WorldWideScience

Sample records for commodity off-the-shelf clusters

  1. Performance enhancement of a web-based picture archiving and communication system using commercial off-the-shelf server clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Lin; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs) thoroughly changes the way of medical informatics communication and management. However, as the scale of a hospital's operations increases, the large amount of digital images transferred in the network inevitably decreases system efficiency. In this study, a server cluster consisting of two server nodes was constructed. Network load balancing (NLB), distributed file system (DFS), and structured query language (SQL) duplication services were installed. A total of 1 to 16 workstations were used to transfer computed radiography (CR), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) images simultaneously to simulate the clinical situation. The average transmission rate (ATR) was analyzed between the cluster and noncluster servers. In the download scenario, the ATRs of CR, CT, and MR images increased by 44.3%, 56.6%, and 100.9%, respectively, when using the server cluster, whereas the ATRs increased by 23.0%, 39.2%, and 24.9% in the upload scenario. In the mix scenario, the transmission performance increased by 45.2% when using eight computer units. The fault tolerance mechanisms of the server cluster maintained the system availability and image integrity. The server cluster can improve the transmission efficiency while maintaining high reliability and continuous availability in a healthcare environment.

  2. Performance Enhancement of a Web-Based Picture Archiving and Communication System Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Server Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs thoroughly changes the way of medical informatics communication and management. However, as the scale of a hospital’s operations increases, the large amount of digital images transferred in the network inevitably decreases system efficiency. In this study, a server cluster consisting of two server nodes was constructed. Network load balancing (NLB, distributed file system (DFS, and structured query language (SQL duplication services were installed. A total of 1 to 16 workstations were used to transfer computed radiography (CR, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance (MR images simultaneously to simulate the clinical situation. The average transmission rate (ATR was analyzed between the cluster and noncluster servers. In the download scenario, the ATRs of CR, CT, and MR images increased by 44.3%, 56.6%, and 100.9%, respectively, when using the server cluster, whereas the ATRs increased by 23.0%, 39.2%, and 24.9% in the upload scenario. In the mix scenario, the transmission performance increased by 45.2% when using eight computer units. The fault tolerance mechanisms of the server cluster maintained the system availability and image integrity. The server cluster can improve the transmission efficiency while maintaining high reliability and continuous availability in a healthcare environment.

  3. Magnetic giant magnetoresistance commercial off the shelf for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelena, M.D.; Oelschlägel, Wulf; Arruego, I.

    2008-01-01

    The increase of complexity and miniaturizing level of Aerospace platforms make use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) components constitute a plausible alternative to the use of military or rad-tolerant components. In this work, giant magnetoresistance commercial sensors are studied to be used as......-375 mu T biasing field. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  4. Microfluidic Apps for off-the-shelf instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland

    2012-07-21

    Within the last decade a huge increase in research activity in microfluidics could be observed. However, despite several commercial success stories, microfluidic chips are still not sold in high numbers in mass markets so far. Here we promote a new concept that could be an alternative approach to commercialization: designing microfluidic chips for existing off-the-shelf instruments. Such "Microfluidic Apps" could significantly lower market entry barriers and provide many advantages: developers of microfluidic chips make use of existing equipment or platforms and do not have to develop instruments from scratch; end-users can profit from microfluidics without the need to invest in new equipment; instrument manufacturers benefit from an expanded customer base due to the new applications that can be implemented in their instruments. Microfluidic Apps could be considered as low-cost disposables which can easily be distributed globally via web-shops. Therefore they could be a door-opener for high-volume mass markets.

  5. Commercial-off-the-shelf digital surveillance systems for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufing, C.; Tschritter, C.; Meylemans, P.; Vandaele, R.; Heppleston, M.; Chare, P.; Kloeckner, W.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why safeguards authorities are from time to time looking for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (C.O.T.S.) equipment for safeguards purposes are for the following reasons: Equipment that is designed from scratch to satisfy specific safeguards requirements is very likely to go through a period of teething problems. If these problems are only discovered once the equipment is deployed for routine use, this will be accompanied with large overhead costs for the safeguards authorities to maintain and repair such equipment. The overhead costs are much higher if unattended equipment is concerned that is permanently installed on-site. In that case an extra mission has to be organised to return the faulty equipment to our headquarters before it can be repaired. Using C.O.T.S. equipment that is also used by others reduces the risk of teething problems. At least the burden of going through such kind of problem period is shared with other customers of the concerned equipment. It is clear that safeguards is not a big market on its own. The non-negligible cost of the development of equipment that only fits safeguards requirements will therefore have to be recovered on the expected sales. If the market is small, if the expected number of units that can be sold is small, a large part of the unit cost will depend on the initial development costs. Going for C.O.T.S. equipment that is also sold in other markets, would in that respect lower the equipment cost. That not any safeguards equipment can be obtained commercially off the shelf is clear, but in certain domains like digital surveillance, the functionality of C.O.T.S. equipment has been approaching the one needed for safeguards. That is why in 1998 the Euratom Safeguards Office published an open call for tender for the purchase of a digital surveillance system that is able to support up to 64 colour camera channels. In response to a successful bid for this call for tender a contract for the delivery of 3 prototype systems and 6

  6. Evaluation of the Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Low Temperature Powder Coating (LTPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    CONTRACT NUMBER: FA8532-17-C-0008 (CDRL A001) Evaluation of the Commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) Low Temperature Powder Coating (LTPC...3 Evaluation of the COTS LTPC (CDRL A001) BATTELLE 1 1.0 Introduction...primers in traditional coating systems is costly, time consuming , and represents a risk to health, safety, and the environment. Powder coatings

  7. Gaze-based interaction with public displays using off-the-shelf components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin; Tall, Martin Henrik

    Eye gaze can be used to interact with high-density information presented on large displays. We have built a system employing off-the-shelf hardware components and open-source gaze tracking software that enables users to interact with an interface displayed on a 55” screen using their eye movement...

  8. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Electronics Reliability for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    This presentation describes the accelerating use of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) parts in space applications. Component reliability and threats in the context of the mission, environment, application, and lifetime. Provides overview of traditional approaches applied to COTS parts in flight applications, and shows challenges and potential paths forward for COTS systems in flight applications it's all about data!

  9. Radiation evaluation method of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic printed circuit boards (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBel, K.A.; Gruner, T.D.; Reed, R.A.; Settles, B.; Wilmot, J.; Dougherty, L.F.; Russo, A.; Yuknis, W.; Foster, M.G.; Garrisson-Darrin, A.; Marshall, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    We present a radiation evaluation methodology and proton ground test results for candidate COTS PCBs (commercial off-the-shelf electronic printed circuit boards) and their associated electronics for low-altitude, low-inclination orbits. We will also discuss the implications associated with mission orbit and duration. (authors)

  10. Realization of Timed Reliable Communication over Off-The-Shelf Wireless Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowsky, B.; Groenbaek, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Industrial and safety-critical applications pose strict requirements for timeliness and reliability for the communication solution. Thereby the use of off-the-shelf (OTS) wireless communication technologies can be attractive to achieve low cost and easy deployment. This paper presents and analyse...

  11. In-House vs. Off-the-Shelf e-HRM Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Ibraheem, Nawaf; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Companies new to the e-HRM technologies are overwhelmed by the dilemma of choosing either the ready-made, off-the-shelf e-HRM systems, or develop their own e-HRM systems in house in order to implement the e-HR transformation. Therefore, this research was done to shed some light on the differences

  12. Designing and Implementing an Interactive Social Robot from Off-the-shelf Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Duan, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    people feel comfortable in its presence. All electrical components are standard off-the-shelf commercial products making a replication possible. Furthermore, the software is based on Robot Operating Software (ROS) and is made freely available.We present our experience with the design and discuss possible...

  13. Design and implementation of an inpatient physician documentation system using off-the-shelf components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Russell J; Bokser, Seth J; Carter, Jonathan T; McLaren, Kevin M; Blum, Michael S

    2007-10-11

    We report the development and implementation of an electronic inpatient physician documentation system using off-the-shelf components, rapidly and at low cost. Within 9 months of deployment, over half of physician notes were electronic, and within 20 months, paper physician notes were eliminated. Our results suggest institutions can prioritize conversion to inpatient electronic physician documentation without waiting for development of sophisticated software packages or large capital investments.

  14. Solid-State Neutron Multiplicity Counting System Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhdestvenskyy, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    This work iterates on the first demonstration of a solid-state neutron multiplicity counting system developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by using commercial off-the-shelf detectors. The system was demonstrated to determine the mass of a californium-252 neutron source within 20% error requiring only one-hour measurement time with 20 cm2 of active detector area.

  15. CLUSTER OF INDONESIA KABUPATEN-KOTA POTENTIAL IN DEVELOPING FOOD CROP AND HORTICULTURE COMMODITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Wahyudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of potential areas in an agricultural sector is needed in order to meet the national food needs, among others, by carrying out mapping the potential areas through clustering the Kabupaten-Kota in Indonesia, especially on imported agricultural commodities of food crops and horticultures. The use of cluster analysis with top-down clustering method (K-means produces the best cluster. Of 268 regencies-cities, there are 7 clusters, namely Cluster 1 consisting of 154 regencies, Cluster 2 consisting of 2 regencies, Cluster 3 consisting of only1 regency, Cluster 4 consisting of 8 regencies, Cluster 5 consisting of 24 regencies, Cluster 6 consisting of 75 regencies, and Cluster 7 consisting of 4 regencies. Each cluster has its own dominant commodity characteristics.  The results of typology klassen on constructed clusters show that food crop and horticulture commodities have grown well and fast. Out of 13 commodities, there are 7 major commodities: Cluster 1: rice and corns; Clusters 2, 3 and 7: cassava; Cluster 4: corns, cassavas and chilly; Cluster 5: apples; Cluster 6: corns, shallots, and garlic. Six other commodities do not grow well, namely sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, peanuts, oranges, and grapes. The potential lack of an area is due to the plants’ low productivity, which is mainly because of plant pests, highly operational cost, climates and natural disasters. Keywords: imports, food crops, horticulture, cluster, and leading sector.

  16. Commercial off-the-shelf consumer health informatics interventions: recommendations for their design, evaluation and redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Jenna L; Zayas-Cabán, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the successful application of a use case-based evaluation approach to guide the effective design, evaluation and redesign of inexpensive, commercial, off-the-shelf consumer health informatics (CHI) interventions. Researchers developed four CHI intervention use cases representing two distinct patient populations (patients with diabetes with high blood pressure, post-bariatric surgery patients), two commercial off-the-shelf CHI applications (Microsoft HealthVault, Google Health), and related devices (blood pressure monitor, pedometer, weight scale). Three patient proxies tested each intervention for 10 days. The patient proxies recorded their challenges while completing use case tasks, rating the severity of each challenge based on how much it hindered their use of the intervention. Two independent evaluators categorized the challenges by human factors domain (physical, cognitive, macroergonomic). The use case-based approach resulted in the identification of 122 challenges, with 12% physical, 50% cognitive and 38% macroergonomic. Thirty-nine challenges (32%) were at least moderately severe. Nine of 22 use case tasks (41%) accounted for 72% of the challenges. The study used two patient proxies and addressed two specific patient populations and low-cost, off-the-shelf CHI interventions, which may not perfectly generalize to a larger number of proxies, actual patient populations, or other CHI interventions. CHI designers can employ the use case-based evaluation approach to assess the fit of a CHI intervention with patients' health work, in the context of their daily activities and environment, which would be difficult or impossible to evaluate by laboratory-based studies.

  17. Off the Shelf Cloud Robotics for the Smart Home: Empowering a Wireless Robot through Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ramírez De La Pinta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the possibilities offered by the integration of home automation systems and service robots. In particular, we examine how advanced computationally expensive services can be provided by using a cloud computing approach to overcome the limitations of the hardware available at the user’s home. To this end, we integrate two wireless low-cost, off-the-shelf systems in this work, namely, the service robot Rovio and the home automation system Z-wave. Cloud computing is used to enhance the capabilities of these systems so that advanced sensing and interaction services based on image processing and voice recognition can be offered.

  18. Off the Shelf Cloud Robotics for the Smart Home: Empowering a Wireless Robot through Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez De La Pinta, Javier; Maestre Torreblanca, José María; Jurado, Isabel; Reyes De Cozar, Sergio

    2017-03-06

    In this paper, we explore the possibilities offered by the integration of home automation systems and service robots. In particular, we examine how advanced computationally expensive services can be provided by using a cloud computing approach to overcome the limitations of the hardware available at the user's home. To this end, we integrate two wireless low-cost, off-the-shelf systems in this work, namely, the service robot Rovio and the home automation system Z-wave. Cloud computing is used to enhance the capabilities of these systems so that advanced sensing and interaction services based on image processing and voice recognition can be offered.

  19. A proposed acceptance process for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software in reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper proposes a process for acceptance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for use in reactor systems important to safety. An initial set of four criteria establishes COTS software product identification and its safety category. Based on safety category, three sets of additional criteria, graded in rigor, are applied to approve/disapprove the product. These criteria fall roughly into three areas: product assurance, verification of safety function and safety impact, and examination of usage experience of the COTS product in circumstances similar to the proposed application. A report addressing the testing of existing software is included as an appendix

  20. Performance of commercial off-the-shelf microelectromechanical systems sensors in a pulsed reactor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobert, Keith Edwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heger, Arlen S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mccready, Steven S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-07-15

    Prompted by the unexpected failure of piezoresistive sensors in both an elevated gamma-ray environment and reactor core pulse tests, we initiated radiation testing of several MEMS piezoresistive accelerometers and pressure transducers to ascertain their radiation hardness. Some commercial off-the-shelf sensors are found to be viable options for use in a high-energy pulsed reactor, but others suffer severe degradation and even catastrophic failure. Although researchers are promoting the use of MEMS devices in radiation-harsh environment, we nevertheless find assurance testing necessary.

  1. Particle detection and classification using commercial off the shelf CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Martín [Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, 8400 (Argentina); Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Lipovetzky, Jose, E-mail: lipo@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, 8400 (Argentina); Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Sofo Haro, Miguel; Sidelnik, Iván; Blostein, Juan Jerónimo; Alcalde Bessia, Fabricio; Berisso, Mariano Gómez [Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, 8400 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2016-08-11

    In this paper we analyse the response of two different Commercial Off The shelf CMOS image sensors as particle detectors. Sensors were irradiated using X-ray photons, gamma photons, beta particles and alpha particles from diverse sources. The amount of charge produced by different particles, and the size of the spot registered on the sensor are compared, and analysed by an algorithm to classify them. For a known incident energy spectrum, the employed sensors provide a dose resolution lower than microGray, showing their potentials in radioprotection, area monitoring, or medical applications.

  2. Lattice QCD calculations on commodity clusters at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, A.; Pop, D.; Wegner, P.; Wittig, H.; Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.

    2003-06-01

    Lattice Gauge Theory is an integral part of particle physics that requires high performance computing in the multi-Tflops regime. These requirements are motivated by the rich research program and the physics milestones to be reached by the lattice community. Over the last years the enormous gains in processor performance, memory bandwidth, and external I/O bandwidth for parallel applications have made commodity clusters exploiting PCs or workstations also suitable for large Lattice Gauge Theory applications. For more than one year two clusters have been operated at the two DESY sites in Hamburg and Zeuthen, consisting of 32 resp. 16 dual-CPU PCs, equipped with Intel Pentium 4 Xeon processors. Interconnection of the nodes is done by way of Myrinet. Linux was chosen as the operating system. In the course of the projects benchmark programs for architectural studies were developed. The performance of the Wilson-Dirac Operator (also in an even-odd preconditioned version) as the inner loop of the Lattice QCD (LQCD) algorithms plays the most important role in classifying the hardware basis to be used. Using the SIMD streaming extensions (SSE/SSE2) on Intel's Pentium 4 Xeon CPUs give promising results for both the single CPU and the parallel version. The parallel performance, in addition to the CPU power and the memory throughput, is nevertheless strongly influenced by the behavior of hardware components like the PC chip-set and the communication interfaces. The paper starts by giving a short explanation about the physics background and the motivation for using PC clusters for Lattice QCD. Subsequently, the concept, implementation, and operating experiences of the two clusters are discussed. Finally, the paper presents benchmark results and discusses comparisons to systems with different hardware components including Myrinet-, GigaBit-Ethernet-, and Infiniband-based interconnects. (orig.)

  3. Commercial off-the-shelf software dedication process based on the commercial grade survey of supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Chon, S. W.; Lee, G. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial Off-The-Shelf(COTS) software dedication process can apply to a combination of methods like the hardware commercial grade item dedication process. In general, these methods are : methods 1(special test and inspection), method 2(commercial grade survey of supplier), method 3(source verification), and method 4(acceptance supplier/item performance record). In this paper, the suggested procedure-oriented dedication process on the basis of method 2 for COTS software is consistent with EPRI/TR-106439 and NUREG/CR-6421 requirements. Additional tailoring policy based on code and standards related to COTS software may be also founded in the suggested commercial software dedication process. Suggested commercial software dedication process has been developed for a commercial I and C software dedication who performs COTS qualification according to the dedication procedure

  4. Portable computing - A fielded interactive scientific application in a small off-the-shelf package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Hazelton, Lyman; Frainier, Rich; Compton, Michael; Colombano, Silvano; Szolovits, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Experience with the design and implementation of a portable computing system for STS crew-conducted science is discussed. Principal-Investigator-in-a-Box (PI) will help the SLS-2 astronauts perform vestibular (human orientation system) experiments in flight. PI is an interactive system that provides data acquisition and analysis, experiment step rescheduling, and various other forms of reasoning to astronaut users. The hardware architecture of PI consists of a computer and an analog interface box. 'Off-the-shelf' equipment is employed in the system wherever possible in an effort to use widely available tools and then to add custom functionality and application codes to them. Other projects which can help prospective teams to learn more about portable computing in space are also discussed.

  5. Serializing off-the-shelf MOSFETs by Magnetically Coupling Their Gate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    While the semiconductor industry struggles with the inherent trade-offs of solid-state devices, serialization of power switches, like the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) or the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), has been proven to be an advantageous alternative...... to acquire a high-efficient, high-voltage, fast-switching device. More than twenty years of research, on the serialization of solid-state devices, have resulted into several different stacking concepts. Among the prevailing ones, the gate balancing core technique, which has demonstrated very good performance...... in strings of high-power IGBT modules. In this paper, the limitations of the gate balancing core technique, when employed to serialize low or medium power off-the-shelf switches, are identified via experimental results. A new design specification for the interwinding capacitance of the employed transformer...

  6. Commercial off the shelf systems security: resource guide - TAFICS/RS/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This document is a resource book that catalogues various aspects related to cyber protection of commercial off the shelf (COTS) systems used in I and C systems at nuclear facilities, particularly those relevant to DAE. It covers: (a) important cyber attacks on COTS systems used in various industries across the world; (b) taxonomy of threats and vulnerabilities of COTS systems; (c) COTS security issues specific to NFs; and (d) the standards, guides and technical articles related to security of COTS systems. This resource book is used in preparation of I and C security guides on COTS systems by TAFICS. The resource book is valuable to I and C designers to build effective counter measures against cyber threats to COTS systems. It is also useful to operating plant managers and the regulators for general awareness about this topic. (author)

  7. Colorimetric calibration of wound photography with off-the-shelf devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Subhankar; Sirazitdinova, Ekaterina; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2017-03-01

    Digital cameras are often used in recent days for photographic documentation in medical sciences. However, color reproducibility of same objects suffers from different illuminations and lighting conditions. This variation in color representation is problematic when the images are used for segmentation and measurements based on color thresholds. In this paper, motivated by photographic follow-up of chronic wounds, we assess the impact of (i) gamma correction, (ii) white balancing, (iii) background unification, and (iv) reference card-based color correction. Automatic gamma correction and white balancing are applied to support the calibration procedure, where gamma correction is a nonlinear color transform. For unevenly illuminated images, non- uniform illumination correction is applied. In the last step, we apply colorimetric calibration using a reference color card of 24 patches with known colors. A lattice detection algorithm is used for locating the card. The least squares algorithm is applied for affine color calibration in the RGB model. We have tested the algorithm on images with seven different types of illumination: with and without flash using three different off-the-shelf cameras including smartphones. We analyzed the spread of resulting color value of selected color patch before and after applying the calibration. Additionally, we checked the individual contribution of different steps of the whole calibration process. Using all steps, we were able to achieve a maximum of 81% reduction in standard deviation of color patch values in resulting images comparing to the original images. That supports manual as well as automatic quantitative wound assessments with off-the-shelf devices.

  8. Touch Temperature Coating for Off-the-Shelf Electrical Equipment Used on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Brady, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Off-the-shelf electrical equipment is frequently used in space-based applications to control costs. However, the reduced heat transfer in the spacecraft microgravity environment causes the equipment to operate at significantly higher temperatures than it would in terrestrial applications. This creates touch temperature issues where items particularly metallic ones become too hot for the crew to handle safely. A touch temperature coating layup has been developed that can be added to spacebased electrically powered hardware. The coating allows the crew to safely handle the hardware, but only slightly impedes the heat transfer from the component during normal operation. In the present work, the coating generic requirements are developed and a layup is described that meets these specifications. Analytical and experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the coating layup to increase the allowable limits of touch temperature while only marginally degrading heat transfer to the environment. This allows the spacecraft crew to handle objects that, if not coated, would be hot enough to cause pain or skin damage.

  9. "Off-the-Shelf" K2-EDTA for Calcific Band Keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marco E; Ouano, Dean P; Shapiro, Brett; Fong, Andrew; Coroneo, Minas T

    2018-07-01

    To explore the effectiveness of "off-the-shelf" dipotassium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2-EDTA) as an alternative to sodium EDTA as chelation therapy in removal of calcific band keratopathy (CBK). This study was a retrospective case series involving 4 patients with CBK who underwent superficial keratectomy and subsequent chelation therapy with K2-EDTA in a single center (Coastal Eye Clinic) by the same surgeon. Visual acuity and symptomatic relief were the main outcomes measured in our study. All 4 participants in this study were female with an average age of 80.3 years. Three of the patients with reasonable baseline visual acuity experienced improved visual acuity at 1 month. The other patient with multiple ocular comorbidities and severely reduced visual potential reported symptomatic pain relief at 1-month follow-up after the intervention. K2-EDTA seems to be an effective alternative to disodium EDTA in its ability to clear calcific plaques and restore visual function. Because of the logistical difficulties associated with acquiring disodium EDTA, and the relative abundance of K2-EDTA in health-care facilities, we believe that our findings warrant further investigation into its use as a more accessible and cost-effective chelating agent in CBK.

  10. Digitizing pediatric chest radiographs: comparison of low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, L.; Shiels, K.C.; Cho, K.H.; O'Connor, S.C.; Uyehara, C.F.T.; Person, D.A.; Whitton, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare low-cost, off-the-shelf technology for digitizing pediatric chest radiographs. Materials and methods: Forty pediatric chest radiographs (hard copy), each with a single abnormality, were digitized using a commercial film digitizer and two low-cost methods: a digital camera and a flatbed scanner. A stratified, randomized, block design was used where 20 readers evaluated 40 different images to determine the ability to accurately detect the abnormality. Readers then rated all 160 images (40 images x 4 methods) for conspicuity of the abnormality and overall image quality. Results: Abnormalities were correctly identified on 82.3 % of hard copy images, 82.9 % of flatbed scanner images, 74.3 % of film digitizer images, and 69.7 % of digital camera images (p flatbed scanner > film digitizer > digital camera images. Conclusion: A low-cost flatbed scanner yielded digital pediatric chest images which were significantly superior to digital camera images While flatbed scanner images were interpreted with the equivalent diagnostic accuracy of hard copy images, they were rated lower for image quality and lesion conspicuity. (orig.)

  11. MCDM based evaluation and ranking of commercial off-the-shelf using fuzzy based matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s scenario, software has become an essential component in all kinds of systems. The size and the complexity of the software increases with a corresponding increase in its functionality, hence leads to the development of the modular software systems. Software developers emphasize on the concept of component based software engineering (CBSE for the development of modular software systems. The CBSE concept consists of dividing the software into a number of modules; selecting Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS for each module; and finally integrating the modules to develop the final software system. The selection of COTS for any module plays a vital role in software development. To address the problem of selection of COTS, a framework for ranking and selection of various COTS components for any software system based on expert opinion elicitation and fuzzy-based matrix methodology is proposed in this research paper. The selection problem is modeled as a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM problem. The evaluation criteria are identified through extensive literature study and the COTS components are ranked based on these identified and selected evaluation criteria using the proposed methods according to the value of a permanent function of their criteria matrices. The methodology is explained through an example and is validated by comparing with an existing method.

  12. Using off-the-shelf lossy compression for wireless home sleep staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Kun-Chan; Chang, Da-Wei; Kuo, Chih-En; Wei, Ming-Zhi; Li, Yu-Hung; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liang, Sheng-Fu

    2015-05-15

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of wireless home sleep staging systems that allow the patient to be monitored remotely while remaining in the comfort of their home. However, transmitting large amount of Polysomnography (PSG) data over the Internet is an important issue needed to be considered. In this work, we aim to reduce the amount of PSG data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to classify sleep stages. We examine the effects of off-the-shelf lossy compression on an all-night PSG dataset from 20 healthy subjects, in the context of automated sleep staging. The popular compression method Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) was used, and a range of compression levels was selected in order to compress the signals with various degrees of loss. In addition, a rule-based automatic sleep staging method was used to automatically classify the sleep stages. Considering the criteria of clinical usefulness, the experimental results show that the system can achieve more than 60% energy saving with a high accuracy (>84%) in classifying sleep stages by using a lossy compression algorithm like SPIHT. As far as we know, our study is the first that focuses how much loss can be tolerated in compressing complex multi-channel PSG data for sleep analysis. We demonstrate the feasibility of using lossy SPIHT compression for wireless home sleep staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Universal Vacant Parking Slot Recognition System Using Sensors Mounted on Off-the-Shelf Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Suhr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic parking system is an essential part of autonomous driving, and it starts by recognizing vacant parking spaces. This paper proposes a method that can recognize various types of parking slot markings in a variety of lighting conditions including daytime, nighttime, and underground. The proposed method can readily be commercialized since it uses only those sensors already mounted on off-the-shelf vehicles: an around-view monitor (AVM system, ultrasonic sensors, and in-vehicle motion sensors. This method first detects separating lines by extracting parallel line pairs from AVM images. Parking slot candidates are generated by pairing separating lines based on the geometric constraints of the parking slot. These candidates are confirmed by recognizing their entrance positions using line and corner features and classifying their occupancies using ultrasonic sensors. For more reliable recognition, this method uses the separating lines and parking slots not only found in the current image but also found in previous images by tracking their positions using the in-vehicle motion-sensor-based vehicle odometry. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated using a dataset obtained during the day, night, and underground, and it outperformed previous methods by showing a 95.24% recall and a 97.64% precision.

  14. Older Adults' Engagement During an Intervention Involving Off-the-Shelf Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Patrícia; Marsiske, Michael; Leite, Walter L; Yam, Anna; Thomas, Kelsey; Mann, William

    2016-06-01

    The overall goal of our current study was to examine older adults' experience of Flow (i.e., subjective engagement) during the course of a home-based cognitive training program. In this study, participants took part in a home-based training program. They were randomized to one of the two training groups. One group played an off-the-shelf videogame (i.e., Crazy Taxi), and the other group played a brain training game (i.e., Insight). Training consisted of 60 training sessions of 1 hour each, which were completed in 3 months (5 hours a week). After each training session, participants completed a Flow questionnaire to measure their engagement with the training. The analysis was performed with a linear growth curve model. The results indicate that on average, there was no change in flow for the Insight group between time points. There was no difference between the initial flow status of the Insight group and the Crazy Taxi group. However, the interaction between group membership and time was statistically significant, indicating that the participants in the Crazy Taxi group increased their scores at each week at a rate that was 0.99 larger than those in the Insight group. The analyses revealed that both groups experienced increase in Flow over the period, but only participants in the Crazy Taxi group significantly improved in Flow. This has long-term implications since we would expect participation to go beyond 12 weeks in a real-world scenario.

  15. Evaluation of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf autopilot systems for SUAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Calvin Thomas

    With this increase in unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations, there is a need for a structured process to evaluate different commercially available systems, particularly autopilots. The Remotely Operated Aircraft Management, Interpretation, and Navigation from Ground or ROAMING scale was developed to meet this need. This scale is a modification of the widely accepted Handling Qualities Rating scale developed by George Cooper and Robert Harper Jr. The Cooper-Harper scale allows pilots to rate a vehicle's performance in completing some task. Similarly, the ROAMING scale allows UAS operators to evaluate the management and observability of UAS in completing some task. The standardized evaluative process consists of cost, size, weight, and power (SWAP) analysis, ease of implementation through procedural description of setup, ROAMING scale rating, a slightly modified NASA TLX rating, and comparison of manual operation to autonomous operation of the task. This standard for evaluation of autopilots and their software will lead to better understanding of the workload placed on UAS operators and indicate where improvements to design and operational procedures can be made. An assortment of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) autopilots were selected for use in the development of the evaluation and results of these tests demonstrate the commonalities and differences in these systems.

  16. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  17. Measurement of the timing behaviour of off-the-shelf cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Volker

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a measurement method suitable for investigating the timing properties of cameras. A single light source illuminates the camera detector starting with a varying defined delay after the camera trigger. Pixels from the recorded camera frames are summed up and normalised, and the resulting function is indicative of the overlap between illumination and exposure. This allows one to infer the trigger delay and the exposure time with sub-microsecond accuracy. The method is therefore of interest when off-the-shelf cameras are used in reactive systems or synchronised with other cameras. It can supplement radiometric and geometric calibration methods for cameras in scientific use. A closer look at the measurement results reveals deviations from the ideal camera behaviour of constant sensitivity limited to the exposure interval. One of the industrial cameras investigated retains a small sensitivity long after the end of the nominal exposure interval. All three investigated cameras show non-linear variations of sensitivity at O≤ft({{10}-3}\\right) to O≤ft({{10}-2}\\right) during exposure. Due to its sign, the latter effect cannot be described by a sensitivity function depending on the time after triggering, but represents non-linear pixel characteristics.

  18. The “Chimera”: An Off-The-Shelf CPU/GPGPU/FPGA Hybrid Computing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra Inta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of modern astronomy means that a number of interesting problems exhibit a substantial computational bound and this situation is gradually worsening. Scientists, increasingly fighting for valuable resources on conventional high-performance computing (HPC facilities—often with a limited customizable user environment—are increasingly looking to hardware acceleration solutions. We describe here a heterogeneous CPU/GPGPU/FPGA desktop computing system (the “Chimera”, built with commercial-off-the-shelf components. We show that this platform may be a viable alternative solution to many common computationally bound problems found in astronomy, however, not without significant challenges. The most significant bottleneck in pipelines involving real data is most likely to be the interconnect (in this case the PCI Express bus residing on the CPU motherboard. Finally, we speculate on the merits of our Chimera system on the entire landscape of parallel computing, through the analysis of representative problems from UC Berkeley’s “Thirteen Dwarves.”

  19. Lattice QCD production on commodity clusters at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, D.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the construction and results to date of Fermilab's three Myrinet-networked lattice QCD production clusters (an 80-node dual Pentium III cluster, a 48-node dual Xeon cluster, and a 128-node dual Xeon cluster). We examine a number of aspects of performance of the MILC lattice QCD code running on these clusters

  20. Performance test and verification of an off-the-shelf automated avian radar tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Roel; Steinheim, Yngve; Kvaløy, Pål; Vang, Roald; Hanssen, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Microwave radar is an important tool for observation of birds in flight and represents a tremendous increase in observation capability in terms of amount of surveillance space that can be covered at relatively low cost. Based on off-the-shelf radar hardware, automated radar tracking systems have been developed for monitoring avian movements. However, radar used as an observation instrument in biological research has its limitations that are important to be aware of when analyzing recorded radar data. This article describes a method for exploring the detection capabilities of a dedicated short-range avian radar system used inside the operational Smøla wind-power plant. The purpose of the testing described was to find the maximum detection range for various sized birds, while controlling for the effects of flight tortuosity, flight orientation relative to the radar and ground clutter. The method was to use a dedicated test target in form of a remotely controlled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with calibrated radar cross section (RCS), which enabled the design of virtually any test flight pattern within the area of interest. The UAV had a detection probability of 0.5 within a range of 2,340 m from the radar. The detection performance obtained by the RCS-calibrated test target (-11 dBm 2 , 0.08 m 2 RCS) was then extrapolated to find the corresponding performance of differently sized birds. Detection range depends on system sensitivity, the environment within which the radar is placed and the spatial distribution of birds. The avian radar under study enables continuous monitoring of bird activity within a maximum range up to 2 km dependent on the size of the birds in question. While small bird species may be detected up to 0.5-1 km, larger species may be detected up to 1.5-2 km distance from the radar.

  1. Characterization of commercial off-the shelf regenerable sorbent to scrub carbon dioxide in a portable life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tatsuya; Fricker, John

    2018-06-01

    A resin bead Mitsubishi DIAION™ CR20 was identified and characterized as a first commercial off-the shelf regenerable carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbent candidate for space life support system applications at room temperature. The CO2 adsorption rates and capacities of CR20 at varying CO2 partial pressures were obtained. The data were used to numerically simulate CO2 adsorption by a swingbed, a pair of two sorbent beds that alternately adsorb and desorb CO2 in a space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The result demonstrated that a reasonable volume of CR20 would be able to continuously adsorb CO2 with bed-swing interval of 4 min at 300-W metabolic rate, and that commercial off-the shelf CR20 would have similar performance of CO2 adsorption to the proprietary swingbed sorbent SA9T for PLSS applications.

  2. An investigation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Wireless in support of Complex Humanitarian Disaster Operations in the Argentine Army

    OpenAIRE

    Perfetti, Marcelo R.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since the beginning of this century, the Argentine Army has used Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) wireless products, equipment, and communication systems to support Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations. The participation of Military, Governmental, and Non-Governmental Organizations in these activities requires more wireless coverage area. These communication systems are an integration of several subsystems that...

  3. Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

  4. LEARNING GAMES OR LEARNING STIMULATING GAMES: AN INDIRECT APPROACH TO LEARNING STIMULATING EFFECTS FROM OFF-THE-SHELF GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Wiklund; Peter Mozelius

    2014-01-01

    Playing games to support learning is a classic concept that is seeing a revival today in the widespread use of computer games. Inserting educational content into various types of computer games is a strong trend that some researchers have described as a mad rush. The aim of this article is to discuss possible learning stimulating effects of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) games in a long-term perspective. We argue that COTS game players’ attitudes towards learning m...

  5. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  6. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Components and Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Minihan; Ed Schmidt; Greg Enserro; Melissa Thompson

    2008-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to develop the processes for using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for WR production and to put in place a system for implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. Much of the effort was devoted to determining if the use of COTS parts was possible. A basic question: How does the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) begin to use COTS in the weapon Stockpile Life Extension Programs with high reliability, affordability, while managing risk at acceptable levels? In FY00, it was determined that a certain weapon refurbishment program could not be accomplished without the use of COTS components. The elements driving the use of COTS components included decreased cost, greater availability, and shorter delivery time. Key factors that required implementation included identifying the best suppliers and components, defining life cycles and predictions of obsolescence, testing the feasibility of using COTS components with a test contractor to ensure capability, as well as quality and reliability, and implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. The primary effort of this project then was to concentrate on the risks involved in the use of COTS and address the issues of part and vendor selection, procurement and acceptance processes, and qualification of the parts via part and sample testing. The Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS) was used to manage the information generated by the COTS process. eCIS is a common interface for both the design and production of NWC components and systems integrating information between SNL National Laboratory (SNL) and the Kansas City Plant (KCP). The implementation of COTS components utilizes eCIS from part selection through qualification release. All part related data is linked across an unclassified network for access by both SNL and KCP personnel. The system includes not

  7. Cost/Performance Ratio Achieved by Using a Commodity-Based Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center acquired a commodity cluster based on Intel Corporation processors to compare its performance with a traditional UNIX cluster in the execution of aeropropulsion applications. Since the cost differential of the clusters was significant, a cost/performance ratio was calculated. After executing a propulsion application on both clusters, the researchers demonstrated a 9.4 cost/performance ratio in favor of the Intel-based cluster. These researchers utilize the Aeroshark cluster as one of the primary testbeds for developing NPSS parallel application codes and system software. The Aero-shark cluster provides 64 Intel Pentium II 400-MHz processors, housed in 32 nodes. Recently, APNASA - a code developed by a Government/industry team for the design and analysis of turbomachinery systems was used for a simulation on Glenn's Aeroshark cluster.

  8. An "off-the-shelf" fratricide-resistant CAR-T for the treatment of T cell hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew L; Choi, Jaebok; Staser, Karl; Ritchey, Julie K; Devenport, Jessica M; Eckardt, Kayla; Rettig, Michael P; Wang, Bing; Eissenberg, Linda G; Ghobadi, Armin; Gehrs, Leah N; Prior, Julie L; Achilefu, Samuel; Miller, Christopher A; Fronick, Catrina C; O'Neal, Julie; Gao, Feng; Weinstock, David M; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fulton, Robert S; DiPersio, John F

    2018-02-20

    T cell malignancies represent a group of hematologic cancers with high rates of relapse and mortality in patients for whom no effective targeted therapies exist. The shared expression of target antigens between chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and malignant T cells has limited the development of CAR-T because of unintended CAR-T fratricide and an inability to harvest sufficient autologous T cells. Here, we describe a fratricide-resistant "off-the-shelf" CAR-T (or UCART7) that targets CD7+ T cell malignancies and, through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, lacks both CD7 and T cell receptor alpha chain (TRAC) expression. UCART7 demonstrates efficacy against human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines and primary T-ALL in vitro and in vivo without the induction of xenogeneic GvHD. Fratricide-resistant, allo-tolerant "off-the-shelf" CAR-T represents a strategy for treatment of relapsed and refractory T-ALL and non-Hodgkin's T cell lymphoma without a requirement for autologous T cells.

  9. Prospects of Appliance-Level Load Monitoring in Off-the-Shelf Energy Monitors: A Technical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid initiative has encouraged utility companies worldwide to roll-out new and smarter versions of energy meters. Before an extensive roll-out, which is both labor-intensive and incurs high capital costs, consumers need to be incentivised to reap the long-term benefits of such smart meters. Off-the-shelf energy monitors (e-monitors can provide consumers with an insight into such potential benefits. As e-monitors are owned by the consumer, the consumer has greater control over the data, which significantly reduces the privacy and data confidentiality concerns. Because only limited online technical information is available about e-monitors, we evaluate several existing e-monitors using an online technical survey directly from the vendors. Besides automated e-monitoring, the use of different off-the-shelf e-monitors can also help to demonstrate state-of-the-art techniques such as non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM, data analytics, and the predictive maintenance of appliances. Our survey indicates a trend towards the incorporation of such state-of-the-art capabilities, particularly the appliance-level e-monitoring and load disaggregation. We have also discussed some essential requirements to implement load disaggregation in the next generation e-monitors. In future, these intelligent e-monitoring techniques will encourage effective consumer participation in the demand-side management (DSM programs.

  10. Lossed in translation: an off-the-shelf method to recover probabilistic beliefs from loss-averse agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerman, Theo; Palley, Asa B

    2016-01-01

    Strictly proper scoring rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs from risk neutral agents. Previous experimental studies have identified two problems with this method: (i) risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports toward the probability of [Formula: see text], and (ii) for moderate beliefs agents simply report [Formula: see text]. Applying a prospect theory model of risk preferences, we show that loss aversion can explain both of these behavioral phenomena. Using the insights of this model, we develop a simple off-the-shelf probability assessment mechanism that encourages loss-averse agents to report true beliefs. In an experiment, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this modification in both eliminating uninformative reports and eliciting true probabilistic beliefs.

  11. DeepSpark: A Spark-Based Distributed Deep Learning Framework for Commodity Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hanjoo; Park, Jaehong; Jang, Jaehee; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of deep neural networks (DNNs) has made it challenging to exploit existing large-scale data processing pipelines for handling massive data and parameters involved in DNN training. Distributed computing platforms and GPGPU-based acceleration provide a mainstream solution to this computational challenge. In this paper, we propose DeepSpark, a distributed and parallel deep learning framework that exploits Apache Spark on commodity clusters. To support parallel operation...

  12. The NIDS Cluster: Scalable, Stateful Network Intrusion Detection on Commodity Hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian L; Vallentin, Matthias; Sommer, Robin; Lee, Jason; Leres, Craig; Paxson, Vern; Tierney, Brian

    2007-09-19

    In this work we present a NIDS cluster as a scalable solution for realizing high-performance, stateful network intrusion detection on commodity hardware. The design addresses three challenges: (i) distributing traffic evenly across an extensible set of analysis nodes in a fashion that minimizes the communication required for coordination, (ii) adapting the NIDS's operation to support coordinating its low-level analysis rather than just aggregating alerts; and (iii) validating that the cluster produces sound results. Prototypes of our NIDS cluster now operate at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley. In both environments the clusters greatly enhance the power of the network security monitoring.

  13. Learning to Play, Playing to Learn: Comparing the Experiences of Adult Foreign Language Learners with Off-the-Shelf and Specialized Games for Learning German

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grove, Frederik; Van Looy, Jan; Mechant, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Learning opportunities offered by digital games have become an important research topic in recent years. Language learning is one of the areas in which games could prosper but the question then is whether these should be specialized language-learning games or commercial off-the-shelf games for entertainment. The goal of this paper is to compare…

  14. Behavior-Based Approach for the Detection of Land Mines Utilizing off the Shelf Low Cost Autonomous Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Nour Alshbatat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several countries all of the world are affected by landmines. The presence of mines represents a major threat to lives and causes economic problems. Currently, detecting and clearing mines demand specific expertise with special equipment. In this context, this paper offers the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enable the robot to detect mines by means of sensors and of processing the fused information to guide soldiers when passing landmines.  This is accomplished by broken down the overall system into two subsystems: sensor technologies and robotic device. Sensors devices include infrared distance sensor, metal detector, ultrasonic range finder, accelerometer sensor, while the structure of the robot in our case consists mainly  of a commercial  off-the-shelf  parts which  are  available  at  low  costs. The proposed controller is mainly based on creating fuzzy rules that reflect the behaviors of soldier beings in controlling a robot in a well known landmine. Simulation and experimental results are presented her to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. The results show that the system is able to detect landmines and guide soldiers while crossing mines area.

  15. Do-It-Yourself: A Special Library's Approach to Creating Dynamic Web Pages Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeman, Gerald; Connell, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians may feel that dynamic Web pages are out of their reach, financially and technically. Yet we are reminded in library and Web design literature that static home pages are a thing of the past. This paper describes how librarians at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) library developed a database-driven, dynamic intranet site using commercial off-the-shelf applications. Administrative issues include surveying a library users group for interest and needs evaluation; outlining metadata elements; and, committing resources from managing time to populate the database and training in Microsoft FrontPage and Web-to-database design. Technical issues covered include Microsoft Access database fundamentals, lessons learned in the Web-to-database process (including setting up Database Source Names (DSNs), redesigning queries to accommodate the Web interface, and understanding Access 97 query language vs. Standard Query Language (SQL)). This paper also offers tips on editing Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting to create desired results. A how-to annotated resource list closes out the paper.

  16. Risk mitigation process for utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts in CCD camera for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees; Batcheldor, Scott; Cannon, Steven C.; Roberts, Thomas E.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned during the design and development of a high performance cooled CCD camera for military applications utilizing common commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts. Our experience showed that concurrent evaluation and testing of high risk COTS must be performed to assess their performance over the required temperature range and other special product requirements such as fuel vapor compatibility, EMI and shock susceptibility, etc. Technical, cost and schedule risks for COTS parts must also be carefully evaluated. The customer must be involved in the selection and evaluation of such parts so that the performance limitations of the selected parts are clearly understood. It is equally important to check with vendors on the availability and obsolescence of the COTS parts being considered since the electronic components are often replaced by newer, better and cheaper models in a couple of years. In summary, this paper addresses the major benefits and risks associated with using commercial and industrial parts in military products, and suggests a risk mitigation approach to ensure a smooth development phase, and predictable performance from the end product.

  17. Location-Enhanced Activity Recognition in Indoor Environments Using Off the Shelf Smart Watch Technology and BLE Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippoupolitis, Avgoustinos; Oliff, William; Takand, Babak; Loukas, George

    2017-05-27

    Activity recognition in indoor spaces benefits context awareness and improves the efficiency of applications related to personalised health monitoring, building energy management, security and safety. The majority of activity recognition frameworks, however, employ a network of specialised building sensors or a network of body-worn sensors. As this approach suffers with respect to practicality, we propose the use of commercial off-the-shelf devices. In this work, we design and evaluate an activity recognition system composed of a smart watch, which is enhanced with location information coming from Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons. We evaluate the performance of this approach for a variety of activities performed in an indoor laboratory environment, using four supervised machine learning algorithms. Our experimental results indicate that our location-enhanced activity recognition system is able to reach a classification accuracy ranging from 92% to 100%, while without location information classification accuracy it can drop to as low as 50% in some cases, depending on the window size chosen for data segmentation.

  18. Location-Enhanced Activity Recognition in Indoor Environments Using Off the Shelf Smart Watch Technology and BLE Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avgoustinos Filippoupolitis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Activity recognition in indoor spaces benefits context awareness and improves the efficiency of applications related to personalised health monitoring, building energy management, security and safety. The majority of activity recognition frameworks, however, employ a network of specialised building sensors or a network of body-worn sensors. As this approach suffers with respect to practicality, we propose the use of commercial off-the-shelf devices. In this work, we design and evaluate an activity recognition system composed of a smart watch, which is enhanced with location information coming from Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons. We evaluate the performance of this approach for a variety of activities performed in an indoor laboratory environment, using four supervised machine learning algorithms. Our experimental results indicate that our location-enhanced activity recognition system is able to reach a classification accuracy ranging from 92% to 100%, while without location information classification accuracy it can drop to as low as 50% in some cases, depending on the window size chosen for data segmentation.

  19. Biomaterial Characterization of Off-the-Shelf Decellularized Porcine Pericardial Tissue for use in Prosthetic Valvular Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Joshua A; Jana, Soumen; Tefft, Brandon J; Hennessy, Ryan S; Go, Jason; Morse, David; Lerman, Amir; Young, Melissa D

    2018-05-10

    Fixed pericardial tissue is commonly used for commercially available xenograft valve implants, and has proven durability, but lacks the capability to remodel and grow. Decellularized porcine pericardial tissue has the promise to outperform fixed tissue and remodel, but the decellularization process has been shown to damage the collagen structure and reduce mechanical integrity of the tissue. Therefore, a comparison of uniaxial tensile properties was performed on decellularized, decellularized-sterilized, fixed, and native porcine pericardial tissue, versus native valve leaflet cusps. The results of non-parametric analysis showed statistically significant differences (ptesting of the tissues showed no statistical difference between decellularized or decell-sterilized tissue compared to native cusps (p>0.05). SEM confirmed that valvular endothelial and interstitial cells colonized the decellularized pericardial surface when seeded and grown for 30 days in static culture. Collagen assays and TEM analysis showed limited reductions in collagen with processing; yet, GAG assays showed great reductions in the processed pericardium relative to native cusps. Decellularized pericardium had comparatively lower mechanical properties amongst the groups studied; yet, the stiffness was comparatively similar to the native cusps and demonstrated a lack of cytotoxicity. Suture retention, accelerated wear, and hydrodynamic testing of prototype decellularized and decell-sterilized valves showed positive functionality. Sterilized tissue could mimic valvular mechanical environment in vitro, therefore making it a viable potential candidate for off-the-shelf tissue engineered valvular applications. KEYTERMS Decellularization, Sterilization, Pericardial Tissue, Heart Valves, Tissue Engineering, Biomechanics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum-to-the-Home: Achieving Gbits/s Secure Key Rates via Commercial Off-the-Shelf Telecommunication Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Asif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is current significant interest in Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH networks, that is, end-to-end optical connectivity. Currently, it may be limited due to the presence of last-mile copper wire connections. However, in near future, it is envisaged that FTTH connections will exist, and a key offering would be the possibility of optical encryption that can best be implemented using Quantum Key Distribution (QKD. However, it is very important that the QKD infrastructure is compatible with the already existing networks for a smooth transition and integration with the classical data traffic. In this paper, we report the feasibility of using off-the-shelf telecommunication components to enable high performance Continuous Variable-Quantum Key Distribution (CV-QKD systems that can yield secure key rates in the range of 100 Mbits/s under practical operating conditions. Multilevel phase modulated signals (m-PSK are evaluated in terms of secure key rates and transmission distances. The traditional receiver is discussed, aided by the phase noise cancellation based digital signal processing module for detecting the complex quantum signals. Furthermore, we have discussed the compatibility of multiplexers and demultiplexers for wavelength division multiplexed Quantum-to-the-Home (QTTH network and the impact of splitting ratio is analyzed. The results are thoroughly compared with the commercially available high-cost encryption modules.

  1. mRNA: From a chemical blueprint for protein production to an off-the-shelf therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2013-02-01

    Two decades ago, mRNA became the focus of research in molecular medicine and was proposed as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for the therapy of cancer. In this regard, mRNA has been mainly used for ex vivo modification of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs). This vaccination strategy has proven to be safe, well tolerated and capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific immune responses. Recently, the direct application of mRNA for in situ modification of APCs, hence immunization was shown to be feasible and at least as effective as DC-based immunization in pre-clinical models. It is believed that application of mRNA as an off-the-shelf vaccine represents an important step in the development of future cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we will discuss the use of ex vivo mRNA-modified DCs and "naked mRNA" for cancer immunotherapy focusing on parameters such as the employed DC subtype, DC activation stimulus and route of immunization. In addition, we will provide an overview on the clinical trials published so far, trying to link their outcome to the aforementioned parameters.

  2. Off the Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Choosing books for the music classroom can seem like a daunting task. Which ones are useful--and not so useful? What works for one teacher or situation may not work for all, but guidelines and recommendations can prove helpful, particularly to the beginning music educator or one undertaking a new subject. This article discusses the views of music…

  3. Gait analysis of patients with an off-the-shelf total knee replacement versus customized bi-compartmental knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry; Foster, Jonathan; Franksen, Natasha; Estes, Jill; Rolston, Lindsey

    2018-04-01

    Newer TKR designs have been introduced to the market with the aim of overcoming common sizing problems with older TKR designs. Furthermore, since a sizable percentage of patients with OA present with disease limited to the medial/lateral knee compartment in addition to the patellofemoral joint, for whom, a customized bi-compartmental knee replacement (BKR) is available as a treatment option. To date, there is very little information regarding knee strength and mechanics during gait for patients implanted with these modern TKR and BKR designs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate knee strength and mechanics during walking for patients with either a modern off the shelf TKR or a customized BKR and compare these findings to a cohort of healthy controls. Twelve healthy controls, eight BKR, and nine TKR patients participated in the study. Maximal isometric knee strength was evaluated. 3D kinematic and kinetic analyses were conducted for level walking. The TKR knee exhibited less peak extensor torque when compared to, both the BKR and control limbs (p < 0.05). The TKR knee had less extensor moment at stance than both the BKR and control knees (p < 0.05). Both the BKR and control knees displayed larger internal rotation at stance than that of the TKR knee (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, for patients that exhibit isolated OA of the tibiofemoral joint, using a customized BKR implant is a viable treatment option and may contribute to superior mechanical advantages.

  4. An off-the-shelf guider for the Palomar 200-inch telescope: interfacing amateur astronomy software with professional telescopes for an easy life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a simple but effective guider for use with the Oxford-SWIFT integral field spectrograph on the Palomar 200-inch telescope. The guider uses mainly off-the-shelf components, including commercial amateur astronomy software to interface with the CCD camera, calculating guiding corrections, and send guide commands to the telescope. The only custom piece of software is an driver to provide an interface between the Palomar telescope control system and the industry standard 'ASCOM' system. Using existing commercial software provided a very cheap guider (guiding, and could easily be adapted to any other professional telescope

  5. Toward better public health reporting using existing off the shelf approaches: The value of medical dictionaries in automated cancer detection using plaintext medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Dixon, Brian E; Gichoya, Judy; Xu, Huiping; Xia, Yuni; Mamlin, Burke; Grannis, Shaun J

    2017-05-01

    Existing approaches to derive decision models from plaintext clinical data frequently depend on medical dictionaries as the sources of potential features. Prior research suggests that decision models developed using non-dictionary based feature sourcing approaches and "off the shelf" tools could predict cancer with performance metrics between 80% and 90%. We sought to compare non-dictionary based models to models built using features derived from medical dictionaries. We evaluated the detection of cancer cases from free text pathology reports using decision models built with combinations of dictionary or non-dictionary based feature sourcing approaches, 4 feature subset sizes, and 5 classification algorithms. Each decision model was evaluated using the following performance metrics: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Decision models parameterized using dictionary and non-dictionary feature sourcing approaches produced performance metrics between 70 and 90%. The source of features and feature subset size had no impact on the performance of a decision model. Our study suggests there is little value in leveraging medical dictionaries for extracting features for decision model building. Decision models built using features extracted from the plaintext reports themselves achieve comparable results to those built using medical dictionaries. Overall, this suggests that existing "off the shelf" approaches can be leveraged to perform accurate cancer detection using less complex Named Entity Recognition (NER) based feature extraction, automated feature selection and modeling approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of envelope detection based Wake-Up Receiver for IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN from off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Josua; Krystofiak, Lukas; Bonehi, Vahid; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Power consumption in wireless networks is crucial. In most scenarios the transmission time is short compared to the idle listening time for data transmission, the most power is consumed by the receiver. In low latency systems there is a need for low power wake-up receivers (WuRx) that reduce the power consumption when the node is idle, but keep it responsive. This work presents a WuRx designed out of commercial components to investigate the needs of a WuRx when it is embedded in a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) system in a real environment setup including WLAN and LTE communication and considering interferer rejection. The calculation necessary for the attenuation of those interferers is explained in detail. Furthermore, a system design is presented that fulfills the requirements for this environment and is build from off-the-shelf components.

  7. Development and application of an actively controlled hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Lithium-ion battery laboratory test-bed based on off-the-shelf components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yufit, V.; Brandon, N.P. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The use of commercially available components enables rapid prototyping and assembling of laboratory scale hybrid test-bed systems, which can be used to evaluate new hybrid configurations. The development of such a test-bed using an off-the-shelf PEM fuel cell, lithium-ion battery and DC/DC converter is presented here, and its application to a hybrid configuration appropriate for an unmanned underwater vehicle is explored. A control algorithm was implemented to regulate the power share between the fuel cell and the battery with a graphical interface to control, record and analyze the electrochemical and thermal parameters of the system. The results demonstrate the applicability of the test-bed and control algorithm for this application, and provide data on the dynamic electrical and thermal behaviour of the hybrid system. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of off-the-shelf, extra-depth footwear in reducing foot pain in older people: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Ristevski, Sonja; Frescos, Nicoletta; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2015-04-01

    Foot pain is highly prevalent in older people and in many cases is associated with inappropriate footwear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of off-the-shelf, extra-depth footwear in reducing foot pain. Community-dwelling older people with disabling foot pain (72 men and 48 women aged 65 to 96 years; mean age 82 [SD 8]) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 59) or control group (n = 61). The intervention group was provided with off-the-shelf, extra-depth footwear. Participants in the control group received their footwear at the completion of the study. Both groups continued to receive usual podiatry care for the study period. The primary outcome measure was the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), measured at baseline and 16 weeks. There was a significant improvement in the FHSQ pain domain (ANCOVA-adjusted mean difference 11.5 points, 95% confidence interval 4.2 to 18.8, p = .002) and FHSQ function domain (10.0 points, 0.9 to 19.1, p = .032) in the intervention group compared to the control group. The intervention group also developed fewer keratotic lesions (mean difference -1.4, -2.5 to -0.2, p = .021), were less likely to report the use of co-interventions (relative risk [RR] 0.74, 0.56 to 0.98, p = .026) and were more likely to report that their foot pain had moderately or markedly improved during the study (RR = 7.93, 2.51 to 25.00, p footwear significantly reduces foot pain, improves foot function and is associated with the development of fewer keratotic lesions in older people. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Generation of “Off-the-Shelf” Natural Killer Cells from Peripheral Blood Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieming Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Current donor cell-dependent strategies can only produce limited “made-to-order” therapeutic natural killer (NK cells for limited patients. To provide unlimited “off-the-shelf” NK cells that serve many recipients, we designed and demonstrated a holistic manufacturing scheme to mass-produce NK cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Starting with a highly accessible human cell source, peripheral blood cells (PBCs, we derived a good manufacturing practice-compatible iPSC source, PBC-derived iPSCs (PBC-iPSCs for this purpose. Through our original protocol that excludes CD34+ cell enrichment and spin embryoid body formation, high-purity functional and expandable NK cells were generated from PBC-iPSCs. Above all, most of these NK cells expressed no killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs, which renders them unrestricted by recipients' human leukocyte antigen genotypes. Hence, we have established a practical “from blood cell to stem cells and back with less (less KIRs” strategy to generate abundant “universal” NK cells from PBC-iPSCs for a wide range of patients. : To provide unlimited “off-the-shelf” NK cells that serve many recipients, Zeng and colleagues demonstrate a manufacturing scheme to mass-produce NK cells from peripheral blood cell-derived iPSCs (PBC-iPSCs. Through their original protocol, high-purity functional NK cells are generated from PBC-iPSCs. Most of these NK cells express no killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, which renders them unrestricted by recipients' HLA genotypes. Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells, peripheral blood cells, natural killer cells, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, cell therapy, immunotherapy, cancer, cytotoxicity

  10. Worlding via water:Desalination, cluster development and the ‘stickiness’ of commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Usher, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Whilst it may no longer be particularly controversial to highlight water as a matter of politics, to describe water’s matter as political still challenges mainstream understandings of natural resource management. Indeed, water provides a sticky medium for the formation and consolidation of broader social, economic and discursive relations, which are enabled or constrained by the production history or ‘cultural biography’ of the commodity. This has been widely demonstrated in relation to capit...

  11. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  12. InfiniBand-based real-time simulation of HVDC, STATCOM and SVC devices with commercial-off-the-shelf PCs and FPGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, C.; Abourida, S.; Belanger, J.; Lapointe, V. [OPAL-RT Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Details of a real-time simulator for large power networks using commercial-off-the-shelf products and an RT-LAB platform were presented. The simulator was designed to realistically simulate bipolar high voltage DC (HVDC) networks transmission systems and to meet large grid simulation challenges. The system was also designed to cope with complex power grid design and validation tests as well as to interface with modern power electronic controllers and protection systems. The platform used Pentium, Xeon or Opteron based PCs and InfiniBand communication fabric for fast inter-PC communications. The real-time PC ran under well-known operating systems while the main control interface used Simulink software. Grid circuits were designed using an SPS interface using an ARTEMIS plug-in. Various model performances were reported. The results of several simulations suggested that InfiniBand communication was slower than shared-memory communication, while STATCOM timing was difficult to compare with the Opteron benchmarks. Results also suggested that XEON CPUs were slower than Opteron counterparts. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing was also performed with a prototype controller and with a real production controller. It was concluded that a communication time of 5 microseconds was obtained across the 2 PCs. The paper also discussed recent advances in HIL simulation and programming devices. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  13. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community.

  14. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community. PMID:28002463

  15. Marketing CE approved off-the-shelf FC-operated power backup units for the telecom industry at competitive prices : a continuing success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, P. [Dantherm Power, Skive (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Dantherm Power receives a steady supply of fuel cell stacks packed on pallets at its factory in Denmark. Once unpacked, they go to an assembly line to be integrated into power modules designed for telecom- and IT network-base-stations around the world. The CE approved units are designed and tested to meet current telecom standards. Customers can purchase the off-the-shelf units at competitive prices. Dantherm Power has brought fuel-cell technology beyond the research and development stage. Since 2005, the company has sold backup units providing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to the telecom industry on standard commercial terms. Their fuel cell-based-solutions have proven to be successful. The company began in 2003 as a research and development project within Dantherm Air Handling A/S. Development was driven by the idea that a UPS-system based on hydrogen and fuel-cell-technology may be better solution than traditional battery and diesel driven backup for many of the company's existing clients.

  16. Redirected Primary Human Chimeric Antigen Receptor Natural Killer Cells As an “Off-the-Shelf Immunotherapy” for Improvement in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Oberschmidt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary human natural killer (NK cells recognize and subsequently eliminate virus infected cells, tumor cells, or other aberrant cells. However, cancer cells are able to develop tumor immune escape mechanisms to undermine this immune control. To overcome this obstacle, NK cells can be genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs in order to improve specific recognition of cancer surface markers (e.g., CD19, CD20, and ErbB2. After target recognition, intracellular CAR domain signaling (CD3ζ, CD28, 4-1BB, and 2B4 leads to activation of PI3K or DNAX proteins (DAP10, DAP12 and finally to enhanced cytotoxicity, proliferation, and/or interferon γ release. This mini-review summarizes both the first preclinical trials with CAR-engineered primary human NK cells and the translational implications for “off-the-shelf immunotherapy” in cancer treatment. Signal transduction in NK cells as well as optimization of CAR signaling will be described, becoming more and more a focal point of interest in addition to redirected T cells. Finally, strategies to overcome off-target effects will be discussed in order to improve future clinical trials and to avoid attacking healthy tissues.

  17. A novel wide range, real-time neutron fluence monitor based on commercial off the shelf gallium arsenide light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, B., E-mail: bhaskar.mukherjee@uk-essen.de [Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen (WPE) gGmbH, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Hentschel, R. [Strahlenklinik, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Lambert, J. [Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen (WPE) gGmbH, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Deya, W. [Strahlenklinik, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Farr, J. [Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen (WPE) gGmbH, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    Displacement damage produced by high-energy neutrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) light emitting diodes (LED) results in the reduction of light output. Based on this principle we have developed a simple, cost effective, neutron detector using commercial off the shelf (COTS) GaAs-LED for the assessment of neutron fluence and KERMA at critical locations in the vicinity of the 230 MeV proton therapy cyclotron operated by Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen (WPE). The LED detector response (mV) was found to be linear within the neutron fluence range of 3.0x10{sup 8}-1.0x10{sup 11} neutron cm{sup -2}. The response of the LED detector was proportional to neutron induced displacement damage in LED; hence, by using the differential KERMA coefficient of neutrons in GaAs, we have rescaled the calibration curve for two mono-energetic sources, i.e. 1 MeV neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons generated by D+T fusion reaction. In this paper we present the principle of the real-time GaAs-LED based neutron fluence monitor as mentioned above. The device was calibrated using fast neutrons produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with 14 MeV deuterons from a TCC CV 28 medical cyclotron of the Strahlenklinik University Hospital Essen.

  18. Use of New Commercial, Off-the-Shelf, High-Definition Structure Scanning Fathometer/Depth Finder For Coastal Current Survey Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenstein, E. B.; Gray, G.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (COOPS) manages three national observing system programs. These are the National Water level Observation Network (NWLON) (210 stations), the 23 NOAA/Physical Oceanographic Real-Time Systems (PORTS), and National Currents Observing Program (NCOP) (approximately 70 deployments/year). In support of its mission COOPS operates and maintains a number of small boats. During vessel operations, side-scan sonar data are at times needed to provide information about bottom structure for future work in the area. For example, potential hazards, obstructions, or bottom morphology features that have not been identified on localized charts for a given area could be used to inform decisions on planned installations. Side-scan sonar capability is also important when attempting to reacquire bottom mounts that fail to surface at the conclusion of a current meter survey. Structure mapping and side-scan capabilities have been added to recent consumer-level, commercial, off-the-shelf fathometers, generally intended for recreational, commercial fishing, and diving applications. We are proposing to investigate these systems' viability for meeting survey requirements. We assess their ability to provide a flexible alternative to research/commercial oceanographic level side-scan system at a significant cost savings. Such systems could provide important information to support scientific missions that require qualitative seafloor imagery.

  19. APEnet+: high bandwidth 3D torus direct network for petaflops scale commodity clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R; Salamon, A; Salina, G; Biagioni, A; Prezza, O; Cicero, F Lo; Lonardo, A; Paolucci, P S; Rossetti, D; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P; Simula, F

    2011-01-01

    We describe herein the APElink+ board, a PCIe interconnect adapter featuring the latest advances in wire speed and interface technology plus hardware support for a RDMA programming model and experimental acceleration of GPU networking; this design allows us to build a low latency, high bandwidth PC cluster, the APEnet+ network, the new generation of our cost-effective, tens-of-thousands-scalable cluster network architecture. Some test results and characterization of data transmission of a complete testbench, based on a commercial development card mounting an Altera ® FPGA, are provided.

  20. APEnet+: high bandwidth 3D torus direct network for petaflops scale commodity clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R; Salamon, A; Salina, G [INFN Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A; Prezza, O; Cicero, F Lo; Lonardo, A; Paolucci, P S; Rossetti, D; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P [INFN Roma, Roma (Italy); Simula, F [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy)

    2011-12-23

    We describe herein the APElink+ board, a PCIe interconnect adapter featuring the latest advances in wire speed and interface technology plus hardware support for a RDMA programming model and experimental acceleration of GPU networking; this design allows us to build a low latency, high bandwidth PC cluster, the APEnet+ network, the new generation of our cost-effective, tens-of-thousands-scalable cluster network architecture. Some test results and characterization of data transmission of a complete testbench, based on a commercial development card mounting an Altera{sup Registered-Sign} FPGA, are provided.

  1. Can we develop an effective early warning system for volcanic eruptions using `off the shelf' webcams and low-light cameras?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, M.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2016-12-01

    An effective early warning system to detect volcanic activity is an invaluable tool, but often very expensive. Detecting and monitoring precursory events, thermal signatures, and ongoing eruptions in near real-time is essential, but conventional methods are often logistically challenging, expensive, and difficult to maintain. Our investigation explores the use of `off the shelf' webcams and low-light cameras, operating in the visible to near-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, to detect and monitor volcanic incandescent activity. Large databases of webcam imagery already exist at institutions around the world, but are often extremely underutilised and we aim to change this. We focus on the early detection of thermal signatures at volcanoes, using automated scripts to analyse individual images for changes in pixel brightness, allowing us to detect relative changes in thermally incandescent activity. Primarily, our work focuses on freely available streams of webcam images from around the world, which we can download and analyse in near real-time. When changes in activity are detected, an alert is sent to the users informing them of the changes in activity and a need for further investigation. Although relatively rudimentary, this technique provides constant monitoring for volcanoes in remote locations and developing nations, where it is not financially viable to deploy expensive equipment. We also purchased several of our own cameras, which were extensively tested in controlled laboratory settings with a black body source to determine their individual spectral response. Our aim is to deploy these cameras at active volcanoes knowing exactly how they will respond to varying levels of incandescence. They are ideal for field deployments as they are cheap (0-1,000), consume little power, are easily replaced, and can provide telemetered near real-time data. Data from Shiveluch volcano, Russia and our spectral response lab experiments are presented here.

  2. Experiences modeling ocean circulation problems on a 30 node commodity cluster with 3840 GPU processor cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C.

    2008-12-01

    Low cost graphic cards today use many, relatively simple, compute cores to deliver support for memory bandwidth of more than 100GB/s and theoretical floating point performance of more than 500 GFlop/s. Right now this performance is, however, only accessible to highly parallel algorithm implementations that, (i) can use a hundred or more, 32-bit floating point, concurrently executing cores, (ii) can work with graphics memory that resides on the graphics card side of the graphics bus and (iii) can be partially expressed in a language that can be compiled by a graphics programming tool. In this talk we describe our experiences implementing a complete, but relatively simple, time dependent shallow-water equations simulation targeting a cluster of 30 computers each hosting one graphics card. The implementation takes into account the considerations (i), (ii) and (iii) listed previously. We code our algorithm as a series of numerical kernels. Each kernel is designed to be executed by multiple threads of a single process. Kernels are passed memory blocks to compute over which can be persistent blocks of memory on a graphics card. Each kernel is individually implemented using the NVidia CUDA language but driven from a higher level supervisory code that is almost identical to a standard model driver. The supervisory code controls the overall simulation timestepping, but is written to minimize data transfer between main memory and graphics memory (a massive performance bottle-neck on current systems). Using the recipe outlined we can boost the performance of our cluster by nearly an order of magnitude, relative to the same algorithm executing only on the cluster CPU's. Achieving this performance boost requires that many threads are available to each graphics processor for execution within each numerical kernel and that the simulations working set of data can fit into the graphics card memory. As we describe, this puts interesting upper and lower bounds on the problem sizes

  3. A case series of an off-the-shelf online health resource with integrated nurse coaching to support self-management in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Frances Early,1 Jane S Young,2 Elizabeth Robinshaw,3 Emma Z Mi,4 Ella Z Mi,4 Jonathan P Fuld1 1Centre for Self Management Support, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK; 2Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; 3Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucester, UK; 4School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Background: COPD has significant psychosocial impact. Self-management support improves quality of life, but programs are not universally available. IT-based self-management interventions can provide home-based support, but have mixed results. We conducted a case series of an off-the-shelf Internet-based health-promotion program, The Preventive Plan (TPP, coupled with nurse-coach support, which aimed to increase patient activation and provide self-management benefits. Materials and methods: A total of 19 COPD patients were recruited, and 14 completed 3-month follow-up in two groups: groups 1 and 2 with more and less advanced COPD, respectively. Change in patient activation was determined with paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Benefits and user experience were explored in semistructured interviews, analyzed thematically. Results: Only group 1 improved significantly in activation, from a lower baseline than group 2; group 1 also improved significantly in mastery and anxiety. Both groups felt significantly more informed about COPD and reported physical functioning improvements. Group 1 reported improvements in mood and confidence. Overall, group 2 reported fewer benefits than group 1. Both groups valued nurse-coach support; for group 1, it was more important than TPP in building confidence to self-manage. The design of TPP and lack of motivation to use IT were barriers to use, but disease severity and poor IT skills were not. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining

  4. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered NK-92 Cells: An Off-the-Shelf Cellular Therapeutic for Targeted Elimination of Cancer Cells and Induction of Protective Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    prospects of CAR-engineered NK-92 cells as off-the-shelf cellular therapeutics, with special emphasis on ErbB2 (HER2-specific NK-92 cells that are approaching clinical application.

  5. Solving the maintenance dilemma of ageing controls in nuclear standby generators. The decision to retro-fit the control system with 'off the shelf technology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Neil; Rees, Christpher; Yeremain, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Blackouts - Are we 2 Steps away from Nuclear meltdown owing to Aging Controls? The intent of this white paper is to high-light the need to:- 1. Replace the aging control systems associated with critical safety equipment of Standby Generators in the nuclear environment. 2. Explain how 'off the shelf' standard control equipment may be suitably selected, integrated and tested for a nuclear environment. 3. High-light the lessons learned in respect of: - a. Qualification of COTS (commercial off the shelf) equipment for use in a nuclear application. b. Software quality assurance program. c. Reducing plant outage time. 4. Guide you on the selection criteria of credible partners that can implement such mission critical control systems. Causes for Concern - The control systems of some of the Standby Generators are 30+ years old and aging equipment is no longer available from the OEM's. Maintenance crews are evolving with young engineers who have no experience, or chance to be trained, on the old installed control base. The writer has no doubt that the extent of the black outs of North America, Aug 2003, and the standby generators ever reducing availability, has compromised their ability to provide essential service and communications to maintain the safety of the nuclear plant. These concerns prompted Ontario Power Generator and Bruce Power to review the reliability of their standby generators and this review prompted them to locate a suitable supplier for the task of replacing the control system. OPG's previous attempts to have the controls replaced by I and C dedicated companies weighed heavy on their minds. Worsening the dilemma was the fact that it used dedicated controls and what might be considered 'Propriety Software'. Black Outs - Not only is it possible, the probability of it happening is getting stronger The Northeast Blackout of 2003 was a massive widespread power outage that occurred throughout parts of the North-eastern and Midwestern United States and Ontario

  6. Off-the-Shelf Virus-Specific T Cells to Treat BK Virus, Human Herpesvirus 6, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, and Adenovirus Infections After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannou, Ifigeneia; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Naik, Swati; Leung, Kathryn; Martinez, Caridad A; Ramos, Carlos A; Carrum, George; Sasa, Ghadir; Lulla, Premal; Watanabe, Ayumi; Kuvalekar, Manik; Gee, Adrian P; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Grilley, Bambi J; Krance, Robert A; Gottschalk, Stephen; Brenner, Malcolm K; Rooney, Cliona M; Heslop, Helen E; Leen, Ann M; Omer, Bilal

    2017-11-01

    Purpose Improvement of cure rates for patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) will require efforts to decrease treatment-related mortality from severe viral infections. Adoptively transferred virus-specific T cells (VSTs) generated from eligible, third-party donors could provide broad antiviral protection to recipients of HSCT as an immediately available off-the-shelf product. Patient and Methods We generated a bank of VSTs that recognized five common viral pathogens: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (AdV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), BK virus (BKV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). The VSTs were administered to 38 patients with 45 infections in a phase II clinical trial. Results A single infusion produced a cumulative complete or partial response rate of 92% (95% CI, 78.1% to 98.3%) overall and the following rates by virus: 100% for BKV (n = 16), 94% for CMV (n = 17), 71% for AdV (n = 7), 100% for EBV (n = 2), and 67% for HHV-6 (n = 3). Clinical benefit was achieved in 31 patients treated for one infection and in seven patients treated for multiple coincident infections. Thirteen of 14 patients treated for BKV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis experienced complete resolution of gross hematuria by week 6. Infusions were safe, and only two occurrences of de novo graft-versus host disease (grade 1) were observed. VST tracking by epitope profiling revealed persistence of functional VSTs of third-party origin for up to 12 weeks. Conclusion The use of banked VSTs is a feasible, safe, and effective approach to treat severe and drug-refractory infections after HSCT, including infections from two viruses (BKV and HHV-6) that had never been targeted previously with an off-the-shelf product. Furthermore, the multispecificity of the VSTs ensures extensive antiviral coverage, which facilitates the treatment of patients with multiple infections.

  7. Effectiveness of off-the-shelf footwear in reducing foot pain in Australian Department of Veterans’ Affairs recipients not eligible for medical grade footwear: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Foot pain is highly prevalent in older people, and in many cases is associated with wearing inadequate footwear. In Australia, the Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) covers the costs of medical grade footwear for veterans who have severe foot deformity. However, there is a high demand for footwear by veterans with foot pain who do not meet this eligibility criterion. Therefore, this article describes the design of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of low cost, off-the-shelf footwear in reducing foot pain in DVA recipients who are currently not eligible for medical grade footwear. Methods One hundred and twenty DVA clients with disabling foot pain residing in Melbourne, Australia, who are not eligible for medical grade footwear will be recruited from the DVA database, and will be randomly allocated to an intervention group or a ‘usual care’ control group. The intervention group will continue to receive their usual DVA-subsidized podiatry care in addition to being provided with low-cost, supportive footwear (Dr Comfort®, Vasyli Medical, Labrador, Queensland, Australia). The control group will also continue to receive DVA-subsidized podiatry care, but will not be provided with the footwear until the completion of the study. The primary outcome measure will be pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), measured at baseline and 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures measured at baseline and 16 weeks will include the function subscale of the FHSQ, the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, the number of DVA podiatry treatments required during the study period, general health-related quality of life (using the Short Form 12® Version 2.0), the number of falls experienced during the follow-up period, the Timed Up and Go test, the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (corns and calluses), the number of participants using co-interventions to relieve foot pain, and participants’ perception of

  8. Effectiveness of off-the-shelf footwear in reducing foot pain in Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs recipients not eligible for medical grade footwear: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Frescos, Nicoletta; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2013-04-23

    Foot pain is highly prevalent in older people, and in many cases is associated with wearing inadequate footwear. In Australia, the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) covers the costs of medical grade footwear for veterans who have severe foot deformity. However, there is a high demand for footwear by veterans with foot pain who do not meet this eligibility criterion. Therefore, this article describes the design of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of low cost, off-the-shelf footwear in reducing foot pain in DVA recipients who are currently not eligible for medical grade footwear. One hundred and twenty DVA clients with disabling foot pain residing in Melbourne, Australia, who are not eligible for medical grade footwear will be recruited from the DVA database, and will be randomly allocated to an intervention group or a 'usual care' control group. The intervention group will continue to receive their usual DVA-subsidized podiatry care in addition to being provided with low-cost, supportive footwear (Dr Comfort®, Vasyli Medical, Labrador, Queensland, Australia). The control group will also continue to receive DVA-subsidized podiatry care, but will not be provided with the footwear until the completion of the study. The primary outcome measure will be pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), measured at baseline and 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures measured at baseline and 16 weeks will include the function subscale of the FHSQ, the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, the number of DVA podiatry treatments required during the study period, general health-related quality of life (using the Short Form 12® Version 2.0), the number of falls experienced during the follow-up period, the Timed Up and Go test, the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (corns and calluses), the number of participants using co-interventions to relieve foot pain, and participants' perception of overall treatment effect. Data

  9. Clustering of short and long-term co-movements in international financial and commodity markets in wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim; Uddin, Gazi Salah; Bekiros, Stelios

    2017-11-01

    We propose a general framework for measuring short and long term dynamics in asset classes based on the wavelet presentation of clustering analysis. The empirical results show strong evidence of instability of the financial system aftermath of the global financial crisis. Indeed, both short and long-term dynamics have significantly changed after the global financial crisis. This study provides an interesting insights complex structure of global financial and economic system.

  10. Off-the-Shelf Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier

    People with severe motor-skill disabilities are often unable to use standard input devices such as a mouse or a keyboard to control a computer and they are, therefore, in strong need for alternative input devices. Gaze tracking offers them the possibility to use the movements of their eyes to int...

  11. Solving the maintenance dilemma of ageing controls in nuclear standby generators. The decision to retro-fit the control system with 'off the shelf technology'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Neil [Turbine Controls Ltd Canada, 5288 General Rd, L4W 1Z8 Mississauga (Canada); Rees, Christpher [Turbine Controls Ltd UK, 52 Kenilworth Drive, LE2 5LG Leicester (United Kingdom); Yeremain, Joseph [Thermodyne, 421 Nugget Avenue Unit 3, Toronto Ontario M1S 4L8 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Blackouts - Are we 2 Steps away from Nuclear meltdown owing to Aging Controls? The intent of this white paper is to high-light the need to:- 1. Replace the aging control systems associated with critical safety equipment of Standby Generators in the nuclear environment. 2. Explain how 'off the shelf' standard control equipment may be suitably selected, integrated and tested for a nuclear environment. 3. High-light the lessons learned in respect of: - a. Qualification of COTS (commercial off the shelf) equipment for use in a nuclear application. b. Software quality assurance program. c. Reducing plant outage time. 4. Guide you on the selection criteria of credible partners that can implement such mission critical control systems. Causes for Concern - The control systems of some of the Standby Generators are 30+ years old and aging equipment is no longer available from the OEM's. Maintenance crews are evolving with young engineers who have no experience, or chance to be trained, on the old installed control base. The writer has no doubt that the extent of the black outs of North America, Aug 2003, and the standby generators ever reducing availability, has compromised their ability to provide essential service and communications to maintain the safety of the nuclear plant. These concerns prompted Ontario Power Generator and Bruce Power to review the reliability of their standby generators and this review prompted them to locate a suitable supplier for the task of replacing the control system. OPG's previous attempts to have the controls replaced by I and C dedicated companies weighed heavy on their minds. Worsening the dilemma was the fact that it used dedicated controls and what might be considered 'Propriety Software'. Black Outs - Not only is it possible, the probability of it happening is getting stronger The Northeast Blackout of 2003 was a massive widespread power outage that occurred throughout parts of the North-eastern and

  12. COMMODITY MARKET MATH MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Mednikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes enterprise mathmodels, its interactions with environment in commodity market and quantitativeconditions for its success and the crisis in such kind of interaction. Showed: the number of commodity market successfulparticipants should be certain, regardless of market size; any size commodity market, including monopolistic, is assuccessful as producers’ average activity dynamics is balanced with consumers’average activity dynamics.

  13. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  14. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  15. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  16. Financialization of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Falkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic theory of price formation tells us how the price of a particular asset will change based on the adjustment to its supply and demand. However, values of assets are also determined by other business fundamentals, company’s and world events, human psychology, and investors’ belief about the possible future profit. In recent history that lead to an increase of individual and institutional investors’ interest in allocating their resources in commodity markets. With a large inflow of capital commodities’ prices started to rise making them attractive components to effective investment portfolios. The presented paper addresses the issue of so called commodities ‘financialization’ process. It looks at the main factors standing behind commodities’ price movements and to what extent financial market participants contributed to commodities price volatility in recent years. Based on the data examined it distinguishes the involvement of both commercial and non-commercial traders in short and long term periods of time. As well as explaining the impact of growing investors’ interest in commodity markets it defines other market forces - like currency appreciations and emerging markets - as being part of increased volatility in raw and soft commodity markets. Along with market examination the paper focuses on possible future outcomes in attempts to regulate commodities derivatives markets and potential effects of those efforts.

  17. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  18. Understanding international commodity price fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arezki, Rabah; Loungani, Prakash; van der Ploeg, Rick; Venables, Anthony J.

    An overview is provided of recent work on commodity prices, focusing on three themes: (i) "financialization" of commodity markets--commodities being considered by financial investors as a distinct asset class, (ii) trends and forecasts of commodity prices, and (iii) fracking-a shorthand for the

  19. UNCTAD commodity yearbook 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Commodity Yearbook is intended to provide disaggregated data at the world, regional and country levels for trade and consumption in selected agricultural primary commodities and minerals, ores and metals. Production series have been included for the latter group of commodities, since comprehensive diaggregated data are unavailable elsewhere. Basic tables have been designed, from both the commodity and the country point of view, to serve as background material to international commodity discussions and negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The classification of countries and territories by region has been adopted for statistical convenience only, and follows that employed by the Statistical Office of the United Nations. Four main regions are defined: Developed market economy countries, Countries of Eastern Europe, Socialist countries of Asia and Developing countries and territories. For developed and developing countries and territories, the main regions have been further subdivided (e.g., EEC, EFTA, Africa, etc.) to provide additional information. The exact composition of each region is shown in section V of the general notes

  20. Cross-commodity hedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.

    1999-01-01

    Energy risk management is the principal topic of this paper. Four major subjects are examined: cross-commodity trading objectives (reduce the risk of an underlying exposure in another commodity); portfolio risk reduction (an Alberta power distributor exposed to high pool prices could protect against high pool prices through a fixed price purchase of Alberta natural gas); tailoring pricing to customer needs (sell power to the gas producer indexed to the price of gas); and (4) reducing insurance costs (rather than purchasing downside protection (puts) individually against oil and gas prices, a producer could purchase a basket option). Since the key issue in cross-commodity transactions is the estimation of correlation, it is important to be prepared to alter correlation assumptions. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Commodity risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Till

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the practical issues involved in applying a disciplined risk management methodology to commodity futures trading. Accordingly, the paper shows how to apply methodologies derived from both conventional asset management and hedge fund management to futures trading. The article also discusses some of the risk management issues that are unique to leveraged futures trading.

  2. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Avionics Software Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krodel, Jim

    2001-01-01

    .... The motivation is even a bit beyond monetary resources as the scarcity of highly trained personnel that can develop such systems has also provided fuel to the attractiveness of considering reuse...

  3. Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Vehicles for Towed Array Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    a steering wheel, and brake and accelerator pedals like a car. By way of example, a ubiquitous side-by- side UTV is the John Deere Gator. The...tire tracks are imperfectly 42 followed. These new tracks will be at a slightly different angle , and one set of biases will not be able to take...tracks at an angle relative to the north-south traverses that we ran. In addition, we surveyed into the muddy wet section at the western end of the site

  4. Plan A: Off the shelf; Plan B: Make it yourself

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    When there is radiological work to be done, you hope to be able to purchase, readily and cheaply, items for use in doing the work. But if there is no vendor who sells a product for your need, then you have to improvise. Similarly, particular kinds of services may not be available and sometimes even if a product or service is available, the lead time is such that you have to find some way to make do in the meantime. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we have had to devise a number of open-quotes make-it-yourselfclose quotes items and methods because of our specialized current facilities, several one-of-a-kind retired facilities, and the odd unusual situation that pops up-and because we have had practically every isotope from A to Z here. Several of these items and methods will be described, including the special shields and timesaving devices used for transuranic work, a cask for moving very hot pins, and ad hoc check sources

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  8. Multinetwork of international trade: A commodity-specific analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigozzi, Matteo; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2010-04-01

    We study the topological properties of the multinetwork of commodity-specific trade relations among world countries over the 1992-2003 period, comparing them with those of the aggregate-trade network, known in the literature as the international-trade network (ITN). We show that link-weight distributions of commodity-specific networks are extremely heterogeneous and (quasi) log normality of aggregate link-weight distribution is generated as a sheer outcome of aggregation. Commodity-specific networks also display average connectivity, clustering, and centrality levels very different from their aggregate counterpart. We also find that ITN complete connectivity is mainly achieved through the presence of many weak links that keep commodity-specific networks together and that the correlation structure existing between topological statistics within each single network is fairly robust and mimics that of the aggregate network. Finally, we employ cross-commodity correlations between link weights to build hierarchies of commodities. Our results suggest that on the top of a relatively time-invariant “intrinsic” taxonomy (based on inherent between-commodity similarities), the roles played by different commodities in the ITN have become more and more dissimilar, possibly as the result of an increased trade specialization. Our approach is general and can be used to characterize any multinetwork emerging as a nontrivial aggregation of several interdependent layers.

  9. Outlook '98 - Commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.

    1998-01-01

    Canadian oil and natural gas producers'' participation in commodity and foreign exchange markets to alter the pricing characteristics of their commodity portfolios was reviewed. It was concluded that through the various risk management structures available from financial and physical market participants, Canadian oil and gas producers retain the ongoing ability to design, pro-actively, their desired exposure to oil and gas prices. Various industry-wide re-examination of risk management programs have taken place during the past two years. Based on these studies, the industry anticipates material volatility in West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil and Alberta natural gas prices throughout 1998. Furthermore, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the price differentials between WTI crude and Canadian oil streams, and between Alberta gas prices and other North American regional gas markets. Against this background of uncertainty, it is reasonable to predict that companies will use risk management strategies in an effort to outperform industry average prices, thereby ensuring that pro-active risk management activity will continue throughout 1998

  10. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  11. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...

  12. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.

  13. Cluster computing for lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddington, P.D.; Williams, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Simulations of lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) require enormous amounts of compute power. In the past, this has usually involved sharing time on large, expensive machines at supercomputing centres. Over the past few years, clusters of networked computers have become very popular as a low-cost alternative to traditional supercomputers. The dramatic improvements in performance (and more importantly, the ratio of price/performance) of commodity PCs, workstations, and networks have made clusters of off-the-shelf computers an attractive option for low-cost, high-performance computing. A major advantage of clusters is that since they can have any number of processors, they can be purchased using any sized budget, allowing research groups to install a cluster for their own dedicated use, and to scale up to more processors if additional funds become available. Clusters are now being built for high-energy physics simulations. Wuppertal has recently installed ALiCE, a cluster of 128 Alpha workstations running Linux, with a peak performance of 158 G flops. The Jefferson Laboratory in the US has a 16 node Alpha cluster and plans to upgrade to a 256 processor machine. In Australia, several large clusters have recently been installed. Swinburne University of Technology has a cluster of 64 Compaq Alpha workstations used for astrophysics simulations. Early this year our DHPC group constructed a cluster of 116 dual Pentium PCs (i.e. 232 processors) connected by a Fast Ethernet network, which is used by chemists at Adelaide University and Flinders University to run computational chemistry codes. The Australian National University has recently installed a similar PC cluster with 192 processors. The Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM) undertakes large-scale high-energy physics calculations, mainly lattice QCD simulations. The choice of the computer and network hardware for a cluster depends on the particular applications to be run on the machine. Our

  14. Quarterly Web Interfaced Commodity Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — QWICR is a secure, online Title II commodity reporting system accessible to USAID Missions, PVO Cooperating Sponsors and Food for Peace Officers. QWICR provides PVO...

  15. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ..., merchants, SDs, commodity funds, futures industry organizations, academics and think tanks, a U.S... particular (i.e., optionality in a contract settling by physical delivery that is used to meet varying demand...

  16. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  17. Organized Retailing of Horticultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Thomas, Sujo

    2012-01-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and changing consumption patterns, more and more retailers are trying to put their best efforts to discover new avenues of success when it comes to the sales of horticultural commodities. There are several Indian companies as well as foreign companies who have been focusing all their energies to succeed in the organized retail sector of Indian horticulture commodities. The Indian retail industry is worth $470 million and organized retail stands at $26 million which...

  18. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  19. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations...

  20. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity schools. 250.57 Section 250.57 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.57 Commodity schools. (a) Categorization of commodity schools. Commodity...

  1. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  2. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  3. Commodity hardware and software summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbers, S.

    1997-04-01

    A review is given of the talks and papers presented in the Commodity Hardware and Software Session at the CHEP97 conference. An examination of the trends leading to the consideration of PC's for HEP is given, and a status of the work that is being done at various HEP labs and Universities is given

  4. Impact assessment of commodity standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary commodity standards are widely used to enhance the performance of tropical agro-food chains and to support the welfare and sustainability of smallholder farmers. Different methods and approaches are used to assess the effectiveness and impact of these certification schemes at

  5. 1993 commodity flow survey : state summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This report summarizes the Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) state reports released between February 1996 and July 1996 by the Bureau of the Census and the 1993 Commodity Flow Survey: Preliminary Observations by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Inf...

  6. Is women's labor a commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth S

    1990-01-01

    ...A commercial surrogate mother is anyone who is paid money to bear a child for other people and terminate her parental rights, so that the others may raise the child as exclusively their own. The growth of commercial surrogacy has raised with new urgency a class of concerns regarding the proper scope of the market. Some critics have objected to commercial surrogacy on the ground that it improperly treats children and women's reproductive capacities as commodities. The prospect of reducing children to consumer durables and women to baby factories surely inspires revulsion. But are there good reasons behind the revulsion? And is this an accurate description of what commercial surrogacy implies? This article offers a theory about what things are properly regarded as commodities which supports the claim that commercial surrogacy constitutes an unconscionable commodification of children and of women's reproductive capacities.

  7. Commodity futures and market efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2014), s. 50-57 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : commodities * efficiency * entropy * long-term memory * fractal dimension Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-0420811.pdf

  8. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    OpenAIRE

    Barcan, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects o...

  9. Founding Digital Currency on Imprecise Commodity

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zimu; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Current digital currency schemes provide instantaneous exchange on precise commodity, in which "precise" means a buyer can possibly verify the function of the commodity without error. However, imprecise commodities, e.g. statistical data, with error existing are abundant in digital world. Existing digital currency schemes do not offer a mechanism to help the buyer for payment decision on precision of commodity, which may lead the buyer to a dilemma between having to buy and being unconfident....

  10. Development of a small-scale computer cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, Justin T.; Smith, James E.

    2008-04-01

    An increase in demand for computing power in academia has necessitated the need for high performance machines. Computing power of a single processor has been steadily increasing, but lags behind the demand for fast simulations. Since a single processor has hard limits to its performance, a cluster of computers can have the ability to multiply the performance of a single computer with the proper software. Cluster computing has therefore become a much sought after technology. Typical desktop computers could be used for cluster computing, but are not intended for constant full speed operation and take up more space than rack mount servers. Specialty computers that are designed to be used in clusters meet high availability and space requirements, but can be costly. A market segment exists where custom built desktop computers can be arranged in a rack mount situation, gaining the space saving of traditional rack mount computers while remaining cost effective. To explore these possibilities, an experiment was performed to develop a computing cluster using desktop components for the purpose of decreasing computation time of advanced simulations. This study indicates that small-scale cluster can be built from off-the-shelf components which multiplies the performance of a single desktop machine, while minimizing occupied space and still remaining cost effective.

  11. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...... system which was intended to support collective team effort, yet enhanced conflicts of interest in the matrix structure, discuss leadership, goal alignment and career tracks, and debate when and whether a team structure is appropriate in the pursuit of corporate purchasing synergies. The article is based...

  12. Cluster-cluster clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references

  13. Commodity Price Fluctuations: A Century of Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Labys

    2005-01-01

    Commodity prices again! The twentieth century has only been the latest spectator to the impacts and importance of commodity price fluctuations. It is reasonably well known that commodity price records have come down to us from the ancient civilizations of India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome. Earlier in the century, formal research began on the relationships between agricultural demand, supply and prices in a market context. This research not only evolved in sophistication but extended ...

  14. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Barcan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects of things. Aromatherapy, on the other hand, could benefit from the enriched political understanding associated with classic materialist critique. New materialist strains of cultural studies may also find the vibrancy of matter that underpins many CAM/New Age practices worthy of examination.

  15. Choosing a commode for the ward environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, C; Pain, H; Pascoe, J; Gore, S

    The choice of appropriate equipment to promote patient independence and enhance nursing care is of major concern to the nurse in the ward environment. This article reports on a recent evaluation of specialist commodes, (Ballinger et al, 1994), with reference to the programme funded by the Medical Devices Agency, Department of Health, under whose auspices the project was carried out. The results of user evaluations and technical tests of six mobile commodes are presented, the preferred model being the Mayfair commode supplied by Carters (J&A) Ltd. The article concludes by identifying a number of important considerations to bear in mind when selecting a commode.

  16. Statistical field theory of futures commodity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2018-02-01

    The statistical theory of commodity prices has been formulated by Baaquie (2013). Further empirical studies of single (Baaquie et al., 2015) and multiple commodity prices (Baaquie et al., 2016) have provided strong evidence in support the primary assumptions of the statistical formulation. In this paper, the model for spot prices (Baaquie, 2013) is extended to model futures commodity prices using a statistical field theory of futures commodity prices. The futures prices are modeled as a two dimensional statistical field and a nonlinear Lagrangian is postulated. Empirical studies provide clear evidence in support of the model, with many nontrivial features of the model finding unexpected support from market data.

  17. Development of commodity exchange in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Sicel, Mladen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis work is to show relevance and necessarity for existing of commodity exchange and it’s influence to the economy of Croatia. Because eastern part of Croatia, region called Slavonia is mostly agricultural oriented, it is of essential relevance to establish and make operate of first commodity exchange in Croatia.

  18. Water : a commodity or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, G.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, natural gas demand has increased significantly, as it is seen as an environmentally friendly, convenient and cost effective fuel. As a result, Alberta should experience the development of a sustainable resource in the form of natural gas from coal, provided adequate management of associated water is in place. The environmental impact and volume of water produced with natural gas from coal can be significant. Water is scarce and demand is growing. Gas producers are faced with the challenge of high water production and disposal costs, and often choose the deep disposal option as the most economical solution. However, environmentalists and agriculture groups who view water as a valuable resource, warrant the costs associated with the treatment of produced water. The author proposed a conceptual solution to this dilemma concerning produced water. It was suggested that producers of water should be connected with consumers, while allowing free market supply and demand dynamics to price out the inefficient use of the resource. The author also discussed the related regulatory, environmental, technological, economic, and commercial issues. It was concluded that water is both a resource and a commodity. Alberta should implement measures to promote water conservation, pollute less, and manage supply and demand. figs

  19. 17 CFR 33.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity option... REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.3 Unlawful commodity option... of, or maintain a position in, any commodity option transaction subject to the provisions of this...

  20. 17 CFR 32.11 - Suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of commodity option... REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.11 Suspension of commodity option transactions. (a... accept money, securities or property in connection with, the purchase or sale of any commodity option, or...

  1. The Price of Commodity Risk in Stock and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boons (Martijn); F.A. de Roon (Frans); M.K. Szymanowska (Marta)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe find that commodity risk is priced in the cross-section of US stock returns. Following the financialization of commodities, investors hedge commodity price risk directly in the futures market, primarily via commodity index investments, whereas before they gained commodity exposure

  2. Space and commodity-based society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozden Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The space is privileged in the commodity-based society. It is well known that the economic space in the 19th and 20th centuries rapidly managed to subordinate all other areas 'conveying and instilling in them their own meanings and goals' (G. Milatović. A new form of space that qualifies commodity society was created, marked by dualities: openness-closeness, private-public, sameness-difference. This paper is an attempt to criticize the usual analysis of the categories of commodity-space, linked to the ambivalent role of the state as a guarantor of the functioning of the commodity-based society, as well as its controlling instance. The increasing delocalisation of the political changes the nature of the space in the commodity-based society. Privileged areas are produced that create an illusion of protection of consumers (shopping malls, gated communities, theme parks, video surveillance, while at the same time social differentiation and identification are produced through the symbolic order of commodities and a sense of inclusion or exclusion from that order. At the same time, the examples of tourism and selling places demonstrate that such a commodity-space unusually easy reconciles sameness and difference. It entails uniformity to help achieve the fluctuation of goods, while insisting on the local as different, especially in terms of the role of particularity in the global trade.

  3. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity

  4. 2002 commodity flow survey : state summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) : state reports released in March 2005 by the Bureau of Transportation : Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration : of the USDOT and the Census Bureau of the...

  5. How market structure drives commodity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Chan, Amos H. M.; So, Tsz Yan; Heimonen, Hermanni; Wei, Junyi; Saad, David

    2017-11-01

    We introduce an agent-based model, in which agents set their prices to maximize profit. At steady state the market self-organizes into three groups: excess producers, consumers and balanced agents, with prices determined by their own resource level and a couple of macroscopic parameters that emerge naturally from the analysis, akin to mean-field parameters in statistical mechanics. When resources are scarce prices rise sharply below a turning point that marks the disappearance of excess producers. To compare the model with real empirical data, we study the relationship between commodity prices and stock-to-use ratios in a range of commodities such as agricultural products and metals. By introducing an elasticity parameter to mitigate noise and long-term changes in commodities data, we confirm the trend of rising prices, provide evidence for turning points, and indicate yield points for less essential commodities.

  6. Managing commodity markets: the case of OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, R.; Ferroukhi, R.

    1993-01-01

    Since primary commodity producers first took control of their natural resources, they have attempted to utilize production/price management with varying degrees of success. As a tool aimed at regulating, rather than controlling, commodity markets, this type of resource management is an essential means of achieving realistic economic returns, which, in the long run, serves the interests of the producer of the commodity in question, as well as its consumer. By regulating commodity markets in times of stable prices producing countries would benefit from a steady and constant level of export earnings, thus allowing them to achieve a sustainable level of economic development. As far as the oil market is concerned, stable prices, set in a range favourable to both producers and consumers, would give investors the confidence needed for long-term exploration. This is particularly important for a commodity such as oil, at a time when the lead time between exploration starting and actual production getting under way is increasing. Not only would producers benefit from stable export earnings, which are an essential requirement for the planning of their development process, but consuming countries would at the same time benefit in two ways: first, they would gain security of supply; and second, as fluctuations in their expenditure for this commodity are reduced, they would be a position to manage their economies more efficiently. (author)

  7. 17 CFR 32.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity option... REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.3 Unlawful commodity option transactions. (a) On and after... extend credit in lieu thereof) from an option customer as payment of the purchase price in connection...

  8. 17 CFR 37.3 - Requirements for underlying commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that are a security futures product, and the registered derivatives transaction execution facility is a... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for underlying commodities. 37.3 Section 37.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION...

  9. 17 CFR 14.4 - Violation of Commodity Exchange Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Violation of Commodity Exchange Act. 14.4 Section 14.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION... Exchange Act. The Commission may deny, temporarily or permanently, the privilege of appearing or practicing...

  10. 17 CFR 31.6 - Registration of leverage commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taking delivery to buy or sell the leverage commodity; (2) Explain the effect of such changes upon the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of leverage... LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.6 Registration of leverage commodities. (a) Registration of leverage commodities...

  11. A two-commodity perishable inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sivakumar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a two-commodity perishable stochastic inventory system under continuous review at a service facility with a finite waiting room. The maximum storage capacity for the i–th item is fixed as Si (i = 1, 2. We assume that a demand for the i–th commodity is of unit size. The arrival instants of customers to the service station constitutes a Poisson process with parameter lambda. The customer demands for these commodities are assumed to be in the ratio p1:p2. An individual customer is issued a demanded item after a random time of service with a negative exponential distribution. The items are perishable in nature and the life time of items of each commodity is assumed to be exponentially distributed. Both commodities are supposed to be substitutable in the sense that at the instant of any zero-stock, the other item may be used to meet the demand. A joint reordering policy is adopted with a random lead time for orders with exponential distribution. The joint probability distribution of the number of customers in the system and the inventory levels are obtained in both the transient and steady states. We also derive some stationary performance measures. The results are illustrated by means of a numerical example.

  12. Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Indirect Energy Conversion Isotope (IDEC) Design Structure and Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    and PV converter. The present state of the art in battery technologies are centered on various formulations of lithium. These formulations balance ...are 3M products. The first layer of epoxy is a flexible type called DP190. It is translucent, has a 90-min worklife , and possesses a high shear and

  13. Military Off-the-Shelf: A Discussion on Combat Ship Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    of the latter. These include initial development costs, the satisfaction of operational requirements, the ease of manufacture,20 in-service date, and...differences in labour rates/efficiency between the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and domestic builder; if a build program is not large enough, the...2014-R40 11 ship’s life, as well as the satisfaction of foreign naval requirements.37 From the point of view of non-RN users, the ship will

  14. Lightweight Methods for Effective Verification of Software Product Lines with Off-the-Shelf Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazar, Alexandru Florin

    Certification is the process of assessing the quality of a product and whether it meets a set of requirements and adheres to functional and safety standards. I is often legally required to provide guarantee for human safety and to make the product available on the market. The certification process...... relies on objective evidence of quality, which is produced by using qualified and state-of-the-art tools and verification and validation techniques. Software product line (SPL) engineering distributes costs among similar products that are developed simultaneously. However, SPL certification faces major...... SPL reengineering projects that involve complex source code transformations. To facilitate product (re)certification, the transformation must preserve certain qualitative properties such as code structure and semantics—a difficult task due to the complexity of the transformation and because certain...

  15. Analyzing Communication Architectures Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Modeling and Simulation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    4] By 2010, we should be able to change how we conduct the most intense joint operations. Instead of relying on massed forces and sequential ...not independent, sequential steps. Data probes to support the analysis phase were required to complete the logical models. This generated a need...Networks) Identify Granularity (System Level) - Establish Physical Bounds or Limits to Systems • Determine System Test Configuration and Lineup

  16. Adaption of commercial off the shelf modules for reconfigurable machine tool design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mpofu, K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available . University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) Machine Design Approach. Butala and Sluga [4] view the architecture of the machine tool as a system structure which is reflected in its configuration and which impacts the systems performance. The interfaces... process movements. This approach was also implemented in a computer aided planning system, they clarify the need of having the features to be implemented embedded in the collective drives that constitute it. This resulted in an adaption...

  17. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Solutions for Supporting Viability Retention of Yersinia Pestis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    were not the result of residual environmental contamination . Major threat agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia...presence of Y. pestis and B. anthracis, even though no deliberate contamination was verified (Afshinnekoo et al., 2015). In fact, as of 2015, there have...Aldrich (St. Louis, MO) or Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA). Butterfield’s buffer was prepared according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  18. A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Environmental Health Perspectives 1994, 102, 18-38. 21. La Franchi , P., Chemical and Biological Weapons: The War from Hell. ADM September, 1995, pp 9-10...One-to-Five Gas Monitor with VOC Detection. In ENVCO Global . DSTO-GD-0570 98 152. MultiRAE Plus. In RAE Systems: San Jose, CA. 153. ToxiRAE Plus PID...158. Rippen, M., Chemical and Biological Agent Sensor/Detector Systems Technology Development for Applications in the Global War on Terrorism. In

  19. Games for Boys: A Qualitative Study of Experiences with Commercial off the Shelf Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; MacAllan, Monique; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.

    2018-01-01

    Boys are less likely to receive praise and recognition for good schoolwork, to consider school important, and have fewer opportunities to do the things that they do best (Lopez and Calderon in How America's boys become psychological dropouts. The gallup blog, 2013). Traditional school cultures have come in conflict with the normal and natural ways…

  20. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Graphics Processing Board (GPB) Radiation Test Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, George A.; Steele, Glen F.

    2013-01-01

    Large round trip communications latency for deep space missions will require more onboard computational capabilities to enable the space vehicle to undertake many tasks that have traditionally been ground-based, mission control responsibilities. As a result, visual display graphics will be required to provide simpler vehicle situational awareness through graphical representations, as well as provide capabilities never before done in a space mission, such as augmented reality for in-flight maintenance or Telepresence activities. These capabilities will require graphics processors and associated support electronic components for high computational graphics processing. In an effort to understand the performance of commercial graphics card electronics operating in the expected radiation environment, a preliminary test was performed on five commercial offthe- shelf (COTS) graphics cards. This paper discusses the preliminary evaluation test results of five COTS graphics processing cards tested to the International Space Station (ISS) low earth orbit radiation environment. Three of the five graphics cards were tested to a total dose of 6000 rads (Si). The test articles, test configuration, preliminary results, and recommendations are discussed.

  1. Use of COTS [commercial-off-the-shelf] Microelectronics in Radiation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.

    1999-07-07

    This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. COTS parts with low radiation tolerance should not be used when they degrade mission critical functions or lead to premature system failure. We review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMS increases from 1.4x10{sup 8} rads(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7x10{sup 9} rads(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design or process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10-15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMS from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMS from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of ''COTS'' and ''radiation-hardened'' technology.

  2. A flexible continuous-variable QKD system using off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandar, Lucian C.; Brunner, Hans H.; Bettelli, Stefano; Fung, Fred; Karinou, Fotini; Hillerkuss, David; Mikroulis, Spiros; Wang, Dawei; Kuschnerov, Maxim; Xie, Changsong; Poppe, Andreas; Peev, Momtchil

    2017-10-01

    We present the development of a robust and versatile CV-QKD architecture based on commercially available optical and electronic components. The system uses a pilot tone for phase synchronization with a local oscillator, as well as local feedback loops to mitigate frequency and polarization drifts. Transmit and receive-side digital signal processing is performed fully in software, allowing for rapid protocol reconfiguration. The quantum link is complemented with a software stack for secure-key processing, key storage and encrypted communication. All these features allow for the system to be at the same time a prototype for a future commercial product and a research platform.

  3. Radiation hardening commercial off-the-shelf erbium doped fibers by optimal photo-annealing source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tz-Shiuan; Liu, Ren-Young; Lin, Yen-Chih; Mao, Ming-Hua; Wang, Lon A.

    2017-09-01

    Erbium doped fibers (EDFs) based devices are widely employed in space for optical communication [1], remote sensing [2], and navigation applications, e.g. interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). However, the EDF suffers severely radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in radiation environments, e.g. space applications and nuclear reactors [3].

  4. Hard Real-Time Linux for Off-The-Shelf Multicore Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Radder, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the research results that were obtained from the development of a real-time extension for the Linux operating system. The paper describes a full extension of the kernel, which enables hard real-time performance on a 64-bit x86 architecture. In the first part of this study, real-time systems are categorized and concepts of real-time operating systems are introduced to the reader. In addition, numerous well-known real-time operating systems are considered. QNX Neutrino, ...

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND OFF-THE-SHELF SOFTWARE DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the name implies, Life Cycle Assesssment (LCA) evaluates the entire life cycle of a product, process, activity, or service, not just simple economics at the time of delivery. This course on LCA covers the following issues:Basic principles of LCA for use in producing, des...

  6. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D

    2015-05-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products.

  7. Evaluation of Commercial-off-the-Shelf Materials for the Preservation of Gram Positive Vegetative Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    anthracis vegetative cells that were spotted on two different surfaces. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bacillus anthracis Microbial cell viability Biosampling...technical capability gap that needs to be addressed because culturing a sample to determine what microorganisms are present remains essential, despite...the end of this incubation, 1 mL of inoculum was spotted on 2 × 2 in. stainless steel or 2 × 2 in. painted concrete surfaces and allowed to dry for

  8. Digital Tracking Array for FM Signals Based on Off-The-Shelf Wireless Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edmund, Hui K

    2007-01-01

    ... a 2.4 GHz frequency modulation (FM) video signal from an unmanned air vehicle. The tracking is done using a monopulse technique Various numbers of elements were simulated to access the pattern coverage...

  9. Integrating Commercial Off-the-Shelf Video Games into School Curriculums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charsky, Dennis; Mims, Clif

    2008-01-01

    Games have a long history of being used for instructional purposes. Games can be defined as playful activities, with or without a computer, that have some essential characteristics. Game characteristics can include competition and goals, game rules, challenging activities, choices, and fantasy elements. Games that take advantage of these…

  10. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based electronics for a range of applications within specifically adapted systems. The findings in this paper are extrapolated from two reference computer systems, both having been launched in 2008. One of those was a LEON-2 based computer installed onboard the Columbus Orbital Facility while the other system consisted mainly of a commercial Power-PC module that was modified for a launch mounted on the ICC pallet in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay. Both systems are currently upgraded and extended for future applications.

  11. Web-based document and content management with off-the-shelf software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, J.

    1999-01-01

    This, then, is the current status of the project: Since we made the switch to Intradoc, we are now treating the project as a document and image management system. In reality, it could be considered a document and content management system since we can manage almost any file input to the system such as video or audio. At present, however, we are concentrating on images. As mentioned above, my CRADA funding was only targeted at including thumbnails of images in Intradoc. We still had to modify Intradoc so that it would compress images submitted to the system. All processing of files submitted to Intradoc is handled in what is called the Document Refinery. Even though MrSID created thumbnails in the process of compressing an image, work needed to be done to somehow build this capability into the Document Refinery. Therefore we made the decision to contract the Intradoc Engineering Team to perform this custom development work. To make Intradoc even more capable of handling images, we have also contracted for customization of the Document Refinery to accept Adobe PhotoShop and Illustrator file in their native format

  12. Infrastructure-Less Communication Platform for Off-The-Shelf Android Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oide, Takuma; Abe, Toru; Suganuma, Takuo

    2018-03-04

    As smartphones and other small portable devices become more sophisticated and popular, opportunities for communication and information sharing among such device users have increased. In particular, since it is known that infrastructure-less device-to-device (D2D) communication platforms consisting only of such devices are excellent in terms of, for example, bandwidth efficiency, efforts are being made to merge their information sharing capabilities with conventional infrastructure. However, efficient multi-hop communication is difficult with the D2D communication protocol, and many conventional D2D communication platforms require modifications of the protocol and terminal operating systems (OSs). In response to these issues, this paper reports on a proposed tree-structured D2D communication platform for Android devices that combines Wi-Fi Direct and Wi-Fi functions. The proposed platform, which is expected to be used with general Android 4.0 (or higher) OS equipped terminals, makes it possible to construct an ad hoc network instantaneously without sharing prior knowledge among participating devices. We will show the feasibility of our proposed platform through its design and demonstrate the implementation of a prototype using real devices. In addition, we will report on our investigation into communication delays and stability based on the number of hops and on terminal performance through experimental confirmation experiments.

  13. Performance and Health Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Individual Water Purifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-26

    G.T., 1983. Effect of Resin Disinfectants-I3 and –I5 on Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 46(5), 965-969...UV doses. The EPA collected UV inactivation research data conducted over the past 50 years for adenovirus, Giardia lamblia, Giardia muris , and... Giardia cysts. One study showed CTs ranging from 1.7-17.6 mg-min/L necessary for 2-log Giardia muris cyst inactivation (reference 23). The SWTR

  14. Using Off-the-Shelf Gaming Controllers For Computer Control in the K-12 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, N. L.; Withee, J.; Segee, M.; Birkel, S. D.; Albee, E.; Koons, P. O.; Zhu, Y.; Segee, B.

    2009-12-01

    In the classroom, the interaction between students, teachers, and datasets is becoming more game like. Software such as GoogleEarth allow students to interact with data on a more personal level; allowing them the dynamically change variables, move arbitrarily, and personalize their experience with the datasets. As this becomes more immersive, traditional software control such as keyboard and mouse begin to hold the student back in terms of intuitive interfacing with the data. This is a problem that has best been tackled by modern gaming systems such as the Wii, XBox 360, and Playstation 3 Systems. By utilizing the solutions given by these gaming systems, it is possible to further a students immersion with a system. Through an NSF ITEST (Information and Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers) grant, researchers at the University of Maine have experimented with using the game controller that is used for interacting with the Nintendo Wii (often called a Wiimote) with existing geodynamic systems in an effort to eases interaction with these systems. Since these game controllers operate using Bluetooth, a common protocol in computing, Wiimotes can easily communicate with existing laptop computers that are issued to Maine students. This paper describes the technical requirements, setup, and usage of Wiimotes as an input device to complex geodynamical systems for use in the K-12 classroom.

  15. An Off-the-Shelf, Authentic, and Versatile Undergraduate Molecular Biology Practical Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, David E.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a prepackaged molecular biology course, which has a broad context and is scalable to large numbers of students. It is provided complete with technical setup guidance, a reliable assessment regime, and can be readily implemented without any development necessary. Framed as a forensic examination of blue/white cloning plasmids, the course…

  16. Performance and Health Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Individual Water Purifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bettin, William; Lundquist, Arthur; Clarke, Steven; Richards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    .... This project had three discrete objectives: (1) Develop a military-use specific protocol for testing the efficiency and functionality of IWPs in producing microbiologically safe drinking water; (2...

  17. BREAKING SPORE: BUILDING INSTRUCTIONAL VALUE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION USING A COMMERCIAL, OFF-THE SHELF GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schrader

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored an alternative method of technology integration and ways to enable educators to judiciously use a wider range of games in their classrooms. Although many games have been created with educational objectives in mind (e.g., Quest Atlantis, Immune Attack, Democracy, proportionally fewer games and simulations are linked to scientific content and standards. More importantly, wildly popular and widely available entertainment-based games with educational components (i.e., edutainment do not necessarily promote scientific understanding. Generally, the purpose of games is entertainment. However, issues may arise if they are marketed as promoting or having a strong basis in content. In this study, we examine the simulation game Spore, which exhibits flawed scientific assumptions and may promote numerous misconceptions if used “as is” with students. We examine how a simple pedagogical adjustment to in a middle school science class may overcome the existing and designed limitations while yielding learning benefits. Specifically, we observe Spore’s influence on students’ conceptual understanding of natural selection when compared to a control group. The findings contribute to a growing body of literature that provides teachers with alternative methods for judicious technology integration, particularly with respect to the affordances of games and simulations like Spore.

  18. BioPad: Leveraging off-the-Shelf Video Games for Stress Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zelun; Parnandi, Avinash; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to use commercial videogames for biofeedback training. It consists of intercepting signals from the game controller and adapting them in real-time based on physiological measurements from the player. We present three sample implementations and a case study for teaching stress self-regulation via an immersive car racing game. We use a crossover gaming device to manipulate controller signals, and a respiratory sensor to monitor the players' breathing rate. We then alter the speed of the car to encourage slow deep breathing, in this way, allowing players to reduce their arousal while playing the game. We evaluate the approach against an alternative form of biofeedback that uses a graphic overlay to convey physiological information, and a control condition (playing the game without biofeedback). Experimental results show that our approach can promote deep breathing during gameplay, and also during a subsequent task, once biofeedback is removed. Our results also indicate that delivering biofeedback through subtle changes in gameplay can be as effective as delivering them directly through a visual display. These results open the possibility to develop low-cost and engaging biofeedback interventions using a variety of commercial videogames to promote adherence.

  19. Ranking and selection of commercial off-the-shelf using fuzzy distance based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a tremendous growth of the use of the component based software engineering (CBSE approach for the development of software systems. The selection of the best suited COTS components which fulfils the necessary requirement for the development of software(s has become a major challenge for the software developers. The complexity of the optimal selection problem increases with an increase in alternative potential COTS components and the corresponding selection criteria. In this research paper, the problem of ranking and selection of Data Base Management Systems (DBMS components is modeled as a multi-criteria decision making problem. A ‘Fuzzy Distance Based Approach (FDBA’ method is proposed for the optimal ranking and selection of DBMS COTS components of an e-payment system based on 14 selection criteria grouped under three major categories i.e. ‘Vendor Capabilities’, ‘Business Issues’ and ‘Cost’. The results of this method are compared with other Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP which is termed as a typical multi-criteria decision making approach. The proposed methodology is explained with an illustrated example.

  20. Use of COTS [commercial-off-the-shelf] Microelectronics in Radiation Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. COTS parts with low radiation tolerance should not be used when they degrade mission critical functions or lead to premature system failure. We review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMS increases from 1.4x10 8 rads(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7x10 9 rads(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design or process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10-15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMS from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMS from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of ''COTS'' and ''radiation-hardened'' technology

  1. NASA Past, Present, and Future: The Use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Electronics in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Guertin, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has a long history of using commercial grade electronics in space. In this presentation we will provide a brief history of NASA's trends and approaches to commercial grade electronics focusing on processing and memory systems. This will include providing summary information on the space hazards to electronics as well as NASA mission trade space. We will also discuss developing recommendations for risk management approaches to Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts usage in space. Two examples will be provided focusing on a near-earth Polar-orbiting spacecraft as well as a mission to Mars. The final portion will discuss emerging trends impacting usage.

  2. Off the Shelf: Trends in the Purchase and Use of Electronic Reference Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korah, Abe; Cassidy, Erin; Elmore, Eric; Jerabek, Ann

    2009-01-01

    What is the future direction of reference books? What types of policies are libraries implementing regarding the purchase of electronic reference books? Are libraries still buying hard copy reference items when an electronic equivalent is available? This paper discusses a national survey of libraries regarding the purchase and use of electronic…

  3. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Parts Risk and Reliability User and Application Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark

    2017-01-01

    All COTS parts are not created equal. Because they are not created equal, the notion that one can force the commercial industry to follow a set of military specifications and standards, along with the certifications, audits and qualification commitments that go with them, is unrealistic for the sale of a few parts. The part technologies that are Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) certified or Military Specification (MS) qualified, are several generations behind the state-of-the-art high-performance parts that are required for the compact, higher performing systems for the next generation of spacecraft and instruments. The majority of the part suppliers are focused on the portion of the market that is producing high-tech commercial products and systems. To that end, in order to compete in the high performance and leading edge advanced technological systems, an alternative approach to risk assessment and reliability prediction must be considered.

  4. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  5. Expected commodity returns and pricing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortazar, Gonzalo; Kovacevic, Ivo; Schwartz, Eduardo S.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic models of commodity prices have evolved considerably in terms of their structure and the number and interpretation of the state variables that model the underlying risk. Using multiple factors, different specifications and modern estimation techniques, these models have gained wide acceptance because of their success in accurately fitting the observed commodity futures' term structures and their dynamics. It is not well emphasized however that these models, in addition to providing the risk neutral distribution of future spot prices, also provide their true distribution. While the parameters of the risk neutral distribution are estimated more precisely and are usually statistically significant, some of the parameters of the true distribution are typically measured with large errors and are statistically insignificant. In this paper we argue that to increase the reliability of commodity pricing models, and therefore their use by practitioners, some of their parameters — in particular the risk premium parameters — should be obtained from other sources and we show that this can be done without losing any precision in the pricing of futures contracts. We show how the risk premium parameters can be obtained from estimations of expected futures returns and provide alternative procedures for estimating these expected futures returns. - Highlights: • Simple methodology to improve the performance of commodity pricing models • New information about commodity futures expected return is added to the estimation. • No significant effect in pricing futures contracts is observed. • More reliable commodity pricing model's expected returns are obtained. • Methodology is open to any expected futures return model preferred by practitioner

  6. Commodity, pre-salt and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvim, Carlos Feu; Fantine, Jose [Univerisdade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia

    2008-04-15

    'Brazil is essentially an agricultural country' was the economical truism taught in school in the 1950s. The country was under the influence of the coffee cycle that has followed other ones based on extractive or agricultural products in successive cycles since the Colonial period: pau-brasil, sugarcane, gold, cocoa, rubber, etc. Presently commodities dominate our exports and one might ask: is Brazil essentially a commodity-exporting country? The recent publication of the government document 'Productive development policy - innovate and invest to support growth' makes it opportune to discuss the subject. (author)

  7. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  8. 78 FR 16189 - Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 382, 383, 390, 391, 395, 396 [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0378] RIN 2126-AB58 Transportation of Agricultural...: FMCSA promulgates the regulatory exemptions for the ``transportation of agricultural commodities and...

  9. 7 CFR 1405.9 - Commodity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commodity assessments. (a) CCC will deduct from the proceeds of a marketing assistance loan an amount equal... collected in one of the following ways, as requested by the State, but not both: (i) When the proceeds of... the State. (2) CCC will deduct from the proceeds of a marketing assistance loan an amount equal to the...

  10. 2007 commodity flow survey : state summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes and highlights freight shipments for each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia based on the final release of CFS data in December 2009. It provides tables for each States value and weight of shipments, major commodity ...

  11. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  12. 7 CFR 1401.4 - Commodity certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section of loan collateral by a person to whom a loan secured by such collateral is made): or... loan collateral—(1) General. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph and in paragraphs (f) and... commodities pledged as collateral for CCC loans made to such person, at any time on or before the expiration...

  13. 75 FR 65586 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... juice, wine and beer are ``food'' for purposes of the definition of ``agricultural commodity... beets, beet pulp (used as animal feed), raw sugar, molasses and refined sugar; honey; beer and wine... proposed herein. \\44\\ 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. B. Cost Benefit Analysis Section 15(a) of the CEA requires the...

  14. Towards microalgal triglycerides in the commodity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Ruiz, Jesús; Lamers, Packo P.; Bosma, Rouke; Wijffels, René H.; Barbosa, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) hold great promise as sustainable feedstock for commodity industries. However, to determine research priorities and support business decisions, solid techno-economic studies are essential. Here, we present a techno-economic analysis of two-step TAG

  15. The Principles and the Specifics of Trading in Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Dušan; Herbacsková, Anita

    2012-12-01

    In the present period of instability on financial markets, investments in commodities are the solution for elimination of the consequences of inflation and ensure the yield. When investing in commodities, the use of specifics of commodities compared to other assets. The distribution of commodities we can interpret for agricultural commodities, commodities of energy, precious and other metals, and weather. Therefore, in the framework of the investment portfolio are the commodities. This is the reason why one of the most popular types of investment assets now become commodities. In the interpretation of particular commodities we talk about commodity futures. The reason is that the spot market with commodities is limited storage facilities. The growth of the popularity, which allows a wide range of commodities, has caused that in addition to from institutional investors and speculators for trade may involve even small investors. This development will be supplemented by interpretation of the charts and figers, which will be commented and used for generalization of knowledge. Finally, the article will be interpreted by the further development of the market for commodities as it by article assumes from the results of research.

  16. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration...... with the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high during 2008......-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  17. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity meets the definition of “agricultural commodities” in part 772 of the EAR; (2) The commodity is... international terrorism or the transaction raises nonproliferation concerns, you may not use License Exception...

  18. The Commodity Form of Safety Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Finkelstein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of safety information is deemed a vital resource to protect human lives at the work site. The injury rate, lost days, incapacity rate, and fatality rate, are key indicators to prop up labour risk awareness and identify job hazards. However, safety information gets highly distorted because it does not only measure risk but serves as a means of exchange. It determines the amount of money to be swapped between Workers’ Compensation Boards and their client corporations. Moreover, as a depository of exchange value, safety information tends to exert pressure over social reality rather than just being a passive reflection of it. This paper discloses the commodity form of safety information. Based on a political economy of information framework, it identifies, describes, and analyses the safety information commodity in its active role of organizing safety and labour health.

  19. Optimal Commodity Taxation and Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Benassi, Corrado; Randon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We consider the interplay between income distribution and optimal commodity taxation, linking equity issues to optimal taxes through the effect of income distribution on market demand and its price elasticity. We find conditions to conciliate the equity and efficiency tradeoff and to assess the impact of inequality changes on the optimal taxation of necessity and luxury goods. We show that the regressivity or progressivity of the tax system is determined by the distribution of luxuries and ne...

  20. Financialization, Crisis and Commodity Correlation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Annastiina Silvennoinen; Susan Thorp

    2010-01-01

    We study bi-variate conditional volatility and correlation dynamics for individual commodity futures and financial assets from May 1990-July 2009 using DSTCC-GARCH (Silvennoinen and Terasvirta 2009). These models allow correlation to vary smoothly between extreme states via transition functions driven by indicators of market conditions. Expected stock volatility and money manager open interest in futures markets are relevant transition variables. Results point to increasing integration betwee...

  1. Hedging Cash Flows from Commodity Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgran, Roger A.

    2005-01-01

    Agribusinesses make long-term plant-investment decisions based on discounted cash flow. It is therefore incongruous for an agribusiness firm to use cash flow as a plant-investment criterion and then to completely discard cash flow in favor of batch profits as an operating objective. This paper assumes that cash flow and its stability is important to commodity processors and examines methods for hedging cash flows under continuous processing. Its objectives are (a) to determine how standard he...

  2. LNG: a commodity in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F

    2006-07-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  3. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  4. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realization of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7% year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  5. LDC commodity risk analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Under the current operation of the new competitive electricity market in Ontario, local distribution companies (LDCs) are required to pay the monthly invoice of the Independent Market Operator (IMO) before they collect from end-users for the consumption period covered by the invoice, with no clear guarantee that the recovery will occur. This situation creates a major cash flow problem and financial risk for LDCs and threatens the integrity and stability of the electricity market. This paper described 3 features of Ontario's competitive electricity market that create financial and commodity risk. The first problem is that there is no limit on how high prices can rise. Increases in wholesale commodity prices can result in a situation where the amount of the IMO's invoice is greater than the LDC's ability to pay at the time of receipt. Secondly, the LDC bears a 100 per cent payment obligation to the IMO administrator of the wholesale market. The third problem is that LDCs bear payment default risk from all consumers in the Ontario market, including electricity retailers. This paper presents some specific policy solutions that can protect the market from this threat. It was suggested that in order to protect the integrity of Ontario's electricity market during high prices, a policy must be drafted to address the commodity price financing risk (CPFR) issue. The policy must also define what happens if prices increase past the LDCs financing obligation limit. tabs., figs

  6. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  7. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  8. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... actually incurred in moving the commodities supplied from the point of purchase to a position alongside or... between those points. (g) Commodity price subject to escalation. If a purchase contract contains a price.... prevailing market price—U.S. source. The purchase price for a commodity, the source of which is the United...

  9. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on the...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. (b) The exchange rate is the lesser of... assistance loan collateral. (3) Immediately exchanging the purchased commodity certificate for the outstanding loan collateral. (e) The authority to make commodity certificates available to the producer will...

  11. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    -2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  12. DuOCam: A Two-Channel Camera for Simultaneous Photometric Observations of Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Erin R.; Witt, Emily; Depoy, Darren L.; Schmidt, Luke M.

    2017-01-01

    We have designed the Dual Observation Camera (DuOCam), which uses commercial, off-the-shelf optics to perform simultaneous photometric observations of astronomical objects at red and blue wavelengths. Collected light enters DuOCam’s optical assembly, where it is collimated by a negative doublet lens. It is then separated by a 45 degree blue dichroic filter (transmission bandpass: 530 - 800 nm, reflection bandpass: 400 - 475 nm). Finally, the separated light is focused by two identical positive doublet lenses onto two independent charge-coupled devices (CCDs), the SBIG ST-8300M and the SBIG STF-8300M. This optical assembly converts the observing telescope to an f/11 system, which balances maximum field of view with optimum focus. DuOCam was commissioned on the McDonald Observatory 0.9m, f/13.5 telescope from July 21st - 24th, 2016. Observations of three globular and three open stellar clusters were carried out. The resulting data were used to construct R vs. B-R color magnitude diagrams for a selection of the observed clusters. The diagrams display the characteristic evolutionary track for a stellar cluster, including the main sequence and main sequence turn-off.

  13. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  14. The stochastic seasonal behavior of energy commodity convenience yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirantes, Andrés García; Población, Javier; Serna, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the commodity pricing literature by consistently modeling the convenience yield with its empirically observed properties. Specifically, in this paper, we show how a four-factor model for the stochastic behavior of commodity prices, with two long- and short-term factors and two additional seasonal factors, may accommodate some of the most important empirically observed characteristics of commodity convenience yields, such as the mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. Based on this evidence, a theoretical model is presented and estimated to characterize the commodity convenience yield dynamics that are consistent with previous findings. We also show that commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields than through futures prices. - Highlights: • Energy commodity convenience yields exhibit mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. • We present a model for convenience yields accounting for their observed characteristics. • Commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields

  15. Multiple commodities in statistical microeconomics: Model and market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013). In Baaquie et al. (2015), the market behavior of single commodities was analyzed and it was shown that market data provides strong support for the statistical microeconomic description of commodity prices. The case of multiple commodities is studied and a parsimonious generalization of the single commodity model is made for the multiple commodities case. Market data shows that the generalization can accurately model the simultaneous correlation functions of up to four commodities. To accurately model five or more commodities, further terms have to be included in the model. This study shows that the statistical microeconomics approach is a comprehensive and complete formulation of microeconomics, and which is independent to the mainstream formulation of microeconomics.

  16. Dynamic of consumer groups and response of commodity markets by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Alam, Shafiqul; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates financial states and group dynamics by applying principal component analysis to the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns of commodity futures. The eigenvalues of the cross-correlation matrix in the 6-month timeframe displays similar values during 2010-2011, but decline following 2012. A sharp drop in eigenvalue implies the significant change of the market state. Three commodity sectors, energy, metals and agriculture, are projected into two dimensional spaces consisting of two principal components (PC). We observe that they form three distinct clusters in relation to various sectors. However, commodities with distinct features have intermingled with one another and scattered during severe crises, such as the European sovereign debt crises. We observe the notable change of the position of two dimensional spaces of groups during financial crises. By considering the first principal component (PC1) within the 6-month moving timeframe, we observe that commodities of the same group change states in a similar pattern, and the change of states of one group can be used as a warning for other group.

  17. Towards a Gendered Agro-Commodity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primrose Nakazibwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commodity or value chains are the dominant means to channel agro-food products from cultivators to consumers. Direct open markets are either non-existent or insignificant . These chains are also the main mechanisms for integrating underprivileged groups into the world economy. Why do global value chains generate sorrow for many and joy for a few, and why are these outcomes heavily gender biased? To look for answers this article critically reviews the post-2000 and earlier gender literature by proponents and opponents of the mainstream value chain approach. The purpose is to provide a methodological contribution on the integration of gender into the commodity chain approach. Most studies have fo cused on the economic effects of chain dynamics on women in agricultural product and labor markets. Some have extended this reasoning with social and cultural effects. Despite these advances, analytical gaps still exist as most existing research has concentrated on the agricultural nodes of modern, high value chains and lacks a gendered conceptual foundation. Scarce attention has been given to traditional staple crops, non-agricultural nodes, and feed back effects of gender relations on the chain. Our results indicate that an appropriate GCC approach should also consider the gendered impacts of the interaction between the governance structure and the institutiona l embeddedness, as well as the consequences of intra-household division of resources and labor in all stages of the chain. These two conceptual complements will be needed to explain the opportunities and constraints to improve gender equity in traditional and modern agro-commodity chains.

  18. Volatility Modeling, Seasonality and Risk-Return Relationship in GARCH-in-Mean Framework: The Case of Indian Stock and Commodity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Brajesh Kumar; Singh, Priyanka

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on an empirical study of volatility, risk premium and seasonality in risk-return relation of the Indian stock and commodity markets. This investigation is conducted by means of the General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity in the mean model (GARCH-in-Mean) introduced by Engle et al. (1987). A systematic approach to model volatility in returns is presented. Volatility clustering and asymmetric nature is examined for Indian stock and commodity markets. The risk-r...

  19. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  20. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section is...

  1. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with commodity...

  2. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Yu, Cindy L.; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  3. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  4. Trends and prospects of international major commodity prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cartas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Trends and prospects of international major commodity prices. In 2012, the international commodity markets have seen declining prices, especially during the first half of the year, with some improvement mainly in the last quarter. On the whole, most of major commodity prices declined, following generally weaker demand and the uncertain global economic situation. The short term outlook shows broad declines of prices for all major commodity groups, including oil and excepting metal prices, which are expected to be sustained by the global economic recovery and increasing demand, mainly in China. This country represents a major player, with a great contribution to the movement of prices on most of international commodity markets, as she has a great role in the world consumption and trade of commodities, as well as in the world production of some of these goods, on the one hand, and enjoys huge financial resources, on the other.

  5. Limits to Arbitrage and Hedging: Evidence from Commodity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Viral V; Lochstoer, Lars; Ramadorai, Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the literature on limits-to-arbitrage, we build an equilibrium model of commodity markets in which speculators are capital constrained, and commodity producers have hedging demands for commodity futures. Increases (decreases) in producers' hedging demand (speculators' risk-capacity) increase hedging costs via price-pressure on futures, reduce producers' inventory holdings, and thus spot prices. Consistent with our model, producers' default risk forecasts futures returns, spot pri...

  6. Primary Commodity Dependency: A Limiting Factor for Achieving Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    two ~gricultural crops, minerals, petroleum, or fisheries can be considered primary commodity dependent. Tea, coffee, and cocoa ; peanuts and cotton...Rostow’s Development Model Pre-conditions for take-off mass consumption democracy. In 1960s, economists, associated democratization to a developmental...Commodities can be renewable or non-renewable. Petroleum, diamonds, cocoa , bananas, coffee, and timber are just a few of the commodities that have

  7. Overview of plant dosimetry in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedkar, Kalpana C.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research carried out for more than three decades at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay and other laboratories in India had conclusively established application of radiation processing of food for catering to the domestic and export market. A major milestone of food irradiation was reached in the country when Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, a constituent unit of Department of Atomic Energy had set up 'SPICE PLANT' at Vashi, Navi Mumbai in the year 2000. It was first demonstration plant for radiation processing of spices for hygienisation purpose. For expanding scope of applications in agricultural sector, the next step in this direction was taken by BARC for setting up 'KRUSHAK' plant at Lasalgaon, Nashik. This was the first plant for low dose application of gamma radiation in agricultural commodities i.e. for sprout inhibition in onion and potatoes

  8. From creation to consumption: objects and commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Bautista López

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objects, persons and ideas are all merely merchandise in a world that is highly industrialised and utterly superficial. Consumer societies produce a profusion of merchandise. In strictly economic terms, merchandise is whatever has an exchange-value, in  a world where objects are valued for their utility. So goods are whatever is useful, where use can be measured in monetary terms. This perspective impoverishes social relations. People relate only insofar as their value dictates, and that value is merely utilitarian. Moreover, this commercialisation reaches up to impoverish society as a whole. All this is the result of a long process of objectification which, seeing the world as the exchange of goods, ends up treating people just like any other tradable commodity. This article takes a critical look at the processes involved, and proposes an explanation in terms of the social construction of 'utility''.

  9. The New Commodity: Technicity and Poetic Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kim Stefans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key strands of early thinking by the Language Poets, notably Charles Bernstein, Bruce Andrews and Steve McCaffery, was that the poem—particularly the mainstream, American lyric in thrall to the Imagist tradition—should be understood as partaking in the commodity system, either in its capacity of presenting the world itself as consumable or as a commodity itself. Strategies to retool the poem included an exaggerated de-naturalization of language (akin to Brecht’s Verfremdung Effekt, the permanent deferral of epiphany as “pay off” (i.e., writing as ongoing phenomenological investigation, and, most extremely, the poem as engaged in a “general” as opposed to a “closed” economy—as pure expenditure, linguistic waste, in George Bataille’s sense. These practices, however, while they might have, in theory, “de-commodified” the poem (the evidence weighs against it, but it’s quite impossible to prove, have nonetheless confirmed the centrality of the early notion by William Carlos Williams that a poem is a “machine,” an autonomous producer of meanings, and to that extent an object. The French philosopher Gilbert Simondon argues in his theory of technicity that something human lies at the heart of the technical object and that its technical essence, like any player in the Darwinian evolution, has its own evolutionary journey through time. In Bernard Stiegler’s succinct formulation, “[a]s a ‘process of exteriorization,’ technics is the pursuit of life by means other than life.” This confluence of ideas suggests a possibility: that the technical elements of poems—what might have formerly been understood as stylistic tics, characteristic methods, visual and prosodic features—are themselves engaged in a quest for “life,” and that poems are in fact always already objects, existing outside of the system of commodities if only by virtue of obtaining an ontological status both: (1 irreducible to an over

  10. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...... the relationship between inventory and volatility, we use the information available in options traded on futures. Second, performance assessment in the previous literature has primarily evolved around explaining moments of data or forecasting prices of futures. Instead, we asses the performance of our model...... by considering both the ability of explaining prices in-sample and out-of-sample - assessing both the pricing-performance and the hedging-performance of the models. Third, we model the futures surface rather than the spot price process, and from the no-arbitrage relationship between spot and futures prices we...

  11. Global oil prices, macroeconomic fundamentals and China's commodity sector comovements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the common movements of commodity sectors in China as well as the economic underpinnings of the comovements. We employ a Bayesian dynamic latent factor model to disentangle the common and idiosyncratic sector-specific factors of the prices of a group of China's commodity sectors: petrochemicals, grains, energy, non-ferrous metals, oils & fats, and softs. The results indicate that the common factor accounts for a significant portion of the fluctuations of China's commodity sectors, providing evidence of the strong commodity sector comovements in China. We further use a VAR model to link the common movements across China's commodity sectors to the underlying determinants, including global oil price shocks and domestic macroeconomic fluctuations. We find that the global oil price shocks have strong effects on the common movements across commodity sectors in China in addition to its domestic macroeconomic fluctuations at long horizons. However, at short horizons, the common movements across commodity sectors in China respond more strongly to the global oil shocks than to its domestic macroeconomic fluctuations. - Highlights: • We examine the comovements of commodity prices at the industry level in China. • The common factor accounts for a significant portion of commodity sector fluctuations. • We investigate the joint impacts of global oil price shocks and domestic macro fluctuations on the comovements. • The global oil price shocks have persistent and strong effects on the comovements. • The impacts of domestic macro fluctuations on the comovements differ at short and long horizons.

  12. COMMODITY MARKET REGULATION: EXPORTING COUNTRIES VERSUS IMPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Leonardo Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The high in commodity prices in the international market in the last decade, tensions escalated between exporting and importing commodities countries, the extent of having their demands and pressures discussed in the main international organizations, especially in the G20. As altas nas cotações das commodities no mercado internacional na última década acirraram as tensões entre países exportadores e importadores de commodities, a ponto de terem suas reivindicações e pressões debatidas no...

  13. Alcohol as international commodity; Alcool como 'commodity' internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrao, Luiz Celso Parisi [Ministerio do Desenvolvimento, Industria e Comercio Exterior, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria de Tecnologia Industrial]. E-mail: luiz.negrao@desenvolvimento.gov.br; Urban, Maria Lucia de Paula

    2004-12-15

    The ethanol is able to reduce the gas emissions, mainly in CO2 balance which gives a strong contribution for this fact. Using the alcohol rather than fossil fuels is a natural choice as a important renewable energy source. Also, to have the alcohol as international environmental commodity is the goal of all interested in this matter, since the entry into force the Kyoto protocol, with the Russian approval.

  14. An application of seasonal ARIMA models on group commodities to forecast Philippine merchandise exports performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, Gina May R.; Cawiding, Olive R.; Addawe, Rizavel C.

    2017-11-01

    The increase in the merchandise exports of the country offers information about the Philippines' trading role within the global economy. Merchandise exports statistics are used to monitor the country's overall production that is consumed overseas. This paper investigates the comparison between two models obtained by a) clustering the commodity groups into two based on its proportional contribution to the total exports, and b) treating only the total exports. Different seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were then developed for the clustered commodities and for the total exports based on the monthly merchandise exports of the Philippines from 2011 to 2016. The data set used in this study was retrieved from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) which is the central statistical authority in the country responsible for primary data collection. A test for significance of the difference between means at 0.05 level of significance was then performed on the forecasts produced. The result indicates that there is a significant difference between the mean of the forecasts of the two models. Moreover, upon a comparison of the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of the models, it was found that the models used for the clustered groups outperform the model for the total exports.

  15. Bitcoin: not a currency-like informational commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Six assertions concerning the status of Bitcoin are formulated and defended: (i) Bitcoin is not and will not become a currency-like informational commodity, (ii) currency-like informational commodities that aren’t currencies must be frauds, (ii) specific BTC amounts may become monetized and thus may

  16. Sorting out commodity and macroeconomic risk in expected stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boons, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three essays in asset pricing. Chapter I is motivated by the recent surge in institutional investment in commodity futures markets. The chapter studies how commodity risk is priced in stock and futures markets and asks whether this risk premium is time-varying with these

  17. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. This provision terminates effective... exchange the marketing assistance loan collateral, and (3) Immediately exchanging the purchased commodity certificate for the outstanding loan collateral. [67 FR 64459, Oct. 18, 2002, as amended at 73 FR 65722, Nov...

  18. Toward Improved Market Access for ASEAN Agricultural Commodities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... technical report, November 2009 - May 2013. Études. Towards improved market access for ASEAN agricultural commodities : donor partnerships strategy and plan. Rapports. Towards improved market access for ASEAN agricultural commodities : project inception meeting report, Palm Garden Hotel, Putrajaya, Malaysia, ...

  19. 5 CFR 1315.13 - Commodity Credit Corporation payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity Credit Corporation payments... PAYMENT § 1315.13 Commodity Credit Corporation payments. As provided in § 1315.1(d), the provisions of... Credit Corporation (CCC) pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Act of June 29, 1948 (15 U.S.C. 714b(h)) (“CCC...

  20. A Preference-Free Formula to Value Commodity Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new model of commodity prices in which the stochastic convenience yield is an affine function of past commodity returns. While preserving market completeness, the model exhibits price nonstationarity and mean reversion under the martingale measure, and, as a consequence, it is

  1. Legal status and organizational structure of commodities excange in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petričević

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Commodities exchange is an important element of market economy of a country. Being an organized commodities and capital market, it goes beyond the trade in a trade fair and particular trade in real commodities. It includes trading in exchangeable goods by standard label. As foundation of commodities exchange is expected in Croatia, the paper will explicate its status and operation in Slovakia, an EU member state that is similar to our country. The paper will focus on the legal status and organizational structure of consumer goods market in Bratislava. Although it has existed for just over 15 years, it is important to note that it actually goes back to the pre-Second World War Czechoslovakia. Also, to provide better understanding of its functioning, regulations defining the foundation and functioning of the commodities market will also be presented as well as the profile, method and types of operations, together with its positive effects.

  2. Data Cubes Integration in Spatial OLAP for Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. I.; Sitanggang, I. S.

    2017-03-01

    Ministry of Agriculture Indonesia collects data of agricultural commodities in Indonesia in the annual period. Agricultural commodities data include food crops, horticulture, plantations, and livestock. The data are available in the spreadsheet format. This study developed data cubes for food crops, plantations, and livestock using the galaxy schema of data warehouse and integrated the data cubes into the SOLAP Horticulture using SpagoBI. SOLAP is useful for data analysis and data visualization. The application displays agricultural commodities data in form of crosstab and chart. This study also developed the location intelligence module that visualizes agricultural commodities data on the map. The system was tested using the black box approach. The result showed that main functions including roll up, drill down, slice, dice, and pivot work properly. This application is expected to enable users to easily obtain data summaries of agricultural commodities.

  3. Information technology: commodity or strategical tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Braz Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the sprouting of the informantion technology (IT and its use for the companies therelation between cost and benefit did not stay clear. This is a question that has been studied andanalyzed in depth in the academic and organizacional environments. The results of the studiespoint with respect to two opposing sides: first, one believes that IT does not pass of a toolwithout strategical value. On the order side, enterprises work with idea thar IT is strategicsolution for many problems for all levels and businesses. Beyond this paradox, the challengeexists to justify the high investiments in technology, since the companies, ahead of the highcompetitiveness the enterprises could not focus in efforts no productives. The theoretical paperdoes not intend to answer the question, but to only describe the aspects that lead to such doubt.For such, it describes some concepts of IT, the IT business value, analysis of he investmensts inIT and IT as a commodity. At the final, are presented the limitations of this theoretical reflectionand the expositons on the concepts and of its difficult practical applicability.

  4. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: COMMODITY OR STRATEGICAL TOOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Braz Ferreira

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the sprouting of the informantion technology (IT and its use for the companies the relation between cost and benefit did not stay clear. This is a question that has been studied and analyzed in depth in the academic and organizacional environments. The results of the studies point with respect to two opposing sides: first, one believes that IT does not pass of a tool without strategical value. On the order side, enterprises work with idea thar IT is strategic solution for many problems for all levels and businesses. Beyond this paradox, the challenge exists to justify the high investiments in technology, since the companies, ahead of the high competitiveness the enterprises could not focus in efforts no productives. The theoretical paper does not intend to answer the question, but to only describe the aspects that lead to such doubt. For such, it describes some concepts of IT, the IT business value, analysis of he investmensts in IT and IT as a commodity. At the final, are presented the limitations of this theoretical reflection and the expositons on the concepts and of its difficult practical applicability.

  5. Natural gas : a highly lucrative commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration and production of natural gas has become highly profitable as natural gas is becoming a leading future commodity. With new technology, high demand and environmental benefits, natural gas is the preferred choice over petroleum as the leading source of energy to heat home and businesses. Canada is the world's third largest producer of natural gas with its Sable Offshore Energy Project being the fourth largest producing natural gas basin in North America. The basin will produce high quality sweet natural gas from 28 production wells over the course of the next 20 to 25 years. The gas will be transported to markets through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and into the Northeastern United States via the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline. The 1051 kilometer underground gas pipeline is currently running laterals to Halifax, Nova Scotia and Saint John, New Brunswick. Market studies are being conducted to determine if additional lines are needed to serve Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island and northern New Brunswick. A recent survey identified the following 5 reasons to convert to natural gas: (1) it is safe, (2) it is reliable, (3) it is easy to use, (4) it is cleaner burning and environmentally friendly compared to other energy sources, and (5) it saves the consumer money

  6. Commodity chemical growth to slow in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    In their latest chemical outlook, DRI/McGraw-Hill economists characterize 1992 as a peak year for U.S. commodity chemical demand growth, at 4.2%, tapering off to a compound 2.2% between 1993 and 1995. Just as operating rates begin to reach higher levels in 1995, however, DRI forecasts slowing GNP growth. DRI's Ramunas J. Svarcas expects a decline in exports. Those plastics promising the rosiest consumption outlook include melamine-formaldehyde resin, up 9.9% in 1992, from 155 million lbs in 1991, and projected to grow 8.6%/year through 1995; styrene acrylonitrile resin, up 23% this year, from 58 million lbs last year, and growing 8.2%/year through 1995; and unsaturated polyester, up 11.7% this year, from 1.07 billion lbs in 1991, and increasing at 6.5%/year. Methanol is a bright spot, with consumption growing 4.7%, from 11.2 billion lbs in 1991 and 12%/year thereafter. Ortho-xylene managed an impressive 21% rebound from a depressed 1991 level of 783 million lbs, and is expected to continue its recovery at 7.7%/year

  7. OPEC and other commodity cartels: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhajji, A.F.; Huettner, D.

    2000-01-01

    The economic literature provides specific characteristics for cartels. Although the theory of international cartels in not well developed in the literature, and every cartel is unique, some of these characteristics exist in each cartel. This study investigates the existence of these characteristics in six known commodity cartels including OPEC. In addition, it compares the oil companies' cartel, 'the Seven Sisters', to OPEC, and summarizes the findings of OPEC econometric models developed in the literature in the last 25 years and concludes that the results do not support cartel or competitive models for OPEC. Although other cartels are more successful than OPEC, many books and articles in economics use OPEC as a cartel example. Neither statistical tests nor theory support the popular use of OPEC as a cartel example. Indeed, this article concludes that OPEC is composed of Saudi Arabia, the dominant world producer, plus several distinct sub-groups and that separate models are required to explain the behavior of each. Assigning the power of some OPEC members to OPEC has caused confusion about its behavior. Recent OPEC success is attributed to political, natural, and technical capacity limitations in the oil fields that prevented countries from cheating on their quota. In other words, OPEC adherence to the quota, except for Saudi Arabia, is anything but voluntary. (author)

  8. Emergence of Commodity Derivatives as Defensive Instrument in Portfolio Risk Hedging: A Case of Indian Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shelly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines whether commodity derivatives can be used as an alternative investment asset in India where commodity markets are at emerging state and provides the same diversification benefit as they provide in developed commodity markets. In India only commodity futures are prevalent so various commodity indices representing various sectors has been used in the study. Diversification aspect of commodity derivatives has been tested initially by using correlation analysis. Compounded Daily Growth rate and Relative Standard deviation has been used as a measure of calculating risk and return of daily data of SENSEX, BOND and four Commodity Indices (MCX Comdex, MCX AGRI, MCX Metal, MCX Energy. Markowitz Efficient Frontier theory has been used to calculate portfolio risk return and Sharpe risk adjusted ratio has been used to evaluate the various portfolios. Optimal portfolio has been obtained for the combination of equity, bond and commodity and overall results of the study indicate that an investor who is risk averse will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Energy whereas an investor who gets utility by taking more risk for more returns will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Metal. Investor having inclination towards moderate risk return would tend to invest in MCX AGRI along with SENSEX and BOND.

  9. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA ACTION: Notice... commodities for foreign donation. The Kansas City Commodity Office (KCCO) issues a public invitation... Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation. OMB Number: 0560-0258. Expiration Date: May 31, 2010. Type of...

  10. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud in...

  11. Influence of rising commodity prices on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppo, I.J.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few years we have first witnessed a rapid increase in the prices of commodities and then later, as a consequence of the economic downturn, an even more drastic drop. Simultaneously with the commodity price increase, an increase in the investment costs of power plants was experienced. The rise in material costs was often stated as one of the reasons for this increase. In this study the relationship between commodity costs and energy prices is studied. A bottom-up approach is used for estimating what kind of an impact increased commodity prices alone could be expected to have on the investment costs on the one hand, and how increased energy prices may affect commodity production costs on the other. The results indicate that although the commodity production costs usually have a fairly large energy component, even high increases in commodity prices, and therefore raw material costs of power plant investments, can not explain the recently experienced hikes in power plant investment costs; a doubling of the costs of the main raw material flows could explain an investment cost increase of some 5-10%, depending on the power plant type. This would seem to indicate that other contributing factors, such as bottlenecks in the production of power plant components, may play an important role in the recent investment cost increase

  12. Towards microalgal triglycerides in the commodity markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Ruiz, Jesús; Lamers, Packo P; Bosma, Rouke; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) hold great promise as sustainable feedstock for commodity industries. However, to determine research priorities and support business decisions, solid techno-economic studies are essential. Here, we present a techno-economic analysis of two-step TAG production (growth reactors are operated in continuous mode such that multiple batch-operated stress reactors are inoculated and harvested sequentially) for a 100-ha plant in southern Spain using vertically stacked tubular photobioreactors. The base case is established with outdoor pilot-scale data and based on current process technology. For the base case, production costs of 6.7 € per kg of biomass containing 24% TAG (w/w) were found. Several scenarios with reduced production costs were then presented based on the latest biological and technological advances. For instance, much effort should focus on increasing the photosynthetic efficiency during the stress and growth phases, as this is the most influential parameter on production costs (30 and 14% cost reduction from base case). Next, biological and technological solutions should be implemented for a reduction in cooling requirements (10 and 4.5% cost reduction from base case when active cooling is avoided and cooling setpoint is increased, respectively). When implementing all the suggested improvements, production costs can be decreased to 3.3 € per kg of biomass containing 60% TAG (w/w) within the next 8 years. With our techno-economic analysis, we indicated a roadmap for a substantial cost reduction. However, microalgal TAGs are not yet cost efficient when compared to their present market value. Cost-competiveness strictly relies on the valorization of the whole biomass components and on cheaper PBR designs (e.g. plastic film flat panels). In particular, further research should focus on the development and commercialization of PBRs where active cooling is avoided and stable operating temperatures are maintained by the water

  13. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  14. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F; Carlson, Kimberly M; Fagan, Matthew E; DeFries, Ruth S; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H; Macedo, Marcia N; Curran, Lisa M; Dyer, George A; Gibbs, Holly K; Morton, Douglas C; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  15. COMMODITY CURRENCIES: UM FENÔMENO REAL NO BRASIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Branco

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho tem por objetivo investigar o possível enquadramento que a moeda brasileira, o real, possa ter no modelo de commodity currencies. As evidências encontradas mostram uma correlação significativa da trajetória percorrida pelo real na última década com o esquema de commodity currencies, em que a taxa de câmbio do país tende a acompanhar a evolução dos preços internacionais das commodities, grupo de produtos básicos advindos principalmente dos setores agrícola e mineral.

  16. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  17. A Marketing Approach to Commodity Futures Exchanges : A Case Study of the Dutch Hog Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a marketing strategic approach to commodity futures exchanges to optimise the (hedging) services offered. First, the environment of commodity futures exchanges is examined. Second, the threats and opportunities of commodity futures exchanges are analysed. Our analysis

  18. Commodity multi-processor systems in the ATLAS level-2 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolins, M.; Blair, R.; Bock, R.; Bogaerts, A.; Dawson, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Hauser, R.; Kugel, A.; Lay, R.; Muller, M.; Noffz, K.-H.; Pope, B.; Schlereth, J.; Werner, P.

    2000-01-01

    Low cost SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processor) systems provide substantial CPU and I/O capacity. These features together with the ease of system integration make them an attractive and cost effective solution for a number of real-time applications in event selection. In ATLAS the authors consider them as intelligent input buffers (active ROB complex), as event flow supervisors or as powerful processing nodes. Measurements of the performance of one off-the-shelf commercial 4-processor PC with two PCI buses, equipped with commercial FPGA based data source cards (microEnable) and running commercial software are presented and mapped on such applications together with a long-term program of work. The SMP systems may be considered as an important building block in future data acquisition systems

  19. Commodity multi-processor systems in the ATLAS level-2 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Abolins, M; Bock, R; Bogaerts, J A C; Dawson, J; Ermoline, Y; Hauser, R; Kugel, A; Lay, R; Müller, M; Noffz, K H; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Werner, P

    2000-01-01

    Low cost SMP (symmetric multi-processor) systems provide substantial CPU and I/O capacity. These features together with the ease of system integration make them an attractive and cost effective solution for a number of real-time applications in event selection. In ATLAS we consider them as intelligent input buffers (an "active" ROB complex), as event flow supervisors or as powerful processing nodes. Measurements of the performance of one off-the-shelf commercial 4- processor PC with two PCI buses, equipped with commercial FPGA based data source cards (microEnable) and running commercial software are presented and mapped on such applications together with a long-term programme of work. The SMP systems may be considered as an important building block in future data acquisition systems. (9 refs).

  20. Modeling Multi-commodity Trade Information Exchange Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Traczyk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Market mechanisms are entering into new fields of economy, in which some constraints of physical world, e.g. Kirchoffs Law in power grid, must be taken into account during trading. On such markets, some of commodities, like telecommunication bandwidth or electrical energy, appear to be non-storable, and must be exchanged in real-time. On the other hand, the markets tend to react at shortest possible time, so an idea to delegate some competency to autonomous software agents is very attractive. Multi-commodity mechanism addresses the aforementioned requirements. Modeling the relationships between the commodities allows to formulate new, more sophisticated models and mechanisms, which reflect decision situations in a better manner. Application of multi-commodity approach requires solving several issues related to data modeling, communication, semantics aspects of communication, reliability, etc. This book answers some of the questions and points out promising paths for implementation and development. Presented s...

  1. 22 CFR 211.6 - Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., with the following information in the language of the country in which the commodities are to be... peace; and (3) Not to be sold or exchanged (where applicable). Emblems or other identification of...

  2. Do Exchange Rates Really Help Forecasting Commodity Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira; Sercu, Piet

    Chen et al. (2010) report that for ‘commodity currencies’, the exchange rate predicts the country’s commodity index but not vice versa. The commodity currency hypothesis is consistent with the Engle and West (2005) exchange rate model if the fundamental is chosen to be the country’s key export...... expectations, one should mostly observe contemporaneous correlations, not one-directional cross-predictability from one variable toward the other. Using three different data sets and various econometric techniques, we do find the contemporaneous correlations as predicted by the financial asset view......-averaged prices in the commodity index data that they use (price averaging induces spurious autocorrelation and predictability) and to features in their test procedures....

  3. Commodity Alliance Model – An Option for Advancing Private and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commodity Alliance Model – An Option for Advancing Private and Commercial ... that ensure adequate value addition and ultimate remunerative price for farmers' ... and integrating them in terms of fair price determination, information flow and ...

  4. A change in a competitive economy with indivisible commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Takayuki Oishi; Shin Sakaue

    2008-01-01

    We consider the relationship between a traditional competitive market and a competitive market with middlemen for trading indivisible commodities. We demonstrate that existence of many homogeneous middlemen leads to a change from the market with middlemen to the bilateral market.

  5. Duurzaamheid en grondstoffen voor diervoeding = Sustainability and feed commodity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Bos, J.F.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study creates a preliminary framework to judge the sustainability of production of agricultural commodities for the purpose of animal nutrition. Criteria are selected according to the economic, societal and ecological dimensions of sustainability.

  6. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  7. A dataset on tail risk of commodities markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert J; Vo, Duc H; Pham, Thach N; Singh, Abhay K

    2017-12-01

    This article contains the datasets related to the research article "The long and short of commodity tails and their relationship to Asian equity markets"(Powell et al., 2017) [1]. The datasets contain the daily prices (and price movements) of 24 different commodities decomposed from the S&P GSCI index and the daily prices (and price movements) of three share market indices including World, Asia, and South East Asia for the period 2004-2015. Then, the dataset is divided into annual periods, showing the worst 5% of price movements for each year. The datasets are convenient to examine the tail risk of different commodities as measured by Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) as well as their changes over periods. The datasets can also be used to investigate the association between commodity markets and share markets.

  8. United Nations Commission on Commodities for Women's and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... commodities in order to achieve the health-related Millennium Development ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work ... to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, ...

  9. Increase of food commodities prices and their relationship with biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Alvarez, Marianela; Piloto-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels are without any doubt, an alternative to the actual energy matrix. In this work, through the analysis of the main influencing factors in the increase of food commodities prices, is demonstrated that this phenomena is not exclusive due to biofuels production. Comparing the food commodities prices with biofuels production and petroleum prices respectively, a stronger correlation between food and petroleum prices was observed, demonstrating the strong influence of the conventional energy market on agricultural products. (author)

  10. DESIGNING GREEN SUPPORT: INCENTIVE COMPATIBILITY AND THE COMMODITY PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Runge, C. Ford

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this brief analysis is to consider the potential points of contact between a program of "green support" and the existing commodity programs in U.S. agriculture. These points of contact may take the form of conflict, complementarity, or neutrality. We shall assume initially that green support is "added" to the programs as they exist in 1994. Five main commodity program areas are considered: A. Deficiency payments resulting from the loan rate/target price structure B. Acreage red...

  11. Estimating the Competitive Storage Model with Trending Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Gouel , Christophe; LEGRAND , Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    We present a method to estimate jointly the parameters of a standard commodity storage model and the parameters characterizing the trend in commodity prices. This procedure allows the influence of a possible trend to be removed without restricting the model specification, and allows model and trend selection based on statistical criteria. The trend is modeled deterministically using linear or cubic spline functions of time. The results show that storage models with trend are always preferred ...

  12. The normal mycoflora of commodities from Thailand. 2. Beans, rice, small grains and other commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J I; Hocking, A D; Bhudhasamai, K; Miscamble, B F; Wheeler, K A; Tanboon-Ek, P

    1994-09-01

    Part of a comprehensive study of fungi occurring in commodities in Thailand, this paper reports results from 276 samples of mung beans, rice, sorghum and soybeans as well as other minor crops. Samples for major commodities were taken from farmers' stocks, middlemen and retail outlets, while those for minor crops were mostly from retail. Each sample was divided into two portions, one being examined in Bangkok and the second at North Ryde. Mycological examinations were carried out by direct plating after surface disinfection in chlorine. Media used were dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar, dichloran 18% glycerol agar, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar and dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar. Fungi were identified to species level and percentage infection of samples calculated. The dominant fungus found in mung beans was Fusarium semitectum, which was present in 40% of samples and at a high level (18% of all seeds) overall. Aspergillus flavus was also found in 40% of samples, but only in 2% of seeds overall. Lasiodiplodia theobromae was the only other fungus exceeding 1% total infection. The major fungi found in soybeans were A. flavus (67% of samples; 6% overall) and Cladosporium cladosporioides (49% of samples; 9% overall). Storage fungi were more common in soybeans than the other commodities, indicating longer or adverse storage. Paddy rice contained high levels of a wide variety of field fungi, notably Fusarium semitectum, Bipolaris oryzae, and Curvularia, Phoma and Colletotrichum species. However, probably due to the heat generated by milling, milled rice contained very few fungi, which were mostly of storage origin. Only 3% of particles examined contained internal fungi. Infection in sorghum was typical of oilseeds, dominated by Aspergillus flavus, which was present in 86% of samples, with an overall infection rate of 12%. Beans other than soybeans were infected by a wide range of field fungi, but at low levels, with less than half of seeds

  13. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2016-01-13

    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Portfolio Diversification with Commodities in Times of Financialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrates on the benefits of passive commodity investments in the context of the phenomenon of financialization. The research investigates the implications of increase in the correlation coefficients between equity and commodity investments for investors in financial markets. The paper is composed of several parts. First, the attributes of commodity investments and their benefits in the portfolio optimization are explored. Second, the phenomenon of the financialization is described and the research hypothesis is developed. Next, an empirical analysis is performed. I simulate the mean-variance spanning tests to examine the benefits of commodity investments before and after accounting for the impact of financialization. I proceed separate analysis for pre- and post-financialization period. The empirical research is based on asset classes’ returns and other related variables from years 1991-2012. The performed investigations indicate that the market financialization may have significant implications for commodity investors. Due to increase in correlation coefficients, the inclusion of the commodity futures in the traditional stock-bond portfolio appears to be no longer reasonable.

  15. Clustering of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very specific branch which is characterized by very low financial performance while this characteristic is given mainly by external factors as market pricing of agricultural commodities on one side, and production costs of agricultural commodities on the other side. This way, agricultural enterprises recognize negative values of gross margin in the Profit and Loss Statement but positive value of operating profit after even there are items of costs which are deducted. These results are derived from agricultural production subsidies which are recognized as income in the P/L Statement. In connection with this fact, the government subsidies are a substantial component of financial performance of agricultural enterprises.Primary research proceeded on the statistical sample of one hundred agricultural companies, has shown that also other specifics influencing financial performance of these businesses exist here. In order to determine the influences, the cluster analysis has been applied at using more than 10 variables. This approach has led to construction of clusters (groups of agricultural business entities with different characteristics of the group. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of financial performance of agricultural enterprises and to determine their influences under different economic characteristics of these business entities. For this purpose, the regression analysis has been subsequently applied on the groups of companies coming out from the cluster analysis. Besides the operating profit which is the main driving force of financial performance measured with the economic value added (EVA in agricultural enterprises, also capital structure and cost of capital have been observed as very strong influences on financial performance but these factors have different directions of their influence on the economic value added under different financial characteristics of agricultural

  16. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  17. High bandwidth concurrent processing on commodity platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boosten, M; Van der Stok, P D V

    1999-01-01

    The I/O bandwidth and real-time processing power required for high- energy physics experiments is increasing rapidly over time. The current requirements can only be met by using large-scale concurrent processing. We are investigating the use of a large PC cluster interconnected by Fast and Gigabit Ethernet to meet the performance requirements of the ATLAS second level trigger. This architecture is attractive because of its performance and competitive pricing. A major problem is obtaining frequent high-bandwidth I/O without sacrificing the CPU's processing power. We present a tight integration of a user-level scheduler and a zero-copy communication layer. This system closely approaches the performance of the underlying hardware in terms of both CPU power and I/O capacity. (0 refs).

  18. Regulations in the commodity trading sector: should the commodity trading industry in Switzerland be more regulated and, if so, how ?

    OpenAIRE

    Volchkov, Nikola; Lewis, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Commodity trading is a sector which is essential to our development and prosperity as well as economic growth. It is relatively unknown and perceived differently depending on the viewpoint of the observer. Many think of the exploitation of resources in resource rich countries, others only of the transport of goods from producers to consumers and others focus on “speculation” and its association with financial markets which can create risk. Given the importance of commodity trading across the ...

  19. An Investigation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Wireless in Support of Complex Humanitarian Disaster Operations in the Argentine Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    From Radar Hill down H-3 to Kamehameha Highway, then following Kalanianaole Highway to Retrans Hill. 66  Route 2: From Radar Hill to Mokapu Blvd...then following N. Kalaheo Dr. to Kailua Beach Park.  Route 3: From Radar Hill to Kaneohe Bay Drive, then along Kamehameha Highway to the

  20. Off-The-Shelf and Free Software Technologies for Spacecraft Control & Command: An Example, Balloon-Borne Stabilised Gondolas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurens, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Balloons are low-cost, short development time space vehicles for science missions and technology in-flight experiments that need out-of-atmosphere or in-situ measurements, thus being complementary to the satellite...

  1. An "Off-the-Shelf" System for Intraprocedural Electrical Current Evaluation and Monitoring of Irreversible Electroporation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Robert E; Kavnoudias, Helen; Thomson, Kenneth R

    2015-06-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation uses a series of brief electric pulses to create nanoscale defects in cell membranes, killing the cells. It has shown promise in numerous soft-tissue tumor applications. Larger voltages between electrodes will increase ablation volume, but exceeding electrical limits may risk damage to the patient, cause ineffective therapy delivery, or require generator restart. Monitoring electrical current for these conditions in real-time enables managing these risks. This capacity is not presently available in clinical IRE generators. We describe a system using a Tektronix TCP305 AC/DC Current Probe connected to a TCPA300 AC/DC Current Probe Amplifier, which is read on a computer using a Protek DSO-2090 USB computer-interfacing oscilloscope. Accuracy of the system was tested with a resistor circuit and by comparing measured currents with final outputs from the NanoKnife clinical electroporation pulse generator. Accuracy of measured currents was 1.64 ± 2.4 % relative to calculations for the resistor circuit and averaged 0.371 ± 0.977 % deviation from the NanoKnife. During clinical pulse delivery, the system offers real-time evaluation of IRE procedure progress and enables a number of methods for identifying approaching issues from electrical behavior of therapy delivery, facilitating protocol changes before encountering therapy delivery issues. This system can monitor electrical currents in real-time without altering the electric pulses or modifying the pulse generator. This facilitates delivering electric pulse protocols that remain within the optimal range of electrical currents-sufficient strength for clinically relevant ablation volumes, without the risk of exceeding safe electric currents or causing inadequate ablation.

  2. In vitro and ex vivo hemocompatibility of off-the-shelf modified poly(vinyl alcohol) vascular grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Cutiongco, Marie Francene A.; Anderson, Deirdre E. J.; Hinds, Monica T.; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic small diameter vascular grafts with mechanical properties of native arteries, resistance to thrombosis and capacity to stimulate in situ endothelialization are an unmet clinical need. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA) is an excellent candidate as a vascular graft due to its tunable mechanical properties. However, the hydrophilicity and bio-inertness of PVA prevents endothelialization in vivo. We hypothesize that the modification of PVA with biomolecules and topographies creates a h...

  3. Fast Track Characterization of Highly Radioactive Waste Pits Combining Off-the-Shelf Robotics with Innovative Investigation Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Boya, Didier

    2008-01-01

    The investigation and characterization of radioactive waste pits and effluent storage tanks represents a substantial and challenging step in the overall decommissioning programme launched by AREVA NC in 1998 on the site of Marcoule on behalf of the French Atomic Energy commission. Physical ,radiological and regulatory constraints, combined with a tight schedule, have lead our teams to use proven conventional instrumentation and robotics in innovative configurations . One such investigation, conducted on a particularly challenging radioactive effluent storage pit, is described below. The 'H' pit is a stainless steel clad concrete cavity, located in the second basement of the de-cladding building of Marcoule site. It was used for forty years as buffer storage for high activity effluents and has a length of 5 meters, a width of 3 meters , a height of 2.5 meters, and is topped by lead plates over 5 cm thick and The bottom of the cavity is covered with a layer of mud containing mainly graphite, diatoms and resins. The mud level ranges from about 20 centimeters to over 50 centimeters. The overall mud volume is around 2.4 cubic meters. Ambient dose rates above the lead plates exceed 10 mSv/h. The main purpose of our investigation was to characterize the muds for future recovery and conditioning prior to decontaminating the pit. The history of the pit together with the varying mud altimetry lead us to believe that sedimentation had probably occurred throughout the years. We thus decided to combine dose rate measurements using IF104 probes, gamma spectroscopy with CdTe probes and sample collections at different depths to ensure the representativeness and full characterization of the muds. Poor access, ambient dose rates have lead us to conceive a robotic arm, mounted on an shaft which can be modified to fit a wide range of pits and tanks. Custom built robotic tools with maximum manoeuvrability generally involve costs and delays far exceeding our purposes. SIT, a French manufacturer of high precision handling equipment for the nuclear industry, supplied us with a user customized 'Python' Robotic arm and the associated computerized command and control equipment within 6 months of the order. The arm allowed the necessary free movement for a precise characterization of the entire pit while being flexible enough to carry varying measuring and sample collection tools. Investigations included video imaging, precise dimensional checks, collection of effluent samples, gamma spectroscopy and collimated dose rate measurements. Specific tooling and arm extensions were created by SIT for each measurement type. The investigations were conducted successfully, providing a detailed view of the pit condition, a complete mapping of collimated dose rates, a grid of gamma spectroscopy, as well as 8 samples of radioactive mud which were subsequently analyzed in our laboratory . A simple yet innovative technology allowed us to fully characterize this pit and its content within a time frame of less than Eight months We subsequently developed a mud recovery scenario, a process for the conditioning of radioactive muds by cementation, and a complete scenario for the pit decontamination and dismantling. The robotic arm is now being used for the characterization and decontamination of other similar environments on the site of Marcoule

  4. Study, design and realization of a fault-tolerant and predictable synchronous communication protocol on off-the-shelf components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrol, D.

    2006-06-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the design and realization of safety-critical real-time systems on multiprocessor architectures with distributed memory. They are essential to compute systems that have to ensure complex and critical functions. This PhD thesis deals with communication media management. The communication management conditions strongly the capability of the system to fulfill the timeliness property and the dependability requirements. Our contribution includes: - The design of predictable and fault-tolerant synchronous communication protocol; - The study and the definition of the execution model to have a efficient and safe communications management; - The proposal of a method to generate automatically the communications scheduling. Our approach is based on a communication model that allows the analysis of the feasibility, before execution, of a distributed safe-critical real-time system with timeliness and safety requirements. This leads to the definition of an execution model based on a time-triggered and parallel communication management. A set of linear constraints system is generated automatically to compute the network scheduling and the network load with timeliness fulfillment. Then, the proposed communication interface is based on an advanced version of TDMA protocol which allows to use proprietary components (TTP, FlexRay) as well as standard components (Ethernet). The concepts presented in this thesis lead to the realisation and evaluation of a prototype within the framework of the OASIS project done at the CEA/List. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sorbents and Catalysts for Control of Ammonia and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Somi, George; Winchester, J. Parker; Grose, Jeffrey; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of future space vehicles envision simplifying the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system by combining the functions of trace contaminant (TC) control and carbon dioxide removal into one swing-bed system. Flow rates and bed sizes of the TC and CO2 systems have historically been very different. There is uncertainty about the ability of trace contaminant sorbents to adsorb adequately in high-flow or short bed length configurations, and to desorb adequately during short vacuum exposures. There is also concern about ambient ammonia levels in the absence of a condensing heat exchanger. In addition, new materials and formulations have become commercially available, formulations never evaluated by NASA for purposes of trace contaminant control. The optimal air revitalization system for future missions may incorporate a swing-bed system for carbon dioxide (CO2) and partial trace contaminant control, with a reduced-size, low-power, targeted trace contaminant system supplying the remaining contaminant removal capability. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental investigation into materials for trace contaminant control that might be part of such a system. Ammonia sorbents and low temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts are the foci. The data will be useful to designers of AR systems for future flexible path missions. This is a continuation of work presented in a prior year, with extended test results.

  6. Lossed in Translation: An Off-the-Shelf Method to Recover Probabilistic Beliefs from Loss-Averse Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.; Palley, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although strictly proper rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs, experimental results have shown that risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports towards the rule's baseline probability of 1/2, and a conservative preference for certain outcomes leads agents

  7. Lossed in translation: an off-the-shelf method to recover probablistic beliefs from loss-averse agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.; Palley, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Strictly proper scoring rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs from risk neutral agents. Previous experimental studies have identified two problems with this method: (i) risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports toward the probability of 1/2 , and (ii) for

  8. Surrogate Joint Aerial Layer Network (JALN) Experiment: Applications of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Technologies for Researching Future JALN Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    built-in device models. 6.2 Address Structure The address structure should also be reinvestigated. IPv6 offers addresses to automatically... IPv6 , Second Edition by Joseph Davies. Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 36 8.0 LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND...Graphical User Interface HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol ICMP Internet Message Control Protocol IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 JALN

  9. Utilizing Current Commercial-off-the-Shelf Facial Recognition and Public Live Video Streaming to Enhance National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    7 Figure 4. FBI RISC Process Flow Diagram(from Mayo, 2011) .......................................9...justice purposes, such as criminal background checks for employment purposes. In addition, the Repository for Individuals of Special Concern ( RISC ) is a...wanted persons, suspected terrorists, and sex offenders. The RISC system is optimized to provide very quick access to information based on the level

  10. Experiences constructing and running large shared clusters at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahyl, V.; Barroso, M.; Charbonnier, C.; Eldik, J. van; Jones, P.; Kleinwort, T.; Smith, T.

    2001-01-01

    The latest steps in the steady evolution of the CERN Computer Centre have been to reduce the multitude of clusters and architectures and to concentrate on commodity hardware. An active RISC decommissioning program has been undertaken to encourage migration to Linux, and a program of merging dedicated experiment clusters into larger shared facilities has been launched. The authors describe these programs and the experiences running the resultant multi-hundred node shared Linux clusters

  11. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  12. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  13. World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban

    2011-01-01

    The increasing co-movements between the world oil and agricultural commodity prices have renewed interest in determining price transmission from oil prices to those of agricultural commodities. This study extends the literature on the oil-agricultural commodity prices nexus, which particularly concentrates on nonlinear causal relationships between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). To this end, the linear causality approach of Toda-Yamamoto and the nonparametric causality method of Diks-Panchenko are applied to the weekly data spanning from 1994 to 2010. The linear causality analysis indicates that the oil prices and the agricultural commodity prices do not influence each other, which supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. In contrast, the nonlinear causality analysis shows that: (i) there are nonlinear feedbacks between the oil and the agricultural prices, and (ii) there is a persistent unidirectional nonlinear causality running from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices. The findings from the nonlinear causality analysis therefore provide clues for better understanding the recent dynamics of the agricultural commodity prices and some policy implications for policy makers, farmers, and global investors. This study also suggests the directions for future studies. - Research highlights: → This study determines the price transmission mechanisms between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). → The linear and nonlinear cointegration and causality methods are carried out. → The linear causality analysis supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. → The nonlinear causality analysis shows that there is a persistent unidirectional causality from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices.

  14. 17 CFR 37.4 - Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities. 37.4 Section 37.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.4 Election to trade excluded and exempt...

  15. A study on the systematization of commodity classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    International community is trying to prevent the spread of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction), especially nuclear weapons. These efforts result in the declaration of UNSC Resolution 1540 in 2004, which made export controls the international norms for all nations in the world. Korea enacted Foreign Trade Act in 1989 to adhere to the export control standards worldwide. Export control system in Korea consists of commodity classification system and export license system. The commodity classification system is used to identify strategic commodity. The Export License system is used to verify that exports have met the conditions required by the international export control system. NSG guidelines, the NSG handbook and Public Notice on Trade of Strategic Items are used to classify items and technology However, some items or technology in NSG guidelines should be especially designed or prepared (EDP). It is difficult to determine which items or technology is strategic commodity because EDP criteria are qualitative. NSG or participant states don't provide clear criteria to classify items and technology but recommend establishing standards autonomously. Hence the result of deliberation on the same items and technology may be different by reviewer's experience, knowledge and governmental policy. It causes confusion of reviewers and export companies In this research, commodity classification systematization by EDP criteria's clarification was performed to increase consistency and efficiency

  16. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  17. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  18. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  19. COMPETITIVENESS OF LEADING COMMODITIES TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING REGION OF AGROTOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murwatiningsih Murwatiningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the research is to seek the competitiveness of the leading commodity in Semarang city which supports the development of centre commodity in agrotourism area. The method of analysis is leading sector, scoring analysis and capacity asessment through FGD. The result of the research reveals that leading commodities are Durian, Longan, Water Apple, and Rambutan. It is found that subdistrict Gunungpati and Mangunsari are ready to be the centre of horticulture commodity because its strategic location. It is located nearby Jatibarang reservoir (potential to be a tourism village, its cultivation is relatively successful, accessable transportation, and good management. Hence, it can be the pilot project area.Key words: competitiveness, centre, commodity, horticultureJEL Classification: O20, Q10AbstrakKesejahteraan petani tidak meningkat karena daya saingnya rendah dan pengelolannya tidak optimal. Tujuan penelitian, untuk melihat daya saing komoditas unggulan Kota Semarang untuk mendukung pengembangan sentra komoditas di kawasan agrowisata. Metode analisis yaitu sektor basis, analisis scoring serta capacity assessment melalui FGD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komoditas yang diunggulkan di Gunungpati adalah durian, klengkeng, jambu air dan rambutan. Kelurahan Gunungpati dan Mangunsari siap dijadikan sentra komoditas hortikultura di Kecamatan Gunungpati karena letaknya strategis- dekat dengan waduk Jatibarang (dapat menjadi desa wisata, budidaya relatif lebih berhasil, transportasi dan akseptibilitas lebih mudah, pengelolaannya bagus sehingga sudah menjadi daerah percontohan.Kata Kunci: daya saing, sentra, komoditas, hortikulturJEL Classification: O20, Q10

  20. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  1. Dynamics of a durable commodity market involving trade at disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, A.; Puu, T.

    2018-05-01

    The present work considers a simple model of a durable commodity market involving two agents who trade stocks of two different types. Stock commodities, in contrast to flow commodities, remain on the market from period to period and, consequently, there is neither unique demand function nor unique supply function exists. We also set up exact conditions for trade at disequilibrium, the issue being usually neglected, though a fact of reality. The induced iterative system has infinite number of fixed points and path dependent dynamics. We show that a typical orbit is either attracted to one of the fixed points or eventually sticks at a no-trade point. For the latter the stock distribution always remains the same while the price displays periodic or chaotic oscillations.

  2. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  3. ASSESSING THE GOVERNANCE FOR COMMODITY PRICE STABILIZATION - A RETROSPECTIVE LOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Larisa Nicoleta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatility of commodity prices has become once again a matter of profound and controversial debates for both political and academic spheres worldwide in the framework of the global economy severely distressed by the recent economic turbulences. Although commodity markets were already notorious for their price instability, the events the world economy experienced in the years 2000s offered new connotations to this phenomenon. In the first decade of this millennium, the commodity markets have struggled with high volatility, with prices reaching historical peaks just to crash dramatically some months later and very soon to restart their rise. The significant increase in volatility generated many debates about its triggering factors, the implications in terms of risk exposure of economic actors, but also the need for reconfiguring regulatory policy frameworks. The quest for the most appropriate means to deal with commodity price turbulences has known different stages over the years. Decision makers worldwide have sought alternatives, formulated and tested various mechanisms whose central aim was to mitigate price fluctuations. Governments formulate and implement consistent regulatory policies whose international coordination is a ‘sine qua non’ condition for stabilizing these markets. However, the turbulences on commodity markets often generate policy responses that sometimes exacerbate rather than mitigate the price instability. The purpose of this paper is to assess the subject of governance regarding commodity price stabilization, offering a retrospective look at the mechanisms implemented over the years, with a central focus on the International Commodity Agreements – instruments through which in the previous decades the producer and consumer governments worldwide pursued price stabilization for some key commodities like sugar, coffee, cocoa, tin and natural rubber. After analyzing the effectiveness of the International Agreements and

  4. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  5. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5 Donation...

  6. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nleya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA. Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  7. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  8. proposal for a lean commodity management process for the south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Commodity Managers (CMs) within the South African Navy (SAN) need new and ... The SAN supply chain process, as graphically represented in Figure 1.1, starts with the .... Tactical level: These recommendations only affect the Fleet Logistics supply ..... The sourcing of the item will be as wide as possible (global), and may.

  9. The Financial Industry's Challenge of Developing Commodity Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1999-01-01

    With a constant new stream of financial services coming to the market, each often more exotic and complicated than the last, the financial services industry, which includes commodity derivatives exchanges, brokerage houses and banks providing price risk reduction services (the so-called hedging

  10. Price formation and transmission along the food commodity chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Blažková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on analysis of price transmission along the wheat commodity chain in the Czech Republic, with the distinction on wheat products with low value added (wheat flour, respectively high value added (wheat rolls. The degree of vertical price transmission is measured to identify potential market failures, because asymmetric price transmission can be the result of existence of market power within the food commodity chain. The data basis is made up from monthly prices on partial markets of the analyzed commodity chain published by Czech Statistical Office and Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. The monitored time period is from January 2000 till October 2009. The analysis is based on calculation of the price transmission elasticity coefficient (evaluation of price transmission along the chain and the intensity of dependency of positive and negative inter-market price differences (evaluation whether positive or negative price changes are better transmitted among particular vertical markets. Time lag is tested as well. The assessment of price transmission along the wheat commodity chain confirmed the existence of market power especially on the retail stage and low impact of price changes of farm prices on final consumer food prices.

  11. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  12. Role of Reproductive Health Commodity Security on Maternal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A Medline search and search of other internet search engines for published studies on contraceptive commodity security and maternal and child health in West Africa was done. The journals were accessed online and from public libraries. Results: Contraceptive prevalence rate in West Africa is generally low.

  13. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to generally accepted accounting principles. (l) A CMA shall not apply marketing losses from a..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.17... marketing proceeds from the commodity in accordance with § 1425.18; and (5) Members agreed to accept a...

  14. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  15. New Commodity Services System increases gas bill for clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch company Gasunie Trade and Supply will replace the Commodity Services System (CDS, abbreviated in Dutch) January 1, 2004. This will result in a higher gas bill for almost all their clients that are expected to use more than 1 million m 3 natural gas per year. An overview is given of the principles of the old and the new pricing system [nl

  16. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military resale commodities. 51-6.4 Section 51-6.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... stores, Armed Forces exchanges and like activities of other Government departments and agencies) shall...

  17. Modelling Long Memory Volatility in Agricultural Commodity Futures Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the long memory volatility model for 16 agricultural commodity futures returns from different futures markets, namely corn, oats, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat, live cattle, cattle feeder, pork, cocoa, coffee, cotton, orange juice, Kansas City wheat,

  18. Modelling Long Memory Volatility in Agricultural Commodity Futures Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates a long memory volatility model for 16 agricultural commodity futures returns from different futures markets, namely corn, oats, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat, live cattle, cattle feeder, pork, cocoa, coffee, cotton, orange juice, Kansas City wheat,

  19. Conceptualizing Culture as Commodity: The Problem of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Eileen R.

    1986-01-01

    Claims that most television research ignores the connections between its symbolic and economic influences. Argues for an integrated approach that views television as both a commodity and an artifact. Describes five analytical categories that researchers could use to provide information illuminating these relations to the public. (JD)

  20. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  1. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a role. Unlike migraine and tension headache, cluster headache generally isn't associated with triggers, such as foods, hormonal changes or stress. Once a cluster period begins, however, drinking alcohol ...

  2. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Iris

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  3. Categorias Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dayane Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as categorias cluster, que foram introduzidas por Aslak Bakke Buan, Robert Marsh, Markus Reineke, Idun Reiten e Gordana Todorov, com o objetivo de categoriíicar as algebras cluster criadas em 2002 por Sergey Fomin e Andrei Zelevinsky. Os autores acima, em [4], mostraram que existe uma estreita relação entre algebras cluster e categorias cluster para quivers cujo grafo subjacente é um diagrama de Dynkin. Para isto desenvolveram uma teoria tilting na estrutura triang...

  4. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  5. Horticultural cluster

    OpenAIRE

    SHERSTIUK S.V.; POSYLAYEVA K.I.

    2013-01-01

    In the article there are the theoretical and methodological approaches to the nature and existence of the cluster. The cluster differences from other kinds of cooperative and integration associations. Was develop by scientific-practical recommendations for forming a competitive horticultur cluster.

  6. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  7. Stationarity changes in long-run energy commodity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaklan, Aleksandar; Abrell, Jan; Neumann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Situated at the intersection of the literatures on speculative storage and non-renewable commodity scarcity, this paper considers whether changes in persistence have occurred in long-run U.S. prices of the energy commodities crude oil, natural gas and bituminous coal. We allow for a structural break when testing for a break in persistence to avoid a change in the stochastic properties of prices being confounded by an unaccounted-for deterministic shift in the price series. We find that coal prices are trend stationary throughout their evolution and that oil prices change from stationarity to non-stationarity in the decade between the late 1960s to late 1970s. The result on gas prices is ambiguous. Our results demonstrate the importance of accounting for a possible structural shift when testing for breaks in persistence, while being robust to the exact date of the structural break. Based on our analysis we caution against viewing long-run energy commodity prices as being non-stationary and conclude in favor of modeling commodity market fundamentals as stationary, meaning that speculative storage will tend to have a dampening effect on prices. We also cannot reject that long-run prices of coal and, with some hesitation, gas follow a Hotelling-type rule. In contrast, we reject the Hotelling rule for oil prices since the late 1960s/early 1970s. - Highlights: • This paper contributes to the literatures on speculative storage and scarcity. • We test if long-run U.S. coal, oil and gas prices became non-stationary. • We pre-test for structural breaks when testing for changes in persistence. • Coal prices are found to be trend stationary, oil prices become non-stationary. • We caution against modeling commodity market fundamentals as non-stationary.

  8. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country...... of this handbook, which focuses on the role of CSR in MSMEs. Hence we contribute to the literature on CSR in industrial clusters and specifically CSR in Indian industrial clusters by investigating the drivers of CSR in India’s industrial clusters....

  9. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During my Spring 2016 internship, my two major contributions were the design of the Commodities Exchange Pallet and the design of a test stand for a 100 pounds-thrust sounding rocket. The Commodities Exchange Pallet is a prototype developed for the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program. Under the HESTIA initiative the Commodities Exchange Pallet was developed as a method for demonstrating multi-system integration thru the transportation of In-Situ Resource Utilization produced oxygen and water to a human habitat. Ultimately, this prototype's performance will allow for future evaluation of integration, which may lead to the development of a flight capable pallet for future deep-space exploration missions. For HESTIA, my main task was to design the Commodities Exchange Pallet system to be used for completing an integration demonstration. Under the guidance of my mentor, I designed, both, the structural frame and fluid delivery system for the commodities pallet. The fluid delivery system includes a liquid-oxygen to gaseous-oxygen system, a water delivery system, and a carbon-dioxide compressors system. The structural frame is designed to meet safety and transportation requirements, as well as the ability to interface with the ER division's Portable Utility Pallet. The commodities pallet structure also includes independent instrumentation oxygen/water panels for operation and system monitoring. My major accomplishments for the commodities exchange pallet were the completion of the fluid delivery systems and the structural frame designs. In addition, parts selection was completed in order to expedite construction of the prototype, scheduled to begin in May of 2016. Once the commodities pallet is assembled and tested it is expected to complete a fully integrated transfer demonstration with the ISRU unit and the Environmental Control and Life Support System test chamber in September of 2016. In addition to the development of

  10. PRICE GENERATING PROCESS AND VOLATILITY IN NIGERIAN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaihiomwan Ojogho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on agricultural commodity price volatility in Nigeria has constantly reflected that an excessive price movement is harmful for both producers and consumers, particularly for those who are not able to cope with that new source of economic uncertainty. It has also raised an extensive debate on the main determinants behind the large agricultural commodity price swings observed in the last years without recourse for the price generating process. To narrow this gap, the study examined the price generating process and volatility in the Nigerian agricultural commodities market using secondary data for price series on meat, cereals, sugar, dairy and aggregate food for the period of January 1990 to February 2014. The data were analysed using the linear Gaussian State-Space (SS model. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that the coefficients of variation for cereals (39.88%, food (32.65% and dairy price (43.08% were respectively higher during the overall time period (January 1990 to February 2014 than during the first (January 1990 to January 2002 and second (February 2002 to February 2014 sub-time periods. The results of the inferential statistics showed that authoregressive moving average (ARMA model is the most selected Nigeria agricultural commodity price generating model for the time periods, that a unit increase in the past price state of cereals, dairy, sugar, meat and aggregate food would increase the future price of sugar, meat and aggregate food by N0.14, N0.28 and N0.15 respectively but decrease future price of cereals and dairy by about N1.00 and N0.21 respectively, and that the one-step ahead predicted value for the first out-ofsample period for cereals, meat, dairy and sugar price were 6317.86, 10.24 and 2.06 respectively. The Nigerian agricultural commodity prices have experienced high variability over the period, and such volatility, price-generating process and the determinants of the Nigerian food commodities

  11. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-01-01

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community

  12. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.9... commodities, the participant shall arrange for the recovery of that portion of the donated commodities...

  13. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  14. Distribution of Iodine and Selenium in Selected Food Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the contents of iodine and selenium in selected food commodities. Fresh food commodities were mineralized and analysed for their iodine and selenium content by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry using the calibration curve as the method for determining the contents of the elements. The average fruit and vegetables concentrations of iodine were very low. The cow’s milk, other dairy products, eggs, poultry, fresh water fish, beef, liver, and mushrooms are frequently regarded as the most important natural source of dietary iodine from common foods. The higher concentrations of selenium were recorded in the kidney, liver, pork, beef, poultry, fresh water fish, hen’s eggs, cow’s milk, other dairy products, wheat flour, fats, coffee, peppers, mushrooms and potatoes.

  15. Market risk in commodity markets. A VaR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giot, Pierre [Department of Business Administration and CEREFIM at University of Namur, Rempart de la Vierge, 8, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Laurent, Sebastien [Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE) at Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain (Belgium)

    2003-09-01

    We put forward Value-at-Risk models relevant for commodity traders who have long and short trading positions in commodity markets. In a 5-year out-of-sample study on aluminium, copper, nickel, Brent crude oil and WTI crude oil daily cash prices and cocoa nearby futures contracts, we assess the performance of the RiskMetrics, skewed Student APARCH and skewed student ARCH models. While the skewed Student APARCH model performs best in all cases, the skewed Student ARCH model delivers good results and its estimation does not require non-linear optimization procedures. As such this new model could be relatively easily integrated in a spreadsheet-like environment and used by market practitioners.

  16. Market risk in commodity markets. A VaR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giot, Pierre; Laurent, Sebastien

    2003-01-01

    We put forward Value-at-Risk models relevant for commodity traders who have long and short trading positions in commodity markets. In a 5-year out-of-sample study on aluminium, copper, nickel, Brent crude oil and WTI crude oil daily cash prices and cocoa nearby futures contracts, we assess the performance of the RiskMetrics, skewed Student APARCH and skewed student ARCH models. While the skewed Student APARCH model performs best in all cases, the skewed Student ARCH model delivers good results and its estimation does not require non-linear optimization procedures. As such this new model could be relatively easily integrated in a spreadsheet-like environment and used by market practitioners

  17. The Role of Incompleteness in Commodity Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKanamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convenience yield-based pricing for commodity futures, which embeds incompleteness of commodity futures markets in convenience yields. By using the pricing method, we conduct empirical analyses of the prices of WTI crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures traded on the NYMEX in order to assess the incompleteness of energy futures markets. We show that the fluctuation from the incompleteness is partly driven by the fluctuation from convenience yields. In addition, it is shown that the incompleteness of natural gas futures market is more highlighted than the incompleteness of WTI crude oil and heating oil futures markets. We apply the implied market price of risk from the NYMEX data to pricing an Asian call option written on WTI crude oil futures. Finally, we try to apply the market incompleteness analysis to the post-crisis periods after 2009.

  18. Market risk in commodity markets: a VaR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giot, P.

    2003-01-01

    We put forward Value-at-Risk models relevant for commodity traders who have long and short trading positions in commodity markets. In a 5-year out-of-sample study on aluminium, copper, nickel, Brent crude oil and WTI crude oil daily cash prices and cocoa nearby futures contracts, we assess the performance of the RiskMetrics, skewed Student APARCH and skewed student ARCH models. While the skewed Student APARCH model performs best in all cases, the skewed Student ARCH model delivers good results and its estimation does not require non-linear optimization procedures. As such this new model could be relatively easily integrated in a spreadsheet-like environment and used by market practitioners. (author)

  19. Non-food radiation technology applications of food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. Del

    2004-01-01

    At present food irradiation is considered an effective, broad-spectrum, residue-free, mature technology. Expertise in irradiation processing exists in a network of centers around the world, some of them in developing countries like Brazil and Argentina South American region. The use of renewable resources coming from crops products is becoming attractive also for non-food applications. In this sense, a complete new approach of higher aggregated value of some commodities like soy and maize, for example, is as renewable resources to create functional polymers, mainly for innovative biodegradable packaging solutions. There is a need of innovative approaches to produce edible/biodegradable materials from natural polymeric macromolecules with adequate properties. Incipient researches pointed to the successful use of irradiation processing to obtain or modify different types of biodegradable/edible plastic materials. This new radiation technology application is particularly important for countries that are leading producers of soybean and other commodities. (Author)

  20. Non-food radiation technology applications of food commodities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastro, N.L. Del . [Center of Radiation Technology, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Travessa R, 400 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    At present food irradiation is considered an effective, broad-spectrum, residue-free, mature technology. Expertise in irradiation processing exists in a network of centers around the world, some of them in developing countries like Brazil and Argentina South American region. The use of renewable resources coming from crops products is becoming attractive also for non-food applications. In this sense, a complete new approach of higher aggregated value of some commodities like soy and maize, for example, is as renewable resources to create functional polymers, mainly for innovative biodegradable packaging solutions. There is a need of innovative approaches to produce edible/biodegradable materials from natural polymeric macromolecules with adequate properties. Incipient researches pointed to the successful use of irradiation processing to obtain or modify different types of biodegradable/edible plastic materials. This new radiation technology application is particularly important for countries that are leading producers of soybean and other commodities. (Author)

  1. Network governance in electricity distribution: Public utility or commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, Rolf; Fens, Theo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether the operation and management of electricity distribution networks in a liberalized market environment evolves into a market driven commodity business or might be perceived as a genuine public utility task. A framework is developed to classify and compare different institutional arrangements according to the public utility model and the commodity model. These models are exemplified for the case of the Dutch electricity sector. It appears that the institutional organization of electricity distribution networks is at the crossroads of two very different institutional development paths. They develop towards commercial business if the system characteristics of the electricity sector remain basically unchanged to the traditional situation. If however innovative technological developments allow for a decentralization and decomposition of the electricity system, distribution networks might be operated as public utilities while other energy services are exploited commercially. (Author)

  2. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  3. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  4. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS*

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Justine S.; Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise, consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis t...

  5. Sensitive Information Tracking in Commodity IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Z. Berkay; Babun, Leonardo; Sikder, Amit K.; Aksu, Hidayet; Tan, Gang; McDaniel, Patrick; Uluagac, A. Selcuk

    2018-01-01

    Broadly defined as the Internet of Things (IoT), the growth of commodity devices that integrate physical processes with digital connectivity has had profound effects on society--smart homes, personal monitoring devices, enhanced manufacturing and other IoT apps have changed the way we live, play, and work. Yet extant IoT platforms provide few means of evaluating the use (and potential avenues for misuse) of sensitive information. Thus, consumers and organizations have little information to as...

  6. Discovering and Promoting Commodity Health Attributes: Programs and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, Hoy F.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consumer segment demanding healthy foods and diets, health and nutrition messages can expand food demand, and governments in the U.S. and EU, faced with increasing obesity and associated health outcomes, want consumers to have reliable information to choose healthy diets. California commodity organizations, charged with expanding the demand for almonds, avocados, strawberries and walnuts, are funding health and nutrition research as a means to discover a unique selling prop...

  7. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  8. Labour supply and commodity demands : an application to Irish data

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Murphy; Rodney Thom

    1986-01-01

    Annual Irish data are used to estimate a model which allows for the joint determination of commodity demands and labour supply. Consumer preferences are modelled by a cost function of the Gorman polar form which permits exact linear aggregation over individuals with different money wage rates. Separability between goods and leisure is rejected by the data. Labour supply is found to be a positive function of the wage rate.

  9. DYNAMICS AND NEW CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBAL COMMODITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CARTAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economy and particularly the world production of goods depends to a large extent on the supply of raw materials, of resource inputs extracted from the environment as well as an easy access to them. Commodities play an important part in the growth of global production and in the world trade in goods and services. The access to raw materials is vital for sustaining the productive capacity of the economy and also for satisfying domestic demand for industrial goods. On the other side, increasing demand for commodities and the need for assuring a sustainable supply pose great challenges on the world economy. The issue of raw materials supply represents a high - priority theme in the political agenda of the European Union. The Raw Materials Initiative launched in 2008 by the European Commission is based on three main pillars: - to ensure the access to raw materials on world market at undistorted conditions; - to foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources; - to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials. (EC, 2008. To this end, EC has started to take action in order to ensure access to resources and avoid supply shortages. A great deal of attention is being paid to the study of recent developments in the global and particular commodity markets, taking into consideration fundamental aspects as supply concentration, governance of producing countries, the pressure of demand and its impact on prices, material's substitutability, stressing the role of resource consumption efficiency, recycling and substitution of vital raw materials and thus providing policy makers and industry with reliable information on how to efficiently manage resource inputs. This paper is dealing with the main developments which occurred during the past decade or so in the global commodity market, a major driver of the world economy, with particular reference to selected key -markets - as: aluminium, copper, nickel; cotton; corn, meat - swine

  10. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result.

  11. Global stocks of selected mineral-based commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Karl, Nick A.

    2016-12-05

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey, National Minerals Information Center, analyzes mineral and metal supply chains by identifying and describing major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. This report focuses on an important component of the world’s supply chain: the amounts and global distribution of major consumer, producer, and exchange stocks of selected mineral commodities. In this report, the term “stock” is used instead of “inventory” and refers to accumulations of mined ore, intermediate products, and refined mineral-based commodities that are in a form that meets the agreed-upon specifications of a buyer or processor of intermediate products. These may include certain ores such as bauxite, concentrates, smelter products, and refined metals. Materials sometimes referred to as inventory for accounting purposes, such as ore contained in a deposit or in a leach pile, or materials that need to be further processed before they can be shipped to a consumer, are not considered. Stocks may be held (owned) by consumers, governments, investors, producers, and traders. They may serve as (1) a means to achieve economic, social, and strategic goals through government policies; (2) a secure source of supply to meet demand and to mitigate potential shortages in the supply chain; (3) a hedge to mitigate price volatility; and (4) vehicles for speculative investment.The paucity and uneven reliability of data for stocks of ores and concentrates and for material held by producers, consumers, and merchants hinder the accurate estimating of the size and distribution of this portion of the supply chain for certain commodities. This paper reviews the more visible stocks held in commodity exchange warehouses distributed throughout the world.

  12. Clustering Timber Harvests and the Effects of Dynamic Forest Management Policy on Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    1998-01-01

    To integrate multiple uses (mature forest and commodity production) better on forested lands, timber management strategies that cluster harvests have been proposed. One such approach clusters harvest activity in space and time, and rotates timber production zones across the landscape with a long temporal period (dynamic zoning). Dynamic zoning has...

  13. Analysis of commodity prices with the particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiube, Fernando Antonio Lucena; Baidya, Tara Keshar Nanda; Tito, Edison Americo Huarsaya

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of commodities prices is fundamental to real-asset investment decisions, hedging, and pricing financial derivatives. Schwartz and Smith [Schwartz, E.S., Smith, J.E. (2000). Short term-variations and long-term dynamics in commodity prices. Management Science, 46, 893-911.] proposed a two-factor model for describing the stochastic processes of commodity prices, in which the two factors are short-term variations and equilibrium prices. These are both unobserved state variables that are estimated using the Kalman filter. The estimation is based on the observation of future prices for different maturities. The authors have carried out this process without incorporating jumps in the short-term variation of prices. Here we aim to demonstrate that the inclusion of jumps better explains the behavior of oil prices, and in fact creates difficulties in the estimation of state variables. This is because the variables become non-Gaussian so the Kalman filter is not recommended. Another methodology, called the particle filter, is more suitable in this case, and we describe its application in this article

  14. Commodity movement tracking (CMT) : bridging operations and commercial transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewyta, M.

    2004-01-01

    Enbridge Pipelines Inc. (EPI) operates a network of interconnected pipelines that facilitate the transport of liquid fuels across North America, with operations centralized in Edmonton, Alberta. This paper addressed the issue of accurately tracking the location of commodities transported on EPI pipelines for billing and payment purposes. The role of integrated information systems in meeting the need for high quality information by customers and by EPI was also addressed. The paper presented the Commodity Movement Tracking (CMT) system that is central to achieving the desired accuracy of commercial and financial transactions. CMT tracks inventories and links products to commercial transactions across the pipeline. Batches are tracked from initial receipt to final delivery, incorporating CMT's operational checks and balances, reconciliation steps, process monitoring, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems data that contribute to inputs equaling outputs. Daily schedules are recorded into the CMT system as events, based on volumetric information derived from the SCADA system. Receipt and delivery events will be electronically recorded into CMT from field flow computers in the near future. CMT modeling considers changes within the line configuration, static pipe diameter changes, as well as packing and draining of the line fill resulting from pressure changes. This paper described the major functional activities of the overall business process, such as nominations, scheduling, commodity movement tracking, leak detection, electronic ticketing, SCADA, and oil accounting. 10 figs.

  15. Market Structure and Price Transmission of Eggs Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to determine some characteristics of distribution channel, market structure, and price maker transmission in purebred chicken egg commodity in Banyumas District, Central Java Province. Primary data applied on this research is from all channel distribution levels; from producers to final consumers. Meanwhile secondary data is collected from government official sources, such as BPS-Statistic of Banyumas Disrict, Banyumas Department of Industry, Trading and Cooperation, and previous researches which has been made by researcher team. Sample determining is directed by proportional random sampling methods. Some measurements are applied to this research, including to; Herfindahl Index (HI, Concentration Ratio (CF, and Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES to investigate market structure; and Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT to determine price transmission mechanism model. This research finds that (1 the distribution channel of egg commodity is spitted to different channel, the first channel: egg producer – retail traders – final consumers, and second channel: egg producers – whole seller – retail traders – final consumers; (2 market structure which is created to this farming specific commodity is perfect market; (3 price transmission mechanism analysis statistically shows that there is almost no existence of dominant power in price formation.

  16. Manufacturing process design for multi commodities in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Santosa, Andrian Henry

    2017-06-01

    High-potential commodities within particular agricultural sectors should be accompanied by maximum benefit value that can be attained by both local farmers and business players. In several cases, the business players are small-medium enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources to perform added value process of the local commodities into the potential products. The weaknesses of SMEs such as the manual production process with low productivity, limited capacity to maintain prices, and unattractive packaging due to conventional production. Agricultural commodity is commonly created into several products such as flour, chips, crackers, oil, juice, and other products. This research was initiated by collecting data by interview method particularly to obtain the perspectives of SMEs as the business players. Subsequently, the information was processed based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to determine House of Quality from the first to fourth level. A proposed design as the result of QFD was produced and evaluated with Technology Assessment Model (TAM) and continued with a revised design. Finally, the revised design was analyzed with financial perspective to obtain the cost structure of investment, operational, maintenance, and workers. The machine that performs manufacturing process, as the result of revised design, was prototyped and tested to determined initial production process. The designed manufacturing process offers IDR 337,897, 651 of Net Present Value (NPV) in comparison with the existing process value of IDR 9,491,522 based on similar production input.

  17. Optimal Nonlinear Pricing, Bundling Commodities and Contingent Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Marion; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to analyze optimal nonlinear pricing when a firm offers in a bundle a commodity and a contingent service. The paper studies a mechanism design where all private information can be captured in a single scalar variable in a monopoly context. We show that to propose the package for commodity and service is less costly for the consumer, the firm has lower consumers' rent than the situation where it sells their good and contingent service under an independent pricing strategy. In fact, the possibility to use price discrimination via the supply of package is dominated by the fact that it is costly for the consumer to sign two contracts. Bundling energy and a contingent service is a profitable strategy for a energetician monopoly practising optimal nonlinear tariff. We show that the rates of the energy and the contingent service depend to the optional character of the contingent service and depend to the degree of complementarity between commodities and services. (authors)

  18. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  19. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... officers and a description of the firm's experience as an exporter of U.S. agricultural commodities. Copies... under this part and the purchase authorization. (3) If, at the time the commodity supplier reports the... requirements unless otherwise specified in the purchase authorization. (1) Commodity contracts between...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity with respect to which the loan or purchase is made. The word “subordinated” means that, in the... makes loans to farmers on the security of agricultural commodities that are eligible for price support under loan and purchase programs conducted by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). FmHA or its...

  1. Commodity-based Approach for Evaluating the Value of Freight Moving on Texas’ Roadway Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-10

    The researchers took a commodity-based approach to evaluate the value of a list of selected commodities moved on the Texas freight network. This approach takes advantage of commodity-specific data sources and modeling processes. It provides a unique ...

  2. Computerized commodity management system in Thailand and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Thailand's National Family Planning Program is testing a computerized contraceptive commodity reporting management in 4 provinces with 104 National Family Planning Program (NFPP) reporting entities. Staff in the Brazilian Association of Family Planning Entities (ABEPF) and CPAIMC, a major family planning service agency, have been trained in the use of a computerized commodity distribution management system and are ready to initiate test use. The systems were designed in response to specific commodity management needs of the concerned organizations. Neither distribution program functions as a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program, but each system reviewed has aspects that are relevant to CSM commodity management needs. Both the Thai and Brazilian systems were designed to be as automatic and user friendly as possible. Both have 3 main databases and perform similar management and reporting functions. Differing program configurations and basic data forms reflect the specific purposes of each system. Databases for the logistics monitoring system in Thailand arethe reporting entity (or ID) file; the current month's data file; and the master balance file. The data source is the basic reporting form that also serves as a Request and Issue Voucher for commodities. Editing functions in the program check to see that the current "beginning balance" equals the previous month's ending balance. Indexing functions in the system allow direct access to the records of any reporting entity via the ID number, as well as the sequential processing of records by ID number. 6 reports can be generated: status report by issuing entity; status report by dispensing entity; aggregate status report; out of compliance products report; out of compliance outlets report; and suggested shipment to regional warehouse report. Databases for the distribution management system in Brazil are: the name-ID (client institution) file; the product file; and the data file. The data source is an order form

  3. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  4. A Framework for Learning Analytics Using Commodity Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Wendong; Yu, Shengquan

    2017-06-14

    We advocate for and introduce LEARNSense, a framework for learning analytics using commodity wearable devices to capture learner's physical actions and accordingly infer learner context (e.g., student activities and engagement status in class). Our work is motivated by the observations that: (a) the fine-grained individual-specific learner actions are crucial to understand learners and their context information; (b) sensor data available on the latest wearable devices (e.g., wrist-worn and eye wear devices) can effectively recognize learner actions and help to infer learner context information; (c) the commodity wearable devices that are widely available on the market can provide a hassle-free and non-intrusive solution. Following the above observations and under the proposed framework, we design and implement a sensor-based learner context collector running on the wearable devices. The latest data mining and sensor data processing techniques are employed to detect different types of learner actions and context information. Furthermore, we detail all of the above efforts by offering a novel and exemplary use case: it successfully provides the accurate detection of student actions and infers the student engagement states in class. The specifically designed learner context collector has been implemented on the commodity wrist-worn device. Based on the collected and inferred learner information, the novel intervention and incentivizing feedback are introduced into the system service. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation with the real-world experiments, surveys and interviews demonstrates the effectiveness and impact of the proposed framework and this use case. The F1 score for the student action classification tasks achieve 0.9, and the system can effectively differentiate the defined three learner states. Finally, the survey results show that the learners are satisfied with the use of our system (mean score of 3.7 with a standard deviation of 0.55).

  5. An analysis on types of strategic commodities and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jaewoong; Shin, Donghun

    2013-01-01

    In the study, Reconsideration of classification cases was carried out and a database was built based on Information of classification requests as features which are necessary for data mining. In this study, two main features of classified documents were organized systematically to apply data mining skills. It will be helpful to discover association rules between documents and to classify documents as they are key factors of strategic commodity classification. In addition, the classification scheme presented in the study helps step-by-step search by adding the auxiliary search criteria. The international community strengthened the export control regime. Accordingly, Korea also needs to fully comply with the export control obligations. Despite International export control regimes are strengthened, the current system to control exports of strategic commodities relies on limited human resource and experience to the situation. Especially, exports of nuclear power plants are related to one thousand kinds more material. Thus, the burden of the government, relevant institutes and enterprises has increased a lot. It is necessary to enhance the ease and efficiency of export control business processes in order to cope with such export control issues. NSSC operates the NEPS system for export control of nuclear items. Technical reviewers can search past cases of strategic commodity classification on NEPS system. However, searching function of NEPS system has limitations because exports to UAE and Jordan increased sharply, but characteristics of classification requests are not systematized. To provide more efficient ways to their decisions, development of the advanced export control system, IXCS (Intelligent eXport Control System) is considered. IXCS will adopt various methods including data mining. Data mining is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets. It is an efficient way to find out hidden consideration patterns. However, it needs many kinds of

  6. An analysis on types of strategic commodities and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jaewoong; Shin, Donghun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In the study, Reconsideration of classification cases was carried out and a database was built based on Information of classification requests as features which are necessary for data mining. In this study, two main features of classified documents were organized systematically to apply data mining skills. It will be helpful to discover association rules between documents and to classify documents as they are key factors of strategic commodity classification. In addition, the classification scheme presented in the study helps step-by-step search by adding the auxiliary search criteria. The international community strengthened the export control regime. Accordingly, Korea also needs to fully comply with the export control obligations. Despite International export control regimes are strengthened, the current system to control exports of strategic commodities relies on limited human resource and experience to the situation. Especially, exports of nuclear power plants are related to one thousand kinds more material. Thus, the burden of the government, relevant institutes and enterprises has increased a lot. It is necessary to enhance the ease and efficiency of export control business processes in order to cope with such export control issues. NSSC operates the NEPS system for export control of nuclear items. Technical reviewers can search past cases of strategic commodity classification on NEPS system. However, searching function of NEPS system has limitations because exports to UAE and Jordan increased sharply, but characteristics of classification requests are not systematized. To provide more efficient ways to their decisions, development of the advanced export control system, IXCS (Intelligent eXport Control System) is considered. IXCS will adopt various methods including data mining. Data mining is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets. It is an efficient way to find out hidden consideration patterns. However, it needs many kinds of

  7. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  8. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  9. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  10. Methylation of food commodities during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starratt, A.N.; Bond, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sites of methylation in several commodities (wheat, oatmeal, peanuts, almonds, apples, oranges, maize, alfalfa and potatoes) during fumigation with 14 C-methyl bromide were studied. Differences were observed in levels of the major volatiles: methanol, dimethyl sulphide and methyl mercaptan, products of O- and S-methylation, resulting from treatment of the fumigated materials with 1N sodium hydroxide. In studies of maize and wheat, histidine was the amino acid which underwent the highest level of N-methylation. (author). 24 refs, 3 tabs

  11. Estimating the commodity market price of risk for energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolos, Sergey P.; Ronn, Ehud I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the ''market price of risk'' (MPR) for energy commodities, the ratio of expected return to standard deviation. The MPR sign determines whether energy forward prices are upward- or downward-biased predictors of expected spot prices. We estimate MPRs using spot and futures prices, while accounting for the Samuelson effect. We find long-term MPRs generally positive and short-term negative, consistent with positive energy betas and hedging, respectively. In spot electricity markets, MPRs in Day-Ahead Prices agree with short-dated futures. Our results relate risk premia to informed hedging decisions, and futures prices to forecast/expected prices. (author)

  12. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  13. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Daher

    2003-01-01

    La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene...

  14. How Macroecomic Factors Influence the Commodity Market in the Financialization Period: The Case of S & P GSCI Commodity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Smolík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In connection to the process of financialization of commodity markets which is caused by the sharp increase of money flowing into the commodity markets, the question of which factors affect commodity and commodity indices prices is discussed. In this article, the importance of chosen macroeconomic determinants to the price variability of one of the most important commodity indexes S & P GSCI by using the Boosted Trees method is quantified. The results obtained in the research show that changes in the monthly values of macroeconomic determinants reflect and can, according to the model used, explain the volatility of the monthly average index S & P GSCI Total Return to more than 75%. The most important macroeconomic determinants proved to be Nominal Effective Exchange Rate of USD or US – Short-term interest rates.

  15. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  16. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  17. DLTAP: A Network-efficient Scheduling Method for Distributed Deep Learning Workload in Containerized Cluster Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Wei; Li Ying; Wu Zhong-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Deep neural networks (DNNs) have recently yielded strong results on a range of applications. Training these DNNs using a cluster of commodity machines is a promising approach since training is time consuming and compute-intensive. Furthermore, putting DNN tasks into containers of clusters would enable broader and easier deployment of DNN-based algorithms. Toward this end, this paper addresses the problem of scheduling DNN tasks in the containerized cluster environment. Efficiently scheduling ...

  18. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  19. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  20. Cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes) of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye). It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name) in bouts that can occur ...

  1. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  2. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs  extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  3. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  4. Balancing Acts: Culture as Commodity Among Business Consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mellander

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors intend to analyze how the concept of culture is packaged, sold and delivered as a commodity. It is based on an ethnographic study of a Swedish consultancy in the field of cross-cultural communication and the relationship between the company and its clients. The clients were primarily foreign executives working in Sweden or Swedish expatriates, preparing for life abroad. The significance of culture-as-commodity will be explored from the perspective of the company as well as its clients in order to shed light on how the concept of culture can be communicated and what happens to it in the process. The study shows how the company combines theoretical perspectives from anthropology and intercultural communication with the aim to deliver a complex yet accessible understanding of culture to its clients. The analysis shows that these perspectives both clash and synergize, creating contradictions as well as turning culture into an accessible and useful tool for clients. The authors argue that researchers in the field of applied cultural analysis can learn from the example put forth by the balancing act between these two perspectives on culture performed by the company. The authors conclude that although the commodification process reduces and simplifies the meaning(s of culture, the company still manages to put culture on the agenda, demonstrating to its clients how, why, and in what ways it matters to them.

  5. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, T.; Londo, H.M.

    2008-06-01

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels

  6. Analysis of physical flows in primary commodity trade. A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Li, Bo; Fang, Changming; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Jiakuan

    2006-01-01

    How globalization and international trade affect sustainable development and environment has attracted worldwide attention. Associated with the import and export of primary commodities, ecologically important materials have been exchanged among regions and countries. China, having the largest population in the world and the highest economic growth rate in last decades, may have an important influence on global sustainable development through the trade of primary commodities. Using the data from Almanac of China's Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, we analyzed material flows in the trade of primary commodity in China from 1950 to 2001. Our analysis shows that: (1) China has turned from a net exporter of primary commodities to a net importer; (2) minerals and fuels have been the major imports of primary commodities since 1992, just as well as foods and minerals did in 1980s; (3) most of the net imported primary commodities come from Oceania, Africa and Latin America. (author)

  7. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  8. Sources of contraceptive commodities for users in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface A Oye-Adeniran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the sources of contraceptive commodities is an important aspect of the delivery of family planning services and is required by planning programme managers for strategic planning purposes. Findings from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey have previously showed that the private sector was the most frequently reported source of contraceptive supply, providing contraception to two and a half times as many women as the public sector. We conducted a community-based study to examine further the sources of contraceptive commodity for users in Nigeria with a view to identifying their preferences for distribution centres. This information would be useful to improve commodity distribution and to build the necessary capacity for satisfactory delivery of contraceptives. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multi-stage random sampling technique was used. A state was randomly selected to represent each of the four health zones in Nigeria. Two local government areas (LGAs were then selected representing both urban and rural areas. Ten enumeration areas were subsequently selected from each LGA. Of the 2,001 respondents aged 15-49 years, 1,647 (82.3% were sexually active, out of which 244 were found to be using contraceptive methods at the time of the study, giving a contraceptive prevalence of 14.8%. The commonest source of information on contraceptives was through friends (34%, followed by the radio (11.5% and husbands (10.2%. Most respondents procured their contraceptives from chemist/patent medicine shops (19.7%, while only 0.8% obtained them from designated family planning clinics. The younger groups in this study (15-24 years, single people, Catholics, and Muslims, showed a greater preference for chemist/patent medicine shops for their sources of contraceptives. The older groups and married respondents, however, made use of government and private hospitals to obtain their contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Strategies to increase

  9. International commodity prices and civil war outbreak: new evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A new dataset by Bazzi and Blattman (2014) allows examining the effects of international commodity prices on the risk of civil war outbreak with more comprehensive data. I find that international commodity price downturns sparked civil wars in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another finding with the new dataset is that commodity price downturns also sparked civil wars beyond Sub-Saharan Africa since 1980. Effects are sizable relative to the baseline risk of civil war outbreak. My conclusions contrast wit...

  10. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S.; Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat “gas money” as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series. PMID:26937053

  11. Commodity culture: tropical health and hygiene in the British Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2008-06-01

    Before heading to a 'tropical' region of the Empire, British men and women spent considerable time and effort gathering outfit believed essential for their impending trip. Ordinary items such as soap, clothing, foodstuffs and bedding became transformed into potentially life-saving items that required the fastidious attention of any would-be traveller. Everyone from scientists and physicians to missionaries and administrators was bombarded by relentless advertising and abundant advice about the outfit needed to preserve health in a tropical climate. A closer look at this marketing exercise reveals much about the way people thought about tropical people, places, health and hygiene and how scientific and commercial influences shaped this Imperial commodity culture.

  12. Ideological Challenges to Changing Strategic Orientation in Commodity Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press, Melea; Arnould, Eric; Murray, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    orientations may be thought of as ideologies; and second, that such ideologies are likely to contend with each other. Taking such a perspective may be helpful in thinking about why transitioning to more sustainable strategic orientations is challenging even in the presence of financial incentives to make......Why do some firms not change their strategic orientation despite economic incentives to do so? Most current literature on changing strategic orientations focuses on an antecedents and outcomes approach to business orientations. Intimated, but rarely addressed is, first, the idea that strategic...... such changes. In assessing the transition to organic production and marketing in a commodity agriculture context we find that contending ideologies restrict its adoption. In addition, we suggest that strategic orientations are not adopted or contested solely within firms but also among them. We find...

  13. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S; Shapiro, Jesse M

    2013-11-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat "gas money" as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series.

  14. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daher

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene que las crisis siguen siendo más regionales que globales, y que existe una verdadera geografía del contagio, el estudio muestra evidencia empírica que permite constatar: 1 la reproducción de un desbalance norte-sur al interior de Chile; 2 la doble paradoja de Santiago, cuya economía es la más diversificada y la más vulnerable, la más recesiva y la de mayor crecimiento; 3 la emergencia de Antofagasta como segunda economía regional de Chile, desplazando a Valparaíso y Concepción; 4 el paralelismo de Santiago y Antofagasta como regiones con el mayor producto, la mayor inversión extranjera y mayores exportaciones; y 5 la "mercosurización" de Santiago, capital subglobal, y la globalización de sus "regiones-commodities".The hypothesis of a new dualism between a sub-global capital city and its "commodities regions" underlies the study of the differential impact of the three last international crises on the regions of Chile. This impact is quantified through four indicators: product, employment, foreign investment and exports, and their variability allow the verification of the dissimilar vulnerability of each region and its dissimilar exposure to the risk of crisis contamination. The study is based on a conceptual frame that states that crisis continue to be more regional-like than global, and that there is a real geography of contamination. On the other hand, this study shows empirical evidence which makes it possible to verify: 1 the

  15. Boom or bust : developing countries' rough ride on the commodity price rollercoaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.; Gibson, J.

    2006-10-01

    Current high commodity prices are driven by strong demand from the emerging economies of China and India in addition to high consumption in the United States. Many developing countries are experiencing massive windfall revenues from high commodity prices. However, commodity prices are highly volatile in the short term, and can vary as much as 50 per cent in a single year. While developed country producers are supported by subsidies and social safety nets, developing countries and smallholder producers feel the extent of commodity price volatility more directly. Many developing countries are becoming locked into the production and export of primary commodities whose volatile prices are declining over the long term, and over which they have very little control. Price volatility makes sound fiscal planning difficult for both countries and producers. Price booms and busts also drive social inequalities, livelihood inequalities, and corruption. Price swings can cause conflict over valuable land and resources, and does not create incentives for sound environmental stewardship. This paper described the impacts of commodity price volatility in developing countries with the aim of promoting discussion about what can be done to help stabilize revenues for countries as well as producers. Price trends and their importance were reviewed, and the theoretical benefits of liberalized commodity markets were examined. Previous attempts to stabilize commodity prices were reviewed. It was concluded that the best long-term solution to the commodity price problem is economic diversification. Recommendations for promoting economic diversification were provided. 43 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Modelling the rand and commodity prices: A Granger causality and cointegration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xolani Ndlovu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ‘commodity currency’ hypothesis of the Rand, that is, the postulate that the currency moves in line with commodity prices, and analyses the associated causality using nominal data between 1996 and 2010. We address both the short run and long run relationship between commodity prices and exchange rates. We find that while the levels of the series of both assets are difference stationary, they are not cointegrated. Further, we find the two variables are negatively related, with strong and significant causality running from commodity prices to the exchange rate and not vice versa, implying exogeneity in the determination of commodity prices with respect to the nominal exchange rate. The strength of the relationship is significantly weaker than other OECD commodity currencies. We surmise that the relationship is dynamic over time owing to the portfolio-rebalance argument and the Commodity Terms of Trade (CTT effect and, in the absence of an error correction mechanism, this disconnect may be prolonged. For commodity and currency market participants, this implies that while futures and forward commodity prices may be useful leading indicators of future currency movements, the price risk management strategies may need to be recalibrated over time.

  17. Aging management and life assessment of buried commodities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Jung, I. S.; Jo, H. S.; Kim, M. G.; Kim, S. T.; Lee, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    General field survey, inspection and life assessment were performed to establish effective aging management program of buried commodities in nuclear power plant. Basic informations on material characteristics, aging degradation experiences and maintenance history were gathered. Considering their degradation effects on power operation or safety, buried commodities were screened for the aging management priority. Various inspection techniques were applied in field survey and inspection, and their results were incorporated in the life assessment of buried commodities. In the aspect of aging degradation, general status of buried commodities were considered still sound while some revealed local degradation

  18. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  19. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  20. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Berndes, G.; Prieler, S.; Fischer, G.; Cueste Cabal, H.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  1. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.; Hou, Siqing

    2017-01-01

    baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number

  2. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands...... or management. Both the Accelerate Wales and the Accelerate Cluster programmes target this issue by trying to establish networks between companies that can be used to supply knowledge from research institutions to manufacturing companies. The paper concludes that public sector interventions can make...... businesses. The universities were not considered by the participating companies to be important parts of the local business environment and inputs from universities did not appear to be an important source to access knowledge about new product development or new techniques in production, distribution...

  3. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  4. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga ’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  5. Trade tensions between EU and Russia: Possible effects on trade in agricultural commodities for Visegrad countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper includes overview of the current state of the EU-CIS and the EU-Russia trade flows with particular attention to trade in agricultural commodities, as well as contemporary tendencies in agricultural production and foreign trade in agricultural commodities and food in Russia. The paper

  6. Energy and Food Commodity Prices Linkage: An Examination with Mixed-Frequency Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Is the relationship between energy and agricultural commodities an important factor in the increasing price variability of food commodities? Findings from the literature appear to be mixed and highly influenced by the data frequency used in those analysis. A recurrent task in time series

  7. 78 FR 25416 - Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms AGENCY: Farm Service Agency and Commodity..., and yearly bases. Special invitations, however, are issued throughout the month. Web-Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) allows respondents to submit information electronically. DATES: Comments on...

  8. 7 CFR 917.122 - Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits... members of Commodity Committees. (a) Public members shall not have a financial interest in or be associated with production, processing, financing, or marketing (except as consumers) of the commodities...

  9. 76 FR 37797 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-380] Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint... application. SUMMARY: Freepoint Commodities, LLC has requested authority to transmit electric energy from the... Commodities requesting authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada for ten years as...

  10. 22 CFR 201.64 - Application of the price rules to commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 201.64 Section 201.64 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES... purchase price of a commodity exceeds the price in comparable export sales or in comparable domestic sales... the determination of any prevailing market price of any commodity or any prevailing price or maximum...

  11. The Influence of Agricultural Commodity on F&B Company’s Performance in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofikoh Rokhim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the influence of agricultural commodity price movements on stock price and gross profit of food and beverage companies in Indonesia, as well as the effect of volatility prices of agricultural commodities. Using time series data of food and beverages (F&B companies that are listed at the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, this research calculating the event studies to find the abnormal returns. The results showed that the movement of agricultural commodity prices has a positive effect on stock prices of F&B companies, with the dominant influence of commodity prices of corn and sugar. Agricultural commodity prices also affect positively on gross profit F&B companies, with the dominant influence of commodity prices of corn and palm oil. The increase in prices of agricultural commodities simultaneously affect the value of a positive cumulative abnormal return for stocks of F&B companies. The results also showed that the decline of agricultural commodities simultaneously affect the value of negative cumulative abnormal return for stocks of F&B companies.

  12. 76 FR 28641 - Commodity Pool Operators: Relief From Compliance With Certain Disclosure, Reporting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ..., Division of Clearing and Intermediary Oversight, or Barbara S. Gold, Associate Director, Division of... Commission explained the origin and use of the term ``Commodity ETF''. \\6\\ Id. at 54795-96. Thus, the... permit the CPO of a Commodity ETF to claim relief from the specific Disclosure Document delivery and...

  13. Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannegiesser, M.; Günther, H.O.; Beek, van P.; Grunow, M.; Habla, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply

  14. 16 CFR 500.13 - Measurement of commodities by area measure only, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodities by area measure only, how expressed. For commodities measured in terms of area measure only declaration of net quantity in terms of square yards, square feet, and square inches shall be expressed in the... only, how expressed. 500.13 Section 500.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES...

  15. 16 CFR 500.16 - Measurement of container type commodities, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodities shall be expressed as follows: (1) For bag type commodities, in terms of count followed by linear... a dimension of 2 feet or more will be expressed in feet with any remainder in terms of inches or...) When the unit bag is gussetted, the dimensions will be expressed as width, depth and length in terms of...

  16. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in Sec. 740.18...

  17. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in section 740...

  18. General Equilibrium Model with a Convex Cone as the Set of Commodity Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model for an exchange economy which is an extension of the classical model as introduced by Arrow and Debreu.In the classical model, there is a nite number of commodi- ties and a nite number of consumers.The commodities are treated separately, and so a commodity bundle is

  19. Cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mucha, Hans-Joachim; Sofyan, Hizir

    2000-01-01

    As an explorative technique, duster analysis provides a description or a reduction in the dimension of the data. It classifies a set of observations into two or more mutually exclusive unknown groups based on combinations of many variables. Its aim is to construct groups in such a way that the profiles of objects in the same groups are relatively homogenous whereas the profiles of objects in different groups are relatively heterogeneous. Clustering is distinct from classification techniques, ...

  20. Overview of flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2011-01-01

    Metal supply consists of primary material from a mining operation and secondary material, which is composed of new and old scrap. Recycling, which is the use of secondary material, can contribute significantly to metal production, sometimes accounting for more than 50 percent of raw material supply. From 2001 to 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studied 26 metals to ascertain the status and magnitude of their recycling industries. The results were published in chapters A-Z of USGS Circular 1196, entitled, "Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States." These metals were aluminum (chapter W), antimony (Q), beryllium (P), cadmium (O), chromium (C), cobalt (M), columbium (niobium) (I), copper (X), germanium (V), gold (A), iron and steel (G), lead (F), magnesium (E), manganese (H), mercury (U), molybdenum (L), nickel (Z), platinum (B), selenium (T), silver (N), tantalum (J), tin (K), titanium (Y), tungsten (R), vanadium (S), and zinc (D). Each metal commodity was assigned to a single year: chapters A-M have recycling data for 1998; chapters N-R and U-W have data for 2000, and chapters S, T, and X-Z have data for 2004. This 27th chapter of Circular 1196 is called AA; it includes salient data from each study described in chapters A-Z, along with an analysis of overall trends of metals recycling in the United States during 1998 through 2004 and additional up-to-date reviews of selected metal recycling industries from 1991 through 2008. In the United States for these metals in 1998, 2000, and 2004 (each metal commodity assigned to a single year), 84 million metric tons (Mt) of old scrap was generated. Unrecovered old scrap totaled 43 Mt (about 51 percent of old scrap generated, OSG), old scrap consumed was 38 Mt (about 45 percent of OSG), and net old scrap exports were 3.3 Mt (about 4 percent of OSG). Therefore, there was significant potential for increased recovery from scrap. The total old scrap supply was 88 Mt, and the overall new

  1. Commodity Market Inefficiencies and Inflationary Pressures - India’s Economic Policy Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar GUPTA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the current pace of growth, India would emerge as a major player in the international market in terms of commodity consumption, production and trade. Going by trade volume and also the possibly as an identifiable influence on the price making process on the essential commodities, the futures and spot markets have shown major variations. Increased volatility in asset prices has been a major reason behind the integration of domestic financial markets with the international financial sector accentuating the demand for the trading in the derivative market. Though organized commodity trading has been in from the nineteenth century in India, the commodity derivative markets in the new form with nationwide electronic trading and access have opened the gates for speculators, hedgers and other market participants to capitalize on the development. The robust growth of the commodity markets can be observed in terms of number of commodities trade volumes and growing number of both the market participants and the commodity exchanges. Liquidity booms reflected by loose monetary policy are responsible for major surge in commodity prices globally in addition to direct tangible impacts of oil prices especially in developing countries with heavy oil imports like India. Futures markets are created to fulfill genuine desires economic functions of hedging and price discovery. But, enormous futures trading observed on the commodity exchanges have raised a host of issues like inflation guided by the fuelling principle implying the direct relationship between volatility and inflation. Huge price volatility in futures segment on the commodity exchanges has therefore raised concerns relating to the market efficiencies, infrastructure and knowledge and also their consequential impact on cash markets. The demand and supply side of the commodity price mechanism is traditionally governed by numerous factors including the climatic conditions, availability of critical

  2. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-09-14

    This crosswalk is based on the premise that there is a connection between the way mineral commodities are used and how this use is reflected in the economy. Raw mineral commodities are the basic materials from which goods, finished products, or intermediate materials are manufactured or made. Mineral commodities are vital to the development of the U.S. economy and they impact nearly every industrial segment of the economy, representing 12.2 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2014). In an effort to better understand the distribution of mineral commodities in the economy, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) attempts to link the end uses of mineral commodities to the corresponding North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

  3. Construction Method of Display Proposal for Commodities in Sales Promotion by Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masaki

    In a sales promotion task, wholesaler prepares and presents the display proposal for commodities in order to negotiate with retailer's buyers what commodities they should sell. For automating the sales promotion tasks, the proposal has to be constructed according to the target retailer's buyer. However, it is difficult to construct the proposal suitable for the target retail store because of too much combination of commodities. This paper proposes a construction method by Genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed method represents initial display proposals for commodities with genes, improve ones with the evaluation value by GA, and rearrange one with the highest evaluation value according to the classification of commodity. Through practical experiment, we can confirm that display proposal by the proposed method is similar with the one constructed by a wholesaler.

  4. Using commodity-indexed financing to fund OPEC/Alaska's development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa

    1992-01-01

    An impediment to the process of economic diversification in OPEC and Alaska is the lack of favourable access to local and international capital markets to finance development projects, particularly mineral resource development. This paper highlights the importance of commodity-indexed bonds, including oil- and gold- indexed bonds, as a financing alternative to supplement the supply shortage of loanable funds from conventional, local and international commercial banks. The indexation concept is discussed, features of different bonds issued to date are contrasted and the benefits and risks for borrowers and investors are highlighted. An analysis is made of the experience of OPEC and Alaska in using commodity-indexed bonds and the feasibility of Alaska and some OPEC countries entering into commodity-linked-financed joint ventures is examined. Future prospects for commodity-linked bonds are explored. Not withstanding the fact that the immediate market timing is unfavourable, the long-term benefits of commodity-indexed securities are recognized. (U.K.)

  5. Implementing the lattice Boltzmann model on commodity graphics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, Arie; Fan, Zhe; Petkov, Kaloian

    2009-01-01

    Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) can perform general-purpose computations in addition to the native specialized graphics operations. Due to the highly parallel nature of graphics processing, the GPU has evolved into a many-core coprocessor that supports high data parallelism. Its performance has been growing at a rate of squared Moore's law, and its peak floating point performance exceeds that of the CPU by an order of magnitude. Therefore, it is a viable platform for time-sensitive and computationally intensive applications. The lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) computations are carried out via linear operations at discrete lattice sites, which can be implemented efficiently using a GPU-based architecture. Our simulations produce results comparable to the CPU version while improving performance by an order of magnitude. We have demonstrated that the GPU is well suited for interactive simulations in many applications, including simulating fire, smoke, lightweight objects in wind, jellyfish swimming in water, and heat shimmering and mirage (using the hybrid thermal LBM). We further advocate the use of a GPU cluster for large scale LBM simulations and for high performance computing. The Stony Brook Visual Computing Cluster has been the platform for several applications, including simulations of real-time plume dispersion in complex urban environments and thermal fluid dynamics in a pressurized water reactor. Major GPU vendors have been targeting the high performance computing market with GPU hardware implementations. Software toolkits such as NVIDIA CUDA provide a convenient development platform that abstracts the GPU and allows access to its underlying stream computing architecture. However, software programming for a GPU cluster remains a challenging task. We have therefore developed the Zippy framework to simplify GPU cluster programming. Zippy is based on global arrays combined with the stream programming model and it hides the low-level details of the

  6. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  7. Halogen-Mediated Conversion of Hydrocarbons to Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ronghe; Amrute, Amol P; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-08

    Halogen chemistry plays a central role in the industrial manufacture of various important chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. It involves the reaction of halogens or halides with hydrocarbons, leading to intermediate compounds which are readily converted to valuable commodities. These transformations, predominantly mediated by heterogeneous catalysts, have long been successfully applied in the production of polymers. Recent discoveries of abundant conventional and unconventional natural gas reserves have revitalized strong interest in these processes as the most cost-effective gas-to-liquid technologies. This review provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamental understanding and applied relevance of halogen chemistry in polymer industries (polyvinyl chloride, polyurethanes, and polycarbonates) and in the activation of light hydrocarbons. The reactions of particular interest include halogenation and oxyhalogenation of alkanes and alkenes, dehydrogenation of alkanes, conversion of alkyl halides, and oxidation of hydrogen halides, with emphasis on the catalyst, reactor, and process design. Perspectives on the challenges and directions for future development in this exciting field are provided.

  8. Structural Prospects and Challenges for Bio Commodity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Narodoslawsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current discussion about dwindling reserves of crude oil, rising fuel prices, global warming and supply disruption of natural gas has renewed interest in the provision of bioenergy and bio-based commodity products. There is a growing consensus that the 21st century will see a profound change in the resource base for industry and society, with less emphasis on fossil coal, oil and gas and more emphasis on renewable resources. This new resource base may take the form either of direct solar energy like photovoltaics and thermal solar energy or indirect utilisation of solar energy via biomass. Such a change in the raw material base, however, entails a profound revolution in the structure of processes, technologies employed and the economical framework of industry and society. Renewable resources constitute 'limited infinity': although they may be provided for infinite time, their yield is limited. This paper explores the strategic challenges for society in general and process industry in particular, and indicates some methodological approaches to meet these challenges, exemplified in case studies about decentralised bioethanol production and decentralised multifunctional production centres. The paper shows that utilising renewable resources enlarges the process concept by including resource provision and logistics into the process design. It also highlights a new balance between economy and ecology of scale when resource provision and logistics are taken into account. Ecological process evaluation as analytical methods and process synthesis as design methods will gain increasing importance for process technology as the share of renewable resources is increased.

  9. Commodity hardware and open source solutions in FTU data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centioli, C.; Bracco, G.; Eccher, S.; Iannone, F.; Maslennikov, A.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.

    2004-01-01

    Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) data management system underwent several developments in the last year, mainly due to the availability of huge amount of open source software and cheap commodity hardware. First of all, we replaced the old and expensive four SUN/SOLARIS servers running AFS (Andrew File System) fusione.it cell with three SuperServer Supermicro SC-742. Secondly Linux 2.4 OS has been installed on our new cell servers and OpenAFS 1.2.8 open source distributed file system has replaced the commercial IBM/Transarc AFS. A pioneering solution - SGI's XFS file system for Linux - has been adopted to format one terabyte of FTU storage system on which the AFS volumes are based. Benchmark tests have shown the good performances of XFS compared to the classical ext3 Linux file system. Third, the data access software has been ported to Linux, together with the interfaces to Matlab and IDL, as well as the locally developed data display utility, SHOX. Finally a new Object-Oriented Data Model (OODM) has been developed for FTU shots data to build and maintain a FTU data warehouse (DW). FTU OODM has been developed using ROOT, an object oriented data analysis framework well-known in high energy physics. Since large volumes of data are involved, a parallel data extraction process, developed in the ROOT framework, has been implemented taking advantage of the AFS distributed environment of FTU computing system

  10. Commodity hardware and open source solutions in FTU data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centioli, C. E-mail: centioli@frascati.enea.it; Bracco, G.; Eccher, S.; Iannone, F.; Maslennikov, A.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V

    2004-06-01

    Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) data management system underwent several developments in the last year, mainly due to the availability of huge amount of open source software and cheap commodity hardware. First of all, we replaced the old and expensive four SUN/SOLARIS servers running AFS (Andrew File System) fusione.it cell with three SuperServer Supermicro SC-742. Secondly Linux 2.4 OS has been installed on our new cell servers and OpenAFS 1.2.8 open source distributed file system has replaced the commercial IBM/Transarc AFS. A pioneering solution - SGI's XFS file system for Linux - has been adopted to format one terabyte of FTU storage system on which the AFS volumes are based. Benchmark tests have shown the good performances of XFS compared to the classical ext3 Linux file system. Third, the data access software has been ported to Linux, together with the interfaces to Matlab and IDL, as well as the locally developed data display utility, SHOX. Finally a new Object-Oriented Data Model (OODM) has been developed for FTU shots data to build and maintain a FTU data warehouse (DW). FTU OODM has been developed using ROOT, an object oriented data analysis framework well-known in high energy physics. Since large volumes of data are involved, a parallel data extraction process, developed in the ROOT framework, has been implemented taking advantage of the AFS distributed environment of FTU computing system.

  11. Research on the Pricing of Bundling Information Commodity%信息产品的捆绑定价问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛彦妮; 王刊良; 王龙伟

    2003-01-01

    This article studies the characteristics of low marginal cost of information commodity and points out that bundling information commodity is surprisingly profitable. After an analysis of the three factors affecting the sales income of bundling information commodity, that is, marginal cost, distribution of consumer' s valuation of bundling commodity and bundling size, a marketing strategy for bundling information commodity is proposed.

  12. [Qualitative characteristics and classification study on commodity specification and grade standard of Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Hui; Xu, Na; Guo, Lan-Ping; Jin, Yan; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Ye; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-03-01

    Through the markets investigations and literature surveying, this paper investigates and analyzes the qualitative characteristics and commodity condition of Panax notoginseng. And the samples collected from market and origin were analyzed in order to revise the commodity specification and grade standard of P. notoginseng combined with production practice. In this paper, the authors divide the P. notoginseng into 4 commodity specification which are root (including Cunqi and Dongqi ), Rhizome and rootlet according to different parts and harvest time. And the root were divided into 8 grade which are 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 120, countless and substandard. The density and internal components between the different commodity specification and grade of P. notoginseng were also compared. As well as the effect of different producing area, cultivation years and harvesting time on the commodity specification and grade of P. notoginseng were researched. On this basis, we revise and improve the commodity specification and grade standard of P. notoginseng. Moreover, we suggest the quality control indexes of P. notoginseng should be developed according to the different medicinal part and commodity specification in CHP. In order to guide the standardized production of traditional Chinese medicine and ensure the quality of medicinal materials, the cultivation years and density of each medicinal materials should also be indicated in CHP. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two countries while the price transmission is related to the leading price signals of the CBT (Chicago Board of Trade. The integration between oil and ag-commodity markets is suggested both by the large use of energy intensive inputs, (fertilizer, seed, machinery in production of these ag-commodities, and their use in biofuel production. The results suggest: a for US market the evidence of market integration between crude oil and US ag-commodities; b for Italy the integration with US ag-commodity markets and less evidence of integration with the oil market. These results are valuable information both for the agents and policy makers contributing to improve the information accuracy to predict the price movements used by marketing operators for their strategies and policy makers to set up policies to re-establish conditions of market efficiency and allocate these ag-commodities in alternative market channels.

  14. Energy prices and agricultural commodity prices: Testing correlation using copulas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Krishna H.; Mishra, Ashok K.; D'Antoni, Jeremy M.; Mehlhorn, Joey E.

    2015-01-01

    The linear relationships between energy prices and prices for agricultural commodities such as corn and soybeans may have been affected, over the last several years, by policy legislations in the farm sector, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and the Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2014. Using high-frequency data and newer methodology, this study investigates dependence between agricultural commodity futures prices and energy futures prices. Results reveal that agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated and exhibit positive and significant relationship. Findings from this study highlight that an increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodities. - Highlights: • Energy policy mandates production of 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol by 2015. • Energy-intensive agriculture has a link between energy sector and crop production costs. • We investigate correlation between energy prices and agricultural commodity prices. • Agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated. • Increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodity

  15. The crucial relationship among energy commodity prices: Evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Vieira, Joel; Carrizo Moreira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is twofold to analyze: (a) the long-term relation among the commodities prices and between spot electricity market price and commodity prices, and (b) the short-term dynamics among commodity prices and between electricity prices and commodity prices. Data between 2002 and 2005 from the Spanish electricity market was used. Econometric methods were used in the analysis of the commodity spot price, namely the vector autoregression model, the vector error correction model and the granger causality test. The co-integration approach was used to analyze the long-term relationship between the common stochastic trends of four fossil fuel prices. One of the findings in the long-term relation is that the prices of fuel and the prices of Brent are intertwined, though the prices of Brent ten to 'move' to reestablish the price equilibrium. Another finding is that the price of electricity is explained by the evolution of the natural gas series. - Highlights: → We model energy commodity prices in the Spanish electricity market. → We examine the short and long-term relationships among commodities prices. → We examine short and long-term relationships using co-integration techniques. → We found that in the long run the prices of fuel and Brent are intertwined. → The evolution of price of electricity is explained by the evolution of price of gas.

  16. Dust Tolerant Commodity Transfer Interface Mechanisms for Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Tamasy, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Regolith is present on most planetary surfaces such as Earth's moon, Mars, and Asteroids. If human crews and robotic machinery are to operate on these regolith covered surfaces, they must face the consequences of interacting with regolith fines which consist of particles below 100 microns in diameter down to as small as submicron scale particles. Such fine dust will intrude into mechanisms and interfaces causing a variety of problems such as contamination of clean fluid lines, jamming of mechanisms and damaging connector seals and couplings. Since multiple elements must be assembled in space for system level functionality, it will be inevitable that interfaces will be necessary for structural connections, and to pass commodities such as cryogenic liquid propellants, purge and buffer gases, water, breathing air, pressurizing gases, heat exchange fluids, power and data. When fine regolith dust is present in the environment it can be lofted into interfaces where it can compromise the utility of the interface by preventing the connections from being successfully mated, or by inducing fluid leaks or degradation of power and data transmission. A dust tolerant, hand held "quick-disconnect" cryogenic fluids connector housing has been developed at NASA KSC which can be used by astronaut crews to connect flex lines that will transfer propellants and other useful fluids to the end user. In addition, a dust tolerant, automated, cryogenic fluid, multiple connector, power and data interface mechanism prototype has been developed, fabricated and demonstrated by NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The design and operation of these prototypes are explained and discussed.

  17. Immersive Visual Data Analysis For Geoscience Using Commodity VR Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Immersive visualization using virtual reality (VR) display technology offers tremendous benefits for the visual analysis of complex three-dimensional data like those commonly obtained from geophysical and geological observations and models. Unlike "traditional" visualization, which has to project 3D data onto a 2D screen for display, VR can side-step this projection and display 3D data directly, in a pseudo-holographic (head-tracked stereoscopic) form, and does therefore not suffer the distortions of relative positions, sizes, distances, and angles that are inherent in 2D projection. As a result, researchers can apply their spatial reasoning skills to virtual data in the same way they can to real objects or environments. The UC Davis W.M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES, http://keckcaves.org) has been developing VR methods for data analysis since 2005, but the high cost of VR displays has been preventing large-scale deployment and adoption of KeckCAVES technology. The recent emergence of high-quality commodity VR, spearheaded by the Oculus Rift and HTC Vive, has fundamentally changed the field. With KeckCAVES' foundational VR operating system, Vrui, now running natively on the HTC Vive, all KeckCAVES visualization software, including 3D Visualizer, LiDAR Viewer, Crusta, Nanotech Construction Kit, and ProtoShop, are now available to small labs, single researchers, and even home users. LiDAR Viewer and Crusta have been used for rapid response to geologic events including earthquakes and landslides, to visualize the impacts of sealevel rise, to investigate reconstructed paleooceanographic masses, and for exploration of the surface of Mars. The Nanotech Construction Kit is being used to explore the phases of carbon in Earth's deep interior, while ProtoShop can be used to construct and investigate protein structures.

  18. The influence of biofuels, economic and financial factors on daily returns of commodity futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algieri, Bernardina

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels production has experienced rapid growth worldwide as one of the several strategies to promote green energy economies. Indeed, climate change mitigation and energy security have been frequent rationales behind biofuel policies, but biofuels production could generate negative impacts, such as additional demand for feedstocks, and therefore for land on which to grow them, with a consequent increase in food commodity prices. In this context, this paper examines the effect of biofuels and other economic and financial factors on daily returns of a group of commodity futures prices using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) family models in univariate and multivariate settings. The results show that a complex of drivers are relevant in explaining commodity futures returns; more precisely, the Standard and Poor's (S and P) 500 positively affects commodity markets, while the US/Euro exchange rate brings about a decline in commodity returns. It turns out, in addition, that energy market returns are significant in explaining commodity returns on a daily basis, while monetary liquidity is not. This would imply that biofuel policy should be carefully monitored in order to avoid excessive first-generation subsidization, which would trigger a fuel vs. food conflict. - Highlights: • The effects of biofuels and other economic and financial factors on daily returns of commodity futures prices are examined. • A GARCH methodology in univariate and multivariate settings is adopted. • The results show that a complex of drivers is relevant in explaining commodity futures returns. • Energy market returns play a significant role in pushing commodity returns. • The increase in monetary liquidity does not contribute to changes in futures returns on a daily basis

  19. Performing Free Radioactive Certificate as an Effort to Protect Import and Export Commodities in Globalization Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunto-Wiharto; Syarbaini

    2001-01-01

    Several activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear accidents have caused radioactive contamination in local, regional and global environment. In globalization and free trade era, every country will be faced to the condition with the movable commodities from and to another countries. Global contamination through import and export commodities is a problem will be found every country in the future. Therefore, performing free radioactive certification on import and export commodities must be carried out to protect a member of public and environment from radioactive contamination. (author)

  20. Volatility behavior of oil, industrial commodity and stock markets in a regime-switching environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyongwook; Hammoudeh, Shawkat

    2010-01-01

    This study supplements previous regime-switching studies on WTI crude oil and finds two possible volatility regimes for the strategic commodity prices of Brent oil, WTI oil, copper, gold and silver, and the S and P 500 index, but with varying high-to-low volatility ratios. The dynamic conditional correlations (DCCs) indicate increasing correlations among all the commodities since the 2003 Iraq war but decreasing correlations with the S and P 500 index. The commodities also show different volatility persistence responses to financial and geopolitical crises, while the S and P 500 index responds to both financial and geopolitical crises. Implications are discussed.

  1. On the link between oil and commodity prices: a panel VAR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, Vincent; Hache, Emmanuel; Joets, Marc

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between the price of oil and a large dataset of commodity prices, relying on panel data settings. Using second generation panel co-integration tests, our findings show that the WTI and commodity prices are not linked in the long term. Nevertheless, considering our results in causality tests, we show that short-run relations exist, mainly from the price of crude oil to commodity prices. We thus implement a panel VAR estimation with an impulse response function analysis. Two main conclusions emerge: (i) fast co-movements are highlighted, while (ii) market efficiency is emphasized. (authors)

  2. Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei

  3. 17 CFR 1.1 - Fraud in or in connection with transactions in foreign currency subject to the Commodity Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in or in connection with... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.1 Fraud in or in connection with transactions in foreign currency subject to the...

  4. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  5. The Influence Of Highway Transportation Infrastructure Condition Toward Commodity Production Generation for The Resilience Needs at Regional Internal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbardin, Juang; Parikesit, Danang; Riyanto, Bambang; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2018-02-01

    The poultry commodity consumption and requirement is one of the main commodities that must be fulfilled in a region to maintain the availability of meat from poultry. Poultry commodity production is one of the production sectors that have a clean environment resistance. An increasing of poultry commodity generation production requires a smooth distribution to arrive at the processing. The livestock location as a commodity production is placed at a considerable far distance from residential and market locations. Zones that have poultry commodity production have an excess potential to supply other zones that are lacking in production to the consumption of these commodities. The condition of highway transportation infrastructure that is very diverse with the damage level availability in a zone has an influence in the supply and demand of poultry commodity requirement in the regional internal of Central Java province. In order to know the effect of highway transportation infrastructure condition toward the poultry commodity movement, demography factor and availability of freight vehicles will be reviewed to estimate the amount of poultry commodity movement generation production. Thus the poultry commodity consumption requirement that located in the internal - regional zone of central java province can be adequated from the zone. So it can be minimized the negative impacts that affect the environment at the zone in terms of comparison of the movement attraction and generation production at poultry commodity in Central Java.

  6. 31 CFR 103.17 - Reports by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious transactions. 103.17 Section 103.17 Money and... merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious transactions. (a) General—(1) Every futures commission merchant (“FCM”) and introducing broker in commodities (“IB-C”) within the United States shall...

  7. Using Institutional Effectiveness Data To Stimulate Improvement...Getting Data off the Shelf and into the Hands of Stakeholders. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sandy; Willekens, Rene G.

    This paper outlines a successful, stakeholder driven, continuous improvement process that is currently used at Estrella Mountain Community College, Arizona. The process is designed to address the next step of what to do with institutional effectiveness data after it has been collected and reported. Many institutional effectiveness processes stop…

  8. Field evaluation of commercial off-the-shelf spatial repellents against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and the potential for use during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Testing and Evaluation Department of the US Navy Entomology Center of Excellence (NECE), Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is dedicated to the evaluation of novel equipment and vector control techniques to provide guidance on effective protection measures against human pathogens transmit...

  9. Design and Implementation of a Unified Command and Control Architecture for Multiple Cooperative Unmanned Vehicles Utilizing Commercial Off the Shelf Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    used as the backbone link to the ground station , allowing for a single high power transceiver on the backbone UAV to extend the range of the team. This...Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. The views expressed in this document are...nation, and different cooperative missions. COTS components consisting primarily of open source hardware and software were integrated and tested based on

  10. Comparison of custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints and off-the-shelf ankle braces in preventing ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L

    2012-06-01

    A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.

  11. Evaluation of U.S. Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Hand-Held Assays to Detect Opiate Pain Reliever Compounds in Multiple Biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    plasma. The plasma was carefully removed from the tubes and aliquoted before storage at –80 °C. Urine samples were collected using syringes during...serum, urine , saliva, and environmental samples . The limit of detection (LOD) and specificity were also determined for these products. The final...followed the cervical dislocation procedure. Samples were collected from three inoculated rabbits, as shown in Figure 1. Blood, plasma, urine and saliva

  12. Evolutionary Process for Integrating COTS-Based Systems (EPIC): An Overview. Key Elements in Building, Fielding, and Supporting Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Based Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    .... The Evolutionary Process for Integrating COTS-based systems (EPIC) redefines acquisition, management, and engineering practices to more effectively leverage the COTS marketplace and other sources of pre-existing components...

  13. A novel silk–TCP–PEEK construct for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an off-the shelf alternative to a bone–tendon–bone autograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Snedeker, Jess G; He, Jiankang; Li, Dichen; Bian, Weiguo; Li, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Bone–tendon–bone autograft represents a gold-standard for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction but at the cost of a secondary surgical site that can be accompanied by functional impairment and discomfort. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated tissue engineering alternatives to autografting, the achievement of a functional histological transition between soft and hard tissue has remained elusive. To bridge this gap we developed and tested a novel multiphase scaffold of silk, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and polyether ether ketone for ACL reconstruction. We present in vitro biomechanical tests demonstrating that the construct recapitulates native ACL function under typical physiological loads. A pilot in vivo experiment in two pigs with a three-month follow-up showed a robust histological transition between regenerated fibrous tissue and the margins of the bone tunnel, with histological features similar to the native ACL to bone insertion. These histological observations suggest that the construct was stably anchored until TCP incorporation to the host tissues. On the strength of these preliminary results, we conclude that the described approach may offer a promising alternative to autograft for ACL reconstruction. This study thus provides proof for a concept that warrants further development. (paper)

  14. Using Low-Cost Off-the-Shelf Components for the Development of an On-Orbit CubeSat Centrifuge Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightholder, J.; Polak, A.; Gadau, F.; Thoesen, A.; Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.

    2015-01-01

    An orbital centrifuge laboratory designed for studying accretion experiments and surface dynamics of asteroids can be a low-cost technology development tool that minimize technology risk associated with landing, surface mobility and manipulation.

  15. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  16. SprayQc: a real-time LC-MS/MS quality monitoring system to maximize uptime using off the shelf components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Richard A; Mann, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    With the advent of high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, the magnitude and complexity of the performed experiments has increased dramatically. Likewise, investments in chromatographic and MS instrumentation are a large proportion of the budget of proteomics laboratories. Guarding measurement quality and maximizing uptime of the LC-MS/MS systems therefore requires constant care despite automated workflows. We describe a real-time surveillance system, called SprayQc, that continuously monitors the status of the peripheral equipment to ensure that operational parameters are within an acceptable range. SprayQc is composed of multiple plug-in software components that use computer vision to analyze electrospray conditions, monitor the chromatographic device for stable backpressure, interact with a column oven to control pressure by temperature, and ensure that the mass spectrometer is still acquiring data. Action is taken when a failure condition has been detected, such as stopping the column oven and the LC flow, as well as automatically notifying the appropriate operator. Additionally, all defined metrics can be recorded synchronized on retention time with the MS acquisition file, allowing for later inspection and providing valuable information for optimization. SprayQc has been extensively tested in our laboratory, supports third-party plug-in development, and is freely available for download from http://sourceforge.org/projects/sprayqc .

  17. Cryopreserved Off-the-Shelf Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Heart Failure-A Safety Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Juhl, Morten

    2017-01-01

    and ischemic heart failure (IHF). Batches of CSCC_ASC were isolated from three healthy donors by liposuction from abdominal adipose tissue. Adipose mesenchymal stromal cells were culture expanded in bioreactors without the use of animal constituents, cryopreserved, and stored in vials in nitrogen dry......The present first-in-human clinical trial evaluated the safety and feasibility of a newly developed and cryopreserved Cardiology Stem Cell Centre adipose-derived stromal cell (CSCC_ASC) product from healthy donors for intramyocardial injection in ten patients with ischemic heart disease......-storage containers until use. Direct injection of CSCC_ASC into the myocardium did not cause any complications or serious adverse events related to either treatment or cell administration in a 6-month follow-up period. Four out of ten heart failure patients developed donor-specific de novo human leukocyte antigen...

  18. Just-in-time cost-effective off-the-shelf remote telementoring of paramedical personnel in bedside lung sonography-a technical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegler, Nancy; McBeth, Paul B; Tevez-Molina, Martha C; McMillan, Janelle; Crawford, Innes; Hamilton, Douglas R; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2012-12-01

    Remote telementored ultrasound (RTMUS) is a new discipline that allows a remote expert to guide variably experienced clinical responders through focused ultrasound examinations. We used the examination of the pleural spaces after tube thoracostomy (TT) removal by a nurse with no prior ultrasound experience as an illustrative but highly accurate example of the technique using a simple cost-effective system. The image outputs of a handheld ultrasound machine and a head-mounted Web camera were input into a customized graphical user interface and streamed over a freely available voice over Internet protocol system that allowed two-way audio and visual communication between the novice examiner and the remote expert. The bedside nurse was then guided to examine the anterior chest of a patient who had recently had bilateral TTs removed. The team sought to determine the presence or absence of any recurrent pneumothoraces using the standard criteria for the ultrasound diagnosis of post-removal pneumothorax (PTXs). An upright chest radiograph (CXR) was obtained immediately after the RTMUS examination. The RTMUS system enabled the novice user to learn how to hold the ultrasound probe, where to place it on the chest, and thereafter to diagnose a subtle unilateral PTX characterized as "tiny" on the subsequent formal CXR report. As ultrasound has almost limitless clinical utility, using simple but advanced informatics and communication technologies has potential to improve worldwide healthcare delivery. RTMUS could be used both to enhance the information content as well as to digitally document important physiologic findings in any clinical encounter wherever a portable ultrasound and Internet connectivity are available.

  19. A very-low-cost dosimeter based on the off-the-shelf CD4007 MOSFET array for in vivo radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebel, O.F.; Pereira, J.G.; Souza, R.S.; Ramirez-Fernandez, F.J.; Schneider, M.C.; Galup-Montoro, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a low-cost MOSFET dosimeter suitable for in vivo radiotherapy applications. We analyze different methods to extract the threshold voltage and how this extraction is affected by the dose dependence of slope factor and carrier mobility. Also, we discuss fundamental aspects of the basic building blocks of a MOSFET dosimeter, namely, the radiation sensor, the reader circuit and temperature desensitization. Methods: Experiments with ionizing radiation (6 MV X-ray beams) were carried out at the Centro de Pesquisas Oncológicas (CEPON) using linear accelerators to test the MOSFET dosimeter. Results: The main performance parameters of the dosimeter prototype are radiation sensitivity about 100 mV/Gy (sensor's sensitivity is around 6.7 mV/Gy), thermal dependence of 0.5 cGy/°C, reproducibility is about 2.6%, and radiation beam attenuation of 0.14%. Conclusions: The MOSFET dosimeter described in this article, which combines a simple and accurate readout procedure with a small size, low-cost, cable/battery-free sensor and very little attenuation of the radiation beam is a very appealing option for in vivo dosimetry. - Highlights: • We present a low-cost, cable/battery-free MOSFET sensor for radiotherapy. • We analyze methods to extract the key MOSFET dosimetric parameter (V T ). • We discuss fundamental aspects of building blocks of a MOSFET dosimeter. • Reproducibility (2.6%) comparable to commercial MOSFET dosimeters (1.7%). • Similar responses to radiation with commercial TLDs (S.D. around 2%)

  20. Cryopreserved Off-the-Shelf Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Heart Failure-A Safety Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Juhl, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The present first-in-human clinical trial evaluated the safety and feasibility of a newly developed and cryopreserved Cardiology Stem Cell Centre adipose-derived stromal cell (CSCC_ASC) product from healthy donors for intramyocardial injection in ten patients with ischemic heart disease...... and ischemic heart failure (IHF). Batches of CSCC_ASC were isolated from three healthy donors by liposuction from abdominal adipose tissue. Adipose mesenchymal stromal cells were culture expanded in bioreactors without the use of animal constituents, cryopreserved, and stored in vials in nitrogen dry...... developed cryopreserved product CSCC_ASC from healthy donors was a safe and feasible treatment. We observed a tendency toward efficacy in patients with IHF. These findings have to be confirmed in larger placebo controlled clinical trials. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1963-1971....

  1. Decontamination Efficacy of Three Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sporicidal Agents on Medium-Sized Panels Contaminated with Surrogates of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Pressure-treated (PT) wood lumber All the panels were made with 7/16 in. thick 4 ft2 oriented strand board ( OSB ) as a backing material (Home Depot...No. 2B finish 20 gauge) stainless steel sheets glued to the OSB backing board with construction adhesive to form a single 4 ft2 panel. PT lumber...PT lumber was secured to the OSB with a single VA in. exterior screw (Home Depot [Cat. No. 131-537]) at each end of the board. The brick panels were

  2. Measurement Method of Temporal Attenuation by Human Body in Off-the-Shelf 60 GHz WLAN with HMM-Based Transmission State Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Koda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a measurement method of time-variant attenuation of IEEE 802.11ad wireless LAN signals in the 60 GHz band induced by human blockage. The IEEE 802.11ad access point (AP transmits frames intermittently, not continuously. Thus, to obtain the time-varying signal attenuation, it is required to estimate the duration in which the AP transmitted signals. To estimate whether the AP transmitted signals or not at each sampling point, this paper applies a simple two-state hidden Markov model. In addition, the validity of the model is tested based on Bayesian information criterion in order to prevent model overfitting and consequent invalid results. The measurement method is validated in that the distribution of the time duration in which the signal attenuates by 5 dB is consistent with the existing statistical model and the range of the measured time duration in which the signal attenuation decreases from 5 dB to 0 dB is similar to that in the previous report.

  3. A Comparison of Two Commercial Off the Shelf Backpacks to the Modular Lightweight Load Carrying Equipment (MOLLE) in Biomechanics, Metabolic Cost and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaFiandra, Michael

    2003-01-01

    ...) and to compare these packs to MOLLE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the COTS ILBE systems on biomechanics, oxygen consumption and performance on militarily relevant tasks...

  4. Decontamination efficacy of three commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS sporicidal disinfectants on medium-sized panels contaminated with surrogate spores of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Edmonds

    Full Text Available In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation's remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm, resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2 panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types.

  5. Det-WiFi: A Multihop TDMA MAC Implementation for Industrial Deterministic Applications Based on Commodity 802.11 Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless control system for industrial automation has been gaining increasing popularity in recent years thanks to their ease of deployment and the low cost of their components. However, traditional low sample rate industrial wireless sensor networks cannot support high-speed application, while high-speed IEEE 802.11 networks are not designed for real-time application and not able to provide deterministic feature. Thus, in this paper, we propose Det-WiFi, a real-time TDMA MAC implementation for high-speed multihop industrial application. It is able to support high-speed applications and provide deterministic network features since it combines the advantages of high-speed IEEE802.11 physical layer and a software Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA based MAC layer. We implement Det-WiFi on commercial off-the-shelf hardware and compare the deterministic performance between 802.11s and Det-WiFi under the real industrial environment, which is full of field devices and industrial equipment. We changed the hop number and the packet payload size in each experiment, and all of the results show that Det-WiFi has better deterministic performance.

  6. 75 FR 5877 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP): Amendment Removing Priority Given to Women, Infants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Education, Food assistance programs, Grant programs--health, Grant programs--social programs, Indians... requirements, Surplus agricultural commodities, Women. 0 Accordingly, 7 CFR part 247 is amended as follows...

  7. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative analysis results of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from various mining commodities in South Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of elements in DPM samples. For this screening...

  8. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanelov, Valeri; Alam, Mohammad J.; McKenzie, Andrew M.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: → We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. → A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. → Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  9. Primary commodity export and economic growth in sub sahara africa: evidence from panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ocran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper sought to examine the impact of instability in primary commodity export earnings and the level of commodity dependence on economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA.  Fixed effects panel data estimator was used in the empirical estimation. The findings of the study suggest that there is a negative relationship between instability in export earnings and economic growth. The results also indicate that the level of commodity dependence matter in determining economic growth in the region. The results of the paper have economic development policy implications for SSA economies and these are not farfetched. First, it appears the difficult growth experience of SSA is not solely due to instability in export receipts. The question of continued dependence on a narrow range of primary commodities is also matter of great importance.

  10. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanelov, Valeri, E-mail: valeri.natanelov@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Alam, Mohammad J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University (Bangladesh); McKenzie, Andrew M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, AR (United States); Van Huylenbroeck, Guido [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: > We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. > A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. > Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  11. Trends and volatility in sub Saharan Africa’s key primary commodity exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ocran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a GARCH model the paper sought to test the hypothesis that price volatility of key Sub Saharan Africa primary commodity exports, have not changed over the past four decades. Whilst crude oil, aluminium, cocoa and six others have not experienced significant change in price volatility over the period, nine other major commodities recorded changes. Efforts need to be made to extensively diversify the portfolio of agricultural commodity exports by including new products of which price volatilities in the past decades have been reduced. This is crucial for countries that depend on up to three primary commodities for the bulk of their foreign exchange earnings. Other measures such as value addition can also help in reducing impacts of unfavourable price movements.

  12. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... sell the donated commodities at a reasonable market price in the economy where the sale occurs. The...

  13. COST ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEMS FOR THE MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION OF MULTIPLE FOOD COMMODITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Epperson, James E.; Helmreich, D.P.; Moon, Leonard C.; Carley, Dale H.; Huang, Chung L.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors make cost comparisons among alternative computerized marketing systems. The systems described could encompass any number of commodities and stages of distribution involving cash and/or futures transactions.

  14. The Dutch pork chain: a commodity system resisting threats from the market and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Casabianca, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch pork sector can be characterized as one massive, homogeneous commodity system, resisting diversification. A closer look at innovation strategies and initiatives leads to the conclusion that efforts are being made to enhance sustainability (including economic viability) through

  15. Directions for Determining Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation with Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones for commodity and food handling structural applications are distributed across numerous tables. This document provides directions for determining the factors to use to identify the correct table for a given application.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  17. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  18. Market interdependence among commodity prices based on information transmission on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Guo, Jian-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviour on the Internet has become a synchro-projection of real society. In this paper, we introduce the public concern derived from query volumes on the Web to empirically analyse the influence of information on commodity markets (e.g., crude oil, heating oil, corn and gold) using multivariate GARCH models based on dynamic conditional correlations. The analysis found that the changes of public concern on the Internet can well depict the changes of market prices, as the former has significant Granger causality effects on market prices. The findings indicate that the information of external shocks to commodity markets could be transmitted quickly, and commodity markets easily absorb the public concern of the information-sensitive traders. Finally, the conditional correlation among commodity prices varies dramatically over time.

  19. A policy-oriented cost model for shipping commodities by truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Surprisingly, transportation planners and policy makers do not have the ability to estimate the cost of shipping a quantity of a commodity between two : locations for broad categories of goods. Costs of shipping are important components in mode, rout...

  20. Impacts of the Federal Energy Acts and Other Influences on Prices of Agricultural Commodities and Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Most of the increase in ethanol production in the 2008-2012 period can be attributed to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and earlier federal energy legislation. The expansion in U.S. biofuel production, particularly ethanol, was the predominant cause of the elevated commodity prices. Other influences documented were a weak dollar, speculation and an increasingly inelastic commodity demand function. The supply function displayed more elasticity as crop farmers responded ...

  1. A two-commodity perishable inventory system | Sivakumar | ORiON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a two-commodity perishable stochastic inventory system under continuous review at a service facility with a finite waiting room. The maximum storage capacity for the i-th item is fixed as Si (i = 1,2). We assume that a demand for the i-th commodity is of unit size. The arrival instants of customers to the service ...

  2. Does Excluding Cross-commodity Interactions Matter? Beef and Lamb in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Siobahn K.; Piggott, Roley R.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Griffith, Garry R.

    2003-01-01

    Australian broadacre agriculture is typified by strong cross-commodity relationships, where sheep and cattle grazing enterprises compete for pasture and both compete with wheat and other crops for land. Further, some commodities produced by multi-product farms are also used in the production of final products that are substitutes in demand, such as beef and lamb. Economic analyses of the beef market, for example, should also include consideration of the market for the related product, lamb. I...

  3. A Conceptual Overview to Understand Commodities, Linkages and Industrial Development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplinsky, Raphael; Morris, Mike; Kaplan, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Sahara African commodity exporting economies have benefitted greatly from the commodities boom of the past decade. The conventional wisdom argues that resource extraction is corrosive of industrial development due to a combination of the macroeconomic consequences of resource exploitation and the assumed enclave nature of mineral and energy extraction. The paper challenges this pessimistic ‘resource curse’ argument, arguing that there are unexploited opportunities for promoting industrial...

  4. The Effects of Digital Marketing of Unhealthy Commodities on Young People: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Limin Buchanan; Bridget Kelly; Heather Yeatman; Kishan Kariippanon

    2018-01-01

    The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers’ product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people’s attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electro...

  5. International commodity prices, growth and the outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2007-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  6. International Commodity Prices, Growth, and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2009-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  7. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  8. Determinants of prices increase of agricultural commodities in a global context1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borychowski Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present the determinants of increase in agricultural commodity prices after 2006. The other specific aim is to show the factors affecting agricultural raw materials and food prices in the global context. This article is a review paper of the determinants of recent commodity and food prices spikes. However, it provides an outlook on these determinants that were the most important for the increases in the last decade. The last part of the article (conclusions to some extent is a synthesis of considerations and includes the authors’ opinions concerning determinants and an attempt to identify which ones were the most important in the growth of agricultural commodity prices. These increases in agricultural commodity prices resulted from many factors and it is very difficult to separate the individual impact of each of them, because they occurred in parallel. However, it is possible to indicate several main reasons for these price increases, which are: adverse changes in supply-demand relations in agricultural markets, increases in oil prices (and increases of the volatility of those prices, development of biofuel production from agricultural commodities (the first generation biofuels, dollar depreciation, an increase in operations of a speculative nature on commodity markets and improper economic policy that created an environment for the growth of prices of agricultural products.

  9. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Elser

    Full Text Available Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum. Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  10. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  11. Approaches for Making High Performance Polymer Materials from Commodity Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xi

    2004-01-01

    A brief surrey of ongoing research work done for improving and enhancing the properties of commodity polymers by the author and author's colleagues is given in this paper. A series of high performance polymers and polymer nanomaterials were successfully prepared through irradiation and stress-induced reactions of polymers and hydrogen bonding. The methods proposed are viable, easy in operation, clean and efficient.1. The effect of irradiation source (UV light, electron beam, γ -ray and microwave), irradiation dose, irradiation time and atmosphere etc. on molecular structure of polyolefine during irradiation was studied. The basic rules of dominating oxidation, degradation and cross-linking reactions were mastered. Under the controlled conditions, cross-linking reactions are prevented, some oxygen containing groups are introduced on the molecular chain of polyolefine to facilitate the interface compatibility of their blends. A series of high performance polymer materials: u-HDPE/PA6,u-HDPE/CaCO3, u-iPP/STC, γ-HDPE/STC, γ-LLDPE/ATH, e-HDPE, e-LLDPE and m-HDPEfilled system were prepared (u- ultraviolet light irradiated, γ- γ-ray irradiated, e- electron beam irradiated, m- microwave irradiated)2. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation, jet and pan-milling on structure and changes in properties of polymers were studied. Imposition of critical stress on polymer chain can cause the scission of bonds to form macroradicals. The macroradicals formed in this way may recombine or react with monomer or other radicals to form linear, branched or cross-linked polymers or copolymers. About 20 kinds of block/graft copolymers have been synthesized from polymer-polymer or polymer-monomer through ultrasonic irradiation.Through jet-milling, the molecular weight of PVC is decreased somewhat, the intensity of its crystalline absorption bonds becomes indistinct. The processability, the yield strength, strength at break and elongation at break of PVC get increased quite a lot after

  12. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  13. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  14. 75 FR 27798 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Commodity-Based Clustered Storage Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...) with instructions on it that allows it to perform certain functions of preventing piracy of software... and HDD canisters usually include a disk array controller frame which effects the interface between the subsystem's storage units and a CPU. In this case, the software effects the interconnection...

  15. IMPACTS OF AFRICA'S TOTAL AND COMMODITY-BASED TRADE WITH CHINA AND OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Bayraktar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the changes in the pattern of Africa’s trade with China and OECD countries, and the impacts of these changes on sub-Saharan Africa’s economic growth. In the study, the country-level total exports and imports, as well as the commodity-based exports and imports are considered for 42 sub-Saharan African countries between 1980 and 2014. The results show that as the share of China in sub-Saharan Africa’s trade has significantly increased, a declining trend is observed for OECD countries, traditional trading partners. Despite changing trade links, the investigation of the commodity-based exports and imports indicate that the types of imported and exported commodities have not changed much for Africa. However, a strong link is observed between economic growth in SSA and its changing trade links from the OECD countries towards China at the total level as well as at the commodity level. The study concludes that there is an increase in the international competition for Africa’s commodities, and resulting in improvements in the terms of trade has led to higher income growth in the region.

  16. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  17. Phytosanitary irradiation of fresh tropical commodities in Hawaii: Generic treatments, commercial adoption, and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, Peter A.; Weinert, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii is a pioneer in the use of phytosanitary irradiation. The commercial X-ray irradiation facility, Hawaii Pride LLC, has been shipping papaya and other tropical fruits and vegetables to the United States mainland using irradiation for 11 years. Irradiation is an approved treatment to control quarantine pests in 17 fruits and 7 vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Hawaiian purple sweet potato is the highest volume product with annual exports of more than 12 million lbs (5500 t). The advent of generic radiation treatments for tephritid fruit flies (150 Gy) and other insects (400 Gy) will accelerate commodity export approvals and facilitate worldwide adoption. Lowering doses for specific pests and commodities can lower treatment costs and increase capacity owing to shorter treatment times, and will minimize any quality problems. Current impediments to wider adoption include the 1 kGy limit for fresh horticultural products, the labeling requirement, and non-acceptance of phytosanitary irradiation in Japan, the European Union, and elsewhere. Irradiation has potential as a treatment for unregulated imports to prevent new pest incursions. - Highlights: ► Irradiation is used to control quarantine insects in exported fresh commodities. ► Hawaii exported 5.7 t of tropical produce using irradiation in 2010. ► Generic radiation treatments will accelerate commodity export approvals. ► Lowering the dose for specific commodities will reduce costs/maintain quality. ► Current issues include the 1 kGy dose limit and labeling requirements.

  18. The Character of Price Transmission Within Milk Commodity Chain in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Dudová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on price transmission within milk commodity chain in the Czech Republic. The article distinct on milk products with low value added – cow milk/paper box milk and products with higher value added – cow milk/butter. Price transmission is measured by the coefficient of elasticity of the price transmission (EPT; price transfer is examined in demand as well as supply direction. Next part of the analysis measures price differences (by coefficient determination – R2 in supply direction. Last step in this analysis is the impact of time delay at the price transmission process (measured by R2. The price transmission is asymmetric in the supply direction on both parts of commodity chain (EPT = 0.29 and 0.62, in the demand direction is more symmetric (EPT = 0.31 and 1.02. The assumption of better transfer of positive price changes was confirmed. At the commodity chain of milk/dairy products the time delay is not so much important. With both tested commodity chains there was found higher power of downstream markets, proving demand driven behaviour of these commodity chains, and there was detected oligopsony market structure as well. The data represent monthly prices on both chosen vertical levels in the period of 1/2000–8/2013.

  19. Determine the optimal carrier selection for a logistics network based on multi-commodity reliability criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2013-05-01

    From the perspective of supply chain management, the selected carrier plays an important role in freight delivery. This article proposes a new criterion of multi-commodity reliability and optimises the carrier selection based on such a criterion for logistics networks with routes and nodes, over which multiple commodities are delivered. Carrier selection concerns the selection of exactly one carrier to deliver freight on each route. The capacity of each carrier has several available values associated with a probability distribution, since some of a carrier's capacity may be reserved for various orders. Therefore, the logistics network, given any carrier selection, is a multi-commodity multi-state logistics network. Multi-commodity reliability is defined as a probability that the logistics network can satisfy a customer's demand for various commodities, and is a performance indicator for freight delivery. To solve this problem, this study proposes an optimisation algorithm that integrates genetic algorithm, minimal paths and Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products. A practical example in which multi-sized LCD monitors are delivered from China to Germany is considered to illustrate the solution procedure.

  20. SUBJECTIVITY UNDER CONSUMERISM: THE TOTALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT AS A COMMODITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This theoretical work discusses consumerism's processes of subjectivation and their psychological consequences. Its regime is studied through its social imaginary and its totalitarian character: the discourse of advertising, as a global hegemon, absorbs all forms of discourse and signification, thereby actualizing capitalism's telos - the colonization of the Lebenswelt under a great imperative: everything must become a commodity, especially the subject. A process of totalization of subjectivity occurs under a commodification logic centered on the representation: every image must be transformed into commodity-signs. Thus the consumption imaginary appears as a totalizing ideology, functioning as archaic représentations collectives (Durkheim and simulating a religious imaginary. It mass-produces subjectivity through participation mystique (Lévy-Bruhl with its commodity-signs (and their fetish and the whole imaginary. Its subject is defined as a bricolage of consumable commodity-signs, being therefore eternally fluid, performative, and ethereal. Thus it produces an anthropological mutation, the commodity-subject: a disposable, empty, thoroughly commodified self.