalis infection was positively associated with progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, routine screening using plasma IgG antibody titer against P. gingivalis and periodontal treatment under collaborative with medical and dental care may prevent cardiovascular accidents caused by atherosclerosis.

  9. Determination of bilateral symmetry of carotid artery structure and function in children and adolescents

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    Uithoven KE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Katelyn E Uithoven,1 Justin R Ryder,2 Roland Z Brown,3 Kyle D Rudser,3 Nicholas G Evanoff,1 Donald R Dengel,1,2 Aaron S Kelly2,4 1School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, 3Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: The carotid artery represents an ideal location for noninvasive assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in youth. Examination of arterial structure and function is generally conducted in the left common carotid. However, if the left common carotid is inaccessible or provides a poor acoustic window, it is unknown if the right common carotid can provide comparable values. The symmetry of carotid arteries in youth with high-resolution ultrasound was compared. Participants (N=230 [121 females], 13.8±2.9 years old were assessed for carotid intima media thickness (cIMT, carotid lumen diameter (cLD, carotid incremental elastic modulus (cIEM, carotid diameter compliance (cDC, carotid cross-sectional compliance (cCSC, carotid diameter distensibility (cDD, and carotid cross-sectional distensibility (cCSD. No significant differences (P>0.05 all were found for cIMT (0.49±0.09 vs 0.49±0.08 mm, cIEM (1095±382 vs 1116±346 mmHg, cDC (0.01±0.0 vs 0.01±0.0 mm/mmHg, cCSC (0.01±0.001/mmHg vs 0.01±0.001/mmHg, cDD (14.0%±3.16% vs 13.7%±3.18%, and cCSD (30.1%±7.37% vs 29.4%±7.36%. Significant differences were found for cLD (6.06±0.62 mm vs 6.33±0.64 mm, P<0.001. The majority of measures for arterial structure and function are comparable between the left and right common carotid arteries. There were differences present for cLD; however, these discrepancies are likely due to anatomical differences between the left and right common carotid arteries. Therefore, if the left common carotid is unable to be assessed properly, the right common

  10. Technical Nuances of Exposing Rat Common Carotid Arteries for Practicing Microsurgical Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Aklinski, Joseph; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T; Preul, Mark C

    2018-04-17

    Animal models are commonly used in training protocols for microsurgical vascular anastomosis. Rat common carotid arteries (CCAs) are frequently used for this purpose. Much attention has been paid to the technical details of various anastomosis configurations using these arteries. However, technical nuances of exposing rat CCAs have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to describe nuances of technique for safely and efficiently exposing rat CCAs in preparation for a vascular anastomosis. Bilateral CCAs were exposed and prepared for anastomosis in 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats through a midline cervical incision. The exposed length of the CCA was measured. Additionally, technical nuances of exposure and surgically relevant anatomic details were recorded. The CCAs were exposed from the sternoclavicular joint to their bifurcation (average length, 19.1 ± 2.8 mm). Tenets important for a safe and efficient exposure of the CCAs included 1) generous subcutaneous dissection to expose the external jugular veins (EJVs), 2) avoiding injury to or compression of the EJVs, 3) superior mobilization of the salivary glands, 4) division of internal jugular veins, 5) opening the carotid sheath at its midlevel and from medial to lateral, and 6) avoiding injury to the vagus nerve or sympathetic trunk. Using the principles introduced in this study, trainees may safely and efficiently expose rat CCAs in preparation for a bypass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On the shape of the common carotid artery with implications for blood velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manbachi, Amir; Hoi, Yiemeng; Steinman, David A; Wasserman, Bruce A; Lakatta, Edward G

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and engineering studies typically assume that the common carotid artery (CCA) is straight enough to assume fully developed flow, yet recent studies have demonstrated the presence of skewed velocity profiles. Toward elucidating the influence of mild vascular curvatures on blood flow patterns and atherosclerosis, this study aimed to characterize the three-dimensional shape of the human CCA. The left and right carotid arteries of 28 participants (63 ± 12 years) in the VALIDATE (Vascular Aging-–The Link that Bridges Age to Atherosclerosis) study were digitally segmented from 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiograms, from the aortic arch to the carotid bifurcation. Each CCA was divided into nominal cervical and thoracic segments, for which curvatures were estimated by least-squares fitting of the respective centerlines to planar arcs. The cervical CCA had a mean radius of curvature of 127 mm, corresponding to a mean lumen:curvature radius ratio of 1:50. The thoracic CCA was significantly more curved at 1:16, with the plane of curvature tilted by a mean angle of 25° and rotated close to 90° with respect to that of the cervical CCA. The left CCA was significantly longer and slightly more curved than the right CCA, and there was a weak but significant increase in CCA curvature with age. Computational fluid dynamic simulations carried out for idealized CCA geometries derived from these and other measured geometric parameters demonstrated that mild cervical curvature is sufficient to prevent flow from fully-developing to axisymmetry, independent of the degree of thoracic curvature. These findings reinforce the idea that fully developed flow may be the exception rather than the rule for the CCA, and perhaps other nominally long and straight vessels

  12. A novel NMR-based assay to measure circulating concentrations of branched-chain amino acids: Elevation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and association with carotid intima media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Gruppen, Eke G; Shalaurova, Irina; Matyus, Steven P; Grant, Russell P; Gegen, Ray; Bakker, Stephan J L; Otvos, James D; Connelly, Margery A; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2018-04-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, measured on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics research platforms or by mass spectrometry, have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a new test for quantification of BCAA on a clinical NMR analyzer and used this test to determine the clinical correlates of BCAA in 2 independent cohorts. The performance of the NMR-based BCAA assay was evaluated. A method comparison study was performed with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma BCAA were measured in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, n = 1209; 376 T2DM subjects) and in a Groningen cohort (n = 123; 67 T2DM subjects). In addition, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was measured successfully in 119 subjects from the Groningen cohort. NMR-based BCAA assay results were linear over a range of concentrations. Coefficients of variation for inter- and intra-assay precision ranged from 1.8-6.0, 1.7-5.4, 4.4-9.1, and 8.8-21.3%, for total BCAA, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively. BCAA quantified from the same samples using NMR and LC-MS/MS were highly correlated (R 2  = 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90 for valine, leucine and isoleucine). In both cohorts total and individual BCAA were elevated in T2DM (P = 0.01 to ≤0.001). Moreover, cIMT was associated with BCAA independent of age, sex, T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS) categorization or alternatively of individual MetS components. BCAA levels, measured by NMR in the clinical laboratory, are elevated in T2DM and may be associated with cIMT, a proxy of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional risk factors are more relevant than HIV-specific ones for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in a Brazilian cohort of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Falcão, Melissa; Mill, José G; Bensenor, Isabela; Lotufo, Paulo; Chor, Dóra

    2015-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) had a dramatic impact on the mortality profile in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals and increased their life-expectancy. Conditions associated with the aging process have been diagnosed more frequently among HIV-infected patients, particularly, cardiovascular diseases. Patients followed in the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC) prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro were submitted to the general procedures from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, comprising several anthropometric, laboratory and imaging data. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured by ultrasonography, following the Mannheim protocol. Linear regression and proportional odds models were used to compare groups and covariables in respect to cIMT. The best model was chosen with the adaptive lasso procedure. A valid cIMT exam was available for 591 patients. Median cIMT was significantly larger for men than women (0.56mm vs. 0.53mm; p = 0.002; overall = 0.54mm). In univariable linear regression analysis, both traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and HIV-specific characteristics were significantly associated with cIMT values, but the best multivariable model chosen included only traditional characteristics. Hypertension presented the strongest association with higher cIMT terciles (OR = 2.51; 95%CI = 1.69-3.73), followed by current smoking (OR = 1,82; 95%CI = 1.19-2.79), family history of acute myocardial infarction or stroke (OR = 1.60; 95%CI = 1.10-2.32) and age (OR per year = 1.12; 95%CI = 1.10-1.14). Our results show that traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are the major players in determining increased cIMT among HIV infected patients in Brazil. This finding reinforces the need for thorough assessment of those risk factors in these patients to guarantee the incidence of CVD events remain under control.

  14. Mean blood velocities and flow impedance in the fetal descending thoracic aortic and common carotid artery in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, C M; Campbell, S; Nicolaides, K H

    1988-12-01

    A linear array pulsed Doppler duplex scanner was used to establish reference ranges for mean blood velocities and flow impedance (Pulsatility Index = PI) in the descending thoracic aorta and in the common carotid artery from 70 fetuses in normal pregnancies at 17-42 weeks' gestation. The aortic velocity increased with gestation up to 32 weeks, then remained constant until term, when it decreased. In contrast, the velocity in the common carotid artery increased throughout pregnancy. The PI in the aorta remained constant throughout pregnancy, while in the common carotid artery it fell steeply after 32 weeks. These results suggest that with advancing gestation there is a redistribution of the fetal circulation with decreased impedance to flow to the fetal brain, presumably to compensate for the progressive decrease in fetal blood PO2.

  15. Aortic, carotid intima-media thickness and flow- mediated dilation as markers of early atherosclerosis in a cohort of pediatric patients with rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Emanuela; Dilillo, Anna; Tromba, Luciana; La Torre, Giuseppe; Blasi, Sara; Conti, Fabrizio; Viola, Franca; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Duse, Marzia

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the presence of endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early atherosclerosis by measuring aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and their correlation with traditional and no traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis in children with rheumatic diseases. Thirty-nine patients (mean age 15.3 ± 5.7 years), 23 juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 9 juvenile spondyloarthropathies, 7 connective tissue diseases (mean disease duration and onset respectively 5 ± 3.6 and 10 ± 5 years), and 52 healthy children matched for sex and age were enrolled. Demographic data (age, sex, familiarity for cardiovascular disease), traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis (BMI, active and passive smoking, dyslipidemia), activity disease indexes (reactive count protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) autoantibodies, and complement tests were collected. aIMT, cIMT, and FMD were assessed following a standardized protocol by high-resolution ultrasonography. Patients resulted significantly more exposed to passive smoking and had a lower BMI and higher homocysteine level than controls. cIMT and aIMT were significantly higher in patients than controls (p disease duration. FMD % was significantly reduced in patients compared to controls (p rheumatic diseases, mainly in early onset forms, and aIMT is an earlier marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. Premature endothelial dysfunction could be included in the follow-up of children with rheumatic disorders to plan prevention strategies of cardiovascular disease already in pediatrics.

  16. Incidentally diagnosed Takayasu arteritis on thyroid ultrasonography showing prominent collateral vessels of thyroidal arteries and common carotid artery occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Se Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We report a case of middle-aged woman incidentally diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis during the ultrasonography of a thyroid gland nodule. Prominent collaterals of the thyroidal arteries and a thin common carotid artery with mural thickening and deficient intraluminal flow signals were initially depicted on the ultrasonography with color Doppler. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography aortography confirmed the diagnosis with the imaging features of a bilateral long segment common carotid artery occlusion and segmental stenosis of the left subclavian artery in addition to the suggestive physical findings.

  17. Visualization of atherosclerosis as detected by coronary artery calcium and carotid intima-media thickness reveals significant atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study of psoriasis patients in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, S; Kast, D R; Grozdev, I; Cao, L; Feig, R L; Golden, J B; Debanne, S M; Gilkeson, R C; Orringer, C E; McCormick, T S; Ward, N L; Cooper, K D; Korman, N J

    2016-07-22

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and joints that may also have systemic inflammatory effects, including the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased rates of CVD in psoriasis patients, although a causal link has not been established. A growing body of evidence suggests that sub-clinical systemic inflammation may develop in psoriasis patients, even from a young age. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of atherosclerosis and identify specific clinical risk factors associated with early vascular inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional study of a tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients using coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) to detect atherosclerosis, along with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to measure inflammation. Psoriasis patients and controls were recruited from our tertiary care dermatology clinic. Presence of atherosclerosis was defined using validated numeric values within CAC and CIMT imaging. Descriptive data comparing groups was analyzed using Welch's t test and Pearson Chi square tests. Logistic regression was used to analyze clinical factors associated with atherosclerosis, and linear regression to evaluate the relationship between psoriasis and hsCRP. 296 patients were enrolled, with 283 (207 psoriatic and 76 controls) having all data for the hsCRP and atherosclerosis analysis. Atherosclerosis was found in 67.6 % of psoriasis subjects versus 52.6 % of controls; Psoriasis patients were found to have a 2.67-fold higher odds of having atherosclerosis compared to controls [95 % CI (1.2, 5.92); p = 0.016], after adjusting for age, gender, race, BMI, smoking, HDL and hsCRP. In addition, a non-significant trend was found between HsCRP and psoriasis severity, as measured by PASI, PGA, or BSA, again after adjusting for confounders. A tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients have a high prevalence of early

  18. A Pilot Study Providing Evidence for a Relationship between a Composite Lifestyle Score and Risk of Higher Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Is There a Link to Oxidative Stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Seyedsadjadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle behaviours have been closely linked to the progressive cell damage associated with oxidative stress (OS and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Early detection of lifestyle-linked OS may therefore be useful in the early identification of prodromal disease. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the relationship between a comprehensive redox balance lifestyle score (RBLS and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, a recognized marker for CVD, and plasma biomarkers of OS. In a cross-sectional study design, 100 apparently healthy middle-aged participants were asked to complete a comprehensive lifestyle questionnaire, followed by DXA scanning, CIMT ultrasonography, and blood collection. The RBLS was composed of lifestyle components with pro- and antioxidant properties with a higher score indicative of lower oxidative activity. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical analysis. The RBLS was significantly associated with the risk for increased CIMT that was independent of conventional CVD risk factors (χ29=35.60, P≤0.001. The adjusted model explained 42.4% of the variance in CIMT. Participants with RBLS below the median were at significantly increased risk of higher CIMT compared to participants with RBLS above the median (OR=3.60, 95% CI: 1.19–10.88, P=0.023. Significant associations were also observed between the RBLS, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC (r99=0.28, P=0.006, hydroperoxide (HPX (rs99=−0.28, P=0.005, TAC/HPX ratio (r98=0.41, P≤0.001, γ-glutamyltransferase (r97=−0.23, P=0.024, uric acid (r98=−0.20, P=0.045, and inflammatory C-reactive protein (rs97=−0.25, P=0.012 and interleukin-1β (r97=−0.21, P=0.040. These findings highlight the importance of identifying the collective influence of lifestyle behaviours on OS activity and its potential to remodel the vascular endothelium.

  19. 老年2型糖尿病并发缺血性脑卒中与颈动脉内膜中层厚度及视网膜病变的相关性研究%Study on the Relationship of Complicated Ischemic Stroke with Carotid Artery Intima-media Thick-ness and Retinopathy in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵芬; 李晓行; 章臻翊; 罗亚衡

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨老年2型糖尿病(T2DM)并发缺血性脑卒中与颈动脉狭窄及视网膜病变程度的相关性。【方法】老年T2DM 患者161例,并发脑卒中58例(脑卒中组),非脑卒中103例(非脑卒中组)。超声检测两组患者颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT),并行眼底检查。【结果】两组患者颈动脉粥样硬化斑块发生部位多见于颈总动脉近分叉处,脑卒中组颈动脉不稳定性斑块的检出率、颈动脉 IMT值显著高于非脑卒中组(P<0.05),且脑卒中组单纯型糖尿病视网膜病变(NPDR)及增殖型糖尿病视网膜病变(PDR)患者 IMT值、颈动脉不稳定斑块数检出率均显著高于非脑卒中组(P<0.05);相关性分析显示 IMT与眼底病变程度显著相关(r=0.5509,P <0.05)。【结论】颈动脉 IMT和视网膜病变程度与老年T2DM并发缺血性脑卒中存在相关性。%[Objective]To explore the correlation of complicated ischemic stroke with the degree of carotid stenosis and retinopathy in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM).[Methods]Among 161 elderly patients with T2DM,58 patients were complicated with stroke(stroke group)and 103 patients were not complicated with stroke(non-stroke group).Carotid intima-media thickness(IMT)of patients in 2 groups was detected by ultrasonography.Fundus examination was performed in all patients.[Results]Carotid atherosclerotic plaques of patients in 2 groups mainly oc-curred at the site near the bifurcation of common carotid artery.The detection rate of instable carotid plaque and carotid IMT in stroke group were significantly higher than those in non-stroke group(P<0.05).Carotid IMT of patient with simple diabetic retinopathy(NPDR)and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR)in stroke group was significantly higher than that in non-stroke group(P<0.05).Correlation analysis showed that IMT was significantly associated with fundus lesion(r=0.5509,P<0

  20. Carotid duplex ultrasound and transcranial Doppler findings in commercial divers and pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Vosoughi, Kia; Akhoundi, Fahimeh H; Mehrpour, Masoud; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Esmaeili, Setareh; Sabet, Azin Shafiee

    2016-12-01

    The risky working environments of divers and pilots, and the possible role of extreme ambient pressure in carotid stenosis, make ischemic stroke an important occupational concern among these professionals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of being exposed to hyperbaric or hypobaric conditions with carotid artery stenosis by comparing common carotid intima-media thickness (CCIMT) and blood flow velocities of cerebral arteries in divers and pilots using carotid duplex ultrasound (CDUS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD). CDUS and transtemporal TCD were performed in 29 divers, 36 pilots and 30 control participants. Medical history, blood pressure, lipid profile and blood sugar were recorded to control the previously well-known risk factors of atherosclerosis. Findings of the CDUS and TCD [including: CCIMT and blood flow velocities of internal carotid artery (ICA), common carotid artery (CCA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] of divers and pilots were compared with those of the control group using regression analysis models. Both right and left side CCIMT were significantly higher in divers (P < 0.05) and pilots (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control group. Carotid index [peak systolic velocity (PSV) of ICA/PSV of CCA) of divers and pilots were also higher than the control group. TCD findings were not significantly different between divers, pilots, and the control group. Increased CCIMT and carotid index in diver and pilot groups appear to be suggestive of accelerated atherosclerosis of carotid artery in these occupational groups.

  1. Technical Note: Measurement of common carotid artery lumen dynamics using black-blood MR cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erpeng; Dong, Li; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Lyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xihai; Wang, Jinnan; Yuan, Chun; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen dynamics using a black-blood cine (BB-cine) imaging method. Motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (MSDE) prepared spoiled gradient sequence was used for the BB-cine imaging. CCAs of eleven healthy volunteers were studied using this method. Lumen dynamics, including lumen area evolution waveforms and distension values, were measured and evaluated by comparing this method with bright-blood cine (BrB-cine) imaging. Compared with the BrB-cine images, flow artifacts were effectively suppressed in the BB-cine images. BrB-cine images generally show larger lumen areas than BB-cine images. The lumen area waveforms and distension measurements from BB-cine imaging showed smaller variances among different subjects than BrB-cine imaging. The proposed BB-cine imaging technique can suppress the flow artifacts effectively and reduce the partial volume effects from the vessel wall. This might allow more accurate lumen dynamics measurements than traditional BrB-cine imaging, which may further be valuable for investigating biomechanical and functional properties of the cardiovascular system. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. A method for automatically constructing the initial contour of the common carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Omran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a novel method to automatically set the initial contour that is used by the Active contours algorithm.The proposed method exploits the accumulative intensity profiles to locate the points on the arterial wall. The intensity profiles of sections that intersect the artery show distinguishable characterstics that make it possible to recognize them from the profiles of sections that do not intersect the artery walls. The proposed method is applied on ultrasound images of the transverse section of the common carotid artery, but it can be extended to be used on the images of the longitudinal section. The intensity profiles are classified using Support vector machine algorithm, and the results of different kernels are compared. The extracted features used for the classification are basically statistical features of the intensity profiles. The echogenicity of the arterial lumen, and gives the profiles that intersect the artery a special shape that helps recognizing these profiles from other general profiles.The outlining of the arterial walls may seem a classic task in image processing. However, most of the methods used to outline the artery start from a manual, or semi-automatic, initial contour.The proposed method is highly appreciated in automating the entire process of automatic artery detection and segmentation.

  3. Homocystein and carotid atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubomirova, M; Tzoncheva, A; Petrova, J; Kiperova, B

    2007-10-01

    Since total homocysteine (Hcy) is markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), it has been presented as potential factor contributing to the high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CRF. The aim of the study was to examine the significance of elevated Hcy and other cardiovascular risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with CRF. Fifty six patients 16-M, 40-F, average age 58+/-14.55, creatinine clearance 39.19+/-10.11 ml/min were examined. In addition, 20 control healthy subjects were examined. The association of Hcy levels and classic risk factors for atherosclerosis with common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was examined. B-mode ultrasound measurement of carotid IMT was performed in 56 hypertensive pts with CRF (glomerular filtration rate>20 ml/min and 0.05). Significant predictors for IMT were age (r=0.358, p<0.04), duration of hypertension (r=0.395, p=0.023), diabetes duration (r=0.343, p<0.02), as well as duration of CRF (r=0.324, p<0.006). There was a negative correlation between IMT and glomerular filtration rate assessed by creatinine clearance (r=-0.303, p<0.003). Renal function, described by creatinine clearance was the strongest determinant for Hcy levels (r=-0.332, p<0.008). Increased IMT was estimated in pts with CRF compared to healthy controls (0.74+/-0.10 vs 0.59+/-0.10, p<0.001). We found association between Hcy and carotid IMT ( r=0.344, p<0.015). No consistent association was found between IMT and other specific for CRF cardiovascular risk factors. The study suggests that patients with mild renal failure have increased IMT of the common carotid artery and that elevated plasma Hcy level in CRF is associated with carotid intima- media thickening.

  4. Segmentation of the lumen and media-adventitia boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, E.; Awad, J.; Ward, A. D.; Samarabandu, J.; Krasinski, A.; Parraga, G.; Fenster, A.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) vessel wall volume (VWV) measurements provide high measurement sensitivity and reproducibility for the monitoring and assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. In this paper, we describe a semiautomated approach based on the level set method to delineate the media-adventitia and lumen boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D US images to support the computation of VWV. Due to the presence of plaque and US image artifacts, the carotid arteries are challenging to segment using image information alone. Our segmentation framework combines several image cues with domain knowledge and limited user interaction. Our method was evaluated with respect to manually outlined boundaries on 430 2D US images extracted from 3D US images of 30 patients who have carotid stenosis of 60% or more. The VWV given by our method differed from that given by manual segmentation by 6.7% +/- 5.0%. For the media-adventitia and lumen segmentations, respectively, our method yielded Dice coefficients of 95.2% +/- 1.6%, 94.3% +/- 2.6%, mean absolute distances of 0.3 +/- 0.1 mm, 0.2 +/- 0.1 mm, maximum absolute distances of 0.8 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and volume differences of 4.2% +/- 3.1%, 3.4% +/- 2.6%. The realization of a semi-automated segmentation method will accelerate the translation of 3D carotid US to clinical care for the rapid, non-invasive, and economical monitoring of atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  5. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound: Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Plavnik

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 ± 0.13 and 0.62 ± 0.16 vs 0.54 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001. In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39 in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40. In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37, while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10. There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC.

  6. Protocol and quality assurance for carotid imaging in 100,000 participants of UK Biobank: development and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Sean; Lewandowski, Adam J; Garratt, Steve; Meijer, Rudy; Lynum, Steven; Bedi, Ram; Paterson, James; Yaqub, Mohammad; Noble, J Alison; Neubauer, Stefan; Petersen, Steffen E; Allen, Naomi; Sudlow, Cathie; Collins, Rory; Matthews, Paul M; Leeson, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Background Ultrasound imaging is able to quantify carotid arterial wall structure for the assessment of cerebral and cardiovascular disease risks. We describe a protocol and quality assurance process to enable carotid imaging at large scale that has been developed for the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study of 100,000 individuals. Design An imaging protocol was developed to allow measurement of carotid intima-media thickness from the far wall of both common carotid arteries. Six quality assurance criteria were defined and a web-based interface (Intelligent Ultrasound) was developed to facilitate rapid assessment of images against each criterion. Results and conclusions Excellent inter and intra-observer agreements were obtained for image quality evaluations on a test dataset from 100 individuals. The image quality criteria then were applied in the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study. Data from 2560 participants were evaluated. Feedback of results to the imaging team led to improvement in quality assurance, with quality assurance failures falling from 16.2% in the first two-month period examined to 6.4% in the last. Eighty per cent had all carotid intima-media thickness images graded as of acceptable quality, with at least one image acceptable for 98% of participants. Carotid intima-media thickness measures showed expected associations with increasing age and gender. Carotid imaging can be performed consistently, with semi-automated quality assurance of all scans, in a limited timeframe within a large scale multimodality imaging assessment. Routine feedback of quality control metrics to operators can improve the quality of the data collection.

  7. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  8. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  9. Modeling the absorbed dose to the common carotid arteries following radioiodine treatment of benign thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Hedemann-Jensen, Per; Søgaard-Hansen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    External fractionated radiotherapy of cancer increases the risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events, but less attention has been paid to the potential side effects on the arteries following internal radiotherapy with radioactive iodine (RAI), i.e. 131-iodine. About 279 per million citizens...... in the western countries are treated each year with RAI for benign thyroid disorders (about 140,000 a year in the EU), stressing that it is of clinical importance to be aware of even rare radiation-induced side effects. In order to induce or accelerate atherosclerosis, the dose to the carotid arteries has...

  10. Effects of ilexonin a on IL-6 and M-CSF following ballon angioplasty in rabbit common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lihua; Li Zhangwei; Yang Chuang; Jiang Yaqiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of ilexonin A(IA) on IL-6 and M-CSF following ballon angioplasty in rabbit common carotide artery to provide experimental basis for percutaneous coronary interventions. Mehtods: 30 Japanese rabbits were fed with high cholesterol food for 4 weeks. Then they were divided into three groups randomly. Each group had ten rabbits. 1) Control group: the incision was sew directly after right carotide artery of the rabbit was seeked. 2) Balloon dilation group: the proximal of the carotide artery was cuted, the ballon was delivered and distended, after it was drawn repeatly, the incision was closed. 3) IA therapy group: operation was the same to the balloon dilation group, then IA was administered in vein. All of them were fed with high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks and the blood samples were collected 1 d before the operation and 1 d, 1,2,4 weeks after the operation. The serum IL-6 and M-CSF levels were determined with radioimmunoassay. The pathological changes of injuried artery were observed. Results: 1) The IL-6 level in balloon dilation group was higher than that in IA therapy group after the operation (P<0.05), and came back later to preoperation level. 2) Though the M-CSF level in IA therapy group was increased, but it was lower than that in dilation group (P<0.05). 3) The pathological results demonstrated that the artery endothelial in control group was smooth and no foam cell in sight. In bolloon dilation group, the endangium was thickened, the vascular smooth muscle cells proliferated, there were many foam cells and the lumen was constrictive. In IA therapy group, the number of foam cells reduced, the constrictive degree of lumen was alleviated. Conclusion: IA can redece the levels of serum IL-6 and M-CSF and inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells following ballon angioplasty. (authors)

  11. Analysis of the population at high risk of stroke detected with carotid artery ultrasonography in Tianjin urban communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei YUE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the features of carotid atherosclerosis in a population at high risk of stroke in urban communities of Tianjin, so as to provide inspiration for carotid ultrasonography to play a greater role in the prevention and control of stroke.  Methods A total of 956 residents at high risk of stroke were selected from 4 urban communities in Tianjin using cluster random sampling method. Doppler ultrasound screening was performed in bilateral common carotid artery (CCA, internal carotid artery (ICA, external carotid artery (ECA, vertebral artery (VA, subclavian artery (SCA and innominate artery of the population. The intima-media thickness (IMT, atherosclerotic plaque formation and its location and size, vascular stenosis or occlusion, and flow spectrum were detected. The results and features of carotid ultrasound screening were analyzed and compared among different gender and age groups.  Results 1 The detection rate of carotid atherosclerosis was 71.55% (684/956, and the detection rate in males was significantly higher than that in females (79.08% vs 65.87%; χ2 = 20.067, P = 0.000. 2 Among the population with carotid atherosclerosis, the most common manifestation was the formation of atherosclerotic plaques (81.58%, 558/684, secondly intima-media thickening (13.01%, 89/684, followed by moderate to severe stenosis or occlusion (5.41%, 37/684. The proportion of intima-media thickening in males was lower than that in females (7.08% vs 18.38%; χ2 = 19.269, P = 0.000. The proportion of carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in males was higher than that in females (86.46% vs 77.16%; χ2 = 9.824, P = 0.002. The median rating of carotid atherosclerosis was 1.79, with males higher than females [1.98 (0.70, 3.26 vs 1.52 (0.20, 2.84; Z = 2.304, P = 0.042]. The site of plaque formation was most commonly located in carotid bulb (36.61%, secondly SCA (22.18%. Of the type of carotid stenosis, ICA stenosis was detected in 30 cases, VA

  12. Genetically determined serum levels of mannose-binding lectin correlate negatively with common carotid intima-media thickness in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Lone N; Garred, Peter; Christiansen, Buris

    2010-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to accelerated atherosclerosis that cannot be attributed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors alone. Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) causing low serum...

  13. Effect of sedentary behaviour and vigorous physical activity on segment-specific carotid wall thickness and its progression in a healthy population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether sedentary behaviour and different activity levels have an independent association with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and with the 3-year IMT progression in different carotid segments.

  14. Kadar Adiponektin Sebagai Faktor Risiko Penebalan Tunika Intima Media Arteri Karotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Juanda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases remain a major health problem and the leading cause of mortality both in industrialized and developing country, despite the improvement in its prevention and management. Ultrasonography (USG can be used in the evaluation and early diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis to predict cardiovascular events in the future. Carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT is a surrogate of vascular dysfunction especially coronary vessels. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, that is thought to be beneficial because of its cardioprotective effect. However the studies in the role of adiponectin in human is limited and earlier studies found conflicting results. To evaluate the role of adiponectin as a risk factor of carotid artery intima-medial thickening, we conducted this case-control study. The subjects were obese male and female between 40-59 years of age, who were evaluated by carotid artery intima-medial ultrasonography. Exclusion criteria were congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke and glucocorticoid treatment. Forty subjects with carotid artery intima-medial thickening (cases and 40 subjects without thickening (control. Adiponectin levels in case group were lower than in control group, 4.1 ìg/mL (SB 1.7 and 6.0 ìg/mL (SB 3.0, respectively. Statistical analysis with chi square test with confidence interval (CI 95% (1.05-12.78, OR 3.67 with p=0.04 (p<0.05 showed that adiponectin is a significant risk factor of carotid artery intima-medial thickening together with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. This study found the cut-off point of adiponectin was 5.09 ug/dL with ROC 0.682, CI 95% (0.569-0.782, sensitivity 77.5% and specificity 55,0%. Conclusion: low adiponectin level (<5,09 ug/dL is a risk factor of developing carotid artery intima-medial thickening.

  15. Low dose of L-glutamic acid attenuated the neurological dysfunctions and excitotoxicity in bilateral common carotid artery occluded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Muthiah; Abdul, Khadar K; Justin, Antony

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, produces excitotoxicity through its agonistic action on postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, resulting in neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that the administration of low doses of glutamate in cerebral ischemia could attenuate the excitotoxicity in neurons through its autoreceptor regulatory mechanism, and thereby control neurodegeneration. To test the hypothesis, the effect of L-glutamic acid (L-GA) 400 μmol/l/kg was evaluated in a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemic mouse model. Memantine was used as a positive control. Global ischemia in mice was induced by occlusion of both the common carotid artery (bilateral common carotid artery occlusion) for 20 min, followed by reperfusion injury. L-GA was infused slowly through the tail vein 30 min before the surgery and every 24 h thereafter until the end of the experiment. The time-dependent change in cerebral blood flow was monitored using a laser Doppler image analyzer. The neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neurobiochemicals ATP, glutathione, and nitric oxide were measured in the different regions of brain at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after reperfusion injury. L-GA increased locomotor activity, muscle coordination, and cerebral blood flow in ischemic mice at 72 h after ischemic insult. L-GA reduced glutamate levels in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus at 72 h, whereas GABA levels were elevated in all three brain regions studied. Further, L-GA elevated glutathione levels and attenuated nitric oxide levels, but failed to restore ATP levels 72 h after ischemia-reperfusion. We conclude that the gradual reduction of glutamate along with elevation of GABA in different brain regions could have contributed toward the neuroprotective effect of L-GA. Hence, a slow infusion of a low dose of L-GA could be beneficial in controlling excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration following ischemia.

  16. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which menopause may influence the systemic subclinical atherosclerosis are unexplained. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between early menopause, established cardiovascular (c-v) risk factors, metabolic parameters (insulin...... secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. METHODS: In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid...... by mathematical modeling. RESULTS: CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P menopausal women, whereas CCA IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid...

  17. [The state of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarova, A F; Iurtaeva, V R; Kotovskaia, Iu V; Kobalava, Zh D

    2012-01-01

    To study elastic properties of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension (AH). We examined men aged 18-25 years (mean 21.1+/-0.14 years): 36 with normal blood pressure (BP), 123 with stable and 51 with unstable AH. Parameters studied comprised intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries, their M-mode measured maximal systolic and minimal diastolic diameters (Ds and Dd), stiffness of common carotid artery (CCA) wall determined on the basis of analysis of elasticity and distensibility coefficients (CC and DC), Peterson's and Young's modules of elasticity (Ep and E), and index of flow deformation (CS). Compared with young men with normal BP and unstable AH patients with stable AH had abnormal elastic properties of CCA and increased IMT. Stable AH in young men is associated with signs of remodeling of CCA walls and increase of their rigidity.

  18. Mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic intima tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Ali C; Speelman, Lambert; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2014-03-03

    Progression and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary and carotid arteries are the key processes underlying myocardial infarctions and strokes. Biomechanical stress analyses to compute mechanical stresses in a plaque can potentially be used to assess plaque vulnerability. The stress analyses strongly rely on accurate representation of the mechanical properties of the plaque components. In this review, the composition of intima tissue and how this changes during plaque development is discussed from a mechanical perspective. The plaque classification scheme of the American Heart Association is reviewed and plaques originating from different vascular territories are compared. Thereafter, an overview of the experimental studies on tensile and compressive plaque intima properties are presented and the results are linked to the pathology of atherosclerotic plaques. This overview revealed a considerable variation within studies, and an enormous dispersion between studies. Finally, the implications of the dispersion in experimental data on the clinical applications of biomechanical plaque modeling are presented. Suggestions are made on mechanical testing protocol for plaque tissue and on using a standardized plaque classification scheme. This review identifies the current status of knowledge on plaque mechanical properties and the future steps required for a better understanding of the plaque type specific material properties. With this understanding, biomechanical plaque modeling may eventually provide essential support for clinical plaque risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Race or vitamin D: A determinant of intima media thickness in obese adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a predictor of cardiovascular events, is reported to be higher in African-American (AA) vs. White (AW) individuals. We investigated whether racial differences in IMT in obese adolescents could be explained by differences in 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D]. A tota...

  20. Pulsatility Index of Blood Echogenicity of the Human Radial and Common Carotid Arteries: Relation with Age and Stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, Tae Hoon; Kong, Qi; Nam, Kweon Ho; Choi, Jay Chol; Paeng, Dong Guk

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, the ultrasound blood images were measured at both the human radial artery(RA) and common carotid artery(CCA), depending on the age, and the pulsatility index of blood echogenicity(PIBE) was analyzed. In addition, the ultrasound blood images were measured at both RA and CCA of both the stroke patients and the control group, and PIBE was compared. PIBE of RA for the young group was similar with that for the old group (0.13±0.21 and 0.16±0.03). PIBE of CCA for the young group, however, was larger than that for the old group (0.70±0.21 and 0.32±0.01), and was more variable depending on the subject. Similarly, the fibrinogen concentrations of the patients (336±61 and 340±126 mg/dl) were more than that of the control group (264±38 and 43 mg/dl), for both RA and CCA. The results indicate the possibility of the ultrasonic test on the correlation between erythrocyte aggregation and stroke, and it is expected that the in-vivo EA measurement would be clinically useful.

  1. A Rat Model of Thrombosis in Common Carotid Artery Induced by Implantable Wireless Light-Emitting Diode Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chao Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed a novel approach to form common carotid artery (CCA thrombus in rats with a wireless implantable light-emitting diode (LED device. The device mainly consists of an external controller and an internal LED assembly. The controller was responsible for wirelessly transmitting electrical power. The internal LED assembly served as an implant to receive the power and irradiate light on CCA. The thrombus formation was identified with animal sonography, 7T magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathologic examination. The present study showed that a LED assembly implanted on the outer surface of CCA could induce acute occlusion with single irradiation with 6 mW/cm2 LED for 4 h. If intermittent irradiation with 4.3–4.5 mW/cm2 LED for 2 h was shut off for 30 min, then irradiation for another 2 h was applied; the thrombus was observed to grow gradually and was totally occluded at 7 days. Compared with the contralateral CCA without LED irradiation, the arterial endothelium in the LED-irradiated artery was discontinued. Our study has shown that, by adjusting the duration of irradiation and the power intensity of LED, it is possible to produce acute occlusion and progressive thrombosis, which can be used as an animal model for antithrombotic drug development.

  2. Biphasic functional regulation in hippocampus of rat with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Bang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO in rats has been commonly used for the study of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Despite the apparent cognitive dysfunction in rats with BCCAO, the molecular markers or pathways involved in the pathological alternation have not been clearly identified. METHODS: Temporal changes (sham, 21, 35, 45, 55 and 70 days in gene expression in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO were measured using time-course microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analyses were performed to identify the functional involvement of temporally regulated genes in BCCAO. RESULTS: Two major gene expression patterns were observed in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO. One pattern, which was composed of 341 early up-regulated genes after the surgical procedure, was dominantly involved in immune-related biological functions (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.01. Another pattern composed of 182 temporally delayed down-regulated genes was involved in sensory perception such as olfactory and cognition functions (FDR<0.01. In addition to the two gene expression patterns, the temporal change of GO and the pathway activities using all differentially expressed genes also confirmed that an immune response was the main early change, whereas sensory functions were delayed responses. Moreover, we identified FADD and SOCS3 as possible core genes in the sensory function loss process using text-based mining and interaction network analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The biphasic regulatory mechanism first reported here could provide molecular evidence of BCCAO-induced impaired memory in rats as well as mechanism of the development of vascular dementia.

  3. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Macias-Reyes, Héctor; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Nuñez-Atahualpa, María Alejandra; Andrade-Garduño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC) were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP), and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P < 0.001). Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P < 0.01), and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 0.02). The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r = 0.513, P = 0.001), CRP (r = 0.799, P < 0.001), TNFα (r = 0.642, P = 0.001), and IL-6 (r = 0.751, P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P < 0.001) and anti-CCP levels (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:25821796

  4. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P<0.001. Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P<0.01, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (P=0.02. The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r=0.513, P=0.001, CRP (r=0.799, P<0.001, TNFα (r=0.642, P=0.001, and IL-6 (r=0.751, P<0.001. In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P<0.001 and anti-CCP levels (P=0.03. Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events.

  5. Direct reperfusion of the right common carotid artery prior to cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with brain malperfusion complicated with acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Yutaka; Matsumori, Masamichi; Kano, Hiroya

    2016-04-01

    The cases of 3 patients with brain malperfusion secondary to acute aortic dissection who underwent preoperative perfusion of the right common carotid artery are presented. The patients were 64, 65 and 72 years old and 2 were female. All were in a comatose or semi-comatose state with left hemiplegia. The right common carotid artery was exposed and directly cannulated, using a 12-Fr paediatric arterial cannula. The right common femoral artery was chosen for arterial drainage, using a 14-Fr double-lumen cannula. The circuit contained a small roller pump and heat exchanger coil. Target flow was set at 90 ml/min and blood temperature at 30 °C. Durations of right carotid perfusion were 120, 100 and 45 min, respectively. All underwent partial arch replacement and survived. Postoperative neurological sequelae were minimal in all cases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time ultrasound-tagging to track the 2D motion of the common carotid artery wall in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahnd, Guillaume, E-mail: g.zahnd@erasmusmc.nl [Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3000 CA (Netherlands); Salles, Sébastien; Liebgott, Hervé; Vray, Didier [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon 69100 (France); Sérusclat, André [Department of Radiology, Louis Pradel Hospital, Lyon 69500 (France); Moulin, Philippe [Department of Endocrinology, Louis Pradel Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon 69100, France and INSERM UMR 1060, Lyon 69500 (France)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Tracking the motion of biological tissues represents an important issue in the field of medical ultrasound imaging. However, the longitudinal component of the motion (i.e., perpendicular to the beam axis) remains more challenging to extract due to the rather coarse resolution cell of ultrasound scanners along this direction. The aim of this study is to introduce a real-time beamforming strategy dedicated to acquire tagged images featuring a distinct pattern in the objective to ease the tracking. Methods: Under the conditions of the Fraunhofer approximation, a specific apodization function was applied to the received raw channel data, in real-time during image acquisition, in order to introduce a periodic oscillations pattern along the longitudinal direction of the radio frequency signal. Analytic signals were then extracted from the tagged images, and subpixel motion tracking of the intima–media complex was subsequently performed offline, by means of a previously introduced bidimensional analytic phase-based estimator. Results: The authors’ framework was applied in vivo on the common carotid artery from 20 young healthy volunteers and 6 elderly patients with high atherosclerosis risk. Cine-loops of tagged images were acquired during three cardiac cycles. Evaluated against reference trajectories manually generated by three experienced analysts, the mean absolute tracking error was 98 ± 84 μm and 55 ± 44 μm in the longitudinal and axial directions, respectively. These errors corresponded to 28% ± 23% and 13% ± 9% of the longitudinal and axial amplitude of the assessed motion, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed framework enables tagged ultrasound images of in vivo tissues to be acquired in real-time. Such unconventional beamforming strategy contributes to improve tracking accuracy and could potentially benefit to the interpretation and diagnosis of biomedical images.

  7. A Family History of Stroke Is Associated with Increased Intima-Media Thickness in Young Ischemic Stroke - The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygarden, Halvor; Fromm, Annette; Sand, Kristin Modalsli; Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Eide, Geir Egil; Thomassen, Lars; Naess, Halvor; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Positive family history (FH+) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for own CVD. We aimed to analyze the effect of different types of FH (stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients. First-degree FH of CVD was assessed in ischemic stroke patients ≤ 60y using a standardized interview. Carotid ultrasound was performed and far wall cIMT in three carotid artery segments was registered, representing the common carotid (CCA-IMT), carotid bifurcation (BIF-IMT) and the internal carotid artery (ICA-IMT). Measurements were compared between FH+ and FH negative groups and stepwise backward regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with increased cIMT. During the study period 382 patients were enrolled, of which 262 (68%) were males and 233 (61%) reported FH of CVD. Regression analyses adjusting for risk factors revealed age as the most important predictor of cIMT in all segments. The association between FH+ and cIMT was modified by age (p = 0.014) and was significant only regarding ICA-IMT. FH+ was associated with increased ICA-IMT in patients aged stroke (p = 0.034), but not a FH+ of CHD or PAD. FH of stroke is associated with higher ICA-IMT in young ischemic stroke patients. Subtyping of cardiovascular FH is important to investigate heredity in young ischemic stroke patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01597453.

  8. Relation between food and drinking habits, and skin autofluorescence and intima media thickness in subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, B. M.; Van Doormaal, J. J.; Mulder, G.; Volmer, M.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relations between food and drinking habits, and estimated exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGE) intake, skin autofluorescence (AF) as a marker of AGE accumulation, and intima media thickness (IMT). IMT of the carotid artery and skin AF were measured in 147 elderly

  9. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  10. Variability of carotid artery measurements on 3-Tesla MRI and its impact on sample size calculation for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mushabbar A; Oshinski, John N; Kitchen, Charles; Ali, Arshad; Charnigo, Richard J; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2009-08-01

    Carotid MRI measurements are increasingly being employed in research studies for atherosclerosis imaging. The majority of carotid imaging studies use 1.5 T MRI. Our objective was to investigate intra-observer and inter-observer variability in carotid measurements using high resolution 3 T MRI. We performed 3 T carotid MRI on 10 patients (age 56 +/- 8 years, 7 male) with atherosclerosis risk factors and ultrasound intima-media thickness > or =0.6 mm. A total of 20 transverse images of both right and left carotid arteries were acquired using T2 weighted black-blood sequence. The lumen and outer wall of the common carotid and internal carotid arteries were manually traced; vessel wall area, vessel wall volume, and average wall thickness measurements were then assessed for intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Pearson and intraclass correlations were used in these assessments, along with Bland-Altman plots. For inter-observer variability, Pearson correlations ranged from 0.936 to 0.996 and intraclass correlations from 0.927 to 0.991. For intra-observer variability, Pearson correlations ranged from 0.934 to 0.954 and intraclass correlations from 0.831 to 0.948. Calculations showed that inter-observer variability and other sources of error would inflate sample size requirements for a clinical trial by no more than 7.9%, indicating that 3 T MRI is nearly optimal in this respect. In patients with subclinical atherosclerosis, 3 T carotid MRI measurements are highly reproducible and have important implications for clinical trial design.

  11. Radiation-Induced Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiaping; Cao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, with the improvement of radiotherapy (RT) technology and comprehensive treatment, the survival rate of head and neck malignancies has gained remarkable progress. Vascular injury and subsequent carotid stenosis following RT, as the backbone of treatment, have received increasing attention. Many investigations have demonstrated that radiation can result in the increase in carotid intima-media thickness, carotid stenosis and consequently lead to a higher risk of cerebrovascula...

  12. Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in a Community in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Chun; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2016-05-12

    The authors investigated the association between progression of carotid atherosclerosis and incidence of cardiovascular disease in a community cohort in Taiwan. Data has rarely been reported in Asian populations. Study subjects were 1,398 participants who underwent ultrasound measures of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and extracranial carotid artery plaque score at both 1994-1995 and 1999-2000 surveys. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of incident cardiovascular disease. During a median follow-up of 13 years (1999-2013), 71 strokes and 68 coronary events occurred. The 5-year individual IMT change was not associated with development of cardiovascular events in unadjusted and adjusted models. Among subjects without plaque in 1994-1995, we observed elevated risk associated with presence of new plaque (plaque score >0 in 1999-2000) in a dose-response manner in unadjusted and age- and sex- adjusted models. The associations attenuated and became statistically non-significant after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for plaque score >2 vs. 0: stroke, 1.61 [0.79-3.27], coronary events, 1.13 [0.48-2.69]). This study suggested that carotid plaque formation measured by ultrasound is associated increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors explain the associations to a large extent.

  13. Constructing canine carotid artery stenosis model by endovascular technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guangsen; Liu Yizhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a carotid artery stenosis model by endovascular technique suitable for neuro-interventional therapy. Methods: Twelve dogs were anesthetized, the unilateral segments of the carotid arteries' tunica media and intima were damaged by a corneous guiding wire of home made. Twenty-four carotid artery stenosis models were thus created. DSA examination was performed on postprocedural weeks 2, 4, 8, 10 to estimate the changes of those stenotic carotid arteries. Results: Twenty-four carotid artery stenosis models were successfully created in twelve dogs. Conclusions: Canine carotid artery stenosis models can be created with the endovascular method having variation of pathologic characters and hemodynamic changes similar to human being. It is useful for further research involving the new technique and new material for interventional treatment. (authors)

  14. Data on genetic associations of carotid atherosclerosis markers in Mexican American and European American rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rector Arya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotid Intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque are well established markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and are widely used for identifying subclinical atherosclerotic disease. We performed association analyses using Metabochip array to identify genetic variants that influence variation in CIMT and plaque, measured using B-mode ultrasonography, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Data on genetic associations of common variants associated with both CIMT and plaque in RA subjects involving Mexican Americans (MA and European Americans (EA populations are presented in this article. Strong associations were observed after adjusting for covariate effects including baseline clinical characteristics and statin use. Susceptibility loci and genes and/or nearest genes associated with CIMT in MAs and EAs with RA are presented. In addition, common susceptibility loci influencing CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs have been presented. Polygenic Risk Score (PRS plots showing complementary evidence for the observed CIMT and plaque association signals are also shown in this article. For further interpretation and details, please see the research article titled “A Genetic Association Study of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT and Plaque in Mexican Americans and European Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis” which is being published in Atherosclerosis (Arya et al., 2018 [1].(Arya et al., in press Thus, common variants in several genes exhibited significant associations with CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs as presented in this article. These findings may help understand the genetic architecture of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA populations.

  15. Endothelial function predicts progression of carotid intima-media thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halcox, J.P.; Donald, A.E.; Ellins, E.

    2009-01-01

    significant after adjustment for risk factors whether entered as separate variables or as Framingham Risk Score. Further adjustment for waist circumference, triglycerides, and employment grade had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic endothelial function was associated with progression of preclinical...... to its impact on the evolution of the atherosclerotic substrate. Flow-mediated dilatation testing provides an integrated vascular measure that may aid the prediction of structural disease evolution and represents a potential short- to intermediate-term outcome measure for evaluation of preventive...

  16. Epaisseur de l'intima-média carotidienne et facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herinirina, Nicolas Fanantenana; Rajaonarison, Lova Hasina Ny Ony Narindra; Herijoelison, Andry Roussel; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L’épaisseur intima-média de la carotide commune mesurée à l’échographie est un marqueur de risque cardio-vasculaire. L'objectif de ce travail est d’établir la corrélation entre l’épaisseur de l'intima-média carotidienne commune et les facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire chez des sujets asymptomatiques. Méthodes Etude transversale descriptive et analytique portant sur 77 sujets de 40 ans et plus chez qui nous avons évalué les facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire et analysé leur association avec l’épaisseur intima-média carotidienne commune. Résultats L’épaisseur intima-média augmentait avec l’âge. Les hommes avaient une épaisseur intima-média plus marquée que les femmes. L'hypertension artérielle, le diabète et la dyslipidémie sont corrélés à l’épaisseur de l'intima-média contrairement au tabagisme. Conclusion L’âge élevé et le sexe masculin sont les facteurs déterminants de la majoration de l’épaisseur intima-média carotidienne commune surtout si s'ajoutent l'hypertension artérielle, le diabète ou la dyslipidémie. PMID:26327990

  17. Successful flow reduction surgery for a ruptured true posterior communicating artery aneurysm caused by the common carotid artery ligation for epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamao, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Jun C; Satow, Tetsu; Iihara, Koji; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery occlusion can lead to the development of rare true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms because of hemodynamic stress on the PCoA. Surgical treatment of these lesions is challenging. The authors report a case of a true PCoA aneurysm that developed and ruptured 37 years after ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery for epistaxis. The lesion was successfully treated with clipping of the distal M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) after the occipital artery-radial artery free graft-MCA bypass, which led to extreme reduction in collateral flow through the PCoA. A cortical branch, located just proximal to the obliteration site, functioned as a sufficient flow outlet. The aneurysm shrank, and the patient has been doing well without any symptoms for 5 years after surgery. M1 obliteration combined with high-flow extra-intracranial bypass might be a promising option for a true PCoA aneurysm, and therapeutic design that leaves a sufficient flow outlet on the M1 is mandatory to avoid unexpected occlusion of the M1 and its perforators.

  18. Carotid Artery End-Diastolic Velocity and Future Cerebro-Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic High Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jung, Young Hak; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Choi, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated. A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque. The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global χ(2)=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029). Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD.

  19. Design and Rationale of the Intima-Medial Thickness Sub-Study of the PreventIon of CArdiovascular Events in iSchemic Stroke Patients with High Risk of Cerebral hemOrrhage (PICASSO-IMT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Keun; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Juneyoung; Kwon, Sun U

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the main mechanisms of stroke and cardiovascular diseases and is associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. Intima-medial thickness (IMT) is a well-known surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and has been used to predict stroke and cardiovascular events. However, the clinical significance of IMT and IMT change in stroke has not been investigated in well-designed studies. The PreventIon of CArdiovascular events in iSchemic Stroke patients with high risk of cerebral hemOrrhage-Intima-Media Thickness (PICASSO-IMT) sub-study is designed to investigate the effects of cilostazol, probucol, or both on IMT in patients with stroke. PICASSO-IMT is a prospective sub-study of the PICASSO study designed to measure IMT and plaque score at 1, 13, 25, 37, and 49 months after randomization. The primary outcome is the change in mean carotid IMT, which is defined as the mean of the far-wall IMTs of the right and left common carotid arteries, between baseline and 13 months after randomization. PICASSO-IMT will provide the largest IMT data set in a stroke population and will provide valuable information about the clinical significance of IMT in patients with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intima-media thickness remodelling in hypertensive subjects with long-term well-controlled blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puato, Massimo; Boschetti, Giovanni; Rattazzi, Marcello; Zanon, Marta; Pesavento, Raffaele; Faggin, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Benetti, Elisabetta; Palatini, Paolo; Pauletto, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate in a long follow-up the carotid artery remodelling in a cohort of young hypertensive subjects having good blood pressure (BP) control. We studied 20 grade I hypertensives (HT) by assessing the B-mode ultrasound of mean carotid intima-media thickness (mean-IMT) and maximum IMT (M-MAX) in each carotid artery segment (common, bulb, internal), bilaterally. We compared their ultrasound measurements with those recorded 5 and 10 years earlier. While the first 5-year follow-up was observational, in the second 5-year follow-up, lifestyle modifications and/or pharmacological therapy were started to obtain well-controlled BP levels. Office BP was measured at the time of the ultrasound studies and every 6 months during the follow-up. BP levels were: 10 years 144/91 mmHg, 5 years 143/90 mmHg and 129 ± 79 mmHg at the time of the study. In the first 5-year observational follow-up, both mean-IMT and M-MAX increased (Δ 0.116 and Δ 0.165 mm, respectively, p < 0.0005). In the 5-year intervention follow-up, characterized by well-controlled BP, mean-IMT slightly but significantly increased (Δ 0.084 mm, p = 0.004), whereas M-MAX remained stable (Δ 0.026 mm). In our HT, well-controlled BP levels were able to prevent pro-atherogenic remodelling (expressed by M-MAX). Conversely, good BP control slightly decreased but did not stop the progression in mean-IMT, which is likely to reflect some hypertrophy of the arterial media layer.

  1. Quantification of common carotid artery and descending aorta vessel wall thickness from MR vessel wall imaging using a fully automated processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; van 't Klooster, Ronald; Brandts, Anne; Roes, Stijntje D; Alizadeh Dehnavi, Reza; de Roos, Albert; Westenberg, Jos J M; van der Geest, Rob J

    2017-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a method that can fully automatically identify the vessel wall boundaries and quantify the wall thickness for both common carotid artery (CCA) and descending aorta (DAO) from axial magnetic resonance (MR) images. 3T MRI data acquired with T 1 -weighted gradient-echo black-blood imaging sequence from carotid (39 subjects) and aorta (39 subjects) were used to develop and test the algorithm. The vessel wall segmentation was achieved by respectively fitting a 3D cylindrical B-spline surface to the boundaries of lumen and outer wall. The tube-fitting was based on the edge detection performed on the signal intensity (SI) profile along the surface normal. To achieve a fully automated process, Hough Transform (HT) was developed to estimate the lumen centerline and radii for the target vessel. Using the outputs of HT, a tube model for lumen segmentation was initialized and deformed to fit the image data. Finally, lumen segmentation was dilated to initiate the adaptation procedure of outer wall tube. The algorithm was validated by determining: 1) its performance against manual tracing; 2) its interscan reproducibility in quantifying vessel wall thickness (VWT); 3) its capability of detecting VWT difference in hypertensive patients compared with healthy controls. Statistical analysis including Bland-Altman analysis, t-test, and sample size calculation were performed for the purpose of algorithm evaluation. The mean distance between the manual and automatically detected lumen/outer wall contours was 0.00 ± 0.23/0.09 ± 0.21 mm for CCA and 0.12 ± 0.24/0.14 ± 0.35 mm for DAO. No significant difference was observed between the interscan VWT assessment using automated segmentation for both CCA (P = 0.19) and DAO (P = 0.94). Both manual and automated segmentation detected significantly higher carotid (P = 0.016 and P = 0.005) and aortic (P < 0.001 and P = 0.021) wall thickness in the hypertensive patients. A reliable and reproducible pipeline for fully

  2. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  3. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is a determinant of intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects: role of CETP and triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Perton, Frank G.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; van Roon, Arie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2005-01-01

    We tested whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and/or the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration in type 2 diabetic and control subjects. In 87 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes (nonsmokers,

  4. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is a determinant of intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects : Role of CETP and triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R; Perton, FG; Dallinga-Thie, GM; van Roon, AM; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    We tested whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and/or the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration in type 2 diabetic and control subjects. In 87 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes (nonsmokers,

  5. Assessment of local carotid stiffness in seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Şirin Özcan, Ayşe Nur; Erten, Şükran; Alsancak, Yakup; Durmaz, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Arterial stiffness (AS) is an independent predictor of CV events. This study aimed to analyse local carotid AS parameters in seronegative and seropositive RA patients. Of 347 consecutive RA patients, we selected specifically those who were free of established CV diseases and risk factors. As a result, 140 patients (126 women, 52.2 ± 10 years) and 140 healthy controls (122 women, 52.7 ± 8.0 years) were enrolled into this study. The common carotid AS was evaluated using radio frequency echo-tracking system to determine the local carotid pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Based on rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity, RA patients were categorized into seronegative and seropositive subgroups. Carotid PWV was determined to be significantly higher in all patients and subgroups than controls (p < .001 for all). Although cIMT was similar between the patients, controls and seropositive subgroup, seronegative patients had significantly higher cIMT compared to controls (p = .035) and seropositive group (p = .010). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between cPWV and age (r: 0.603, p < .001), ESR (r: 0.297, p = .004), ACPA (r: 0.346, p = .001) and cIMT (r: 0.290, p = .005) in seropositive patients. RA per se is sufficient to cause arteriosclerosis in the absence of classical CV risk factors. However, arterial hypertrophy is only increased in seronegative patients but not in seropositive group.

  6. The degradation and transport mechanism of a Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr stent in rabbit common carotid artery: A 20-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Wu; Huang, Hua; Pei, Jia; Qu, Haiyun; Yuan, Guangyin; Li, Yongdong

    2018-03-15

    Mg-based stent is a promising candidate of the next generation fully degradable vascular stents. The latest progress includes the CE approval of the Magmaris ® WE43 based drug eluting stent. However, so far, the long term (more than 1 year implantation) in vivo degradation and the physiological effects caused by the degradation products were still unclear. In this study, a 20 month observation was carried out after the bare Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (abbr. JDBM) stent prototype was implanted into the common carotid artery of New Zealand white rabbit in order to evaluate its safety, efficacy and especially degradation behavior. The degradation of the main second phase Mg 12 Nd was also studied. Results showed that the bare JDBM stent had good safety and efficacy with a complete re-endothelialization within 28 days. The JDBM stent struts were mostly replaced in situ by degradation products in 4 month. The important finding was that the volume and Ca concentration of the degradation products decreased in the long term, eliminating the clinicians' concern of possible vessel calcification. In addition, the alloying elements Mg and Zn in the stent could be safely metabolized as continuous enrichment in any of the main organs were not detected although Nd and Zr showed an abrupt increase in spleen and liver after 1 month implantation. Collectively, the long term in vivo results showed the rapid re-endothelialization of JDBM stent and the long term safety of the degradation products, indicating its great potential as the backbone of the fully degradable vascular stent. Mg-based stent is a promising candidate of the next generation fully degradable stents, especially after the recent market launch of one of its kind (Magmaris). However the fundamental question about the long term degradation and metabolic mechanism of Mg-based stent and its degradation products remain unanswered. We implanted our patented Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr bare stent into the common carotid artery of rabbits and

  7. Cerebral ischemia after filter-protected carotid artery stenting is common and cannot be predicted by the presence of substantial amount of debris captured by the filter device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleux, G; Demaerel, P; Verbeken, E; Daenens, K; Heye, S; Van Sonhoven, F; Nevelsteen, A; Wilms, G

    2006-10-01

    Protected carotid artery stent placement is currently under clinical evaluation as a potential alternative to carotid endarterectomy. The current study was undertaken to determine the incidence of new ischemic lesions found on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in nonselected patients after protected carotid artery stent placement using a filter device and to determine the potential relationship between these new ischemic lesions and the presence or absence of a clear amount of debris captured by the neuroprotection filter device. A nonrandomized cohort of 52 patients (40 men, 12 women) presenting with carotid occlusive disease underwent protected carotid artery stent placement using a filter device. DWI obtained 1 day before stent placement was compared with that obtained 1 day after stent placement. In addition, the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of debris captured by the filter device during the carotid stent placement procedure was assessed. Neuroprotected carotid stent placement was technically successful in all 53 procedures but was complicated by a transient ischemic attack in 3 patients (5.6%). In 22 patients (41.5%), new ischemic lesions were found on DWI, and in 21 filter devices (39.6%), a substantial amount of atheromatous plaque and/or fibrin was found. No clear relationship between the presence of debris captured by the filter device and new lesions detected by DWI was found (P = .087; odds ratio 3.067). Neuroprotected carotid artery stent placement will not avoid silent cerebral ischemia. Systematic microscopic analysis of debris captured by the filter device has no predictive value for potential cerebral ischemia after carotid artery stent placement.

  8. Internal Carotid Artery Hypoplasia: Role of Color-Coded Carotid Duplex Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ya; Liu, Hung-Yu; Lim, Kun-Eng; Lin, Shinn-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of color-coded carotid duplex sonography for diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. We retrospectively reviewed 25,000 color-coded carotid duplex sonograms in our neurosonographic database to establish more diagnostic criteria for internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A definitive diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia was made in 9 patients. Diagnostic findings on color-coded carotid duplex imaging include a long segmental small-caliber lumen (52% diameter) with markedly decreased flow (13% flow volume) in the affected internal carotid artery relative to the contralateral side but without intraluminal lesions. Indirect findings included markedly increased total flow volume (an increase of 133%) in both vertebral arteries, antegrade ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow, and a reduced vessel diameter with increased flow resistance in the ipsilateral common carotid artery. Ten patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection showed a similar color-coded duplex pattern, but the reductions in the internal and common carotid artery diameters and increase in collateral flow from the vertebral artery were less prominent than those in hypoplasia. The ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow was retrograde in 40% of patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection. In addition, thin-section axial and sagittal computed tomograms of the skull base could show the small diameter of the carotid canal in internal carotid artery hypoplasia and help distinguish hypoplasia from distal internal carotid artery dissection. Color-coded carotid duplex sonography provides important clues for establishing a diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A hypoplastic carotid canal can be shown by thin-section axial and sagittal skull base computed tomography to confirm the final diagnosis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery and topical treatment for the prevention of epistaxis from guttural pouch mycosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousty, M; Tricaud, C; De Beauregard, T; Picandet, V; Bizon-Mercier, C; Tessier, C

    2016-01-09

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) combined with various antimycotic treatments for the prevention of epistaxis in horses with guttural pouch mycosis. For each case, ipsilateral ligation of the CCA was performed, followed by application of various topical medications under endoscopic guidance. Frequency and number of treatments, outcome and recurrence of haemorrhage were retrospectively recorded. Twenty-four horses were included. Topical medication was administered by detachment of the diphtheric membrane and spraying (n=16) or by intralesional injection directly in the plaques using a transendoscopic needle (n=8). Epistaxis recurred in five horses (20.8 per cent), causing death of four horses (16.6 per cent). The mean number of treatments was 6.3±4.0 (range 2-14) for all topical treatments. Ligation of the ipsilateral CCA and topical medication carries a fair prognosis for avoidance of recurrent episodes of epistaxis, but fatal haemorrhage can occur. Removal of the fungal plaque and topical treatment of the underlying lesion appeared to speed up resolution of the mycotic mucosal lesions. The described technique is a salvage procedure when financial or technical constraints prevent the use of transarterial catheter occlusion techniques. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24-159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects...... without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile...

  11. Prognostic utility of carotid ultrasound and cardiac SPECT imaging in coronary artery bypass patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, M.; Peovska, I.; Maksimovic, J.; Vavlukis, M.; Meskovska, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT) in the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease referred for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in a newly made prognostic model. 63 patients (age 60.36 ± 8.28 years) with angiographically established coronary artery disease referred for CABG were evaluated for: age, smoking, family disposition, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction and revascularization. Patients underwent nitrate enhanced Gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, with 17-segment analysis for calculation of perfusion scores and viability index. Common carotid artery IMT was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Patients were followed for cardiovascular events 12 months after CABG. The obtained data reported mean values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 46.2±14.4%, viability index 0.76± 0.55, SRS 17.76±13.81 and summed nitrate score 12.89 ±10.36. Ultrasound detected CCA IMT 0.90± 0.24 mm, with increased value in 67.2% and presence of carotid plaques in 27.1% of pts. We registered 14 events and 8.8% mortality rate. Multiple regression modelling showed bilateral carotid plaque presence as a predictor of total events. Viability index and CCA IMT have been found as independent death predictors. Myocardial perfusion viability index and CCA IMT are predictors, independently associated with prognosis of patients referred for CABG. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced carotid artery atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujral, Dorothy M.; Chahal, Navtej; Senior, Roxy; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Carotid arteries frequently receive significant doses of radiation as collateral structures in the treatment of malignant diseases. Vascular injury following treatment may result in carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and increased risk of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). This systematic review examines the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on the carotid arteries, looking at the incidence of stroke in patients receiving neck radiotherapy. In addition, we consider possible surrogate endpoints such as CAS and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) and summarise the evidence for radiation-induced carotid atherosclerosis. Materials and methods: From 853 references, 34 articles met the criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. These papers described 9 studies investigating the incidence of stroke/TIA in irradiated patients, 11 looking at CAS, and 14 examining CIMT. Results: The majority of studies utilised suboptimally-matched controls for each endpoint. The relative risk of stroke in irradiated patients ranged from 1.12 in patients with breast cancer to 5.6 in patients treated for head and neck cancer. The prevalence of CAS was increased by 16–55%, with the more modest increase seen in a study using matched controls. CIMT was increased in irradiated carotid arteries by 18–40%. Only two matched-control studies demonstrated a significant increase in CIMT of 36% and 22% (p = 0.003 and <0.001, respectively). Early prospective data demonstrated a significant increase in CIMT in irradiated arteries at 1 and 2 years after RT (p < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusions: The incidence of stroke was significantly increased in patients receiving RT to the neck. There was a consistent difference in CAS and CIMT between irradiated and unirradiated carotid arteries. Future studies should optimise control groups

  13. Association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with early carotid artery atherosclerosis: A cross-sectional study in middle-aged Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengguo; Sun, Xiaohui; Lin, Hanli; Zheng, Ruizhi; Ruan, Liansheng; Sun, Zhanhang; Zhu, Yimin

    2018-03-21

    Homocysteine is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with the presence of early carotid artery atherosclerosis remains unknown in middle-aged Chinese adults. Chinese adults (n = 1607) of Han ethnicity, age 35 to 65 y, and living in their communities >2 y were surveyed. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as homocysteine concentrations >15 µmol/L. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque were examined by ultrasonography. All participants were classified into four groups by hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome status. Participants with both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome had the highest levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure compared with the three other groups. The highest proportion of increased carotid intima-media thickness (61.3%) was in the subgroup of both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. After adjustments for the covariates, the risk of increased carotid intima-media thickness was only significantly higher in the group with metabolic syndrome but without hyperhomocysteinemia (odds ratio: 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.93) compared with people without hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, statistically significant variances of prevalence of plaque among the four subgroups were not discovered. Our study demonstrated that metabolic syndrome had a strong effect on carotid intima-media thickness However, the increased homocysteine levels were not significantly associated with early carotid artery atherosclerosis in middle-aged Chinese people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P Th M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Jong, Pim A; De Vis, Jill B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial

  15. Preventive Effects of Resveratrol on Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Protein Modifications in Rat Cerebral Cortex Challenged by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion

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    Gianfranca Carta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the putative roles of a single acute dose of resveratrol (RVT in preventing cerebral oxidative stress induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (BCCAO/R and to investigate RVT’s ability to preserve the neuronal structural integrity. Frontal and temporal-occipital cortices were examined in two groups of adult Wistar rats, sham-operated and submitted to BCCAO/R. In both groups, 6 h before surgery, half the rats were gavage-fed with a single dose of RVT (40 mg/per rat in 300 µL of sunflower oil as the vehicle, while the second half received the vehicle alone. In the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevented the BCCAO/R-induced increase of lipoperoxides, augmented concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide and docosahexaenoic acid, increased relative levels of the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1 and 2 (CB2, and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor (PPAR-α proteins. Increased expression of CB1/CB2 receptors mirrored that of synaptophysin and post-synaptic density-95 protein. No BCCAO/R-induced changes occurred in the temporal-occipital cortex. Collectively, our results demonstrate that, in the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevents the BCCAO/R-induced oxidative stress and modulates the endocannabinoid and PPAR-α systems. The increased expression of synaptic structural proteins further suggests the possible efficacy of RVT as a dietary supplement to preserve the nervous tissue metabolism and control the physiological response to the hypoperfusion/reperfusion challenge.

  16. New Technique for the Preservation of the Left Common Carotid Artery in Zone 2a Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszkat, Robert; Kulesza, Jerzy; Zarzecka, Anna; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Wacław

    2011-01-01

    To describe a technique for the preservation of the left common carotid artery (CCA) in zone 2 endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This technique involves the placement of a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment to enable precise visualization and protection of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Of the 107 patients with thoracic endovascular aortic repair in our study, 32 (30%) had the left subclavian artery intentionally covered (landing zone 2). Eight (25%) of those 32 had landing zone 2a—the segment distally the origin of the left CCA, halfway between the origin of the left CCA and the left subclavian artery. In all patients, a guide wire was positioned into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment. It is a retrospective study in design. In seven patients, stent grafts were positioned precisely. In the remaining patient, the positioning was imprecise; the origin of the left CCA was partially covered by the graft. A stent was implanted into the left CCA to restore the flow into the vessel. All procedures were performed successfully. The technique of placing a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment is a safe and effective method that enables the precise visualization of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Moreover, in case of inadvertent complete or partial coverage of the origin of the left CCA, it supplies safe and quick access to the artery for stent implantation.

  17. Effect of acute administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil on rat cerebral cortex following transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion

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    Quartu Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemia/reperfusion leads to inflammation and oxidative stress which damages membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs and eventually induces neuronal death. This study evaluates the effect of the administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil (E.O., a mixture of terpenes and sesquiterpenes, on modifications of fatty acid profile and endocannabinoid (eCB congener concentrations induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO in the rat frontal cortex and plasma. Methods Adult Wistar rats underwent BCCAO for 20 min followed by 30 min reperfusion (BCCAO/R. 6 hours before surgery, rats, randomly assigned to four groups, were gavaged either with E.O. (200 mg/0.45 ml of sunflower oil as vehicle or with the vehicle alone. Results BCCAO/R triggered in frontal cortex a decrease of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, the membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acid most susceptible to oxidation. Pre-treatment with E.O. prevented this change and led further to decreased levels of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, as assessed by Western Blot. In plasma, only after BCCAO/R, E.O. administration increased both the ratio of DHA-to-its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and levels of palmytoylethanolamide (PEA and oleoylethanolamide (OEA. Conclusions Acute treatment with E.O. before BCCAO/R elicits changes both in the frontal cortex, where the BCCAO/R-induced decrease of DHA is apparently prevented and COX-2 expression decreases, and in plasma, where PEA and OEA levels and DHA biosynthesis increase. It is suggested that the increase of PEA and OEA plasma levels may induce DHA biosynthesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR alpha activation, protecting brain tissue from ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  18. Relationship between intima-media thickness and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Shateri, Kamran; Behzadi, Farhad; Maleki-Miandoab, Tooraj; Lesha, Emal; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Rosta, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are two conditions that confer the major cause of mortality and morbidity in postmenopausal women. Several studies have suggested that these two conditions are negatively correlated by a common pathway. The aim of our study was to show a relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as two factors that are directly related to osteoporosis and atherosclerosis respectively. The study group consisted of 136 postmenopausal women that presented at the Radiology Clinic of our hospital for BMD measurements. The CIMT was measured using High Resolution B mode Ultrasonography; BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck using Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. The mean IMT value in osteoporotic women (0.7±0.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to non-osteoporotic women (0.6±0.1 mm, P media thickness are negatively correlated, thus showing a possible relationship between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. However, more research is necessary to determine the pathway that connects these two conditions.

  19. Dynamic programming in parallel boundary detection with application to ultrasound intima-media segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Xinyao; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin

    2013-12-01

    Segmentation of carotid artery intima-media in longitudinal ultrasound images for measuring its thickness to predict cardiovascular diseases can be simplified as detecting two nearly parallel boundaries within a certain distance range, when plaque with irregular shapes is not considered. In this paper, we improve the implementation of two dynamic programming (DP) based approaches to parallel boundary detection, dual dynamic programming (DDP) and piecewise linear dual dynamic programming (PL-DDP). Then, a novel DP based approach, dual line detection (DLD), which translates the original 2-D curve position to a 4-D parameter space representing two line segments in a local image segment, is proposed to solve the problem while maintaining efficiency and rotation invariance. To apply the DLD to ultrasound intima-media segmentation, it is imbedded in a framework that employs an edge map obtained from multiplication of the responses of two edge detectors with different scales and a coupled snake model that simultaneously deforms the two contours for maintaining parallelism. The experimental results on synthetic images and carotid arteries of clinical ultrasound images indicate improved performance of the proposed DLD compared to DDP and PL-DDP, with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PNPLA3 GG genotype and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Salvatore Petta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate if the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD, could be related to gene variants influencing hepatic fat accumulation and the severity of liver damage. METHODS: We recorded anthropometric, metabolic and histological data(Kleiner score of 162 consecutive, biopsy-proven Sicilian NAFLD patients. Intima-media thickness(IMT, IMT thickening(IMT≥1 mm and carotid plaques(focal thickening of >1.3 mm at the level of common carotid artery were evaluated using ultrasonography. IL28B rs12979860 C>T, PNPLA3 rs738409 C>G, GCKR rs780094 C>T, LYPLAL1 rs12137855 C>T, and NCAN rs2228603 C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms were also assessed. The results were validated in a cohort of 267 subjects with clinical or histological diagnosis of NAFLD from Northern Italy, 63 of whom had follow-up examinations. RESULTS: Carotid plaques, IMT thickening and mean maximum IMT were similar in the two cohorts, whereas the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, NASH, and PNPLA3 GG polymorphism(21%vs.13%, p = 0.02 were significantly higher in the Sicilian cohort. In this cohort, the prevalence of carotid plaques and IMT thickening was higher in PNPLA3 GG compared to CC/CG genotype(53%vs.32%, p = 0.02; 62%vs.28%, p<0.001, respectively. These associations were confirmed at multivariate analyses (OR2.94;95%C.I. 1.12-7.71, p = 0.02, and OR4.11;95%C.I. 1.69-9.96, p = 0.002, respectively, although have been observed only in patients <50years. Also in the validation cohort, PNPLA3 GG genotype was independently associated with IMT thickening in younger patients only (OR: 6.00,95%C.I. 1.36-29, p = 0.01, and to IMT progression (p = 0.05 in patients with follow-up examinations. CONCLUSION: PNPLA3 GG genotype is associated with higher severity of carotid atherosclerosis in younger patients with NAFLD. Mechanisms underlying this association, and its clinical relevance need further investigations.

  1. Sex-associated differences in the modulation of vascular risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Laura; Balestrini, Simona; Avitabile, Emma; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Viticchi, Giovanna; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2015-03-31

    In this study, we aimed to identify determinants of the different sex-related stroke risk in subjects with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. In all, 492 women (44.4%) and 617 men (55.6%), with unilateral ⩾ 60% asymptomatic ICA stenosis, were prospectively evaluated with a median follow-up of 37 months (interquartile range, 26 to 43). Vascular risk profile, plaque characteristics, stenosis progression, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were investigated. Outcome measure was the occurrence of ischemic stroke ipsilateral to ICA stenosis. Myocardial infarction, contralateral stroke and transient ischemic attack were considered as competing events. The incidence rate of ipsilateral stroke over the entire follow-up period was 0.16%: 0.09% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.15) in women and 0.22% (95% CI 0.17 to 0.29) in men (log-rank test, P<0.001). Stenosis progression significantly influenced the risk of ipsilateral stroke in both men (subhazard ratio, SHR, 8.99) and women (SHR 4.89). Stenosis degree (71% to 90%, SHR 2.35; 91% to 99%, SHR 3.38) and irregular plaque surface (SHR 2.32) were relevant risk factors for ipsilateral stroke only in men. Our findings suggest that characteristics of the stenosis and plaque exert a different effect in modulating vascular risk in the two sexes. Understanding sex differences in cardiovascular disease could help to target sex-specific future therapies.

  2. A Rare Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

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    Ahmet Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is a common cause of fainting and falls in the elderly, and can be diagnosed by carotid sinus massage. We present a 67-year-old diabetic man who was admitted with hyperglycemia. During thyroid examination, clouding of consciousness occurred with unilateral palpation. Asystole was documented for 4.8 seconds and suspected for 7 seconds upon carotid sinus massage. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity should be kept in mind when examining diabetic patients.

  3. Carotid atherosclerosis progression in familial hypercholesterolemia patients: a pooled analysis of the ASAP, ENHANCE, RADIANCE 1, and CAPTIVATE studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.; Zhou, R.; Bots, M.L.; Duivenvoorden, R.; Koglin, J.; Akdim, F.; Mitchel, Y.B.; Huijgen, R.; Sapre, A.; Groot, E. de; Sijbrands, E.J.; Pasternak, R.C.; Gagne, C.; Marais, A.D.; Ballantyne, C.M.; Isaacsohn, J.L.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Kastelein, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Until recently, patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were considered the best subjects for the assessment of changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in randomized intervention trials. Our aims were to investigate whether contemporary statin-treated

  4. Carotid atherosclerosis progression in familial hypercholesterolemia patients: A pooled analysis of the ASAP, ENHANCE, RADIANCE 1, and CAPTIVATE studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vergeer (Menno); R. Zhou (Rong); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Duivenvoorden (Raphaël); J. Koglin (Jörg); F. Akdim (Fatima); Y.B. Mitchel (Yale); R. Huijgen (Roeland); A. Sapre (Aditi); E. de Groot (Eric); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); R.C. Pasternak (Richard); C. Gagné (Claude); A.D. Marais (David); C. Ballantyne (Christie); J.L. Isaacsohn (Jonathan); A.F. Stalenhoef (Anton); J.J.P. Kastelein (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground-Until recently, patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were considered the best subjects for the assessment of changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in randomized intervention trials. Our aims were to investigate whether contemporary

  5. Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Patients A Pooled Analysis of the ASAP, ENHANCE, RADIANCE 1, and CAPTIVATE Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, Menno; Zhou, Rong; Bots, Michiel L.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Koglin, Joerg; Akdim, Fatima; Mitchel, Yale B.; Huijgen, Roeland; Sapre, Aditi; de Groot, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Pasternak, Richard C.; Gagné, Claude; Marais, A. David; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Isaacsohn, Jonathan L.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Background-Until recently, patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were considered the best subjects for the assessment of changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in randomized intervention trials. Our aims were to investigate whether contemporary statin-treated HeFH

  6. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

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    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  7. Combined Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia and Hypertension on the Presence of Early Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongying; Fang, Xianghua; Hua, Yang; Liu, Beibei; Ji, Xunming; Tang, Zhe; Wang, Chunxiu; Guan, Shaochen; Wu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Hongjun; Gu, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    To examine the individual effect of elevated homocysteine and its combined effect with hypertension on early carotid artery atherosclerosis (ECAS). We recruited 1257 subjects from a community-based population in Beijing, China, aged 55 years and older. The definition of hyperhomocysteinemia was referred to as the presence of homocysteine concentrations greater than 15 µmol/L. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), plaque, the sum of plaque thickness (plaque score, PS), and plaque location in common carotid artery were established by ultrasonography. The presence of increased CIMT (≥1.0 mm) and plaque was defined as ECAS. Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, total cholesterol, glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypoglycemic therapy, and lipid-lowering therapy were adjusted by logistic regression analysis. After adjustments for all potential confounders, the risks of presence of plaque, bilateral plaque, and high PS were significantly higher in the group with hyperhomocysteinemia as compared with reference group (the normal homocysteine and normotensive). The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.56 for presence of plaque (95% CI 1.05-2.33), 1.80 for bilateral plaque (95% CI 1.08-2.99), and 1.90 for high PS (95% CI 1.09-3.30), respectively. The group with both hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension manifested the highest ORs of ECAS. The fully adjusted ORs were 1.67 for increased CIMT (95% CI 1.15-2.42), 2.48 for bilateral plaques (95% CI 1.54-3.99), and 2.69 for high PS (95% CI 1.61-4.47), correspondingly. Elevated homocysteine had a mild-to-moderate independent effect on ECAS. Combined with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia might increase the strength of the above-mentioned effects. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between abdominal fat distribution and atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oike, Miki; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Haniu, Tomomi; Oka, Fukuko; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Isonuma, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between abdominal fat distribution (e.g., abdominal visceral fat area [VFA], subcutaneous fat area [SFA], and total fat area [TFA]), waist circumference (WC), or body mass index (BMI) and atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery after adjusting for common risk factors. The present study is a hospital-based, cross-sectional study. Study participants included 223 Japanese individuals who underwent a medical health checkup at Juntendo University Hospital, Tokyo, between December 2005 and August 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between abdominal VFA, SFA, TFA, the VFA/SFA ratio, WC, or BMI and intima-media thickness [IMT] (mean IMT≥1.1mm or maximum IMT≥1.2mm) as atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that VFA (OR for ≥150cm(2) versus <100cm(2), 3.88; 95% CI, 1.39-10.85), BMI (OR for ≥27.6kg/m(2) versus <25kg/m(2), 5.22; 95% CI, 1.69-16.16), and TFA (OR for 200-285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 4.15; 95% CI, 1.34-12.86: OR for ≥285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 5.53; 95% CI, 1.76-17.35) were significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes in men. After adjustment for BMI, only TFA (OR for ≥285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 3.76; 95%CI, 1.03-13.79) in men was significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery. Our results indicate that VFA, TFA, and BMI are independently associated with atherosclerotic changes in Japanese men. TFA may be considered as a valuable measure of atherosclerotic changes. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dependence of morphological changes of the carotid arteries on essential hypertension and accompanying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2002-03-01

    to evaluate morphological changes (intima-media thickness, IMT) of the carotid arteries in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and to discover whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between IMT and accompanying risk factors. cross-sectional study. angiology department, university teaching hospital. the study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotensives with FT for essential hypertension aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age- and sex-matched controls without FT. the hypertensive subjects were being treated either with long-acting calcium-channel antagonists or ACE-inhibitors. using high resolution ultrasound, IMT of the carotid bifurcation and of the common carotid artery was measured. In the hypertensives, the mean IMT was greater than that in the controls (0.92 (0.10) mm vs 0.72 (0.07) mm; p<0.00005). The IMT was independently related to accompanying risk factors: a positive family history of hypertension, age of the patient, duration of EH and the level of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP), body mass index and total/LDL-cholesterol. In subjects with FT, IMT was also greater compared to the control group (0.60 (0.05) mm vs 0.55 (0.04) mm; p<0.00005). IMT was not related to BP values. In treated essential patients with the EH, the IMT was increased. Individuals with FT also had greater IMT in the absence of elevated BP. The IMT in hypertensives was related to accompanying risk factors, which could be pathogenetic determinants of EH and/or its complications.

  10. [Prevalence of carotid artery stenosis in nonagenarians: Survey in a primary care hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlender, J; Nussberger, J; Ménard, J; Bohlender, B

    2017-06-01

    Carotid artery stenosis increases with age and may cause brain ischemia if arterial hypotension occurs. We performed a monocentric pilot study to investigate its prevalence in the very elderly and to assess its potential influence on blood pressure (BP) goals during antihypertensive treatment. All patients≥90 years of a primary care medical ward were prospectively included over 15 months. Ultrasound exams of the precerebral arteries were offered to all elderly patients for routine evaluation of their cardiovascular risk. Frequencies of stenosed common, internal and external carotid arteries (CCA, ICA, ECA) were analyzed together with clinical BP and antihypertensive therapy. Patients with circulatory shock and readmissions were excluded. Sixty-three patients aged 92±3 years (78% female) hospitalized for a median of 11 days were included. On admission, 76% were on antihypertensive drugs vs. 86% at discharge. Mean admission BP was 149/77 vs. 129/72mmHg at discharge; systolic BP<140mmHg 36% vs 64% (P<0.05). Mean intima-media thickness (ACC, right/left) was 8.7/9.4mm. Prevalence of plaque or stenosis<60% was: CCA 19.0%, ICA 19.0%, ECA 31.7%, bulb 74.6%; of stenosis≥60%: CCA 0%, ICA 7.9%, ECA 19.0%, ICA bilateral 1.6% (unilateral occlusion 3.1%, no bilateral). Coincidence of systolic BP<120mmHg and ACI stenosis≥60% had a probability of 1-2%. Concerning the risk of brain ischemia due to carotid artery stenosis, a BP goal<140mmHg should be safe for most nonagenarians. If individual BP goals are lower, searching for significant stenosis by ultrasound may be useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury accumulation and accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based prospective 4-year follow-up study in men in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, J T; Seppänen, K; Lakka, T A; Salonen, R; Kaplan, G A

    2000-02-01

    Basic research and our previous studies have suggested that mercury exposure enhances lipid peroxidation and the risk of myocardial infarction, but there are no studies concerning the association between mercury accumulation and atherosclerosis. We therefore investigated whether high hair mercury content is associated with accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis, determined by ultrasonographic assessment of common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), in a prospective study among 1014 men aged 42-60 years. In a linear regression model adjusting for other atherosclerotic risk factors, high hair mercury content was one of the strongest predictors of the 4-year increase in the mean IMT (P2.81 microg/g (fifths) had an IMT increase of 0.105, 0.102, 0.113, 0.107 and 0.140 mm/4 years, respectively (P=0.041 for heterogeneity between groups). The IMT increase was 0.034 mm/4 years (31.9%) greater in the highest fifth than in the other fifths (P<0.05 for the difference). These findings suggest that mercury accumulation in the human body is associated with accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis.

  12. Angiographic follow-up after carotid artery stenting of bifurcation stenosis; Angiographische Verlaufskontrolle nach Stentimplantation zur Behandlung der Karotisbifurkationsstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, E.A.; Forsting, M. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany); Jansen, C.; Drescher, R.; Mathias, K. [Radiologische Klinik, Klinikum Dortmund (Germany); Schwarz, M. [Neurologische Klinik, Klinikum Dortmund (Germany); Christmann, A. [Fachbereich Statistik, Univ. Dortmund (Germany); Jaeger, H. [Radiologische Klinik, Klinikum Dortmund (Germany); Marien-Hospital Wesel, Praxis fuer Radiologie, Neuroradiologie and Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: the purpose of this prospective study was to determine the restenosis grade, the intima hyperplasia and the stent expansion via angiographic follow-up six months after carotid artery stenting. Materials and methods: in 100 patients, angiographic follow-up was performed 5.9 months (range: 2.9 - 11.4 months) after carotid artery stenting. The restenosis grade, the intima hyperplasia and the stent expansion were measured by selective angiography of the treated carotid artery. Results: the mean restenosis grade was 16% (range: 0 - 78%). In 6 of 100 patients (6%), a restenosis grade of > 50% was measured. In 4 patients the restenosis grade was 50 - 70%. In 2 patients the restenosis grade was > 70%. In 91 of 100 patients (91%), the restenosis was localized in the former area of stenosis of the carotid artery, and in 9 of 100 patients (9%), the restenosis was localized in the cranial stent end. The mean grade of intima hyperplasia was 31% (range: 2 - 70%). The mean increase in stent expansion at the time of follow-up was 10% (range: 0 - 59%). No correlation was able to be determined between the grade of stenosis and the grade of restenosis (rho = 0,017, range: -0.180 - 0.213), between the grade of residual stenosis and the grade of restenosis (rho = 0,257, range: 0.064 - 0.431) and between intima hyperplasia and the grade of restenosis (rho = 0,476, range: 0.309 - 0.615). Conclusions: carotid artery stenting is associated with a low incidence of high-grade restenosis 6 months after an intervention. The intima hyperplasia, which can be observed in each Wallstent, is partly compensated by the expansion of the self-expandable stent. Without a correlation between the grade of residual stenosis and the grade of restenosis, low-grade residual stenosis can be accepted. Therefore, we recommend undersized postdilation of the Wallstent. (orig.)

  13. Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting Overview Carotid angioplasty (kuh-ROT-id AN-jee-o-plas-tee) and stenting ... to better see and examine the blood vessels. Food and medications You'll receive instructions on what ...

  14. Resolution of carotid stenosis pre-carotid intervention: A case for selective preoperative duplex ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Ashrafi, Mohammed; Zeynali, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous resolution of carotid stenosis is a phenomenon that has been described in literature in the past. At present it is not routine practise to scan patients prior to carotid endarterectomy surgery within the UK. A 58 year old female presented to hospital with a history of sudden onset headache and left sided weakness. CT head showed findings in keeping with an acute right MCA territory infarct. A duplex ultrasound scan showed echolucent material in the right internal carotid artery forming a greater than 95% stenosis. The scan was unable to visualise the patency of the vessel distally due to the position of the mandible. The patient was provisionally listed for carotid endarterectomy. An MRA was requested prior to surgery to assess the patency of the distal internal carotid artery. The MRA of the carotids showed normal appearance of the common carotid, internal and vertebral arteries with no definite stenosis. A repeat duplex ultrasound confirmed there was no significant stenosis. The finding of complete resolution of stenosis on MRA was an unexpected event. Had the initial duplex imaging allowed visualisation of the distal vessel patency, our patient would have undergone unnecessary carotid surgery with the associated morbidity and mortality. This case report draws attention to the benefits of selective preoperative scanning, in sparing patients from unnecessary surgery as a result of finding occlusion or resolution of a previously diagnosed carotid stenosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other.

  16. The Inverse Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Intima-Media Thickness with Prehypertensive Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dokyung; Park, Wonhah

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with prehypertension have a greater risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease than those with normal blood pressure. Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases, but whether it is related to slower progression of early atherosclerosis is unclear. We evaluated 442 women, aged 40-60 years, with resting systolic blood pressure 120-139 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 80-89 mmHg, defined as prehypertension in cross-sectional study. Blood glucose, blood lipids and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured at rest. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was measured by respiratory gas exchange during a treadmill exercise test. Participants were divided into three cardiorespiratory fitness levels: low, moderate, and high. The prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean carotid intima-media thickness greater than the 75 th percentile. After adjustment for various confounders, a high cardiorespiratory fitness level was associated with significantly lower SBP, DBP and CIMT compared with low and moderate fitness (p fitness were each associated with significantly lower odds ratios for carotid atherosclerosis 0.74 (95% CI 0.45-0.92) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.46-0.95), respectively, compared with low fitness. Our results indicate that good cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a slower progression of early atherosclerosis in middle-aged women. These findings are important, because they emphasize that middle-aged women can be evaluated for cardiorespiratory fitness to estimate their future risk for atherosclerotic vascular diseases.

  17. Carotid artery stenosis after neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Kasuya, Junji; Terasaki, Tadashi [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Uchino, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    Carotid artery stenosis sometimes occurs after cervical radiotherapy. We report a 70-year-old woman with a history of radiotherapy for thyroid cancer at the age of 28 years. She had no signs and symptoms except the skin lesion at the irradiation site. Duplex ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous plaques showing 50% stenosis of bilateral common carotid arteries. Those lesions were observed within segment of irradiation, where atheromatous plaque usually seldom occurs. These indicated that the carotid stenosis was induced by radiotherapy. Although the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for radiation-induced plaque is not clear, the plaques remained unchanged for 4 years in spite of aspirin administration. (author)

  18. Effect of fosinopril on progression of the asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The cardiovascular changes (vascular structure changes, hypertrophy of the left ventricle contribute to both the increased cardiovascular morbidity and the mortality of essential hypertension. Therefore, modern treatment strategies should not only target blood pressure (BP reduction but also normalize cardiovascular structure and function. OBJECTIVE Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the ACE inhibitor Fosinopril on the Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery and on the left ventricle mass after 9-month treatment of hypertensive patients. METHOD The study included 40 patients with the arterial hypertension and the left ventricle hypertrophy verified by echocardiography. The patients were randomized on A ACE-inhibitor - Fosinopril and 6 without ACE inhibitor - atenolol, and they were followed up 9 months. The groups were not different by age, sex, and metabolic status. Color Duplex ultrasonography of the carotid arteries was performed by Acuson Sequia C236 with high-frequency linear probe of 8 MHz. The Intima-media thickness of the common carotids on the left and the right was measured in diastole at 1.5. cm from the highest point of bifurcation under maximal magnification. Using the same device, the left ventricle mass and other parameters of the left ventricle were determined in M-mode and by means of 2D image. RESULTS After 9 months, BP In both groups Was reduced In similar range (group A: systolic BP from 158 to 137 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 94 to 85 mmHg, and group B; systolic BP from 164 to 137 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 87 to 84 mmHg. The thickness of the intimomedial complex in patients using Fosinopril was decreased by 0.0278 ± 0.03 mm, while in the group of patients that did not use the ACE-inhibitor, it was increased by 0.078 ±0.13 mm. The left ventricle mass in patients using Fosinopril was decreased by 5 grams (312 ± 72 g vs. 307 ± 77 g, while in group B patients, it was increased by 15

  19. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions.

  20. Appraisal of different ultrasonography indices in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rafati, Mehravar; Havaee, Elham; Moladoust, Hassan; Sehhati, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    In this study a semi-automated image-processing based method was designed in which the parameters such as intima-media thickness (IMT), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), dicrotic notch index (DNI), and mean wavelet entropy (MWE) were evaluated in B-mode and Doppler ultrasound in patients presenting with carotid artery atherosclerosis. In a cross-sectional design, 144 men were divided into four groups of control, mild, moderate and severe stenosis subjects. In all individuals, far ...

  1. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L.; de Jong, Pim A.; De Vis, Jill B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore...

  2. Angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Gi Seok; Yeon, Kung Mo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid arteries and to evaluate the extent of angiographic assessment needed before embolization. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery, which were 6 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 2 cases of carotid cavernous fistula, 1 case of hemangioma and 1 case of arteriovenous malformation with carotid cavernous fistula. The previously ligated arteries are proximal external carotid artery (n = 5), branches of external carotid artery (n = 2) and common carotid artery (n = 3). Common carotid artery or internal carotid artery (n = 9), vertebral artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), costocervical trunk (n = 2), thyrocervical trunk (n = 2) were assessed by conventional angiography. Angiography of both carotid and vertebral arteries was performed in 5 cases. The collateral vascular channels were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery (n = 8), vertebral artery (n = 5), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), deep cervical artery (n = 2) and ascending cervical artery (n = 1). Embolization were performed in 9 cases with operative cannulation (n = 4), embolization via collateral branches of ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 1), embolization via collateral branches of contralateral external carotid artery (n = 3) and balloon occlusion via direct puncture (n = 1). The collateral channels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery, contralateral or ipsilateral external carotid artery, vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery on angiography. Complete angiographic assessment of possible collateral channels is mandatory for the

  3. Cerebral intolerance during flow arrested carotid angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Myron; Park, Brian D; Dahn, Michael; Bozeman, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow arrest as a means of providing cerebral protection during carotid angioplasty offers the advantages of improved efficiency of debris removal and the ability to provide protection under unfavorable (tortuous) anatomic circumstances. However, in contrast to the filtration methods of cerebral protection, this modality requires complete interruption of antegrade carotid artery flow during balloon angioplasty and stent deployment. We report our experience with 9 patients undergoing carotid angioplasty with the Mo.Ma device, which utilizes common and external carotid artery balloon occlusion during the angioplasty procedure. We assessed the clinical outcomes and intraprocedural hemodynamic data. The average duration of carotid occlusion was 8.3 minutes. Of the 9 patients, 2 patients (22%) experienced cerebral intolerance. No stroke occurred in this patient cohort. There appeared to be a poor relationship between procedure intolerance and the presence of significant contralateral stenosis or low carotid back pressure. Furthermore, the incidence of postangioplasty hypotension was not clearly related to cerebral intolerance. Carotid angioplasty with stenting can be safely conducted with flow arrest as an alternative to filter-type cerebral protection devices. However, because cerebral intolerance is not an infrequent occurrence with this approach, clinicians must be cognizant of management strategies for transient cerebral intolerance.

  4. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Latin America and its association with sub-clinical carotid atherosclerosis: the CARMELA cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Marta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III, and associated carotid atherosclerosis were investigated in 11,502 participants aged 25 to 64 years. Results Across CARMELA cities, metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in Mexico City (27% and Barquisimeto (26%, followed by Santiago (21%, Bogota (20%, Lima (18%, Buenos Aires (17%, and Quito (14%. In nondiabetic participants, prevalence was slightly lower but followed a comparable ranking. Overall, 59%, 59%, and 73% of women with high triglycerides, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, and 64%, 48% and 71% of men with abdominal obesity, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, had the full metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age, markedly so in women. Mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCAIMT and prevalence of carotid plaque increased steeply with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components; mean CCAIMT was higher and plaque more prevalent in participants with metabolic syndrome than without. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by NCEP ATP III criteria was substantial across cities, ranging from 14% to 27%. CARMELA findings, including evidence of the association of metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis, should inform appropriate clinical and public health

  5. Change of the elasticity COEFFICIENT of the walls of the common carotid artery as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients after ischemic hemispheric stroke. Results of one year observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lisovaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the relationship between carotid artery elastic properties and risk of recurrent coronary and cerebral ischemic events in III grade arterial hypertension patients after ischemic stroke. Methods. 102 mild-to-moderate arterial hypertension patients were enrolled to the scrutiny in 3 weeks after ischemic stroke and then they had been being studied prospectively for 12 months period regarding survival rate and unfavorable clinical outcomes. Clinical interviews were performed every 3 months during 1 year after blood sampling. Clinical events included the following: certainly diagnosed ischemic stroke or TIA; coronary ischemic events, sudden death, diabetes mellitus, and all cardiovascular events including chronic heart failure and hospitalization. Elastic properties of carotid artery were determined by high resolution B-modal echography. Results. Univariate analysis has found that age-, gender-, index NIHSS-, Barthel index- and Rankin score index-adjusted variable of total cardiovascular events positively correlated with the presence of type 2 diabetes (R=0.62; P =0.001, systolic BP (R=0.50; P=0.022, the total cholesterol levels (R=0.56; P =0.004, and LDL cholesterol in plasma (R=0,64; P =0,012, fasting blood glucose (R=0,56; P =0,014, and negatively correlated with distensibility coefficient (R=-0.80; P=0.009, cross-section compliance of the common carotid artery (R=-0.70; P=0.004, of pressure-straine elastic modulus (R=-0.64; P =0.041, and the Young's modulus (R=-0.52; P=0.011. Multivariate analysis showed that after exclusion of all indicators with a high level of mutual associations among the variables that have demonstrated the existence of an independent significant association in linear regression with a total value of cardiovascular events elasticity (R = -0,76; P = 0,006, the level of total MS (R = 0,55; P = 0,009, and LDL cholesterol in plasma (R = 0,62; P = 0,014, diabetes mellitus type 2 (R = 0,62; P = 0

  6. Obesity and overweight associated with increased carotid diameter and decreased arterial function in young otherwise healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stomatis; Rossow, Lindy; Jae, Sae Y; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, increased mortality and vascular remodeling. Although increased arterial diameter is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and obesity, it is unknown whether lumen enlargement is accompanied by unfavorable vascular changes in young and otherwise healthy obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid and brachial artery diameter, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in young, apparently healthy, normal-weight, overweight, and obese male subjects. One hundred sixty-five male subjects (27.39±0.59 years) were divided into 3 groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to body mass index. Subjects underwent cardiovascular measurements to determine arterial diameter, function, and stiffness. After adjusting for age, the obese group had significantly greater brachial, carotid, and aortic pressures, brachial pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, and carotid arterial diameter compared with both the overweight and normal-weight groups. Obesity is associated with a much worse arterial profile, as an increased carotid lumen size was accompanied by higher blood pressure, greater arterial stiffness, and greater carotid intima media thickness in obese compared with overweight or normal-weight individuals. These data suggest that although obesity may be a factor in arterial remodeling, such remodeling is also accompanied by other hemodynamic and arterial changes consistent with reduced arterial function and increased cardiovascular risk.

  7. Characteristics of Carotid Artery Structure and Mechanical Function and Their Relationships with Aortopathy in Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihyun Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV often have proximal aortic dilatation and systemic vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that BAV patients would have different carotid artery structural and functional characteristics compared to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV patients. In 28 patients with surgically confirmed BAV and 27 patients with TAV, intima media thickness (IMT, number of plaques, fractional area change (FAC, global circumferential strain (GCS, and standard deviation of CS (SD-CS in both common carotid arteries were assessed using duplex ultrasound and velocity vector imaging (VVI. Patients with BAV were younger and had less co-morbidity, but showed a significantly larger ascending aorta (43.3 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 6.2 mm, p < 0.001 and a higher prevalence of aortopathy (61 vs. 30%, p = 0.021 than those with TAV. BAV patients showed a significantly lower IMT and fewer plaques. Although FAC and GCS were not significantly different between the two groups, they tended to be lower in the BAV group when each group was divided into three subgroups according to age. There was a significant age-dependent increase in IMT and decreases in FAC and GCS in the TAV group (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively, but this phenomenon was not evident in the BAV group (p = 0.074, p = 0.248, p = 0.394, respectively. BAV patients with aortopathy showed a higher SD-CS than those without aortopathy (p = 0.040, reflecting disordered mechanical function. In conclusion, BAV patients have different carotid artery structure and function compared with TAV patients, suggesting intrinsic vascular abnormalities that are less affected by established cardiovascular risk factors and more strongly related to the presence of aortopathy.

  8. Combined effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on carotid atherosclerosis in a population aged 59-71 y: The EVA Study. Etude sur le Vieillisement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonithon-Kopp, C; Coudray, C; Berr, C; Touboul, P J; Fève, J M; Favier, A; Ducimetière, P

    1997-01-01

    There are few epidemiologic studies of the effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on atherosclerosis. The relation of lipid peroxidation evaluated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and biological markers of antioxidant status to ultrasonographically assessed carotid atherosclerosis was examined from baseline data of a longitudinal study on cognitive and vascular aging (Etude sur le Vieillisement Artériel, the EVA Study). The study sample was composed of 1187 mean and women aged 59-71 y without any history of coronary artery disease or stroke. Ultrasound examination included measurements of intima-media thickness (IMT) on the common carotid arteries (CCAs) and at the site of plaques. After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, erythrocyte vitamin E was significantly and negatively associated with CCA-IMT in both men and women whereas plasma selenium and carotenoids were not. No association was found between TBARS and CCA-IMT in either sex. However, TBARS were significantly higher in men with carotid plaques than in those without. This association was strengthened in men with concentrations of erythrocyte vitamin E, plasma selenium, and carotenoids below the lowest quartile. Our findings give some epidemiologic support to the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation and low antioxidant status are involved in the early phases of atherosclerosis.

  9. CARDIAC TRANSPLANT REJECTION AND NON-INVASIVE COMON CAROTID ARTERY WALL FUNCTIONAL INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft rejection would entail an increase in certain blood biomarkers and active substances derived from activated inflammatory cells which could influence entire vascular endothelial function and deteriorate arterial wall stiffness. We propose that carotid wall functional indices measured with non-invasive ultrasound could we valuable markers of the subclinical cardiac allograft rejection. Aim. Our goal was to analyze the clinical utility of functional common carotid wall (CCW variables measured with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive screening tool for allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients (pts. Methods. One hundred and seventy one pts included 93 cardiac recipients, 30 dilated cardiomyopathy waiting list pts, and 48 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD pts without decompensated heart failure were included. Along with resistive index (Ri, pulsative index (Pi, and CCW intima-media thickness (IMT, CCW rigidity index (iRIG was estimated using empirical equation. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in cardiac transplant recipients prior the endomyo- cardial biopsy. Results. Neither of Ri, Pi, or CCW IMT were different in studied subgroups. iRIG was signifi- cantly lower in SCAD pts when compared to the dilated cardiomyopathy subgroup. The later had similar values with cardiac transplant recipients without rejection. Antibody-mediated and cellular rejection were found in 22 (23.7% and 17 (18.3% cardiac recipients, respectively. Mean iRIG in pts without rejection was significantly lower in comparison to antibody-mediated rejection and cell-mediated (5514.7 ± 2404.0 vs 11856.1 ± 6643.5 and 16071.9 ± 10029.1 cm/sec2, respectively, p = 0.001. Area under ROC for iRIG was 0.90 ± 0.03 units2. Analysis showed that iRIG values above estimated treshold 7172 cm/sec2 suggested relative risk of any type of rejection 17.7 (95%CI = 6.3–49.9 sensitivity 80.5%, specificity – 81.1%, negative predictive value – 84

  10. Angiographic diagnosis of the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Tan Yinghui; Li Zhongyu; Zhou Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create a further understanding of the angiographic features of the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm (CAPA) and to explore the clinical diagnostic value of angiography. Methods: Sixteen cases of CAPA with clinical and angiographic data were analyzed retrospectively. The angiographic appearances in all of the patients were observed dynamically and precisely with a double blind method by two experienced radiologists together and formed a consensus interpretation. Results: Angiography provided a definite diagnosis for all cases. The parent arteries included the common carotid artery (1 case), common carotid artery bifurcation (9 cases), internal carotid artery (5 cases) and external carotid artery (1 case). The angiographic features of the CAPA were: All cases showed the contrast media retension in the aneurysms; turbulent flow within aneurysm in 9 cases; the 'jetting sign' at the leak of the parent artery in 7 cases; increase angulation of the bifurcation of internal and external carotid arteries in 12 cases. Conclusions: Angiography is the most valuable examination method in diagnosis of CAPA, and it can not only provide definite diagnosis, but also play an important role in selection of therapeutic plan. (authors)

  11. Evidence for shear stress-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Howard Henry; Atkinson, Ceri L; Heinonen, Ilkka H A

    2016-01-01

    -mediated dilation of larger conduit arteries in humans. There was a strong association between change in shear and diameter of the internal carotid (r=0.68; Ptime in humans, that shear stress is an important stimulus for hypercapnic vasodilation of the internal carotid...... increases carotid shear stress, a known stimulus to vasodilation in other conduit arteries. To explore the hypothesis that shear stress contributes to hypercapnic internal carotid dilation in humans, temporal changes in internal and common carotid shear rate and diameter, along with changes in middle.......01) carotids. Diameter also increased (Ptime course is associated with shear...

  12. Association of Vegetable Nitrate Intake With Carotid Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Prince, Richard L; Ivey, Kerry L; Lewis, Joshua R; Devine, Amanda; Woodman, Richard J; Lundberg, Jon O; Croft, Kevin D; Thompson, Peter L; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2017-07-01

    A short-term increase in dietary nitrate (NO 3 - ) improves markers of vascular health via formation of nitric oxide and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Whether this translates into long-term vascular disease risk reduction has yet to be examined. We investigated the association of vegetable-derived nitrate intake with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), plaque severity, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease events in elderly women (n=1226). Vegetable nitrate intake, lifestyle factors, and cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined at baseline (1998). CCA-IMT and plaque severity were measured using B-mode carotid ultrasound (2001). Complete ischemic cerebrovascular disease hospitalizations or deaths (events) over 14.5 years (15 032 person-years of follow-up) were obtained from the West Australian Data Linkage System. Higher vegetable nitrate intake was associated with a lower maximum CCA-IMT (B=-0.015, P =0.002) and lower mean CCA-IMT (B=-0.012, P =0.006). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors ( P ≤0.01). Vegetable nitrate intake was not a predictor of plaque severity. In total 186 (15%) women experienced an ischemic cerebrovascular disease event. For every 1 SD (29 mg/d) higher intake of vegetable nitrate, there was an associated 17% lower risk of 14.5-year ischemic cerebrovascular disease events in both unadjusted and fully adjusted models ( P =0.02). Independent of other risk factors, higher vegetable nitrate was associated with a lower CCA-IMT and a lower risk of an ischemic cerebrovascular disease event. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Carotid and Femoral Arterial Wall Distensibility During Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Zuj, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in common carotid (CA) and superficial femoral (FA) arterial stiffness during long-duration spaceflight. Ultrasound imaging was used to investigate the CA and FA of 10 astronauts preflight (PRE), on flight day 15 (FD15), after 4-5 mo (FD4-5m), and 4 d after return to Earth (R+4). Arterial wall properties were assessed through the calculation of strain, stiffness (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), and distensibility (DI). Stiffness indices were assessed for potential correlations to measurements of intima-media thickness (IMT). Significant effects of spaceflight were found for all CA stiffness indices, indicating an increase in arterial stiffness. CA strain was reduced by 34 ± 31% on FD15 and 50 ± 16% on FD4-5m and remained reduced by 42 ± 14% on R+4 with respect to PRE values. On FD4-5m, with respect to PRE values, DI was reduced by 46 ± 25% and β and Ep were increased by 124 ± 95% and 118 ± 92%, respectively. FA arterial stiffness indices appeared to show similar changes; however, a main effect of spaceflight was only found for strain. Correlation analysis showed weak but significant relationships between measurements of CA IMT and arterial stiffness indices, but no relationships were found for FA measurements. The observed change in CA and FA stiffness indices suggest that spaceflight results in an increase in arterial stiffness. That these changes were not strongly related to measurements of IMT suggests the possibility of different mechanisms contributing to the observed results.Arbeille P, Provost R, Zuj K. Carotid and femoral arterial wall distensibility during long-duration spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):924-930.

  14. Hyperuricemia and carotid artery dilatation among young adults without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Krishnan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is not known if hyperuricemia is associated with early vascular changes signifying arteriosclerosis. We performed a cross sectional study of 163 young adults without metabolic syndrome in Allegheny County, PA, USA. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure two metrics of early arteriosclerosis: carotid artery dimensions and aortic pulse wave velocity. Individuals in the highest quartiles of serum uric acid (>6.2 mg/dL for men and >4.6 for women were more likely to be of younger age, and to possess greater measures of adiposity and an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Higher serum uric acid concentration was associated with larger luminal and adventitial diameters as well as changes in diameters between the phases of the cardiac cycle (P<0.001 but not with carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, or pressure strain modulus. In multivariable linear regression models where the effects of age, ethnicity, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, current alcohol use, body mass index and smoking status were accounted for, the highest quartile of serum uric acid was associated with greater luminal and adventitial diameters and change in luminal diameter between the phases of cardiac cycle (P<0.05, but not with pulse wave velocity, pressure strain modulus or carotid intima media thickness. We can conclude that hyperuricemia is associated with larger carotid artery diameters signifying an early adaptive response to vascular stress. This has implications on the observed link between hyperuricemia and hypertension.

  15. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and triglycerides predict the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether or not subclinical atherosclerosis independently predicts the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Japanese general population. This study is part of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS), a survey of vascular events associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Participants who attended both baseline (2004-2007) and follow-up (2009-2012) examinations were eligible. The common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed for each participant at baseline. The end point was the incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P triglycerides (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, P = 0.015) at baseline were independent predictors for the development of CKD. Higher carotid IMT and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with the development of CKD in the population studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indirect carotid- cavernous fistula — embolisation using the superior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    MD, FRCS (C). Division of Neurosurgery. Royal University Hospital. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. Canada. Fig .1a. Left common carotid angiogram, AP view, showing the carotid-cavernous fistula. Note opaci- fication of the left cavernous sinus (arrow) and fill- ing of the right cavernous sinus (double arrows).

  17. Carotid Body Tumor Presenting as Parotid Swelling Misdiagnosed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carotid body tumor (CBT) also known as chemodectoma is a rare tumor of neuroendocrine tissue of carotid body and is the most commonly seen jugular paraganglioma. In most cases, it is benign but it can be malignant. Extra adrenal paraganglioma is rare. We present such a rare case where unusual presentation of ...

  18. Role of carotid duplex imaging in carotid screening programmes – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillard Jonathan H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the UK and the largest single cause of severe disability. Each year more than 110,000 people in England suffer from a stroke which costs the National Health Service (NHS over GBP2.8 billion. Thus, it is imperative that patients at risk be screened for underlying carotid artery atherosclerosis. Aim To assess the role of carotid ultrasound in different carotid screening programmes. Methods A literature overview was carried out by using PubMed search engine, to identify different carotid screening programmes that had used ultrasound scan as a screening tool. Results It appears that the carotid ultrasound is an effective method for screening carotid artery disease in community as it effectively predicts the presence of stenosis with high accuracy. There is a need for primary care to recommend high risk patients for regular screening, to reduce stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion Screening programmes using carotid ultrasonography contribute to public health awareness and promotion which in long term could potentially benefit in disease prevention and essentially promote better standards of healthcare.

  19. Association between HbA1c and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly Koreans with normal fasting glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Won Lee

    Full Text Available We examined whether glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c is associated to carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose.Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women with a mean age of 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L and HbA1c level below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol. They were also free from a history of cardiovascular disease, known type 2 diabetes mellitus or use of anti-diabetes medications. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT using ultrasonography. The association between HbA1c and carotid IMT was investigated using multivariable linear regression analysis.HbA1c levels were independently and positively associated with carotid IMT (β = 0.020, p = 0.045 after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake. However, fasting insulin and glucose levels were not associated with carotid IMT.HbA1c levels were positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid IMT, in an elderly population with normoglycemia. Our study suggested that higher HbA1c level is an effective and informative marker of carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly population.

  20. Parity and carotid atherosclerosis in men and women: insights into the roles of childbearing and child-rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Sérusclat, André; Begg, Lisa M; Moulin, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2009-04-01

    Parity appears to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis in women aged 45 years and older. Studying this association among younger women and men may provide insight into whether this association relates predominantly to childbearing or child-rearing. The association between parity and carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and presence of plaques) was assessed in a cohort consisting of 750 women and 1164 men, all with at least one traditional cardiovascular risk factor, aged 18 to 80 years of age. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were also assessed, and the Framingham Risk Score calculated. In age-adjusted analyses, the number of children was associated with adiposity, fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, Framingham risk score, and carotid atherosclerosis in women, but not in men. Multivariate linear regression models indicate that the prevalence of plaques was increased by 15% (95% CI, 2 to 29) per child among women, and 0% (95% CI, -10 to 11) among men, after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors (including waist circumference). The association between parity and carotid intima-media thickness was similar in younger and older women (P(Heterogeneity)=0.20). A higher number of children is associated with increased carotid atherosclerosis in both younger and older women, but not among men. These findings indicate that childbearing, but not child-rearing, may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis, and suggest the potential importance of considering the number of children when assessing the level of cardiovascular risk in women.

  1. DURAL CAROTID-CAVERNOUS FISTULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cvenkel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCF are communications fed by meningeal branches of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ACI or/and external carotid artery (ACE. In contrast to typical CCF, the arteriovenous shunting of blood is usually low flow and low pressure. Spontaneous dural CCF are more common in postmenopausal women. Aetiology is unknown, but congenital malformation or rupture of thin-walled dural arteries within venous sinuses is believed to be the cause.Case reports. 3 cases lacking the typical clinical signs of CCF who had been treated as chronic conjunctivitis, myositis of the extraocular muscle and orbital pseudotumour are presented. Clinical presentation depends on the direction and magnitude of fistular flow and on the anatomy of the collateral branches. If increased blood flow is directed anteriorly in ophthalmic veins the signs of orbito-ocular congestion are present (»redeyed shunt syndrome«. Drainage primarly in the inferior petrosal sinus may cause painful oculomotor and abducens palsies without signs of ocular congestion (»white-eyed shunt syndrome«. Also different therapeutic approaches as well as possible complications are described.Conclusions. For definite diagnosis angiography is obligatory and is also therapeutic as one third to one half of dural CCF close spontaneously. Because of potential severe eye and systemic complications, surgical intervention is indicated only in cases with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma and hypoxic retinopathy.

  2. 7C.02: TRAINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT TO COUNTERACT COGNITIVE DECLINE: TRAIN THE BRAIN - EFFECTS ON CAROTID STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, F; Bruno, R; Ghiadoni, L; Faita, F; Di Lascio, N; Del Turco, S; Maffei, L; Tognoni, G; Taddei, S; Picano, E; Sicari, R

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to vascular health; on the other hand, vascular damage is associated with cognitive impairment. Both physical activity and a cognitively stimulating environment are known to delay the onset of dementia. The Train The Brain study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive program of physical training and mental activity in delaying cognitive decline in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, at the same time investigating the relationship between physical, vascular, neurological, and cognitive fitness : Elders age 65-89 were recruited with the help of family physicians and territorial services. All participants underwent a neurological and cardiologic evaluation. In the vascular study, carotid pressure was measured with the SphygmoCor system (AtCor, Australia); longitudinal ultrasound scans of the common carotid were performed and 10-second video clips were recorded to be analyzed offline through the Cardiovascular Suite software (Quipu srl, Italy), with the computation of diameter, intima-media thickness, wall cross-sectional area, distensibility coefficient, compliance, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Subjects classified as mild cognitive impairment at the neurological examination were randomized either to standard care, or a 7-month program of physical training and environmental stimulation (lectures, games, music, social activities) three hours a week. The evaluation was then repeated. Data were obtained for 57 patients who underwent training (T) and 30 controls (C). The only significant difference at baseline was in the distensibility coefficient (p = 0.045).(Figure is included in full-text article.)Vessel diameter increased in C and decreased in T; distensibility decreased in C; all carotid parameters were influenced by the combination of time and treatment, in a diverging trend, at a statistically significant level, while there was no effect on pressure. Introducing arterial pressures as covariates did not affect

  3. Current Approaches for Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Köksal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent neurologic injuries and death following stroke, necessitates more vigorous treatment of carotid disease. Carotid stenting and carotid endarterectomy are treatment options in many centers besides medical treatment. Whether the patient is symptomatic or asymtomatic, indications and management strategies for treatment remain controversial. Despite the debate, carotid endarterectomy is still accepted to be the most efficientintervention to decrease risk of stroke due to carotid artery stenosis.

  4. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk of carotid atherosclerosis.

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    Hosu Kim

    Full Text Available The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on vascular atherosclerosis remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction and carotid plaques, which are an early surrogate marker of systemic atherosclerosis.The study included 21,342 adults with consistent thyroid hormonal status on serial thyroid function tests (TFTs and carotid artery duplex ultrasonography at a health screening center between 2007 and 2014. The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on baseline carotid plaques and newly developed carotid plaques during 5-year follow-up was determined by logistic regression analyses and GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations, respectively.Carotid plaques were more common in the subclinical hypothyroidism (55.6% than the euthyroidism (47.8% at baseline. However, in multivariable analysis, thyroid status was not a significant risk for the carotid plaques at baseline. Instead, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age (P <0.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.023, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.030, and creatinine (P = 0.012 were associated with baseline carotid plaques in subclinical hypothyroidism. In longitudinal analyses of subjects who were followed up for more than 5 years, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of new carotid plaques according to time between subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and those with euthyroidism (P = 0.392.Sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction did not affect the baseline or development of carotid plaques in healthy individuals.

  5. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in the carotid space: Expanding the differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Sneha Satish; Kane, Shubhada; Arya, Supreeta

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell neoplasms have been classified into various types, with a range of clinical and radiological presentations. Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a subset of plasma cell neoplasms which presents as an isolated non-osseous soft tissue mass. Though carotid space neoplasms are commonly encountered, EMP in the carotid space is rare and seldom considered in the initial differential diagnosis of a carotid space mass. These tumors can be treated by surgery or radiotherapy. On the other hand, the commonly encountered tumors in the carotid space are treated surgically. Also, it is mandatory to exclude multiple myeloma in the patients presenting with EMP. Hence, accurate and early diagnosis has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We report a rare case of EMP of the carotid space, describing the imaging features and the differential diagnoses with clues pointing to this rare entity

  6. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Han [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University Hospital of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis.

  7. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kang, Young Han

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis

  8. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Grisan, E; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. (paper)

  9. Contemporary medical therapies of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Suk F; Brown, Martin M

    2017-03-01

    Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors. Antiplatelet therapy in the form of aspirin or clopidogrel is routinely used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack or stroke. There is evidence from a recent trial that the use of combination antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel started within 24 hours of minor stroke or transient ischemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent stroke compared to the use of aspirin alone, and therefore we use aspirin plus clopidogrel in recently symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis pending carotid revascularization. Anticoagulation with heparins or vitamin K antagonist is not recommended except in patients at risk for cardio-embolic events. Lowering blood pressure to target levels has been shown to slow down the progression of carotid artery stenosis and reduces the intima-media thickness of the carotid plaque, while lowering lipid levels with statins has become an essential element in the medical therapy of carotid artery stenosis. Diabetes management should be optimized. Lifestyle choices, including tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake, are all important modifiable vascular risk factors. The combination of dietary modification, physical exercise, and use of aspirin, a statin, and an antihypertensive agent can be expected to give a cumulative relative stroke risk reduction of 80%. The evidence suggests that intensive medical therapy is so effective that

  10. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  11. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis associated with genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and inflammatory genes among arsenic exposed residents in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-C.; Hsieh, F.-I; Lien, L.-M.; Chou, Y.-L.; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic had been reported to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, there were few studies to evaluate the association between the susceptible gene of lipid metabolism and inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis among arsenic exposure residents. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of APOE and MCP-1 and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis among residents of Lanyang Basin in Taiwan which was a newly confirmed arsenic-endemic area. In total, 479 residents who had been genotyped of these two genes and examined the severity of carotid atherosclerosis were included in this study. The study subjects with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) ≥ 1.0 mm or with the observable plaque in the extracranial carotid artery were diagnosed as carotid atherosclerosis. A significantly age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 2.0 for the development of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in study subjects with ε4 allele of APOE than those without ε4 allele. Compared with study subjects who carried wild genotypes of APOE and MCP-1, those with both risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 had 2.5-fold risk of carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age and gender, revealing a significant dose-response relationship between number of risk genotypes of these genes and risk of carotid atherosclerosis. Additionally, study subjects with two risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 and either had ingested well water contained arsenic level > 10 μg/L or had arsenic exposure > 0.22 mg/L-year would have strikingly highest risk of 10.3-fold and 15.7-fold, respectively, for the development carotid atherosclerosis, showing significant joint effect of arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1

  12. Relationship between omentin-1 and carotid intima thickness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend M Tawfeek

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Serum omentin-1 level is decreased in type 2 DM patients and is negatively correlated with CIMT and BMI. Hence, omentin-1 could serve as a protective marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease. Further study needed to show whether omentin-1 is considered as a risk factor for DM.

  13. Carotid intima-media thickness and its associations with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: We evaluated clinical, biochemical and CIMT ultrasound measurements in a standardised fashion. Results: In 185 patients, the univariate significant predictors of mean far-wall CIMT were age [beta 0.007 (standard error 0.001)], systolic blood pressure [beta 0.001 (standard error 0.000)] and inverse ...

  14. Carotid artery ultrasonographic assessment in patients from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II with carotid bruits detected by electronic auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur; Cetrullo, Violetta; Sillars, Brett A; Lenzo, Nat; Davis, Wendy A; Davis, Timothy M E

    2014-09-01

    Electronic auscultation appears superior to acoustic auscultation for identifying hemodynamic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine whether carotid bruits detected by electronic stethoscope in patients with diabetes are associated with stenoses and increased carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT). Fifty Fremantle Diabetes Study patients (mean±SD age, 73.7±10.0 years; 38.0% males) with a bruit found by electronic auscultation and 50 age- and sex-matched patients with normal carotid sounds were studied. The degree of stenosis and CIMT were assessed from duplex ultrasonography. Patients with a bruit were more likely to have stenosis of ≥50% and CIMT of >1.0 mm than those without (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]=14.0 [1.8-106.5] and 5.3 [1.8-15.3], respectively; both P=0.001). For the six patients with stenosis of ≥70%, five had a bruit, and one (with a known total occlusion) did not (odds ratio=5.0 [0.6-42.8]; P=0.22). The sensitivity and specificity of carotid bruit for stenoses of ≥50% were 88% and 58%, respectively; respective values for stenoses of ≥70% were 83% and 52%. The equivalent negative predictive values were 96% and 98%, and positive predictive values were 30% and 10%, respectively. Electronic recording of carotid sounds for later interpretation is convenient and reliable. Most patients with stenoses had an overlying bruit. Most bruits were false positives, but ultrasonography is justified to document extent of disease; CIMT measurement will identify increased vascular risk in most of these patients. The absence of a bruit was rarely a false-negative finding, suggesting that these patients can usually be reassured that they do not have hemodynamically important stenosis.

  15. Red cell distribution width in relation to incidence of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Söderholm

    Full Text Available Increased red cell distribution width (RDW has been related to poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease, and is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if RDW is associated with increased incidence of stroke and its subtypes in individuals from the general population.Red cell distribution width was measured in 26,879 participants (16,561 women and 10,318 men aged 45-73 years without history of coronary events or stroke, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Incidences of total stroke and stroke subtypes over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years were calculated in relation to sex-specific quartiles of RDW. The presence of carotid plaque and intima-media thickness, as assessed by ultrasound, was studied in relation to RDW in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 5,309.Incidences of total stroke (n = 1,869 and cerebral infarction (n = 1,544 were both increased in individuals with high RDW. Hazard ratios (HRs in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were 1.31 for total stroke (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.54, p for trend = 0.004 and 1.32 for cerebral infarction (95% CI: 1.10-1.58, p for trend = 0.004 after adjustment for stroke risk factors and hematological parameters. The adjusted HR for intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 230 was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.90-2.30 and the HR for subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 75 was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.43-2.07, in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of RDW. Red cell distribution width was positively associated with intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (p for trend = 0.011.Red cell distribution width in the highest quartile was associated with increased incidence of total stroke and cerebral infarction. There was no significant association between RDW and incidence of intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  16. A comparison of ultrasound measurements to assess carotid atherosclerosis development in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinman Bernard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjects with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of vascular complications. The use of carotid ultrasound remains an attractive, non-invasive method to monitor atherosclerotic disease progression and/or response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, with intima-media thickness routinely used as the gold standard to detect pathology. However, alternative measurements, such as plaque area or volume, may represent a potentially more powerful approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the traditional intima-media thickness measurement against the novel total plaque volume measurement in analyzing carotid atherosclerosis development in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods The case-control study included 49 Oji-Cree adults with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, aged 21–69, and 49 sex- and age-matched normoglycemic subjects. At baseline, metabolic variables were measured, including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein ratio, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and serum insulin. Carotid ultrasound measurements, 7 years later, assessed carotid arterial intima-media thickness and total plaque volume. Results At baseline, the two groups were well matched for smoking habits, hypertension, body mass index, and waist circumference. Differences were noted in baseline measurements of total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein (P = 0.0006, plasma triglycerides (P P P = 0.037, but not intima-media thickness measurements, were higher in subjects with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance compared to the normoglycemic controls. Correlation between intima-media thickness and total plaque volume was moderate. Based on our study findings, to achieve power levels >0.70 when comparing intima-media thickness measurements for diabetics versus non-diabetics, thousands of study subjects are required. For comparing total plaque volume measurements, only hundreds of

  17. Cardiac risk assessment before carotid endarterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabee, Hussein M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Preoperative cardiac assessment is an essential step to identify the patients at risk, optimize any dysfunction, anticipate perioperative and postoperative problems and plan special management. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has become one of the most commonly performed vascular procedures in Western countries. The awareness of the potential beneficial role and hazards of CEA is not proportionate to the magnitude of this problem in our countries, not only among patients, but also among the medical disciplines. This report is a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of coronary artery diseases among 442 patients who were referred to the Division of Vascular Surgery at the King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with suspicion of carotid artery disease. Eighty-two patients proved to have significant carotid artery stenosis and had thorough preoperative cardiac assessment by senior cardiologist. All cases had clinical assessment and ECG, 66 cases had echocardiogram examination, 44 had Dipyridamole Thallium-scan and 12 had coronary angiogram. Sixty-eight patients underwent 76 carotid endarterectomy. Four of them had MI and only one case died during preoperative period. This study shows that cardiac screening studies have a potential role in the candidates for carotid surgery in influencing the decision to operate and intensify of perioperative monitoring and care. We believe that the teamwork should involve vascular surgeons, cardiologist and anesthetist to manage such critical patients properly. (author)

  18. Risk of Carotid Stroke after Chiropractic Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, J. David; Boyle, Eleanor; Côté, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Chiropractic manipulation is a popular treatment for neck pain and headache, but may increase the risk of cervical artery dissection and stroke. Patients with carotid artery dissection can present with neck pain and/or headache before experiencing a stroke. These are common symptoms seen...... by both chiropractors and primary care physicians (PCPs). We aimed to assess the risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care by comparing association between chiropractic and PCP visits and subsequent stroke. Methods A population-based, case-crossover study was undertaken in Ontario, Canada. All...... incident cases of carotid artery stroke admitted to hospitals over a 9-year period were identified. Cases served as their own controls. Exposures to chiropractic and PCP services were determined from health billing records. Results We compared 15,523 cases to 62,092 control periods using exposure windows...

  19. Intima-Media Thickness Measurements in the Fetus and Mother During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galjaard, Sander; Pasman, Suzanne A; Ameye, Lieveke

    2014-01-01

    pregnancy. There was a significant relation between gestational age and IMT in the umbilical artery (p = 0.03) and a significant relation between body mass index and IMT in the maternal common carotid artery (p = 0.01). IMT measurements are feasible in some maternal and fetal vessels of interest. Further...

  20. New modalities of ultrasound-based intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness and non-coronary vascular calcifications detection to assess cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, R; Ponziani, F R; Tinelli, G; Arena, V; Fonnesu, C; Nesci, A; Santoro, L; Tondi, P; Santoliquido, A

    2015-04-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), arterial stiffness (AS) and vascular calcification (VC) are now considered important new markers of atherosclerosis and have been associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular events. An accurate, reproducible and easy detection of these parameters could increase the prognostic value of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in many subjects at low and intermediate risk. Today, c-IMT and AS can be measured by ultrasound, while cardiac computed tomography is the gold standard to quantify coronary VC, although concern about the reproducibility of the former and the safety of the latter have been raised. Nevertheless, a safe and reliable method to quantify non-coronary (i.e., peripheral) VC has not been detected yet. To review the most innovative and accurate ultrasound-based modalities of c-IMT and AS detection and to describe a novel UltraSound-Based Carotid, Aortic and Lower limbs Calcification Score (USB-CALCs, simply named CALC), allowing to quantify peripheral calcifications. Finally, to propose a system for cardiovascular risk reclassification derived from the global evaluation of "Quality Intima-Media Thickness", "Quality Arterial Stiffness", and "CALC score" in addition to the Framingham score.

  1. Long-term Saxagliptin Treatment Improves Endothelial Function but not Pulse Wave Velocity and Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Maloberti, Alessandro; Nicoli, Francesco; Villa, Paolo; Gamba, Pierluigi; Bombelli, Michele; Mancia, Giuseppe; Grassi, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 may represent a promising therapeutic approach for glucose control and vascular protection. No information is available on the effects of saxagliptin (S) on aortic pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated dilation (FMD, brachial artery) in diabetes. We investigated the long-term effects of S, as add-on therapy to metformin, on the above mentioned variables. In 16 patients with decompensated diabetes aortic pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and FMD, office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, anthropometric, biochemical and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. A group of 16 compensated diabetics served as controls. The two groups showed superimposable values of the different parameters, with the exception of glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose significantly (P function, related at least in part to the concomitant improvement in glucose metabolism. This may represent a first step in the chain of events leading to a reduction in the progression of the vascular atherogenic process.

  2. EXTRACRANIAL NON-ATHEROSCLEROTIC PATHOLOGY OF THE CAROTID ARTERY IN THE CAUSES OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Dudanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We present the experience of treatment of patients with cerebral vascular accident by the ischemic type, the cause of which was non-atherosclerotic lesion of brachiocephalic arteries.Materials and methods. During 2011–2015 years 4118 patients with acute ischemic stroke were observed. Of these, 589 patients (14.3% were operated in the acute period of stroke in the period from 4–6 hours to 14 days. The cause of the stroke was various types of pathology of the extracranial divisions of the brachiocephalic arteries (EDBA. Of this number, with atherosclerotic carotid artery stenoses, 336 patients (57.1% were operated on, with non-atherosclerotic pathology of carotid arteries — 253 patients (42.9%. Of these 253 patients, dissection of the intima of the carotid arteries was detected in 10 (3.9% patients, aneurysms in the extracranial segment of the ECA and ICA were detected in 14 (5.5%, and 229 (90.6% revealed various types of tortuosity and kinks carotid arteries and fibrous dysplasia. All patients are operated on. Various types of reconstructions of carotid arteries with a good clinical effect have been performed. There were no lethal outcomes.Concusions. The data obtained in the study confirm the opinion that not only atherosclerotic lesions of the ICA are an indication for surgical treatment at an early date. This stage is an important part of the comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  3. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1 evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2 explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  4. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  5. High birth weight is associated with obesity and increased carotid wall thickness in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Siitonen, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-05-01

    There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Translumbar carotid arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. Jr.; Kwon, O.J.; Millan, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    In seven patients, carotid arteriography and arch aortography were performed using a translumbar catheter exchange sheath which facilitated selective catheterization. No significant complications occurred. The translumbar approach is easier than the auxillary approach, will result in fewer complications, and should be considered whenever a femoral arterial access is unavailable

  7. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  8. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study) : an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Joerg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molynewc, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; Hendriks, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid

  9. Measurement of carotid bifurcation pressure gradients using the Bernoulli principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illig, K A; Ouriel, K; DeWeese, J A; Holen, J; Green, R M

    1996-04-01

    Current randomized prospective studies suggest that the degree of carotid stenosis is a critical element in deciding whether surgical or medical treatment is appropriate. Of potential interest is the actual pressure drop caused by the blockage, but no direct non-invasive means of quantifying the hemodynamic consequences of carotid artery stenoses currently exists. The present prospective study examined whether preoperative pulsed-Doppler duplex ultrasonographic velocity (v) measurements could be used to predict pressure gradients (delta P) caused by carotid artery stenoses, and whether such measurements could be used to predict angiographic percent diameter reduction. Preoperative Doppler velocity and intraoperative direct pressure measurements were obtained, and per cent diameter angiographic stenosis measured in 76 consecutive patients who underwent 77 elective carotid endarterectomies. Using the Bernoulli principle (delta P = 4v(2), pressure gradients across the stenoses were calculated. The predicted delta P, as well as absolute velocities and internal carotid artery/common carotid velocity ratios were compared with the actual delta P measured intraoperatively and with preoperative angiography and oculopneumoplethysmography (OPG) results. An end-diastolic velocity of > or = 1 m/s and an end-diastolic internal carotid artery/common carotid artery velocity ratio of > or = 10 predicted a 50% diameter angiographic stenosis with 100% specificity. Although statistical significance was reached, preoperative pressure gradients derived from the Bernoulli equation could not predict actual individual intraoperative pressure gradients with enough accuracy to allow decision making on an individual basis. Velocity measurements were as specific and more sensitive than OPG results. Delta P as predicted by the Bernoulli equation is not sufficiently accurate at the carotid bifurcation to be useful for clinical decision making on an individual basis. However, end

  10. Evaluation of the carotid artery stenosis based on minimization of mechanical energy loss of the blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Sheau Fung; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yu; Chong, Winston; He, Le; Chen, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Internal carotid artery stenosis requires an accurate risk assessment for the prevention of stroke. Although the internal carotid artery area stenosis ratio at the common carotid artery bifurcation can be used as one of the diagnostic methods of internal carotid artery stenosis, the accuracy of results would still depend on the measurement techniques. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel method to estimate the effect of internal carotid artery stenosis on the blood flow based on the concept of minimization of energy loss. Eight internal carotid arteries from different medical centers were diagnosed as stenosed internal carotid arteries, as plaques were found at different locations on the vessel. A computational fluid dynamics solver was developed based on an open-source code (OpenFOAM) to test the flow ratio and energy loss of those stenosed internal carotid arteries. For comparison, a healthy internal carotid artery and an idealized internal carotid artery model have also been tested and compared with stenosed internal carotid artery in terms of flow ratio and energy loss. We found that at a given common carotid artery bifurcation, there must be a certain flow distribution in the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery, for which the total energy loss at the bifurcation is at a minimum; for a given common carotid artery flow rate, an irregular shaped plaque at the bifurcation constantly resulted in a large value of minimization of energy loss. Thus, minimization of energy loss can be used as an indicator for the estimation of internal carotid artery stenosis.

  11. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-06-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  12. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Multi-slice spiral CT diagnosis of carotid body tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peiling; Leng Renli; Li Shu; Xie Xiuli; Xu Ke

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to explore the Multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) findings of carotid body tumor (CBT). Methods: Twelve cases of CBT proved by surgery were collected in this study and all patients accepted contrast-enhanced MSCT examination. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional post-processing were performed at diagnostic workstation using Aquilion 1.42. The CT features of CBT were analyzed. Results Each of 12 patients had one lesion. All lesions demonstrated well-marginated masses of homogeneous soft- tissue density with CT value within 29-48 HU on pre-enhanced images. All lesions were markedly enhanced with CT value over 200 HU on arterial-phase images, and the density of lesions decreased rapidly on delay- phase images. Twelve lesions were all located at the level of carotid artery bifurcation, 3 of them enveloping common carotid artery and internal/external carotid artery, and other 9 of them riding right on the carotid bifurcation. Internal carotid artery usually were shifted toward posterior-lateral, and external carotid artery toward anterior or anterior-medial. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MSCT examination not only can make a qualitative diagnosis of CBT, but determine its accurate location. It plays an importantly instructional role in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  14. Carotid artery stenting: Rationale, technique, and current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Narata, Ana-Paula; Sztajzel, Roman; Lovblad, Karl-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Carotid stenosis is a major risk factor for stroke. With the aging of the general population and the availability of non-invasive vascular imaging studies, the diagnosis of a carotid plaque is commonly made in medical practice. Asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenoses need to be considered separately because their natural history is different. Two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in preventing ipsilateral ischemic events in patients with symptomatic severe stenosis. The benefit of surgery is much less for moderate stenosis and harmful in patients with stenosis less than 50%. Surgery has a marginal benefit in patients with asymptomatic stenosis. Improvements in medical treatment must be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of these previous trials which compared surgery against medical treatment available at the time the trials were conducted. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) might avoid the risks associated with surgery, including cranial nerve palsy, myocardial infarction, or pulmonary embolism. Therefore and additionally to well-established indications of CAS, this endovascular approach might be a valid alternative particularly in patients at high surgical risk. However, trials of endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis have failed to provide enough evidence to justify routine CAS as an alternative to CEA in patients suitable for surgery. More data from ongoing randomized trials of CEA versus CAS will be soon available. These results will help determining the role of CAS in the management of patients with carotid artery stenosis.

  15. Effect of Cervical Siphon of External and Internal Carotid Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Tubbs, Richard Shane

    2017-10-01

    Variant courses, configuration, and branching pattern of the external and internal carotid arteries, especially when curved in S-shape, are important for hemodynamic changes and clinical implications. Therefore, the aim of the study is to report abnormal cervical siphons observed in external and internal carotid arteries to explore clinical significance by review of literature and hemodynamic changes theoretically.The right common carotid artery bifurcated into external and internal carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of thyroid cartilage in a 70-year-old female cadaver. After bifurcation, the external carotid artery underwent severe tortuosity coursing through 5 bends at points A, B, C, D, and E from its origin to termination and 2 bends at A' and B' in internal carotid artery in the cervical region. The angles between inflow and out flow of the blood at the bends were measured and the change in velocity at each bend was computed for both arteries. Hemodynamic changes were calculated, compared and relevant clinical complications were theoretically correlated.The angles of 20°, 30°, 51°, 52°, 60°, and 28°, 48° were formed by 5 bends of external and 2 bends of internal carotid arteries, respectively. The curved courses of these arteries caused reduction in velocity/stasis, turbulence, and low shear stress. Such kinks might cause stroke, ischemia and mistaken for tumors and abscess in imagery leading to or otherwise producing iatrogenic repercussions. This study will be useful for anatomists, clinicians, and radiologists.

  16. Vertebrocarotid collateral in extracranial carotid artery occlusions: digital subtraction angiography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Kizilkilic, Osman; Tercan, Fahri; Tuerkoez, Riza; Yildirim, Tuelin

    2005-01-01

    The internal and external carotid arteries are usually considered occluded distal to a common carotid artery occlusion but some collateral vessels may provide blood keeping the internal and external carotid arteries patent distal to the occlusion. Most common communication in such a case is diversion of blood from muscular branches of the vertebral artery to occipital branch of the external carotid artery which in turn could maintain blood flow into the internal carotid artery, a condition called carotid steal. We encountered vertebrocarotid anastomoses maintaining the patency of carotid circulation in six patients. Patients were four females and two males, ages ranging from 40 to 67 (mean age: 56) years. Five of the patients had ischemic cerebral symptoms. The origin of the external carotid artery was occluded in two and the whole common carotid artery in the remaining four patients. Two patients had double steal, carotid and subclavian at the same time. There was also severe stenosis or occlusion of at least one other major extracranial cerebral artery in all the cases. This concomitant involvement of the second extracranial cerebral artery was thought to be the main reason for the development of vertebrocarotid collateral. In contrast to most of the previously published reports claiming the inadequacy of angiography when compared with colour Doppler ultrasonography, angiography finely depicted the distal patency of the carotid circulation and all the collaterals in detail in every case. Selective injection of the vertebral artery ipsilateral to the occlusion, is the key to demonstrate distal patency of the carotid circulation in cases of proximal carotid occlusion. Demonstration of patency of the distal circulation is very important because some of the patients might get benefit from a reconstructive surgery

  17. Vertebrocarotid collateral in extracranial carotid artery occlusions: digital subtraction angiography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Kizilkilic, Osman; Tercan, Fahri; Tuerkoez, Riza; Yildirim, Tuelin

    2005-02-01

    The internal and external carotid arteries are usually considered occluded distal to a common carotid artery occlusion but some collateral vessels may provide blood keeping the internal and external carotid arteries patent distal to the occlusion. Most common communication in such a case is diversion of blood from muscular branches of the vertebral artery to occipital branch of the external carotid artery which in turn could maintain blood flow into the internal carotid artery, a condition called carotid steal. We encountered vertebrocarotid anastomoses maintaining the patency of carotid circulation in six patients. Patients were four females and two males, ages ranging from 40 to 67 (mean age: 56) years. Five of the patients had ischemic cerebral symptoms. The origin of the external carotid artery was occluded in two and the whole common carotid artery in the remaining four patients. Two patients had double steal, carotid and subclavian at the same time. There was also severe stenosis or occlusion of at least one other major extracranial cerebral artery in all the cases. This concomitant involvement of the second extracranial cerebral artery was thought to be the main reason for the development of vertebrocarotid collateral. In contrast to most of the previously published reports claiming the inadequacy of angiography when compared with colour Doppler ultrasonography, angiography finely depicted the distal patency of the carotid circulation and all the collaterals in detail in every case. Selective injection of the vertebral artery ipsilateral to the occlusion, is the key to demonstrate distal patency of the carotid circulation in cases of proximal carotid occlusion. Demonstration of patency of the distal circulation is very important because some of the patients might get benefit from a reconstructive surgery.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional ultrasound of carotid atherosclerosis: mapping regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Adam; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate differences in carotid atherosclerosis measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS). Ten subject volunteers underwent carotid 3DUS and MRI (multislice black blood fast spin echo, T1-weighted contrast, double inversion recovery, 0.5 mm in-plane resolution, 2 mm slice, 3.0 T) within 1 hour. 3DUS and MR images were manually segmented by two observers providing vessel wall and lumen contours for quantification of vessel wall volume (VWV) and generation of carotid thickness maps. MRI VWV (1040 +/- 210 mm(3)) and 3DUS VWV (540 +/- 110 mm(3)) were significantly different (P Power Doppler US confirmed that heterogeneity in the common carotid artery in all patients resulted from apparent flow disturbances, not atherosclerotic plaque. MRI and 3DUS VWV were significantly different and carotid maps showed homogeneous thickness differences and heterogeneity in specific regions of interest identified as MR flow artifacts in the common carotid artery.

  19. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002953.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery To use the sharing features ... to remove plaque buildup ( endarterectomy ) Carotid angioplasty with stent placement Description Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is ...

  20. Relationship of carotid arterial functional and structural changes to left atrial volume in untreated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroch, Joanna; Rzyczkowska, Barbara; Bociąga, Zbigniew; Vriz, Olga; Driussi, Caterina; Loboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Dudek, Krzysztof; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of arterial functional and structural changes to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction has been the area of recent research. There are some studies on the relationship between arterial stiffness (a.s.) and left atrial (LA) remodelling as a marker of diastolic burden. Little is known about the association of arterial structural changes and LA remodelling in hypertension (H). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carotid a.s. and intima-media thickness (IMT) and LA volume in subjects with H. The study included 245 previously untreated hypertensives (166 women and 79 men, mean age 53.7 ± 11.8 years). Each patient was subjected to echocardiography with measurement of LA volume, evaluation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and LV systolic/diastolic function indices, integrated assessment of carotid IMT and echo-tracking of a.s. and wave reflection parameters. Univariate regression analysis revealed significant correlations between indexed LA volume and selected clinical characteristics, echocardiographic indices of LVH and LV diastolic/systolic function and a.s./wave reflection parameters. The following parameters were identified as independent determinants of indexed LA volume on multivariate regression analysis: diastolic blood pressure (beta = -0.229, P arterial stiffness but not intima-media thickness and LA volume in patients with untreated hypertension.

  1. A CT study of the prevalence of carotid artery calcification in dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Yoon, Woong

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Korea. Atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery bifurcation is the most common cause of stroke. The carotid artery calcification is easily appreciated by CT(Computed tomography). CT is often taken in a dental hospital for the diagnosis of inflammation. injury, cyst or tumor on maxillofacial region. However, there was no report of carotid artery calcification on CT in dental patients. The presence of carotid artery calcification was evaluated by an experienced radiologist on CT scans of 287 patients (166 males, 121 females, average age 42, range 6 to 86 years) and the medical history of the patient and the interpretation of CT were reviewed. Carotid artery calcification was detected on CT scans of 57 patients (19.8%; 35 males, 22 females). All the male patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 50, and all the female patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 60. Among the 57 patients, 10 had Diabetes mellitus, 20 had cardiovascular disease, 3 had history of stroke and 3 underwent radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Carotid artery calcification was not included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients except one patient. The prevalence of carotid artery calcification on CT of dental patients was about 20% in this study. Carotid artery calcification should be included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients

  2. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Hye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited. Methods We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes (r2 = 0.637. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017. Conclusions Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.

  3. Hematocrit is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, Concetta; Ciamei, Monica; Crivaro, Andrea; Fiaschi, Elio; Madia, Angela; Cortese, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2003-06-01

    It is known that blood and plasma viscosities are associated with clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, though evidence is not conclusive particularly in women. To verify whether hematocrit and blood and plasma viscosities are independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis and whether their measurement can improve the definition of the global coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Eight hundred and ninety-two participants in a cardiovascular disease prevention campaign were examined with regard to conventional CHD risk factors (age, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, cigarette smoking and diabetes), hematocrit and blood and plasma viscosities. According to the degree of carotid atherosclerosis, investigated by echo-Doppler, participants were divided in three groups: those without atherosclerosis, those with a low degree of atherosclerosis and those with a high degree of atherosclerosis. In men, age, blood pressure, intima-media thickness (IMT), hematocrit (47.4+/-3.7%, 47.8+/-3.7%, 48.4+/-3.7%, Pviscosity (4.69+/-0.51 cP, 4.77+/-0.55 cP, 4.82+/-0.51 cP, P=0.05) increased with increasing degree of carotid atherosclerosis. In women, age, blood pressure, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, IMT and plasma viscosity (1.42+/-0.12 cP, 1.44+/-0.11 cP, 1.46+/-0.13 cP, Pviscosity was no longer different in the three groups. In discriminant analysis, hematocrit, among the hemorheological variables investigated, was independently associated with carotid score in men (F=3.66, Pviscosities were significantly associated with carotid score in women. These findings suggest that in men, both hematocrit and blood viscosity are related to carotid atherosclerosis but hematocrit would appear to have an independent effect over and above that mediated by viscosity.

  4. Assessment of intracranial vessels in association with carotid atherosclerosis and brain vascular lesions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Csaba; Kardos, Zsófia; Sepsi, Mariann; Sas, Attila; Kostyál, László; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Hodosi, Katalin; Kerekes, György; Tamási, László; Valikovics, Attila; Bereczki, Dániel; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2017-09-26

    Stroke has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed patients with RA and healthy control subjects by transcranial Doppler (TCD), carotid ultrasonography and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Altogether, 41 female patients with RA undergoing methotrexate (MTX) or biologic treatment and 60 age-matched control subjects underwent TCD assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery. Pulsatility index (PI), resistivity (resistance) index (RI) and circulatory reserve capacity (CRC) were determined at rest (r) and after apnoea (a) and hyperventilation (h). The presence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were also determined. Intracerebral vascular lesions were investigated by brain MRI. MCA PI and RI values at rest and after apnoea were significantly increased in the total and MTX-treated RA populations vs control subjects. MCA CRC was also impaired, and basilar artery PI was higher in RA. More patients with RA had carotid plaques and increased cIMT. Linear regression analysis revealed that left PI(r) and RI(r) correlated with disease duration and that left PI(r), RI(r), PI(a), PI(h) and basilar PI correlated with disease activity. Right CRC inversely correlated with 28-joint Disease Activity Score. Disease activity was an independent determinant of left PI(a) and right CRC. Compared with long-term MTX treatment alone, the use of biologics in combination with MTX was associated with less impaired cerebral circulation. Impaired cerebral circulation was also associated with measures of carotid atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show increased distal MCA and basilar artery occlusion in RA as determined by TCD. Patients with RA also had CRC defects. We also confirmed increased carotid plaque formation and increased cIMT. Biologics may beneficially influence some parameters in the intracranial vessels.

  5. Carotid angioplasty and stenting under protection. Techniques, results and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M; Polydorou, A; Henry, I; Anagnostopoulou, I S; Polydorou, I A; Hugel, M

    2006-10-01

    A carotid stenosis is responsible for about 30% of strokes occurring. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is considered to be the gold standard treatment of a carotid stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is emerging as a new alternative treatment for a carotid artery stenosis, but the risk of neurological complications and brain embolism remains the major drawback to this procedure. Therefore, in order to reduce the risks, we need: 1) good indications, good patient and lesion selection; 2) correct techniques; 3) brain protection devices (cerebral protection devices should be routinely used and are mandatory for any procedure); 4) 3 types of protection devices are available, but filters are the most commonly used (all protection devices have limitations and cannot prevent from all embolic events; however, neurological complications can be reduced by 60%); 5) a good choice of the stent and correct implantation (all stents are not equivalent and have different geometrical effects); 6) pharmacological adjuncts; 7) a good team. Recent studies have shown that CAS has superior short-term outcomes than CEA in high surgical risk patients, but there are enough reported data to conclude that CAS is also not inferior to CEA in low-risk patients. CAS under protection is the standard of care and is maybe becoming the gold standard treatment of a carotid stenosis at least in some subgroups of patients.

  6. Efficacy of Surgical Therapy for Carotid Body Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-shan Lian; Chang-wei Liu; Heng Guan; Yue-hong Zheng; Xing-ming Chen; Yong-jun Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of surgical therapy for carotid body tumors.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted,covering the diagnosis,surgical procedure,post-operative complications,and prognosis of 120 cases of carotid body tumors in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1949 to May,2011.Results Surgical excision was successfully performed in 111 cases with 117 tumors.In all those cases,50 underwent simple tumor resection,42 underwent resection of tumors and ligation of the external carotid arteries,7 underwent co-resection of tumors and common carotid arteries,internal carotid arteries,as well as external arteries without vascular reconstruction,and the other 12 cases experienced tumor resection and vascular reconstruction as internal carotid arteries were involved.After operation,3 cases developed cerebral infarction,30 cases showed cranial nerve palsy,including 15 cases of hypoglossal nerve damage,10 cases of vagus paralysis,and 5 cases of Horner's syndrome.Conclusion It is essential to make a proper surgical strategy,which can reduce postoperative complications.

  7. Separate origins of the internal and external carotid arteries depicted on CT angiography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Ho [Dept. of horacic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Beak, Hye Jin; Jung, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Agenesis of the common carotid artery (CCA) is a rare congenital anomaly. We presented a rare case of unilateral congenital absence of the right CCA with separate origins of the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries from the brachiocephalic artery. Further, we reviewed the embryological mechanism and clinical importance of this anomaly.

  8. Various endovascular approaches to the management of free floating carotid thrombi: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Won; Lee, Deok Hee; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Suh, Dae Chul

    2012-09-01

    Ischemic strokes are seldom caused by free floating thrombi (FFTs) in the carotid artery. Because FFTs are fairly uncommon and their pathophysiology has not yet been clarified, no definite management guidelines have been established. Four consecutive patients with FFTs in the internal and/or common carotid artery are described. These patients were successfully treated by various endovascular treatment methods.

  9. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are more common in individuals with late-onset or late-life depression. It has been proposed that carotid atherosclerosis may predispose to WMLs by inducing cerebral hypoperfusion. This hemodynamic effect of carotid atherosclerosis could be importa...

  10. Carotid bifurcation calcium and correlation with percent stenosis of the internal carotid artery on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Alexander M.; Casey, Sean O.; Teksam, Mehmet; Truwit, Charles L.; Kieffer, Stephen; Lucato, Leandro T.; Smith, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the correlation between calcium burden (expressed as a volume) and extent of stenosis of the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by CT angiography (CTA). Previous studies have shown that calcification in the coronary arteries correlates with significant vessel stenosis, and severe calcification (measured by CT) in the carotid siphon correlates with significant (greater than 50% stenosis) as determined angiographically. Sixty-one patients (age range 50-85 years) underwent CT of the neck with intravenous administration of iodinated contrast for a variety of conditions. Images were obtained with a helical multidetector array CT scanner and reviewed on a three-dimensional workstation. A single observer manipulated window and level to segment calcified plaque from vascular enhancement in order to quantify vascular calcium volume (cc) in the region of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery/ICA origin, and to measure the extent of ICA stenosis near the origin. A total of 117 common carotid artery bifurcations were reviewed. A ''significant'' stenosis was defined arbitrarily as >40% (to detect lesions before they become hemodynamically significant) of luminal diameter on CTA using NASCET-like criteria. All ''significant'' stenoses (21 out of 117 carotid bifurcations) had measurable calcium. We found a relatively strong correlation between percent stenosis and the calcium volume (Pearson's r= 0.65, P<0.0001). We also found that there was an even stronger correlation between the square root of the calcium volume and the percent stenosis as measured by CTA (r= 0.77, P<0.0001). Calcium volumes of 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 cc were used as thresholds to evaluate for a ''significant'' stenosis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that thresholds of 0.06 cc (sensitivity 88%, specificity 87%) and 0.03 cc (sensitivity 94%, specificity 76%) generated the best combinations of sensitivity and

  11. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ederle, Jörg

    2010-03-20

    Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy.

  12. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Bonati, L.H.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Lo, T.H.; Gaines, P.; Dorman, P.J.; Macdonald, S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Hendriks, J.M.; McCollum, C.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; et al.,

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  13. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Jörg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van Schil, P.; St Blasius, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J.-F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M.-F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruijninckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gaibar, A. Gimenez; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T.-B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, M.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H.-C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  14. MR imaging of carotid webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesen, Mari E.; Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Singh, Dilip; Mitha, Alim P.; Menon, Bijoy K.; Goyal, Mayank; Frayne, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We propose a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for the characterization of carotid web morphology, composition, and vessel wall dynamics. The purpose of this case series was to determine the feasibility of imaging carotid webs with MR imaging. Five patients diagnosed with carotid web on CT angiography were recruited to undergo a 30-min MR imaging session. MR angiography (MRA) images of the carotid artery bifurcation were acquired. Multi-contrast fast spin echo (FSE) images were acquired axially about the level of the carotid web. Two types of cardiac phase resolved sequences (cineFSE and cine phase contrast) were acquired to visualize the elasticity of the vessel wall affected by the web. Carotid webs were identified on MRA in 5/5 (100%) patients. Multi-contrast FSE revealed vessel wall thickening and cineFSE demonstrated regional changes in distensibility surrounding the webs in these patients. Our MR imaging protocol enables an in-depth evaluation of patients with carotid webs: morphology (by MRA), composition (by multi-contrast FSE), and wall dynamics (by cineFSE). (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of carotid webs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesen, Mari E. [University of Calgary, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Calgary (Canada); Foothills Medical Centre, Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Calgary (Canada); Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Singh, Dilip; Mitha, Alim P.; Menon, Bijoy K. [University of Calgary, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Calgary (Canada); Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary Stroke Program, Calgary (Canada); Goyal, Mayank [Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary Stroke Program, Calgary (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Radiology, Calgary (Canada); Frayne, Richard [Foothills Medical Centre, Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Calgary (Canada); University of Calgary, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for the characterization of carotid web morphology, composition, and vessel wall dynamics. The purpose of this case series was to determine the feasibility of imaging carotid webs with MR imaging. Five patients diagnosed with carotid web on CT angiography were recruited to undergo a 30-min MR imaging session. MR angiography (MRA) images of the carotid artery bifurcation were acquired. Multi-contrast fast spin echo (FSE) images were acquired axially about the level of the carotid web. Two types of cardiac phase resolved sequences (cineFSE and cine phase contrast) were acquired to visualize the elasticity of the vessel wall affected by the web. Carotid webs were identified on MRA in 5/5 (100%) patients. Multi-contrast FSE revealed vessel wall thickening and cineFSE demonstrated regional changes in distensibility surrounding the webs in these patients. Our MR imaging protocol enables an in-depth evaluation of patients with carotid webs: morphology (by MRA), composition (by multi-contrast FSE), and wall dynamics (by cineFSE). (orig.)

  16. Blood flows in the maxillocarotid anastomoses and internal carotid artery of conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M C; Reid, I A; Ramsay, D J

    1986-06-01

    Although the external carotid artery is known to contribute to the cerebral blood flow in anesthetized dogs, quantitative information on the anastomoses and their role in conscious dogs is lacking. This study was carried out to determine blood flows in these anastomoses and the internal carotid artery, and also to examine the functional significance of the anastomoses in conscious dogs. Fifteen-micron radioactive microspheres were injected into common and external carotid arteries of four conscious dogs through chronically implanted catheters. Blood flows were determined by the reference sample method and by comparing microsphere distributions in the brain and the masseter muscle. Blood flows were estimated to be 140 +/- 32, 7.7 +/- 1.4, and 3.3 +/- 1.1 ml/minute (mean +/- SD) in the common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and anastomoses on each side, respectively. Additional evidence indicated that the anastomotic flow so determined was primarily the flow in the anastomotic artery. Humoral responses to angiotensin II infusions were also studied in conscious dogs. External carotid angiotensin increased plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroid concentration (used as an index of ACTH secretion) but did not increase plasma vasopressin concentration to the same extent as common carotid infusion. Therefore, the external carotid artery is functionally important in perfusing the brain in conscious dogs.

  17. Measurement of blood flow in the carotid arteries using color doppler in healthy Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ki Ho; Jeon, Do Ig; Choi, Chang Ho; Ro, Young Jin; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow patterns and velocities of the carotid arteries in healthy Korean adults. We evaluated the blood flow patterns and measured the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the common, internal and external carotid arteries in 48 healthy adults who did not have cardiovascular disorders and neck lesions. The velocity difference was analyzed according to different age groups. In addition, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery was estimated, and our data were compared with values reported by other authors. Generally, the velocity in the younger age group tends be to higher than in older group. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocities of the internal carotid artery were 84.5 cm/sec and 30.5 cm/sec. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery were 0.715 and 0.966. The internal carotid artery was less resistant in blood flow than the external carotid artery. Our data were lower than the values which were reported by Bluth et al. The blood flow velocities of the internal carotid artery in healthy adults were lower than those of previous reported foreign values, but the patterns were similar

  18. Carotid Surgery in a District General Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairgrieve, John

    1981-01-01

    The carotid surgical experience of Cheltenham General Hospital over a 13 year period (1968-81) is presented. This includes 42 operations for stenosis, and 12 further operations for carotid body tumour, carotid aneurysm, subclavian steal syndrome and trauma to the internal carotid artery. The operative techniques and complications are briefly discussed and reasons advanced for a more agressive approach to the problems of extra-cerebral carotid disease in this country. PMID:7185417

  19. National variation in preoperative imaging, carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and threshold for surgery for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arous, Edward J; Simons, Jessica P; Flahive, Julie M; Beck, Adam W; Stone, David H; Hoel, Andrew W; Messina, Louis M; Schanzer, Andres

    2015-10-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is among the most common procedures performed in the United States. However, consensus is lacking regarding optimal preoperative imaging, carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and ultimately, the threshold for surgery. We sought to characterize national variation in preoperative imaging, carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and threshold for surgery for asymptomatic CEA. The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database was used to identify all CEA procedures performed for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis between 2003 and 2014. VQI currently captures 100% of CEA procedures performed at >300 centers by >2000 physicians nationwide. Three analyses were performed to quantify the variation in (1) preoperative imaging, (2) carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and (3) threshold for surgery. Of 35,695 CEA procedures in 33,488 patients, the study cohort was limited to 19,610 CEA procedures (55%) performed for asymptomatic disease. The preoperative imaging modality used before CEA varied widely, with 57% of patients receiving a single preoperative imaging study (duplex ultrasound imaging, 46%; computed tomography angiography, 7.5%; magnetic resonance angiography, 2.0%; cerebral angiography, 1.3%) and 43% of patients receiving multiple preoperative imaging studies. Of the 16,452 asymptomatic patients (89%) who underwent preoperative duplex ultrasound imaging, there was significant variability between centers in the degree of stenosis (50%-69%, 70%-79%, 80%-99%) designated for a given peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and internal carotid artery-to-common carotid artery ratio. Although 68% of CEA procedures in asymptomatic patients were performed for an 80% to 99% stenosis, 26% were performed for a 70% to 79% stenosis, and 4.1% were performed for a 50% to 69% stenosis. At the surgeon level, the range in the percentage of CEA procedures performed for a duplex ultrasound

  20. Reverse association of omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios with carotid atherosclerosis in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Norio; Ishii, Hideki; Kamoi, Daisuke; Aoyama, Toru; Sakakibara, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akihito; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Suzuki, Susumu; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are widely recognized to have beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association of n-3 PUFAs levels with carotid atherosclerosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD), who are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Carotid ultra-sound was performed in a total of 461 patients on HD (male 67%, age 67 ± 12years, diabetes rate 46%). Intima-media thickness (IMT) and the plaque score (PS) in carotid arteries were measured. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as IMT >1.2 mm and/or PS > 5.0. The levels of n-6 PUFAs [dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)] and n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were also measured prior to carotid ultra-sound. Carotid atherosclerosis was observed in 94 patients (20.4%). Individual PUFAs levels were comparable between patients with and without carotid atherosclerosis. However, the ratio of EPA/AA and that of n-3/n-6 PUFAs were significantly lower in patients with carotid atherosclerosis compared to those without (median 0.36 vs. 0.41, p = 0.031 and 0.85 vs. 0.93, p = 0.041, respectively]. After adjustment for other confounders, the ratio of EPA/AA (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.70, p = 0.0055) and the ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.80, p = 0.0066) showed an independent reverse association with carotid atherosclerosis. In addition, the area under receiver-operating characteristic curves for carotid atherosclerosis was significantly greater in an established risk model with EPA/AA and n-3/n-6 ratios than in the established risk model alone. These data suggest that low ratios of both EPA/AA ratio and n-3/n-6 PUFAs were closely associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients on HD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of lipid regulation with atorvastatin on the blood lipid levels and carotid artery plaques in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu XU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the effect of intensive lipid regulation treatment with atorvastatin on the blood lipid levels and carotid artery plaques in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction.  Methods Ninety-two patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups: observation group (treated by atorvastatin calcium with the dosage of 20 mg/d, N = 46 and control group (treated by diet without lipid-rich food, N=46. Besides, other drugs given to the patients in two groups were the same. The blood lipid levels and the changes of carotid artery plaques in two groups were analyzed and compared before treatment and 3 months after treatment. Results After treatment, the concentrations of total cholesterol [TC, (4.23 ± 0.92 mmol/L vs (5.24 ± 0.68 mmol/L], triglyceride [TG, (2.46 ± 0.28 mmol/L vs (3.33 ± 0.47 mmol/L], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C, (2.52 ± 0.38 mmol/L vs (4.78 ± 0.86 mmol/L] in the patients of observation group were all decreased and significantly lower than those in the control group (P = 0.000, for all, and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C, (1.13 ± 0.41 mmol/L vs (0.85 ± 0.32 mmol/L] in the patients of observation group was increased and significantly than that in the control group (P = 0.003. The carotid artery plaque size [(20.25 ± 0.32 mm2 vs (24.42 ± 10.33 mm2] and thickness [(0.59 ± 0.13 mm vs (1.93 ± 0.23 mm] of carotid artery plaques and intima?media thickness [IMT, (1.32 ± 0.67 mm vs (1.63 ± 0.56 mm] of common carotid artery (CCA in the patients of observation group were all significantly lower than those in patients in the control group (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.010, respectively. Comparing serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and creatinine (Cr levels after treatment with before treatment, there was no significant difference between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions

  2. Chitotriosidase enzyme activity: is this a possible chronic inflammation marker in children with common variable immunodeficiency and early atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarsız, Elif; Karaca, Neslihan; Levent, Erturk; Kutukculer, Necil; Sozmen, Eser

    2017-11-01

    Background Common variable immunodeficiency is a rare clinically symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disorder which manifests a wide variability of symptoms, complications. Atherosclerosis in common variable immunodeficiency patients has not been investigated yet contrary to other severe clinical complications. We aimed to investigate the chitotriosidase enzyme's role as an inflammation and atherosclerosis marker in paediatric common variable immunodeficiency patients. Methods Common variable immunodeficiency patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 23) evaluated for chitotriosidase activity with other inflammation markers (hsCRP, myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A, ferritin), lipid profile and echocardiographic findings (carotid artery intima media thickness - cIMT, brachial artery flow-mediated vazodilatation - FMD%). Results In patients, the mean chitotriosidase activity (8.98 ± 6.28) was significantly higher than the controls (5.17 ± 3.42) ( P = 0.014). Chitotriosidase showed positive relation with hs-CRP ( P = 0.011) and SAA ( P = 0.011) but had no relation with ferritin ( P = 0.155), HDL ( P = 0.152) or LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.380). Mean cIMT increased in patients compared with the controls ( P variable immunodeficiency patients demonstrated in vivo the presence of activated macrophages indicating ongoing inflammation. Echocardiographic diastolic functional deficiency, increased cIMT and decreased FMD% may be accepted as early atherosclerotic findings, but none of them showed relationship with chitotriosidase activities.

  3. What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lack of physical activity . Too much sitting (sedentary lifestyle) and a lack of aerobic activity can worsen other risk factors for carotid artery disease, such as unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, and ...

  4. Intracerebral haemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Boesen, J

    1987-01-01

    Among 662 consecutive carotid endarterectomies eight cases of postoperative ipsilateral intracerebral haemorrhage were identified, occurring into brain areas which, preoperatively were without infarction. As blood pressures across the stenosis were routinely measured during surgery, the internal...

  5. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun; Kim, Eui Jong; Kim, Dae Ho

    1997-01-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation

  6. Hyperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, P.B.; Wong, M.J.; Belzberg, A.; Holden, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the CT scans of two patients who, following carotid endarterectomy, developed headache and seizures suggestive of hyperperfusion syndrome. Their CT scans demonstrated ipsilateral mass effect and white matter hypodensity. One patient progressed to hemorrhage and died. Although infarction is described as the commonest neurologic event to occur after carotid endarterectomy, autopsy or cerebral blood flow studies in these patients suggests that the changes were due to hyperperfusion rather that infarction. (orig.)

  7. Race/Ethnic Differences in the Associations of the Framingham Risk Factors with Carotid IMT and Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsberts, Crystel M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Hoefer, Imo E; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Sanne A E; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic). We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity. Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites. The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.

  8. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure.

  9. Stent impact on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkefeld, J.; Zanella, F.E.; Rosendahl, H.; Theron, J.G.; Guimaraens, L.; Treggiari-Venzi, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A measurement system is proposed to evaluate reconstructive effects of carotid stents on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery. To describe deviations of the stenotic internal carotid artery (ICA) from the extended axis of the common carotid artery (CCA) the CCA-ICA angle is measured between the CCA midaxis and the midaxis of the stenotic ICA segment. Maximal extensions of ICA tortuosities perpendicular to the course of the CCA axis are defined as ICA offset. The measurements were applied to DSA images of 224 carotid stenoses to evaluate variation and correlation between the two parameters. Comparative pre- and post-stent evaluation was performed in two series of 55 and 31 carotid stenoses treated with Wallstents and in a historic control group of 35 stenoses treated with Strecker stents. Straight course of the ICA was associated with low angle and low offset values, whereas tortuous course of the ICA showed larger angle and offset. A moderate linear correlation between the two parameters was found. Corresponding to a straightening of the stented segment, Wallstents reduced mean angle and offset values significantly. In five cases of the second series of Wallstents, transferrals of curves above the distal stent end associated with kinks were observed, and offset remained constant or increased. Strecker stent implantation caused no significant changes of bifurcational geometry. The proposed parameters corresponded to visual aspects of ICA tortuosity and detected reconstructive effects of self-expanding Wallstents on the ICA course. The measurement system may provide a basis for geometric evaluation of different stent types or implantation concepts with the aim: to optimize anatomic recanalization results in tortuous high angle-high offset bifurcations. (orig.)

  10. Self expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent for carotid blowout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, E C; Yildirim, U M; Dündar, Y; Ozdek, A; Işik, E; Korkmaz, H

    2012-01-01

    Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is an emergency complication in patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. The classical management of CBS is the ligation of the common carotid artery, because suturing is not be possible due to infection and necrosis of the field. In this case report, we present a patient with CBS, in whom we applied a self-expandable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stent and observed no morbidity. Endovascular stent is a life-saving technique with minimum morbidity that preserves blood flow to the brain. We believe that this method is preferable to ligation of the artery in CBS.

  11. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yokoyama, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications.

  12. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications

  13. Contemporary management of carotid blowout syndrome utilizing endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Nauman F; Rezaee, Rod P; Ray, Abhishek; Wick, Cameron C; Blackham, Kristine; Stepnick, David; Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    To illustrate complex interdisciplinary decision making and the utility of modern endovascular techniques in the management of patients with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). Retrospective chart review. Patients treated with endovascular strategies and/or surgical modalities were included. Control of hemorrhage, neurological, and survival outcomes were studied. Between 2004 and 2014, 33 patients had 38 hemorrhagic events related to head and neck cancer that were managed with endovascular means. Of these, 23 were localized to the external carotid artery (ECA) branches and five localized to the ECA main trunk; nine were related to the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and one event was related to the innominate artery. Seven events related to the CCA/ICA or innominate artery were managed with endovascular sacrifice, whereas three cases were managed with a flow-preserving approach (covered stent). Only one patient developed permanent hemiparesis. In two of the three cases where the flow-preserving approach was used, the covered stent eventually became exposed via the overlying soft tissue defect, and definitive management using carotid revascularization or resection was employed to prevent further hemorrhage. In cases of soft tissue necrosis, vascularized tissues were used to cover the great vessels as applicable. The use of modern endovascular approaches for management of acute CBS yields optimal results and should be employed in a coordinated manner by the head and neck surgeon and the neurointerventionalist. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:383-390, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The features of carotid atherosclerosis in ketosis-onset diabetes have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with ketosis but without islet-associated autoantibodies. Methods In total, 423 newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes including 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics and 79 control subjects without diabetes were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in any of the carotid vessel segments. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on Doppler ultrasound examination. The clinical features of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were analysed, and the risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetic group (30.80%) than in the control group (15.2%, p=0.020) after adjusting for age- and sex-related differences, but no significant difference was observed in comparison to the non-ketotic diabetic group (35.8%, p=0.487). The mean CIMT of the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.70±0.20 mm) was markedly higher than that of the control subjects (0.57±0.08 mm, pketosis-onset and the non-ketotic diabetes, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was markedly increased with age (both pketosis-onset diabetics, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mean CIMT. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of carotid atherosclerosis were significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetics than in the control subjects but similar to that in the non-ketotic type 2

  15. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  16. PECAM-1 gene polymorphism (rs668 and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1 plays an important role in many inflammatory processes, including the development of atherosclerosis. Polymorphism rs668 of the PECAM-1 gene (373C/G is functional, and it was reported to be associated with increased serum levels of PECAM-1. We investigated the association between the rs668 polymorphism of PECAM-1 and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Five hundred and ninety-five T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque characteristics (presence and structure were assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. Geno-typing of the PECAM-1 gene polymorphism (rs668 was performed using KASPar assays. The control examinations were performed 3.8 ± 0.5 years after the initial examination. Higher CIMT was found in patients with T2DM in comparison with subjects without T2DM. Statistically sig-nificantly faster progression of the atherosclerotic markers was shown in subjects with T2DM in comparison with the control group. When adjusted to other risk factors, the rs668 GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of carotid plaques in subjects with T2DM. We concluded that our study demonstrated a minor effect of the rs668 PECAM-1 on markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM.

  17. Alterations in adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell-derived microparticles contribute to intima-media thickness and symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vega, Nicté; Moreno-Frías, Carmen; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1 ± 4.4 years old) at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs) were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V(+) CD3(+) MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH) levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women.

  18. Alterations in adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell-derived microparticles contribute to intima-media thickness and symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicté Figueroa-Vega

    Full Text Available Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1 ± 4.4 years old at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V(+ CD3(+ MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women.

  19. Autopsy findings in carotid arterial rupture following radiotherapy of head and neck advanced carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Bunsuke; Matsuura, Shizumu; Sakaino, Kouji; Maehara, Yasunobu

    1989-01-01

    The influence of radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer was investigated by autopsy of head and neck patients who had had carotid artery rupture. Twenty-five cases of head and neck cancer revealed carotid artery rupture among the 255 head and neck cases autopsied from 1972 to 1985. The rate of carotid artery rupture in hypopharyngeal cancer was 8/32 (25%); in oral cancer 8/55 (14.5%), and in other cancers 9/165 (5.4%). In localization of ruptured arteries there were 9 cases of common carotid artery, 14 cases of external carotid artery, one case of internal carotid artery, and one unknown. These cases were irradiated using more than 70 Gy. The following reasons for carotid artery rupture were suspected: 1. There was a tumor with deep ulceration and necrosis near the vessel. 2. The wall of the artery had radiation angitis. 3. The artery wall was necrotic because of invasion by the tumor. 4. Thrombosis developed with ensuant rupture of the artery. Radiotherapy for advanced cancer of the head and neck is necessary to control pain and as palliative treatment, but to avoid rupture of the carotid artery, pain clinic techniques and chemotherapy as palliative treatment for this kinds of terminal condition should also be considered. (author)

  20. Delayed Cerebral Ischemia following to Repair of Penetrating Trauma to External Carotid artery Introduction