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Sample records for commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites

  1. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , Cl - , S 2-

  2. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from two currently operating commercial radioactive waste disposal sites; one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. Soil samples believed to be representative of the soil that will contact the buried waste were collected and analyzed. Earth resistivities (field measurements), from both sites, supply information to identify variations in subsurface material. Barnwell soil resistivities (laboratory measurements) range from 3.6 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 8.9 x 10 4 ohm-cm. Soil resistivities of the Hanford sample vary from 3.0 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 6.6 x 10 3 ohm-cm. The Barnwell and Hanford soil pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.4 and from 4.0 to 7.2 respectively. The pH of a 1:2 mixture of soil to 0.01 M CaCl 2 resulted in a pH for the Barnwell samples of 3.9 +- 0.1 and for the Hanford samples of 7.4 +- 0.2. These values are comparable to the pH measurements of the water extract of the soils used for the analyses of soluble ion content of the soils. The exchange acidity of the soils was found to be approximately 7 mg-eq per 100 g of dry soil for clay material from Barnwell, whereas the Hanford soils showed an alkaline reaction. Aqueous extracts of saturated pastes were used to determine the concentrations of the following ions: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , SO 4 /sup =/, and Cl - . The sulfide content of each of the soils was measured in a 1:2.5 mixture of soil to an antioxidant buffer solution. The concentrations of soluble ions found in the soils from both sites are consistent with the high resistivities

  3. US Geological Survey studies of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites - a summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has completed geohydrologic investigations of five commercial low-level, radioactive-waste disposal sites. Final reports on two of the sites have been released and the remaining three will be published this year. A highly permeable glacial sand, originally thought to be discontinuous, has proven to be continuous in narrow channel deposits at the site near Sheffield, Illinois. These deposits have provided pathways for tritium-contaminated ground water to move off site. At another site, near West Valley, New York, the distribution and geohydrologic characteristics of the fine-grained glacial sediments have been studied and documented. Contaminants have not been detected in ground water away from the site. Studies at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site, indicated that only 0.1 inches of precipitation percolates through bedrock from the site to the valley floor annually. Investigations at the arid Beatty, Nevada site, have been directed toward the geohydrologic characterization of unaturated sediments at the site. A significant finding of geohydrologic investigation of the Barnwell, South Carolina site, was that cobalt 60 in ground water percolating through the bottom of one trench diminished to undetectable levels of concentration within 6 feet of the trench bottom. This fact suggests that soil characteristisc at the site are effective in impending transport of that, and perhaps other, radionuclides. 6 references

  4. Commercial radioactive waste disposal: marriage or divorce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the state (South Carolina) is doing a good job in regulating the South Carolina disposal facility of Chemo-Nuclear Inc., and that there is no need for the NRC to reassert Federal control. The efforts in developing a low-level site in New Mexico are described. The NRC Task Force report on Federal/state regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds is discussed

  5. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  6. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960's through 1990's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960's through early 1990's), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site's general design, (2) each site's inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site's chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington

  7. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  8. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  9. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated

  10. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  11. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  12. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  13. Economics model for new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report describes LLWECON, an interactive computer mode for evaluating financial factors involved in low-level radioactive waste disposal. The logic by which LLWECON calculates the final generator price (price per cubic foot the disposal site operator charges waste generators) is detailed. Required user input and hypothetical examples, covering sites with different capacities, and both public and private-sector development, are included

  14. Modeling of a sedimentary rock alternative for the siting of the radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2007-01-01

    Here are described the main concepts, the approximations, and all those simulation aspects that characterize the modeling performed using the unsaturated saturated approach for porous media. The objective of this work is to obtain a generic description of a sedimentary rock soil as an alternative site for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system. (author) [es

  15. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    US Ecology is the State of California's designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In March 1988, a site in the Ward Valley of California's Mojave Desert was chosen for development. Strong local community support has been expressed for the site. US Ecology anticipates licensing and constructing a facility to receive waste by early 1991. This schedule places California well ahead of the siting milestones identified in Federal law. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs

  16. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Jaffe, M.

    1984-09-01

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  17. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report assumes that local opposition is a critical issue in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although it recognizes the importance of local health and safety concerns, this report only addresses the economic issues facing local officials in the siting process. Finding ways to overcome local opposition through economic compensation and incentives is a basic step in the waste facility siting process. The report argues that the use of these compensation and incentive mechanisms can help achieve greater local acceptance of waste facilities and also help ease the economic burdens that many communities bear when they agree to host a low-level waste disposal facility. The growing national need for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires that state and local planning agencies develop creative new procedures for siting facilities, procedures that are sensitive to local perceptions and effects

  18. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  19. Development of new low level radioactive waste disposal sites: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert T.; Antonucci, George J.; Ryan, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the development of three new low level radioactive waste disposal facilities for the Central Midwest (Illinois), Southeastern (North Carolina) and Appalachian (Pennsylvania) compacts is presented. These three sites will dispose of about 50-65 percent of the commercial low-level waste (LLW) generated in the U.S. annually. Chem-Nuclear, as developer and proposed operator of all three sites has used a common approach to site development. This approach has been based on their twenty-plus years of operating experience and a standard technical approach. The technology employed is an above-grade, multiple engineered barrier design. The paper also contrasts actual progress at each site with a generalized project schedule. Areas of schedule delays are noted along with the steps being taken to accelerate schedule. Finally, we note that continued progress and timely start-up of operations of these new sites is critical on a national basis. This is due to the possibility of near-term closure of the existing LLW disposal sites. (author)

  20. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bongwoo

    2007-01-01

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  1. Nonradiological groundwater quality at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    The NRC is investigating appropriate regulatory options for disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing nonradiological hazardous constituents, as defined by EPA regulations. Standard EPA/RCRA procedures to determine hazardous organics, metals, indicator parameters, and general water quality are applied to samples from groundwater monitoring wells at two commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. At the Sheffield, IL site (nonoperating), several typical organic solvents are identified in elevated concentrations in onsite wells and in an offsite area exhibiting elevated tritium concentrations. At the Barnwell, SC site (operating), only very low concentrations of three organics are found in wells adjacent to disposal units. Hydrocarbons associated with petroleum products are detected at both sites. Hazardous constituents associated with previosuly identified major LLW mixed waste streams, toluene, xylene, chromium, and lead, are at or below detection limits or at background levels in all samples. Review of previously collected data also supports the conclusion that organic solvents are the primary nonradiological contaminants associated with LLW disposal

  2. Characterization of trench water at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Francis, A.J.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently the United States Geological Survey is conducting a study of the hydrogeological and geochemical behavior of commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The data collected from this study will be used to establish criteria for selection of new sites for disposal of radioactive wastes. As part of this study, water samples from trenches at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the source terms of the radionuclides and other components in solution in the trenches. Procedures for collection and filtration of the samples under anoxic conditions are described. The samples were analyzed for inorganic, radiochemical and organic constituents. The inorganic analysis includes the measurements of pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and various cations and anions. The radionuclides were measured by the gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, and gamma activities, followed by specific measurements of strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes. The organics were extracted, concentrated, and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Considerable quantities of organics were detected in all of the trench waters sampled. Specific organics were found in most of the trenches, however, the organic composition of the trench waters vary. The presence of a variety of organic compounds in trench waters suggest that they may play an important role in the transport of radionuclides

  3. Selection of radioactive waste disposal site considering natural processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose the radioactive waste, it is necessary to consider the transfer of material in natural environment. The points of consideration are 1) Long residence time of water 2) Independence of biosphere from the compartment containing the disposal site in the natural hydrologic cycle 3) Dilution with the natural inactive isotope or the same group of elements. Isotope dilution for 129 I and 14 C can be expected by proper selection of the site. 241 Am and 239 Pu will be homogenized into soil or sediment with insoluble elements such as iron and aluminium. For 237 Np and 99 Tc anionic condition is important for the selection. From the point of view of hydrologic cycle, anoxic dead water zone avoiding beneath mountain area is preferable for the disposal site. (author)

  4. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States

  5. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

  6. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  7. A framework of dynamic analysis for risks asociated with human activity at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, H.; Masuda, S.

    1989-01-01

    Human intrusive actions at radioactive waste disposal sites which cause radiological impact were identified in connection with other events and processes on the influence diagram. The scenarios of less likely events including human intrusive actions were generated from the diagram and then treated by probabilistic way. For assigning probabilities of events dynamically, simultaneous difference equations were introduced and simple general solutions which satisfy the equations were used to illustrate the example calculations for both direct and indirect impacts by human intrusive actions such as drilling/mining and pumping of groundwater. The method developed here will be useful for both scenario screening in overall scenario study and risk calculation combined with consequence analysis

  8. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  9. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  10. Siting Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Egypt (Proposal approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods and suitable criteria. Near surface disposal method has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. Establishing site criteria is the first step in the sitting process to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  11. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  12. Radioactive waste disposal sites: Two successful closures at Tinker Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, G.; Mohatt, J.V.; Kowall, S.J.; Jarvis, M.F.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes remediation and closure of two radioactive waste disposal sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, making them exemption regulatory control. The approach consisted of careful exhumation and assessment of soils in sites expected to be contaminated based on historical documentation, word of mouth, and geophysical surveys; removal of buried objects that had gamma radiation exposure levels above background; and confirmation that the soil containing residual radium-226 was below an activity level equal to no more than a 10 mrem/yr annual dose equivalent. In addition, 4464 kg of chemically contaminated excavated soils were removed for disposal. After remediation, the sites met standards for unrestricted use. These sites were two of the first three Air Force radioactive disposal sites to be closed and were the first to be closed under Draft NUREG/CR-5512

  13. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Status of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal site - construction sequencing and staffing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been attempting to develop a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Texas for more than fourteen years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization was completed in 1992, and a license application was filed that year. Construction plans were completed in 1993. In April 1996, the licensing agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, completed its review and proposed to issue a license. The administrative hearings on the proposed license should be completed by July 1997. The Authority is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a final license can be issued

  15. Hydraulic containment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: [Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Noss, R.R.; Miller, A.B.; Phillips, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the use of impermeable barriers for the containment of liquid radioactive wastes at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Included are a review of existing barrier systems, assessments of laboratory and field data, and simulations of system performance under humid and arid conditions. Alternatives are identified as the most promising of the existing systems based on retention of irradiated water, field installation feasibility, and response to aggressive permeation. In decreasing order of preference, the favored systems are asphalt slurry, high density polyethylene synthetic liner, polyvinyl chloride synthetic liner, lean portland cement concrete, and compacted bentonite liner. It should be stressed that all five of these alternatives effectively retain irradiated water in the humid and arid simulations. Recommendations on the design and operation of the hydraulic containment system and suggestions on avenues for future research are included. 102 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Obstacle factors and overcoming plans of public communication: With an emphasis on radioactive waste disposal facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hae-Woon; Oh, Chang-Taeg

    1996-01-01

    Korea is confronting a serious social conflict, which is phenomenon of local residents reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility. This phenomenon is traced back to the reason that the project sponsors and local residents do not communicate sufficiently each other. Accordingly, in order to overcome local residents' reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility siting effectively, it is absolutely necessary to consider the way of solutions and strategies with regard to obstacle factors for public communication. In this content, this study will review three cases (An-myon Island, Gul-up Island, Yang-yang) on local residents reaction to facility siting. As a result of analysis, authoritarian behavior of project sponsors, local stigma, risk, antinuclear activities of environmental group, failures in siting the radioactive waste disposal facility, etc. has negative impact on public communication of the radioactive waste disposal facility siting. In this study, 5 strategies (reform of project sponsor's authoritarianism, incentive offer, strengthening PA activities, more active talks with environmental groups, promoting credibility of project sponsors) arc suggested to cope with obstacle factors of public communication

  17. Studies on site characterization methodologies for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Guo Yonghai; Chen Weiming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the final achievement of the project 'Studies of Site-specific Geological Environment for High Level Waste Disposal and Performance Assessment Methodology, Part Ⅰ: Studies on Site Characterization Methodologies for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal', which is a 'Key Scientific and Technological Pre-Research Project for National Defense' during 2001-2005. The study area is Beishan area, Gansu Province, NW China--the most potential site for China's underground research laboratory and high level radioactive waste repository. The boreholes BS01, BS2, BS03 and BS04 drilled in fractured granite media in Beishan are used to conduct comprehensive studies on site characterization methodologies, including: bore hole drilling method, in situ measurement methods of hydrogeological parameters, underground water sampling technology, hydrogeochemical logging method, geo-stress measurement method, acoustic borehole televiewer measurement method, borehole radar measurement method, fault stability evaluation methods and rock joint evaluation method. The execution of the project has resulted in the establishment of an 'Integrated Methodological System for Site Characterization in Granite Site for High Level Radioactive Waste Repository' and the 8 key methodologies for site characterization: bore hole drilling method with minimum disturbance to rock mass, measurement method for hydrogeological parameters of fracture granite mass, in situ groundwater sampling methods from bore holes in fractured granite mass, fracture measurement methods by borehole televiewer and bore radar system, hydrogeochemical logging, low permeability measurement methods, geophysical methods for rock mass evaluation, modeling methods for rock joints. Those methods are comprehensive, advanced, innovative, practical, reliable and of high accuracy. The comprehensive utilization of those methods in granite mass will help to obtain systematic parameters of

  18. Research in the selection of very low level radioactive waste disposal site in southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo, Xianguo; Long, Qiong; Zhong, Hongmei; Xu, Zhengqi; Mu, Keliang; Gao, Lan

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Chinese Radioactive Nuclear Waste Management and Disposal Security is that must use proper and optimized ways to manage radioactive waste and make sure human beings and the environment either at the present or in the future can be free from any unacceptable risks. According to the goal, this paper presents an overview of comprehensive site characterization work that comprises investigations of physical geography, climatology, geology and hydrogeology, as well as geological hazard on two candidate Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) disposal sites (Site 1 and Site 2) which are both located in the south west of China. The results showed that there are many similarities in the regional extent of the two sites, but many distinct differences are found in terrain and topographic features, granule stratum, hydraulic gradient, and so on. On the whole, the two alternative sites are in line with the requirements for very low level radioactive waste disposal, and Site 1 is superior to Site 2. (author)

  19. Site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Si-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive waste can be classified into low and intermediate level waste (LILW), spent fuel (SF) and high level waste according to the level of the emitted radioactivity in Korea. Currently radioactive waste is temporarily stored in the four nuclear power plant sites, where the LILW and SF are expected to be saturated from 2008 and 2016, respectively. Therefore the construction of a radioactive waste treatment facility is urgently needed to effectively and safely manage the radioactive waste under the government's supervision. Site securing effort for radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea had begun from 1986. During the 18 years from 1986 to 2004 nine times attempts of site securing were implemented. At 10th attempt when the Kyoungju site was selected as final one in 2005, our government had made special basic principles such as institution of special law, locating spent fuel interim storage in another site, and public acceptance shall be confirmed through the resident voting at each local government. Under the above basic principles, resident voting was implemented in the four local governments, which were Guansan, Youngdok, Pohang, and Kyoungju. Among these local governments Kyoungju city recorded the highest approval rate of resident voting and so was determined as the final site. (author)

  20. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  1. Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; de Vries, M.P.; Mills, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site

  2. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    2010-04-01

    A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts.

  4. Social acceptance process model for ensuring the high-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology are unacceptable to the public for fear of their unknown nature. Here, the social acceptance process model was examined on the basis of the analysis of the cause phenomenon and numerical grounds, by referring to the problems on the application of literature documentation for location examination of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site in Toyo town in Kochi Pref. in April 2007. In analyzing the Toyo town case, we have found a possibility that the majority of local residents knew very little about the object opposed by the fringe route processing. To ensure a healthy decision making by the public, it is vital to convey fundamental information using sufficient wide-area PR media before the issue becomes actual. After the issue becomes actual, dialog with residents through a careful technology assessment is indispensable. The authors focus attention on the decision-making process of human beings from the social and psychological viewpoints, and point out that it is desirable for promoting social acceptance by adopting two approaches: a direct approach aiming at better intelligibility for the different resident layers and a deductive approach in technological essence. (author)

  5. Radiobiological effects in small mammals populations dwelled at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sypin, V.D.; Osipov, A.N.; Pol'skij, O.G.; Elakov, A.L.; Egorov, V.G.; Synsynys, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in evaluating the ecological acceptability of a disposal system for radioactive waste is in preventing the ecological risk that may arise from exposures in the distant future. There is uncertainty surrounding any estimate of these doses or risks due to lack of knowledge about future conditions. Therefore, the adequate estimation of the ecological acceptability of a radioactive waste disposal system required a complex radioecological and radiobiological approach. Environmental surveillance at the Sergievo-Posadsky radioactive waste disposal system of the Scientific and Industrial Association Radon in additional to a standard complex radiological testing includes also the study of the radiobiological effects in different biological objects sampled from the contaminated areas. In present report the results obtained on small rodents (mice and voles) sampled from the strict mode and fence zones of this disposal system are displayed and discussed. (author)

  6. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  7. Application of biosphere models in the Biomosa project: a comparative assessment of five European radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowe, R.; Mobbs, S.; Proehl, G.; Bergstrom, U.; Kanyar, B.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T.; Simon, I.

    2004-01-01

    The BIOMOSA (Biosphere Models for Safety Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal) project is a part of the EC fifth framework research programme. The main goal of this project is the improvement of the scientific basis for the application of biosphere models in the framework of long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Furthermore, the outcome of the project will provide operators and regulatory bodies with guidelines for performance assessments of repository systems. The study focuses on the development and application of site-specific models and a generic biosphere tool BIOGEM (Biosphere Generic Model), using the experience from the national programmes and the IAEA BIOMASS reference biosphere methodology. The models were applied to 5 typical locations in the EU, resulting in estimates of the annual individual doses to the critical groups and the ranking of the importance of the pathways for each of the sites. The results of the site-specific and generic models were then compared. In all cases the doses calculated by the generic model were less than the doses obtained from the site-specific models. Uncertainty in the results was estimated by means of stochastic calculations which allow a comparison of the overall model uncertainty with the variability across the different sites considered. (author)

  8. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  9. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Sturrock, Alex M.

    1989-01-01

    From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily awnless brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic profile, and (3) a soil-based water budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data and then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates (for March through November) by these methods were in close agreement: 648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates reach a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of total precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soilmoisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) at the Sheffield site were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service

  10. Factors influencing U(VI adsorption onto soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of soil at disposal sites are very important for geological disposal of very low level radioactive waste in terms of U(VI. In this study, soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China was evaluated for its capacity on uranium sorption. Specifically, the equilibrium time, initial concentration, soil particle, pH, temperature, and carbonate were evaluated. The results indicated that after 15-20 days of sorption, the Kd value fluctuated and stabilized at 355-360 mL/g. The adsorptive capacity of uranium was increased as the initial uranium concentration increased, while it decreased as the soil particle size increased. The pH value played an important role in the U(VI sorption onto soil, especially under alkaline conditions, and had a great effect on the sorption capacity of soil for uranium. Moreover, the presence of carbonate decreased the sorption of U(VI onto soil because of the role of the strong complexation of carbonate with U(VI in the groundwater. Overall, this study assessed the behavior of U(VI sorption onto natural soil, which would be an important factor in the geological barrier of the repository, has contribution on mastering the characteristic of the adsorption of uranium in the particular soil media for the process of very low level radioactive waste disposal.

  11. The social and special effects of siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in rural Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Hamm, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the impacts of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Hudspeth County, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority (TLLRWDA) sponsored an independent study of the social and special impacts of the facility. These impacts include ''standard'' social impacts (such as impacts on social structures and attitudes, values and perceptions and ''special'' social impacts (such as fear, anxiety, concerns related to equity, the health of future generations, etc.). This paper reports the results of this study. Personal interviews with 71 community leaders and 96 randomly selected county residents were conducted during the summer of 1986. The results suggest that the major concern relates to the contamination of ground water, but that suspicion about the equity of the siting process and about the safe management of wastes is extensive, even among the most knowledgeable respondents. Mitigation concerns center on health and safety issues for residents and on potential forms of mitigation for governmental jurisdictions for leaders. Responses were similar for leaders and residents and for persons in different parts of the county

  12. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  13. Hydrogeology, ground-water flow, and tritium movement at low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garklavs, George; Healy, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater flow and tritium movement are described at and near a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Flow in the shallow aquifer is confined to three basins that ultimately drain into a stripmine lake. Most of the flow from the site is through a buried, pebbly sandfilled channel. Remaining flow is toward alluvium of an existing stream. Conceptual flow models for the two largest basins are used to improve definition of flow velocity and direction. Flow velocities range from about 25 to 2,500 ft/yr. Tritium was found in all three basins. The most extensive migration of tritium is coincident with buried channel. Tritium concentrations ranged from detection level to more than 300 nanocuries/L. (USGS)

  14. Prediction and assessment of environmental impacts of Guangdong low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen

    1996-01-01

    Guangdong Low-and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site is located 5-7 km northeast to the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. It is in a hilly area with strongly weathered light metamorphic quartz siltstone. The groundwater is 2 m below the repository bottom. The disposal unit is a U-shape concrete structure with drainage and water collecting system at the bottom. The designed cover is a multi-layer structure with functions of preventing from water infiltration, animal and plant intrusion. It is assumed that the engineered barriers would be effective to avoid waste immersion by surface water and groundwater within the first 100 years after closure. After 100 years, the engineered barriers would fail gradually. Radionuclides may release from the disposal unite. Some will enter the nearby stream, some will flow into the Daya Bay, and some will transport to groundwater through geologic media

  15. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  16. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  17. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  18. An overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, T.L.; Morreale, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of low-level radioactive (LLW) waste management is to safely dispose of LLW while protecting the health of the public and the quality of the environment. LLW in the United States is generated through both Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial activities. In this paper, waste from commercial activities will be referred to as ''commercial LLW.'' The DOE waste will not be discussed in this paper. Commercial LLW is waste that is generated by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) designated licensees or Agreement States. Commercial LLW is generated by nuclear power reactors, hospitals, universities, and manufacturers. This paper will give an overview of the current disposal technologies planned by selected States' for disposing of their LLW and the processes by which those selections were made. 3 refs

  19. A review of geoscience characteristics and disposal experience at the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, J.L.

    1989-08-01

    The West Valley Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal site is located about 48 km south of Buffalo, New York. Operation of the site began in 1961 by Nuclear Fuels Service and was terminated in 1975. The disposal trenches at the site are excavated about 5 m into glacial till that has a thickness of about 28 m. About 65,000 m 3 of the waste containing approximately 710,000 Ci were disposed at the site during the operational period. Ground-water movement through the till is predominantly downward as indicated by measurements and numerical simulation of hydraulic head. Radionuclides do not appear to have migrated more than 3 m either laterally or vertically from the waste disposal trenches. Numerical simulations of 3 H, 90 Sr, and 14 C migration are able to reproduce the observed concentration in the till beneath selected trenches. Uncertainty remains with respect to the continuity and heterogeneity of the hydrostratigraphic units and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity. More work is needed to better define the waste inventory and any long-term changes that might be expected. Erosion poses a potential threat to the long-term integrity of the disposal area. 56 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Clark, Sue B; Morrison, Samuel S; Watrous, Matthew G; Olson, John E; Snyder, Darin C

    2015-10-01

    Aeolian and pluvial processes represent important mechanisms for the movement of actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface. Soil samples taken in the early 1970's near a Department of Energy radioactive waste disposal site (the Subsurface Disposal Area, SDA, located in southeastern Idaho) provide a case study for studying the mechanisms and characteristics of environmental actinide and (137)Cs transport in an arid environment. Multi-component mixing models suggest actinide contamination within 2.5 km of the SDA can be described by mixing between 2 distinct SDA end members and regional nuclear weapons fallout. The absence of chemical fractionation between (241)Am and (239+240)Pu with depth for samples beyond the northeastern corner and lack of (241)Am in-growth over time (due to (241)Pu decay) suggest mechanical transport and mixing of discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples northeast of the SDA (the direction of the prevailing winds) contain anomalously high concentrations of Pu with (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios statistically identical to those in the northeastern corner. Taken together, these data suggest flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and a flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading in the northeastern direction resulted from wind transport of discrete particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1994-01-01

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the open-quotes Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Actclose quotes, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the open-quotes Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985close quotes. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two

  2. Characterization of organics in leachates from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Iden, C.R.; Nine, B.; Chang, C.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry, universities, research institutions, and hospitals are disposed of in shallow-land trenches and pits. In 1962 the first commercial disposal site was opened in Beatty, Nevada. Since then, the industry has grown to include three private companies operating six disposal areas located in sparsely populated areas: at Maxey Flats (Morehead), Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; Sheffield, Illinois; Barnwell, South Carolina; West Valley, New York; and Richland, Washington. Although the facilities are operated by private industry, they are located on public land and are subject to federal and state regulation. Although inventories of the radioactive materials buried in the disposal sites are available, no specific records are kept on the kinds and quantities of organic wastes buried. In general, the organic wastes consist of contaminated paper, packing materials, clothing, plastics, ion-exchange resins, scintillation vials, solvents, chemicals, decontamination fluids, carcasses of experimental animals, and solidification agents. Radionuclides such as 14 C, 3 H, 90 Sr, 134 137 Cs, 60 Co, 241 Am, and 238 239 240 Pu have been identified in leachate samples collected from several trenches at Maxey Flats and West Valley. The purpose of this report is to identify some of the organic compounds present in high concentrations in trench leachates at the disposal sites in order to begin to evaluate their effect on radionuclide mobilization and contamination of the environment

  3. Tritium migration at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Maxey Flats near Morehead, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    High values of specific conductance and tritium concentrations have been detected in ground water samples from wells along the perimeter of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Maxey Flats, near Morehead, KY. Test wells have shown that ground water flow in the shallow sedimentary rocks at the site is controlled primarily by naturally occurring joints and fractures. Ground water containing tritium concentrations (1.5 - 3.5 microcuries per milliliter) and specific conductance values (2600 - 4500 microsiemens per centimeter) is associated with a horizontal sandstone bed (about 15 feet below land surface) which probably has a higher density of open joints and fractures than the predominant overlying and underlying shales. These joints and fractures probably act as conduits for ground water flow from the topographically higher burial trenches to the downslope observation wells. Specific conductance values and tritium concentrations in ground water from wells where the sandstone bed is thin or nonexistent are much lower. Although tritium concentrations and specific conductance values from some offsite wells downslope of the burial grounds are high and water appears to be moving primarily in the fractured sandstone bed, water-quality measurements from small seeps and ephemeral streams in the outcrop area near the wells indicate that contaminated water is not reaching the land surface on the hill slope in this particular location. Plotted elevations of the fractured sandstone bed (obtained from levels) has resulted in the detection of a small anticline which may inhibit ground water flow to this outcrop area. Also, existing fractures are more likely to become plugged with colluvium and weathered shale where the sandstone is near land surface, thus further impeding flow

  4. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection

  5. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  6. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  7. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1982:] Search for potential [disposal] sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Glanzman, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada that are potentially suitable as host media for high-level commercial radioactive wastes and to describe the areal and depth distributions and structure of these rock masses. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and borehole geophysical techniques. Progress is reported. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK: site selection, geological and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its investigation work at a site owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd near Sellafield. Planning permission was sought in 1994 for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at the site. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in the 34 chapters of this book and separate abstracts have been written for each contribution. (UK)

  9. The choice of sites considered with respect to problems of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, F.

    1960-01-01

    The author of this article shows clearly that a knowledge of the behaviour of wastes together with an analysis of the risks of accidents makes it possible to define the general characteristics of a site as a function of, on the one hand the geological and meteorological factors, and on the other, the proposed installations. Consideration of the biological environment makes it possible to clarify the sitological study and to make a choice between the several sites possible. The author shows the real necessity for radio-protection specialists to share their knowledge, to establish regulations, and to cooperate with the authors responsible for the installations, from the moment of the choice of the site and of the planning of the apparatus up to the final reject of the waste. (author) [fr

  10. Suggested state requirements and criteria for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratliff, R.A.; Dornsife, B.; Autry, V.; Gronemyer, L.; Vaden, J.; Cashman, T.

    1985-08-01

    Description of criteria and procedure is presented for a state to follow in the development of a program to regulate a LLW disposal site. This would include identifying those portions of the NRC regulations that should be matters of compatibility, identifying the various expertise and disciplines that will be necessary to effectively regulate a disposal site, identifying the resources necessary for conducting a confirmatory monitoring program, and providing suggestions in other areas which, based on experiences, would result in a more effective regulatory program

  11. Siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: The public policy dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The book's focus is on one overwhelming problems facing the compacts and states: figuring out where low-level waste disposal sites should be located. The author discusses the central issues underlying this dilemma - authority, trust, risk, justice - and the roles each plays in determining whether the siting processes are regarded as legitimate. The structure of the book provides a mix of narrative, fact and philosophy and adds to the body of well researched information saying that is is not only right but more efficient to develop and implement a just process

  12. Nuclear waste and social peace - Strategies of site selection for radioactive waste disposal. Proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dally, A.

    2003-01-01

    In February 1999, BMU appointed a working party to establish site selection procedures for repositories (AkEnd) which was to develop a transparent procedure of finding and selecting sites for the final storage of all kinds of radioactive waste in Germany. The procedure finally proposed by AkEnd implies considerable uncertainty, inter alia, about its legal implementability, the time required, and funding. The discussion papers of the meeting ''atomic waste and social peace'' show a tightrope walk between society, clerical aspects and scientists taking into account also a right of say for critical citizens. (GL)

  13. The siting dilemma: Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act ushered in a new era in low-level waste disposal; one with vastly increased state responsibilities. By a 1985 amendment, states were given until January 1993 to fulfill their mandate. In this dissertation, their progress is reviewed. The focus then turns to one particularly intractable problem: that of finding technically and socially acceptable sites for new disposal facilities. Many lament the difficulty of siting facilities that are intended to benefit the public at large but are often locally unwanted. Many label local opposition as purely self-interested; as simply a function of the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) syndrome. Here, it is argued that epithets such as NIMBY are unhelpful. Instead, to lay the groundwork for widely acceptable solutions to siting conflicts, deeper understanding is needed of differing values on issues concerning authority, trust, risk, and justice. This dissertation provides a theoretical and practical analysis of those issues as they pertain to siting low-level waste disposal facilities and, by extension, other locally unwanted facilities

  14. An overview of international siting programmes for radioactive waste disposal facilities: Possible lessons for Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this short report is to examine methodologies used in countries other than Sweden which are following a process of site selection for nuclear waste management and disposal facilities. It is planned here to identify possible countries and methodologies which may offer the authorities in Sweden suggestions for the future, and it is hoped that further work, possibly involving in-country visits and detailed reviews will follow. The end result of this exercise is to learn from the efforts (successes and/or mistakes) of other countries, thereby enabling Sweden to pursue a siting policy which involves as many stakeholders as possible, resulting in a programme which Swedish citizens can feel they truly own. First, the classification of siting methodologies is reviewed, both those of the past and those currently in use. Examples from programmes around the world are given. The distinction between Public Involvement and Public Participation in the siting process is discussed, in light of the programmes reviewed. Methodologies worthy of further study for adaptation to the Swedish situation are then highlighted in the context of a general discussion of the issues raised. Finally, a series of recommendations as to further investigations are given, which could be carried out as a part of this project. Particular methodologies in particular countries and their relevance to the Swedish situation are discussed. 66 refs

  15. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user

  16. Spatio-temporal evolution of fault networks: implications for deep radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardacre, K.; Scotti, O.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide estimates of both vertical and lateral propagation rates, on time scales of 100 000 years, for the faults systems known to be present today in the region of Bure, the site of an underground rock laboratory. The project is divided into three parts: 1) literature review (fault growth processes and data), 2) benchmarking against data a numerical code that allows for spontaneous development and growth of faults and 3) application to the Bure site. A brief overview of fault growth processes and observed fault propagation rates shows that non-negligible values (20-50 mm/yrs or roughly 5 km in 100 000 years) can be reached. Preliminary results obtained from two numerical simulations 1) fault growth of a pre-existing weaknesses and 2) fault growth of a spontaneously generated fault system, provide encouraging results with values that are comparable with those observed in nature for the growth of normal fault systems. The application to strike-slip system that characterizes the Bure site is still underway. (authors)

  17. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  18. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  19. Low level radioactive waste disposal/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, H.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction, incineration, waste avoidance, and clean waste segregation. This paper summarizes new technology being developed and implemented. 11 refs., 1 fig

  20. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Fan Ai; Huang Shutao; Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Guansu province, northwest of China, as an example, this paper introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, this paper also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System. (author)

  1. Ground-water hydrology and radioactive waste disposal at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1979-02-01

    This paper is a summary of the hydrologic activities conducted at the Hanford Site as a part of the environmental protection effort. The Site encompasses 1,480 square kilometers in the arid, southeastern part of Washington State. Precipitation averages about 160 millimeters per year with a negligible amount, if any, recharging the water table, which is from 50 to 100 meters below the ground surface. An unconfined aquifer occurs in the upper and middle Ringold Formations. The lower Ringold Formation along with interbed and interflow zones in the Saddle Mountain and Wanapum basalts forms a confined aquifer system. A potential exists for the interconnection of the unconfined and confined aquifer systems, especially near Gable Mountain where the anticlinal ridge was eroded by the catastrophic floods of the ancestral Columbia River system. Liquid wastes from chemical processing operations have resulted in large quantities of processing and cooling water disposed to ground via ponds, cribs, and ditches. The ground-water hydrology program at Hanford is designed: (1) to define and quantify the ground-water flow systems, (2) to evaluate the impact of the liquid waste discharges on these flow systems, and (3) to predict the impact on the ground-water systems of changes in system inputs. This work is conducted through a drilling, sampling, testing, and modeling program

  2. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Theresa J.; Wirth, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  3. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model

  4. Status and advice of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Keyan; Lu Caixia

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry in China, as well as the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities, and the process of radioactive waste management, a mount of the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes will increase rapidly. How to dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes, that not only related to Chinese nuclear energy and nuclear technology with sustainable development, but also related to the public health, environment safety. According to Chinese « long-term development plan of nuclear power (2005- 2020) », when construct the nuclear power, should simultaneous consider the sites that dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, In order to adapt to the needs that dispose the increasing low and intermediate level radioactive waste with development of nuclear power. In the future, all countries are facing the enormous challenge of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  5. Enhancement of high density polyethylene high integrity containers at a low level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.; Wong, O.P.

    1989-01-01

    High integrity containers (HIC) made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) have been used for disposal in South Carolina since the late seventies. With the recent definitive position taken by the NRC on the suitability of these containers for disposal, alternative means of assuring the structural integrity of the containers for the long term became necessary. The authors' company has developed an utilized reinforced concrete caissons at the Hanford, Washington site as an additional barrier and structural element to assure the long term high integrity function of the current HDPE HIC's also known as Poly HIC's on the market. This paper outlines the background of the HIC's in question, the NRC positions and ruling, and presents technical bases for the applicability of appropriately designed concrete overpacks to augment the structural integrity of HIC's

  6. Investigation of the groundwater composition at potential radioactive waste disposal sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.T.

    1984-02-01

    Within an investigation program of sites suitable for an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel the groundwater has been characterized. Until now seven areas have been investigated. The groundwater has been pumped up from several isolated sections at depth of 100 m to 600 m in boreholes in each area. Each test section has been pumped continuously for at least two weeks. During the pumping period the water was characterized in the field and sampled for later analysis. Most of the characterized waters are non saline and the concentration of the different constituents varies within a rather narrow interval. Saline waters with much higher concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and calcium have been encountered. The groundwater characterization includes field monitoring of the physico-chemical parameters pH, redox potential, free sulphide concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration and conductivity. These parameters are measured in a flow through cell where the water passes before coming in contact with the air. The redox potential measurements have been successful. A new equipment for measurements in the sampling section has been constructed. Preliminary tests have given very promising results

  7. Preliminary report on the hydrogeology of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.B.; Erickson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive-waste disposal site is located on 20 acres of rolling terrain about 3 miles southwest of Sheffield, Illinois. Twenty-one trenches were constructed and filled with radioactive waste from August 1967 through April 1978. Forty-three test wells were installed by the U.S. Geological Survey on and adjacent to the site. Continuous cores were collected from 36 wells to help in defining the subsurface geology. The wells have been used for water sample collection and to monitor water-level changes. A tunnel, 6.5 feet in diameter by 290 feet in length, was constructed beneath four burial trenches to provide access for collection of hydrologic and geologic data. Pennsylvanian shale and mudstone deposits are overlain by Pleistocene glacial deposits consisting of the Teneriffe Silt, Glasford Formation, Roxana Silt, Peoria Loess, Parkland Sand, Cahokia Alluvium, and Henry Formation. Three till units of the Glasford Formation, the Hulick Till Member, the Radnor Till Member, and Till A have been identified on the site. Stratigraphic position indicates that the Hulick Till Member and Till A are probably variations of the same till. A continuous pebbly sand deposit, classified as part of the Toulon Member, extends across the middle of the site and continues off site on the northeast and southwest corners. Because of its relatively high hydraulic conductivity, this deposit will be a controlling factor in shallow groundwater movement and in any radionuclide migration. Ground water at the site is derived through infiltration of precipitation and as underflow from adjacent highlands. Precipitation averages 35 inches per year, 1 or 2 inches of which probably recharge the ground water. Runoff is estimated to be 12 to 15 inches per year and evapotranspiration about 20 inches. The fluctuation of water levels has been about 2.5 feet in hilltop wells, 3.6 feet in sidehill wells, and 5.9 feet in valley wells. Hydraulic conductivity of the materials comprising

  8. An interdisciplinary geoscientific investigation of a proposed site for radioactive waste disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.; Stumpfl, E.; Weber, F.; Oszuszky, F.; Rudan, P.

    1980-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of potentially suitable formations for long-term storage of highly active radioactive waste in Austria showed that such formations could be expected within the Bohemian Massif. Careful interpretation of LANDSAT imagery and available air-photo coverage led to the selection of an unfaulted area, approximately in the centre of a large body of granodiorite. Field geology confirmed the homogeneity of granodiorite; hydrologic investigations revealed the absence of a groundwater table except for small amounts of surface water in the soil cover and weathering zone. A morphological analysis showed that erosional processes are minimal at present and will remain so in the foreseeable geological future. Geophysical investigations included, amongst others, magnetic measurements (vertical intensity). The area chosen for further investigation is situated in a region of positive measurements of vertical intensity. Some minor flat anomalies are due to higher magnetite content of the granodiorite, which has magnetic susceptibilities of (4.0-5.8)x10 -4 (SI) or (32-46)x10 -6 (CGS). Well-logging demonstrated high electric resistivities (some 1000 ohm.m) in fresh rock; these values are reduced to about 100 ohm.m in weathered and fractured rock. Temperature logs reveal undisturbed increase with depth; the average temperature gradient (to 90 m depth) is 0.018 0 C/m. There is no microscopic evidence of tectonism or fracturing. In conclusion, the large-scale regional features which indicate stability and lack of tectonism, and geophysical data, are supported by a detailed petrological investigation of the granodiorite. The chosen area and site seem to be well suited to meet the containment and isolation requirements for disposal of all sorts of radioactive waste to be expected. (author)

  9. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover

  10. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yixing

    1987-01-01

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  12. Well-construction and hydrogeologic data for observation wells in the vicinity of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansue, Lawrence J.; Mills, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrogeologic studies at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976 through 1987. During that period, 108 observation wells were installed in the vicinity of the disposal site in glacial and post-glacial deposits of Quaternary age and bedrock of Pennsylvanian age. Data in this report include the location of each well, the date each well was drilled, the geologic units penetrated by each well, the physical measurements of each well, the elevations of the top (measuring point) of each well and geologic-unit contacts at each well, and the highest and lowest recorded water levels in each well.

  13. Survey of the marine benthic infauna collected from the United States radioactive waste disposal sites off the Farallon Islands, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reish, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Benthic biological samples were taken in 1977 from the vicinity of the Farallon Islands radioactive waste disposal sites for characterization of the infaunal macroinvertebrates and foraminifera. A total of 120 invertebrate species were collected, of which 75 species (63 percent) were polychaetes. Forty-three of these polychaete species have not previously been reported from depths greater than 1000m. A total of 1044 macroinvertebrate specimens were collected of which 54 percent were polychates. Only the nematods were present at all six benthic stations, but the community structure was dominated by the polychaetes Tauberia gracilis, Allia pulchra, Chaetozone setosa, and Cossura candida. Living and dead foraminifera were reported. The possible role of polychaetes in bioturbation and in the marine food chain is briefly discussed with respect to the various polychaete feeding mechanisms.

  14. Characterization of discontinuities in an argillaceous medium (Tournemire site): key questions related to safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera Nunez, J. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2001-07-01

    The safety assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous medium concerns the evaluation of the possibilities and transfer processes through this geological barrier. Generally, this material is characterized by a very low permeability. However, faults and fractures may affect this medium and consequently it is important to analyse the transfer possibilities along these discontinuities. The first phase of this evaluation is the detection or survey of the fractures, and the second one is the evaluation of their hydraulic properties. A discontinuity is not a synonymous of fluid transfer, which in turn may be inhomogeneous along the same fracture. The well-compacted Tournemire argillaceous medium (argilites and marls) is affected by some faults and fractures of natural (tectonic) and artificial (excavation) origin. The natural fractures are of different scales: major regional faults that limit blocks, secondary fault and fractured zones that affect the blocks, and local fractures and micro-fractures. These discontinuities are studied from the surface analyses, transversal boreholes and drifts. Geophysical methods are tested to detect these discontinuities to different scales. The present-day fluids are shown in some fractured sectors that allow us to analyse the possibilities of fluid transfer along these discontinuities. The fracture analyses show that permeability or transmissivity properties may change along the discontinuities. A decametric fluid transfer is shown along some fractures; however, their integration in a larger scale is not yet analysed. It is necessary to understand how the transfer in the near field may be connected to the possible far field transfer, or these transfers are not possible through the argillaceous medium. (author)

  15. Characterization of discontinuities in an argillaceous medium (Tournemire site): key questions related to safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Nunez, J.

    2001-01-01

    The safety assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous medium concerns the evaluation of the possibilities and transfer processes through this geological barrier. Generally, this material is characterized by a very low permeability. However, faults and fractures may affect this medium and consequently it is important to analyse the transfer possibilities along these discontinuities. The first phase of this evaluation is the detection or survey of the fractures, and the second one is the evaluation of their hydraulic properties. A discontinuity is not a synonymous of fluid transfer, which in turn may be inhomogeneous along the same fracture. The well-compacted Tournemire argillaceous medium (argilites and marls) is affected by some faults and fractures of natural (tectonic) and artificial (excavation) origin. The natural fractures are of different scales: major regional faults that limit blocks, secondary fault and fractured zones that affect the blocks, and local fractures and micro-fractures. These discontinuities are studied from the surface analyses, transversal boreholes and drifts. Geophysical methods are tested to detect these discontinuities to different scales. The present-day fluids are shown in some fractured sectors that allow us to analyse the possibilities of fluid transfer along these discontinuities. The fracture analyses show that permeability or transmissivity properties may change along the discontinuities. A decametric fluid transfer is shown along some fractures; however, their integration in a larger scale is not yet analysed. It is necessary to understand how the transfer in the near field may be connected to the possible far field transfer, or these transfers are not possible through the argillaceous medium. (author)

  16. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country''s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today''s standards. This report summarizes each site''s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US

  17. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive waste of two different activity levels is buried on the same site. The high level waste e.g. intermediate level waste may be in a trench or cells in a trench bottom, and be surmounted by a layer of concrete surmounted by an intrusion barrier comprising drums containing an aggregate of cement and the lower level activity waste, the whole having a substantially impermeable cap. (author)

  18. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low level-radioactive waste disposal: currently operating commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This publication discusses three commercial facilities that receive and dispose of low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located in Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington. All three facilities initiated operations in the 1960s. The three facilities have operated without such major problems as those which led to the closure of three other commercial disposal facilities located in the United States. The Beatty site could be closed in 1983 as a result of a Nevada Board of Health ruling that renewal of the site license would be inimical to public health and safety. The site remains open pending federal and state court hearings, which began in January 1983, to resolve the Board of Health ruling. The three sites may also be affected by NRC's 10 CFR Part 61 regulations, but the impact of those regulations, issued in December 1982, has not yet been assessed. This document provides detailed information on the history and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities. 12 references

  19. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  20. Hydrogeologic performance assessment analysis of the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Smoot, J.L.; Kemner, M.L.; Cronin, W.E.

    1991-06-01

    A hydrogeologic performance assessment of the commercial low-level waste site near West Valley, New York, was performed for two pathways: a shallow lateral pathway where trench water can potentially migrate laterally through fractured and weathered till to nearby streams and a deep vertical pathway where leachate can migrate downward through unweathered till and laterally offsite in a lacustrine unit. Along the shallow pathway, little physical site evidence is available to indicate what the degree of lateral migration can be. Past modeling showed that overflowing trench water would migrate laterally some distance before migrating downward into the unweathered till. If water did reach a nearby stream, calculations show that decay, adsorption, and stream dilution would reduce leachate concentration to acceptable levels. Within the deep pathway, tritium and 14 C were the only radionuclides released in any significant concentrations. Predicted tritium levels are well below regulatory limits; however, predicted peak 14 C concentrations, while meeting the 25 mrem/yr limit using the drinking-water-only exposure scenario, exceed the limit for the full garden scenario. Site information on 14 C release rates and geochemical behavior has considerable uncertainty and would need to be more fully evaluated in a licensing situation. 58 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions.

  2. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions

  3. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Use of compensation and incentives in siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This document was prepared to increase understanding of compensation and incentives as they pertain to the siting of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Compensation and incentives are discussed as methods to facilitate siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facilities. Compensations may be in the form of grants to enable host communities to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed facility. Compensations may also include reimbursements to the host community for costs incurred during facility construction, operation and closure. These may include required improvements to local roads, new equipment, and payments for revenue losses in local property taxes when disposal sites are removed from the tax base. Incentives provide benefits to the community beyond the costs directly related to the operation of the facility. Greater local control over waste facilities can be a powerful incentive. Local officials may be more willing to accept a facility if they have some control over the operation and monitoring associated with the facility. Failure to secure new disposal sites may cause such problems as illegal dumping which would create public health hazards. Also, lack of disposal capacity may restrict research and medical use of radioactive materials. The use of compensation and incentives may increase acceptance of communities for hosting a low-level waste disposal facility

  4. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, Kathy Goetz; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-11-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20 200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units.

  5. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  7. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  8. Hydrologic study of the unsaturated zone adjacent to a radioactive-waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, P.

    1980-01-01

    Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil-water content and soil-water pressure head of field soils in the vicinity of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site was measured for a period of 28 days following steady-state infiltration. Tensiometer and a neutron probe measurements were replicated four times at various depth intervals of from 12.0 to 120.00 inches below land surface in two 12 foot square plots. Values of soil-water content, soil-water flux, and hydraulic conductivity at each depth were calculated during the period of drainage using a computer program called SOIL. After drainage of soil-water through the 120 inch profile ceased, duplicate undisturbed soil cores from opposite sides of each plot and from disturbed and undisturbed sites within the burial grounds were recovered and subjected to pressure-plate analysis for the calculation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Laboratory analyses also included the determination of soil bulk density, particle-size distribution, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Calculation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory was made using a computer program called HYDRO, based upon the relationship of the soil-water content/soil-water pressure curve. Soils in the study area and the burial ground exhibited similar physical and hydrologic characteristics. Field derived hydraulic conductivity correlated well with laboratory derived conductivity. Variability of soil characteristics due to burial operations were minimal when compared to undisturbed natural soils in the study area. Two textural discontinuities were found to exist in the soil profile at depths of 12 to 24 inches and at 130 inches, which inhibit soil-water movement and thereby reduce the quantity and rate of recharge to the underlying water-table aquifer

  9. Stakeholder confidence and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Any significant decisions regarding geologic disposal of radioactive waste will need a comprehensive public review and a thorough involvement of all relevant stakeholders, such as waste generators, waste management agencies, regulatory authorities, local communities and elected officials. The participation of non-technical stakeholders will become increasingly important as more countries move towards siting and implementing geologic repositories. The decision-making process and avenues for stakeholder involvement differ from country to country. It is important to identify similarities and differences, understand the key concerns of the various stakeholders, and develop means to interact effectively. The Nuclear Energy Agency recently set up a Forum on Stakeholder Confidence charged with distilling the lessons that can be learnt from national and international experience. These proceedings of the Forums first workshop held in August 2000 provide an overview of OECD countries' experience in the field of stakeholder confidence and radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  10. Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Experience and related research and development in applying corrective measures at the major low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.R.; Mahathy, J.M.; Epler, J.S.; Boing, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    A review was conducted of experience in responding to problems encountered in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste and in research and development related to these problems. The operating histories of eleven major disposal facilities were examined. Based on the review, it was apparent that the most effective corrective measures administered were those developed from an understanding of the site conditions which caused the problems. Accordingly, the information in this document has been organized around the major conditions which have caused problems at existing sites. These include: (1) unstable trench cover, (2) permeable trench cover, (3) subsidence, (4) ground water entering trenches, (5) intrusion by deep-rooted plants, (6) intrusion by burrowing animals, and (7) chemical and physical conditions in trench. Because the burial sites are located in regions that differ in climatologic, geologic, hydrologic, and biologic characteristics, there is variation in the severity of problems among the sites and in the nature of information concerning corrective efforts. Conditions associated with water-related problems have received a great deal of attention. For these, corrective measures have ranged from the creation of diversion systems for reducing the contact of surface water with the trench cover to the installation of seals designed to prevent infiltration from reaching the buried waste. On the other hand, corrective measures for conditions of subsidence or of intrusion by burrowing animals have had limited application and are currently under evaluation or are subjects of research and development activities. 50 references, 20 figures, 10 tables

  12. Study on quality assurance for high-level radioactive waste disposal project (2). Quality assurance system for the site characterization phase in the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Susumu

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assist related organizations in the development of quality assurance systems for a high-level radioactive waste disposal system. This report presents detail information with which related organizations can begin the development of quality assurance systems at an initial phase of repository development for a high-level radioactive waste disposal program, including data qualification, model validation, systems and facilities for quality assurance (e.g., technical data management system, sample management facility, etc.), and QA program applicability (items and activities). These descriptions are based on information in QA program for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD), DOE/RW-0333P, quality implementing procedures, and reports implemented by the procedures. Additionally, this report includes some brief recommendations for developing of quality assurance systems, such as establishment of quality assurance requirements, measures for establishment of QA system. (author)

  13. Truly deep saturated zone investigations at the proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site for Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullican, W.F. III; Kreitler, C.W.; Senger, R.K.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations are in progress in Trans-Pecos Texas at the proposed site of a low-level radioactive waste repository. The site is approximately 65 km southeast of El Paso in the Hueco Bolson, a fault-bounded desert basin that developed in the late Tertiary. Ground water in the area of the site is found at depths of 146 m and 180 m in bolson silt and sand and Cretaceous limestone, respectively. The unsaturated zone consists of approximately 15 m of alluvial silts and gravels underlain by 135 m of lacustrine and fluvial clays, silts, and fine sands. High-priority tasks for characterizing the ground-water regime include (1) evaluating ground-water resources in the area, (2) determining ground-water flow paths and velocities, (3) testing hydrologic hypotheses using groundwater flow models, and (4) determining ground-water hydrochemistry. Hydrochemical facies in aquifers within bolson and Cretaceous strata are predominantly a Na-SO 4 type, whereas waters from the Rio Grande alluvium are a Na-Cl type. Ground water in the region is slightly brackish; total dissolved solids range from 800 to 1,850 ppm in bolson and Cretaceous strata and from 1,500 to 7,500 ppm in Rio Grande alluvium. Major, minor, and trace chemical components, stable isotopes and environmental isotopes were analyzed as part of these investigations

  14. Site-selective fluorescence spectroscopy investigations of LnPO{sub 4} xenotime ceramics for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Peters, L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Holthausen, J.; Neumeier, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Huittinen, Nina [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Loesch, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Europium incorporation in different LnPO{sub 4} (Ln=Tb, Lu and Gd{sub 1-x}Lu{sub x}) phases crystallizing in the xenotime structure was investigated with site-selective TRLFS, PXRD and Rietveld analyses. Based on recorded emission spectra and diffraction patterns, the formation of three different crystal systems (xenotime, anhydrite, and monazite) could be identified. Aging of the ceramic samples and a second sintering step led to an accumulation of europium in the grain boundaries and on the surface.

  15. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  16. Possible salt mine and brined cavity sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern southern peninsula of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, K.K.; Bourne, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern sites for waste disposal include environmental, geologic, and economic factors. The Michigan basin is a structural bowl of Paleozoic sediments resting on downwarped Precambrian rocks. The center of the bowl is in Clare and Gladwin Counties, a short distance north of the middle of the Southern Peninsula. The strata dip toward this central area, and some stratigraphic sequences, including especially the salt-containing Silurian section, increase considerably in thickness in that direction. Lesser amounts of salt are also present in the north central part of the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has been an oil and gas producing state since 1925 and widespread exploration has had two effects on the selection of waste disposal sites: (1) large areas are leased for oil and gas; and (2) the borehole concentrations, whether producing wells, dry holes, or industrial brine wells that penetrated the salt section, should be avoided. Two types of nuclear waste, low level and high level, can be stored in man-made openings in salt beds. The storage facilities are created by (1) the development of salt mines where the depths are less than 3000 ft, and (2) cavities produced by pumping water into a salt bed, and bringing brine back out. The high level waste disposal must be confined to mines of limited depth, but the low level wastes can be accommodated in brine cavities at any depth. Seven potential prospects have been investigated and are described in detail

  17. Hydrogeologic studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. An interpretation of results for radioactive waste disposal site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, W.W.

    1984-02-01

    Of nine potential nuclear-waste repository sites being investigated in the United States, Yucca Mountain is the only one for which disposal above the water table is proposed. The host rock is a fractured, permeable welded tuff more than 300 m beneath the surface. The principal factors contributing to the isolation of waste include: a small recharge flux, estimated to be about 5 mm/yr; free drainage in the host rock and little opportunity for contact of water with the waste; near-neutral water of low ionic and organic content; unsaturated-zone and saturated-zone flowpaths through altered tuffs that are rich in sorptive zeolites and clays; and very deep regional ground-water flow that terminates in a closed basin. Hydraulic testing of the saturated zone has demonstrated that fractures cause the observed high transmissivity, and seepage velocities in major fracture zones may be as high as 0.01 to 0.1 km/yr. Diffusion of radionuclides from water in fractures to that in the porous rock matrix, however, would attenuate their migration and allow sorptive processes to operate if a release from the repository were to occur. Psychrometers, heat-dissipation probes, pressure transducers, and sampling tubes that were recently installed in a 380-m drill hole are still undergoing stabilization. Data from this hole and other planned experiments will allow definition of recharge flux, frequency, and flowpaths for statistical treatment in models

  18. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  19. Search for a final repository site. How is the status of the preparation of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany?; Endlagersuche. Wie steht es um die Vorbereitung der Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Monika C.M. (ed.) [Evangelische Akademie Loccum, Rehburg-Loccum (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Naturwissenschaften, Oekologie und Umweltpolitik

    2017-07-01

    During the workshop on the status of the preparation of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany the following issues were discussed: socio-economic challenges two years after the final report of the commission for final disposal of radioactive wastes; the question of public participation - the difficult search for a repository site, experiences and intents of public participation during the work of the commission, interim storage of hear generating radioactive wastes, extended interim-storage, long-term interim storage facilities - opinion of the concerned public, how to establish a controlling and correcting surveillance of the process?.

  20. Biosphere models for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T.; Kanyar, B.; Bergstroem, U.; Hallberg, B.; Mobbs, S.; Chen, Q.; Kowe, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the BioMoSA project has been to contribute in the confidence building of biosphere models, for application in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal. The detailed objectives of this project are: development and test of practical biosphere models for application in long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal to different European locations, identification of features, events and processes that need to be modelled on a site-specific rather than on a generic base, comparison of the results and quantification of the variability of site-specific models developed according to the reference biosphere methodology, development of a generic biosphere tool for application in long term safety studies, comparison of results from site-specific models to those from generic one, Identification of possibilities and limitations for the application of the generic biosphere model. (orig.)

  1. Biosphere models for safety assesment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium); Kanyar, B. [University of Veszprem (Hungary). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Pinedo, P.; Simon, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bergstroem, U.; Hallberg, B. [Studsvik Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden); Mobbs, S.; Chen, Q.; Kowe, R. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the BioMoSA project has been to contribute in the confidence building of biosphere models, for application in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal. The detailed objectives of this project are: development and test of practical biosphere models for application in long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal to different European locations, identification of features, events and processes that need to be modelled on a site-specific rather than on a generic base, comparison of the results and quantification of the variability of site-specific models developed according to the reference biosphere methodology, development of a generic biosphere tool for application in long term safety studies, comparison of results from site-specific models to those from generic one, Identification of possibilities and limitations for the application of the generic biosphere model. (orig.)

  2. Social impacts of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    In this report an approach is developed for the assessment of socio-economic impacts from radioactive waste disposal. The approach provides recommendations on procedures to be used in identification and prediction of impacts. Two decision-aiding methods are also included. The first provides for the identification of key issues and the illustration of the trade-offs involved in the decision. Multi-attribute scoring and weighting techniques are then proposed for the illustration of impacts using quantitative measures. (author)

  3. Dukovany radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.

    1998-01-01

    The most significant source of radioactive wastes in the Czech Republic is the operation of nuclear power plant. The original NPP design included only storage of concentrates and unsorted solid wastes in the nuclear power plant. Our concept of waste management from nuclear power plant operation has been gradually developed and it consists of solidification of radioactive concentrates, volume reduction of solid wastes by compressing and disposal of conditioned wastes in surface concrete vaults. The most significant part of the arising waste was assumed to be evaporator concentrates. in the design of the NPP it has been assumed that up to 1% of fuel element cladding may fail. With a sufficient number of natural and man-made barriers, the release of radioactive material will be limited and delayed, its migration retarded and its concentration sufficiently diluted to assure that the impact will remain in prescribed levels. Initial site selection studies started in the later seventies taking into account social, economic conditions and requirements for the protection of nature. After performed area surveys, the site near the constructed NPP Dukovany has been chosen. Safety assessment of Dukovany repository has been based on 3 critical scenarios: -groundwater transport to the nearest water supply, -Intrusion after end of institutional control, -dwelling on the site after end of institutional control. Compartment models based on the scenarios described above were formulated to estimate committed effective equivalent dose due to different exposure ways. (author)

  4. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  5. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  6. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.; Jennrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the costs associated with various disposal site development, financing, and operating scenarios. As site specific costs and requirements are refined LLWECON will be able to calculate exact life cycle costs for each facility. While designed around shallow land burial, as practiced today, LLWECON is flexible and the input parameters discrete enough to be applicable to other disposal options. What the program can do is illustrated

  9. Safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaletchumy Karuppiah; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzuki Nik Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin

    2008-08-01

    Safety assessments are used to evaluate the performance of a radioactive waste disposal facility and its impact on human health and the environment. This paper presents the overall information and methodology to carry out the safety assessment for a long term performance of a disposal system. A case study was also conducted to gain hands-on experience in the development and justification of scenarios, the formulation and implementation of models and the analysis of results. AMBER code using compartmental modeling approach was used to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in this training. This safety assessment is purely illustrative and it serves as a starting point for each development stage of a disposal facility. This assessment ultimately becomes more detail and specific as the facility evolves. (Author)

  10. High-level radioactive-waste-disposal investigations in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council (TENRAC) was designated in 1980 to coordinate the interaction between the State of Texas and the federal government relating to the high-level radioactive waste disposal issue. This report was prepared to summarize the many aspects of that issue with particular emphasis on the activities in Texas. The report is intended to provide a comprehensive introduction for individuals with little or no previous exposure to the issue and to provide a broader perspective for those individuals who have addressed specific aspects of the issue but have not had the opportunity to study it in a broader context. Following the introduction, contents of this report are as follows: (1) general status of major repository siting investigations in the US; (2) detailed review of Texas studies; (3) possible facilities to be sited in Texas; (4) current Texas policy; (5) federal regulations; and (6) federal legislation. 9 figures, 2 tables

  11. Interim report on reference biospheres for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorp, F. van [NAGRA (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    Primary criteria for repository safety are commonly expressed in terms of risk or dose, and a biosphere model is required to evaluate the corresponding assessment endpoints. Even when other indicators are used to express the safety goals, a biosphere model is still needed in order to justify those indicators. In safety or performance assessments of a repository, the uncertainties in space and time for the different components of the repository system have to be considered. For the biosphere component, prediction of future human habits, in particular, is extremely uncertain. This is especially important in the assessment of deep geological disposal, which involves very long timescales, particularly for wastes containing very long lived radionuclides. Thus, the results of biosphere modelling should not be seen as predictions, but as illustrations of the consequences that may occur, should the postulated release occur today or under other conditions implied by the underlying biosphere model assumptions. Differences in biosphere modelling approaches arise because of differences in regulations, the nature of the wastes to be disposed of, disposal site characteristics, disposal concepts and purposes of the assessment. Differences in treatment of uncertainties can also arise. For example, if doses or risks are anticipated to be far below regulatory limits, assessments may be based upon simplified and, necessarily, conservative biosphere models. At present biosphere models used to assess radioactive waste disposal show significant differences in the features, events and processes (FEPs) included or excluded. In general, the reasons for these differences have not been well documented or explained. Developments in radioecology have implications for biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, after the Chernobyl accident, radioecological research has been significantly increased. Results of this research are already having and will continue to have a

  12. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment

  13. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  14. Maintenance of records for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The safety of the radioactive waste disposal concepts does not rely on long term institutional arrangements. However, future generations may need information related to repositories and the wastes confined in them. The potentially needed information therefore has to be identified and collected. A suitable system for the preservation of that information needs to be created as a part of the disposal concept beginning with the planning phase. The IAEA has prepared this technical report to respond to the needs of Member States having repositories or involved in or considering the development of repositories. In many countries policies and systems for record keeping and maintenance of information related to disposal are the subjects of current interest. This report describes the requirements for presenting information about repositories for radioactive waste including long lived and transuranic waste and spent fuel if it is declared as a waste. The report discussed topics of identification, transfer and long term retention of high level information pertaining to the repository in a records management system (RMS) for retrieval if it becomes necessary in the future

  15. The political science of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don't overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don't forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn't said in 1984? Nothing. open-quotes It's deja vu all over again.close quotes

  16. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  17. Using performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal decision making -- implementation of the methodology into the third performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Baer, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of a variety of radioactive wastes. Some of these wastes are prohibited from shallow land burial and also do not meet the waste acceptance criteria for proposed waste repositories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and Yucca Mountain. These have been termed ''special-case'' waste and require an alternative disposal method. From 1984 to 1989, the Department of Energy disposed of a small quantity of special-case transuranic wastes at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, an iterative performance assessment is demonstrated as a useful decision making tool in the overall compliance assessment process for waste disposal. The GCD site has been used as the real-site implementation and test of the performance assessment approach. Through the first two performance assessment iterations for the GCD site, and the transition into the third, we demonstrate how the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk concepts to guide affective decisions about site characterization activities and how it can be used as a powerful tool in bringing compliance decisions to closure

  18. Radioactive waste disposal: an international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    The question of radioactive waste disposal is the most intractable technical and political problem facing nuclear industry. Environmentalists world-wide demand a nuclear waste policy that must be ecologically acceptable internationally. Radioactive wastes and oil pollution were the first two types of marine pollution to receive international attention and various marine pollution controls were established. Ocean disposal was co-ordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development in 1967. The first treaty was the 1958 Convention on the High Seas (High Seas Convention). In response to its call for national co-operation the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established its Brynielson panel. The IAEA first issued guidelines on sea dumping in 1961. The London Dumping Convention, written in 1972, is the only global agreement concerned solely with the disposal of wastes in the marine environment by dumping. None of the global agreements make specific reference to sea-bed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Negotiations began at the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) for the codification of a comprehensive treaty concerned with the protection, conservation, sustainable use and development of the marine environment. Burial in deep geological formations is a method of HLW disposal which decreases the chances of accidental intrusion by mankind and has little likelihood of malicious intrusion. National waste management programmes of different countries differ but there is agreement on the acceptable technical solutions to issues of waste management. The final disposition of HLW - storage or disposal - has not been decisively determined, but there is growing consensus that geological land-based disposal is the most viable alternative. Expanded international technical co-operation could well reduce the time needed to develop effective waste disposal mechanisms

  19. Radioactive Waste Disposal into the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    Preventing pollution of the seas from the discharge of radioactive wastes has been recognized as an international problem of considerable magnitude. In April 1958 the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea adopted a Convention on the High Seas, Article 25 of which provides that every State shall take measures to prevent pollution of the seas from the dumping of radioactive wastes, taking into account any standards and regulations which may be formulated by the competent international organizations. The Conference also adopted a resolution recommending that the IAEA pursue studies and take action to assist States in controlling the discharge of radioactive materials into the sea. Later the same year, a Panel of experts was invited by me to meet in Vienna to study the technical and scientific problems connected with radioactive waste disposal into the sea, and Mr. H. Brynielsson of Sweden was designated Chairman of the Panel. Representatives of the United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization participated in the work of the Panel. After a second series of meetings in 1959, the Panel completed its study, setting forth the result of its work in a report dated 6 April 1960, which has been submitted to the Agency's Scientific Advisory Committee and to Member States for their information. The Panel's report is now published in the present volume of the Agency's Safety Series in the form in which it was submitted by the Chairman of the Panel. I should like to add that the report represents the views of the experts participating in their individual capacity in the work of the Panel. It is offered as an information document and it should not be regarded as an official statement by the Agency of its views or policies in relation to the subject discussed.

  20. Conceptual design for the demonstration and evaluation of stabilization and closure techniques of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Long term stabilization and closure of radioactive or hazardous waste disposal sites is a critical element in waste management which is presently undemonstrated. This report represents an integration of stabilization and closure methodology researched at ORNL and other locations into a design, and ultimately a demonstration of long term passive stabilization and closure techniques. The chosen demonstration site is a 19 trench low level waste disposal site within Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) No. 6 at ORNL. Design criteria included prevention of biological intrusion (animals and plant roots), waste stabilization, hydrological isolation, failure detection, run-off and infiltration monitoring, and passive performance evaluation capability. These criteria are satisfied through incorporation of these basic components: dynamic compaction; in situ chemical grouting; high density polyethylene (HDPE); high swelling bentonite; rock/gravel animal and root barrier; native soil cap; and under-cap and surface drainage

  1. Isotope method for the recognition of groundwater formation in China's preselected high level radioactive waste disposal repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Ju; Liu Shufen; Su Rui; Lu Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Yemaquan region in Beishan area. Gansu province, is one of the preselected sites of disposal repository for high level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Hydrogeological condition is an important aspect for site evaluation and the groundwater formation is a key factor to reflect the hydrogeological conditions for a certain area. Isotopic method is the one of the important means to determine the groundwater formation. Through the sampling and analysis of shallow groundwater isotopes of Yemaquan region, combined with geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics, the issue of groundwater formation in the study region was discussed. The main cognition is that the groundwater in the region was formed from the infiltration of modern rainfall and the strong evaporation was happened for the shallow groundwater, which indicates the circulation conditions were relatively good for the shallow groundwater. This cognition provides very important hydrogeological information and basis for the evaluation of Yemaquan preselected site. (authors)

  2. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  3. Geophysical investigations applied to site selection for the radioactive waste disposal; Investigacoes geofisicas aplicadas na selecao de um repositorio de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Samir; Dornelles, Gerson; Pedrozo, Geraldo Arholdi [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-07-01

    In this work the geophysical exploratory techniques and the results obtained for the selection of a candidate site for the final repository of the radioactive waste containing cesium-137 generated by the Goiania accident occurred in September 1987, are described. The studies were performed in an area of about 100 hectares where is located the present radioactive waste provisional repository. the geophysical investigations using electromagnetic methods (VLF-EM), electric drillings and surface and sub-surface radiometry allowed for the area monitoring and provided the geophysical parameters necessary for understanding the structural and stratigraphic context. Furthermore, they will provide data for the geotechnical, geochemical and hydrogeological investigations as well as for the engineering conceptual project for the repository construction. (author)

  4. The role of public involvement in managing political conflict: A comparative case study of public involvement activities in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzoumis, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of political conflict based on the components of scope, intensity and visibility is used to rank the degree of conflict for states hosting a low-level radioactive waste facility in the US. Data were gathered from sixty-five telephone interviews and comparisons made with ten national experts. Public involvement and compensation packages (reviewed in Chapter IV) to be potential conflict management tools for practitioners. The role of the governor and the complexity of the siting process are two additional factors that are important in escalating a conflict. Technical factors of complexity and source of the waste along with the past performance of the company handling the facility have no link to conflict. Conflict escalation is proposed as a means towards understanding the agenda-building process

  5. Interim report on reference biospheres for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, F. van

    1994-10-01

    Primary criteria for repository safety are commonly expressed in terms of risk or dose, and a biosphere model is required to evaluate the corresponding assessment endpoints. Even when other indicators are used to express the safety goals, a biosphere model is still needed in order to justify those indicators. In safety or performance assessments of a repository, the uncertainties in space and time for the different components of the repository system have to be considered. For the biosphere component, prediction of future human habits, in particular, is extremely uncertain. This is especially important in the assessment of deep geological disposal, which involves very long timescales, particularly for wastes containing very long lived radionuclides. Thus, the results of biosphere modelling should not be seen as predictions, but as illustrations of the consequences that may occur, should the postulated release occur today or under other conditions implied by the underlying biosphere model assumptions. Differences in biosphere modelling approaches arise because of differences in regulations, the nature of the wastes to be disposed of, disposal site characteristics, disposal concepts and purposes of the assessment. Differences in treatment of uncertainties can also arise. For example, if doses or risks are anticipated to be far below regulatory limits, assessments may be based upon simplified and, necessarily, conservative biosphere models. At present biosphere models used to assess radioactive waste disposal show significant differences in the features, events and processes (FEPs) included or excluded. In general, the reasons for these differences have not been well documented or explained. Developments in radioecology have implications for biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, after the Chernobyl accident, radioecological research has been significantly increased. Results of this research are already having and will continue to have a

  6. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  7. Low level radioactive waste disposal in Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchev, V.

    2001-01-01

    Kozloduy NPP is the biggest power plant in the Republic of Bulgaria. It is in operation since 1974 and for the past 25 years it has generated over 263 billion kWh electric power. The NPP share in the total electric production in 1998 was about 50%. It has six units in operation - four WWER 440 B-230 and two WWER 1000 B-320. In the nuclear reactor operation the generation of radioactive waste (RAW) is an inevitable process. The waste must be conditioned, stored and disposed of in a safe manner. There are no national radioactive waste disposal facilities, for waste generated by an NPP, in Bulgaria to the moment. This situation necessitates the storage of operational RAW to be carried out on site for a long period of time (30 to 50 years). Following the principle for protection of human health and environment now and in the future, Kozloduy NPP adopted the concept for conditioning the RAW to a stable solid form and placing the waste in a package which should keep its features for a sufficiently long term so that the package can be safely transported to the disposal site. (author)

  8. Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

  9. Safety engineering aspects of radioactive waste disposal, and evaluation of the Konrad and Gorleben radioactive waste disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1992-01-01

    Safety engineering aspects of radioactive waste disposal, and evaluation of the Konrad and Gorleben radioactive waste disposal projects. Final disposal is defined as the safe, sufficiently long and maintenance-free isolation of unavoidable hazardous materials in deep geological formations of the earth's crust. A holistic view of the world around us is prerequisite for implementation of this nature-conserving scheme. However, the complexity of the relevant processes, man-made ones inclusive, and their interactions defies exact calculations and forces us to resort to forecasts. Aspects related to the scientificio-technical fundamentals of such forecasts are dealt with, and the Konrad and Gorleben radioactive waste disposal projects are evaluated on the basis of these aspects. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Comparative Assessment of Status and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, C.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration and radioactive waste disposal share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste. There is well-documented capacity in North America for 100 years or more of sequestration of CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. Aside from economics, the challenges of geologic carbon sequestration include lack of fully established legal and regulatory framework for ownership of injected CO 2 , the need for an expanded pipeline infrastructure, and public acceptance of the technology. As for radioactive waste, the U.S. has proposed the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the region's first high-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Canadian radioactive waste program is currently evolving with options that range from geologic disposal to both decentralized and centralized permanent storage in surface facilities. Both the U.S. and Canada have established legal and regulatory frameworks for radioactive waste disposal. The most challenging technical issue for radioactive waste disposal is the need to predict repository performance on extremely long time scales (10 4 - 10 6 years). While attitudes toward nuclear power are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changes in climate occur, public perception remains the most serious challenge to opening radioactive waste repositories. Because of the many significant differences between radioactive waste disposal and geologic carbon sequestration, there is little that can be shared between them from regulatory, legal, transportation, or economic perspectives. As for public perception, there is currently an opportunity to engage the public on the benefits and risks of both geologic carbon sequestration and radioactive waste disposal

  11. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-02-25

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations.

  12. Roles and Importance of Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Roh, Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance and interest for the microbes has been increased because several important results for the effects of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal have been published continuously. In this study, research status and major results on the various roles and effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal have been investigated. We investigated and summarized the roles and major results of microbes in a multi-barrier system consisting of an engineered barrier and a natural barrier which is considered in radioactive waste disposal systems. For the engineered barrier, we discussed about the effects of microbes on the corrosion of a waste container and investigated the survival possibility and roles of microbes in a compacted bentonite buffer. For the natural barrier, the roles of microbes present in groundwaters and rocks were discussed and summarized with major results from natural analogue studies. Furthermore, we investigated and summarized the roles and various interactions processes of microbes and their effects on the radionuclide migration and retardation including recent research status. Therefore, it is expected that the effects and roles of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal can be rigorously evaluated if further researches are carried out for a long-term behavior of the disposal system in the deep geological environments and for the effects of microbes on the radionuclide migration through geological media.

  13. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  14. Summary review of rock mechanics workshop on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, N.L.; Goodman, R.E.; Merrill, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Presentations, critiques and recommendations for the disposal of commercial radioactive waste based upon an analysis of the information presented at the Rock Mechanics Review/Workshop, Denver, Colorado, December 16-17, 1976 are summarized. The workshop, comprised of both formal and informal sessions, with about 50 participants, was hosted by RE/SPEC Inc. and Dr. Paul F. Gnirk, President and was sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), led by Dr. William C. McClain. The panel of reviewers, responsible for this report, consisted of Neville L. Carter, Richard E. Goodman, and Robert H. Merrill. These panel members were selected not only on the basis of their experience in various aspects of Rock Mechanics and Mining Engineering but also because they have had no previous active participation in problems concerning disposal of radioactive waste. By way of a general comment, the review panel was very favorably impressed with the Rock Mechanics research efforts, supported by OWI, on this problem and with the level of technical competence of those carrying out the research. Despite the rather preliminary nature of the results presented and the youth of the program itself, it is clear that the essential ingredients for a successful program are at hand, especially as regards disposal in natural salt formations. These include laboratory studies of appropriate rock deformation, numerical analyses of thermal and mechanical stresses around openings, and in situ field tests. We shall comment on each of these three major areas in turn. We shall then offer recommendations for their improvement, and, finally, we shall make more general recommendations for future considerations of the OWI radioactive waste disposal program

  15. Summary review of rock mechanics workshop on radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, N.L.; Goodman, R.E.; Merrill, R.H.

    1977-02-07

    Presentations, critiques and recommendations for the disposal of commercial radioactive waste based upon an analysis of the information presented at the Rock Mechanics Review/Workshop, Denver, Colorado, December 16-17, 1976 are summarized. The workshop, comprised of both formal and informal sessions, with about 50 participants, was hosted by RE/SPEC Inc. and Dr. Paul F. Gnirk, President and was sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), led by Dr. William C. McClain. The panel of reviewers, responsible for this report, consisted of Neville L. Carter, Richard E. Goodman, and Robert H. Merrill. These panel members were selected not only on the basis of their experience in various aspects of Rock Mechanics and Mining Engineering but also because they have had no previous active participation in problems concerning disposal of radioactive waste. By way of a general comment, the review panel was very favorably impressed with the Rock Mechanics research efforts, supported by OWI, on this problem and with the level of technical competence of those carrying out the research. Despite the rather preliminary nature of the results presented and the youth of the program itself, it is clear that the essential ingredients for a successful program are at hand, especially as regards disposal in natural salt formations. These include laboratory studies of appropriate rock deformation, numerical analyses of thermal and mechanical stresses around openings, and in situ field tests. We shall comment on each of these three major areas in turn. We shall then offer recommendations for their improvement, and, finally, we shall make more general recommendations for future considerations of the OWI radioactive waste disposal program.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal in the Gorleben salt deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizycki, P. von

    1985-01-01

    In the opinion of five experts, the protective function of the overlying rock as a barrier has turned out to be questionable after borings and measurements carried through at Gorleben. Moreover, the results have also raised doubts about the geological safety of the salt deposit as a barrier in the long run. The geological multibarrier concept must be discarded. Not only critics, but also 3 advocates from the field of official research on radioactive waste disposal state their opinion. (DG) [de

  17. Environmental politics in the 1980s: the public examination of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Ray; O'Riordan, Timothy; Purdue, Mike.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the administrative and political processes which form radioactive waste disposal (RWD) policy. It analyses the evidence presented to the Sizewell-B inquiry on RWD, in particular, that of the Department of the Environment (DoE). It concludes that the DoE policy on definition, site disposal strategy and the form of public examination for future site proposals, changed during the course of the Inquiry. This meant that the evidence presented was not always clear and unambiguous. The importance of subjecting controversial policies to public scrutiny is emphasized. (UK)

  18. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  19. Radioactive waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Disposal into ground has sometimes proved to be an expedient and simple method. Where ground disposal has become an established practice, the sites have so far been limited to those remote from population centres; but in other respects, such as in climate and soil conditions, their characteristics vary widely. Experience gained at these sites has illustrated the variety of problems in radioactive waste migration and the resulting pollution and environmental radiation levels that may reasonably be anticipated at other sites, whether remote from population centres or otherwise.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear waste is a truly global problem and that it may be in Australia's best interests to ensure that it is stored more securely and safely, and to provide part of that solution. This doesn't mean that Australia is obliged to provide a repository site for nuclear waste from other countries. But nor does it mean that Australia should opt out of helping to seek a solution to the radwaste problem

  1. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G.

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures

  2. On the estimation of bias in post-closure performance assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Gralewski, Z.A.; Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method for recording and evaluating bias in performance assessments for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities. The bias estimation approach comprises three principal components: (1) creation of a relational database containing historical assumptions and decisions made during the assessment, (2) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of internal bias through alternative assessment calculations, and (3) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of external bias by estimating degrees of belief probability. Bias corrections may help avoid unnecessary concerns by explaining and scoping the impacts of principal differences without the need to undertake additional site investigation, research, and performance analysis

  3. Regional hydrogeological conceptual model of candidate Beishan area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailong; Guo Yonghai

    2014-01-01

    The numerical modeling of groundwater flow is an important aspect of hydrogeological assessment in siting of a high level radioactive waste disposal repository. Hydrogeological conceptual model is the basic and premise of numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Based on the hydrogeological analysis of candidate Beishan area, surface water system was created by using DEM data and the modeling area is determined. Three-dimensional hydrogeological structure model was created through GMS software. On the basis of analysis and description of boundary condition, flow field, groundwater budget and hydrogeological parameters, hydrogeological conceptual model was set up for the Beishan area. (authors)

  4. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1981 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1981. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  5. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies. (UK)

  7. Radioactive waste disposal in W.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste in Western Australia arises primarily from medical diagnosis and treatment and from scientific research mainly with a medical orientation. Waste is classified before disposal depending on its level and type of radioactivity and then disposed of either to municipal land fill sites, to the sewerage system or by incineration. The amounts of radioactive materials which may be disposed of to the sewers and air are set by the Radiation Safety Act (1975) Regulations, and the land fill operations are controlled to ensure isolation of the material. Other waste such as unwanted sources used in industrial applications are stored for future disposal. Discussions are being held between officers of the State and Australian Governments aimed at providing suitable disposal methods for sources of this kind

  8. Study on quality assurance for high-level radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed comparatively detailed quality assurance requirements for the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems. Quality assurance is recognized as a key issue for confidence building and smooth implementation of the HLW program in Japan, and Japan is at an initial phase of repository development. Then the quality assurance requirements at site research and site selection, site characterization, and site suitability analysis used in the Yucca Mountain project were examined in detail and comprehensive descriptions were developed using flow charts. Additionally, the applicability to the Japan high-level radioactive waste disposal project was studied. The examination and study were performed for the following QA requirements: The requirements that have the relative importance at site research and site selection, site characterization, and site suitability analysis (such as planning and performing scientific investigations, sample control, data control, model development and use, technical report review, software control, and control of the electric management of data). The requirements that have the relative importance at the whole repository phases (such as quality assurance program, document control, and control of quality assurance records). (author)

  9. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vedernikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on data collected during operation of near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived intermediate-, lowand very low-level waste in France, as well as nearsurface disposal facilities for long-lived waste in Russia. Further analysis of occupational and public doses calculated at the design stage was completed covering a near-surface disposal facility in Belgium and deep disposal facilities in the United Kingdom and the Nizhne-Kansk rock massive (Russia. The results show that engineering and technical solutions enable almost complete elimination of internal occupational exposure, whereas external exposure doses would fall within the range of values typical for a basic nuclear facility. Conclusion: radioactive waste disposal facilities being developed, constructed and operated meet the safety requirements effective in the Russian Federation and consistent with relevant international recommendations. It has been found that individual occupational exposure doses commensurate with those received by personnel of similar facilities abroad. Furthermore, according to the forecasts, mean individual doses for personnel during radioactive waste disposal would be an order of magnitude lower than the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. As for the public exposure, during normal operation, potential impact is virtually impossible by delaminating boundaries of a nuclear facility sanitary protection zone inside which the disposal facility is located and can be solely attributed to the use

  10. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2000-04-01

    subterranean biosphere in the aquifers of the Fennoscandian Shield. Microbial processes at repository depths will have several important influences on repository performance. Some identified processes are the production of sulphide, carbon dioxide, organic carbon and methane, and the reduction of oxygen. The repository performance must be predicted for very long times. Natural analogues therefore become invaluable. Time-related processes of radionuclide migration have been studied at analogue sites that have been evolving over very long time periods. High pH conditions occur in Maqarin, Jordan; fuel-related processes have evolved at the natural reactors in Oklo, Gabon, and uranium migration processes have developed around the uranium body of Palmottu, in Finland. The majority of the radionuclides are metals. The transport, chemical speciation, and ultimate fate of dissolved metals in aqueous systems are controlled to a large extent by reactions that occur at solid surfaces. Bacteria are at least as widely distributed and probably as reactive as many inorganic solids in aqueous systems. The behaviour of bacteria as geochemically reactive solids can be inferred from extensive research documenting their performance as sorbents of dissolved metals, and as nucleation templates for a wide range of authigenic minerals. They may consequently play a significant role in radionuclide retention and transport processes

  11. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    subterranean biosphere in the aquifers of the Fennoscandian Shield. Microbial processes at repository depths will have several important influences on repository performance. Some identified processes are the production of sulphide, carbon dioxide, organic carbon and methane, and the reduction of oxygen. The repository performance must be predicted for very long times. Natural analogues therefore become invaluable. Time-related processes of radionuclide migration have been studied at analogue sites that have been evolving over very long time periods. High pH conditions occur in Maqarin, Jordan; fuel-related processes have evolved at the natural reactors in Oklo, Gabon, and uranium migration processes have developed around the uranium body of Palmottu, in Finland. The majority of the radionuclides are metals. The transport, chemical speciation, and ultimate fate of dissolved metals in aqueous systems are controlled to a large extent by reactions that occur at solid surfaces. Bacteria are at least as widely distributed and probably as reactive as many inorganic solids in aqueous systems. The behaviour of bacteria as geochemically reactive solids can be inferred from extensive research documenting their performance as sorbents of dissolved metals, and as nucleation templates for a wide range of authigenic minerals. They may consequently play a significant role in radionuclide retention and transport processes.

  12. Survey of microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposed of to land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGahan, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation of published literature was mounted to determine the current position of research into microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposal sites and to assess the need for further research. It is concluded from the survey that the microbial activity present in domestic landfills also occurs in shallow land burial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The microbial activity results in the release of tritium as tritiated methane to the atmosphere and tritiated components to the leachate. Carbon-14 migration is also enhanced. It also accelerates the corrosion of steel and concrete used to contain the wastes. There is little evidence for enhanced migration of radionuclides as a result of their incorporation in bacteria but there is considerable evidence for enhancement resulting from the presence of complexing agents (such as ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid and tributyl phosphate) in the waste. Research in this field has been observed to be very active in the United States. Its objective is to predict with more certainty the important parameters for future low-level radioactive waste site designs. Quantitative prediction of microbial effects and their magnitude is not easy to deduce from the published literature, and new site designs will differ markedly from those that have been in operation over the last thirty years. (author)

  13. Technology, socio-political acceptance, and the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.; Domenech, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The technology which is required to develop and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the 1990's is available today. The push for best available technology is a response to the political difficulties in securing public acceptance of the site selection process. Advances in waste management technologies include development of High Integrity Containers (HIC), solidification media, liquid volume reduction techniques using GEODE/sub sm/ and DeVoe-Holbein technology of selective removal of target radioisotopes, and CASTOR V storage casks. Advances in technology alone, however, do not make the site selection process easier and without socio-political acceptance there may be no process at all. Chem-Nuclear has been successful in achieving community acceptance at the Barnwell facility and elsewhere. For example, last June in Fall River County, South Dakota, citizens voted almost 2:1 to support the development of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In Edgemont, the city nearest the proposed site, 85% of the voters were in favor of the proposed facility

  14. State-of-the-art report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the considerable work required to develop repositories for radioactive waste, an extensive international co-operation has evolved within the area. The work has also engaged the IAEA to a great extent. The Agency has published a number of reports, covering different aspects of waste disposal. Following a recommendation by its Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (TRCUD) the Agency will publish a ''state-of-the-art'' report on radioactive waste disposal. The report is still in the preparation stage. In this article the principal subjects of the future report are discussed

  15. The development of criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagstaff, K.P.

    1985-02-01

    Radiation protection criteria are needed in Canada for judging the acceptability of radioactive waste disposal options for which there are potential long-term radiological impacts. This paper discusses the difficulties encountered in applying the ICRP system of dose limitation to the long term and the alternative approaches to criteria being developed and adopted by various other international and national bodies. Finally, the present situation in Canada is reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the general direction in which national criteria are being formulated and expressed

  16. Principles and guidelines for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Four basic principles relevant to radioactive waste disposal identified. These principles cover the justification of the activity giving rise to the waste, the consideration of risk to present and future generations, the minimization of the need for intervention in the future, and the financial obligations of the licensee. The use of risk limits as opposed to dose limits associated with disposal is discussed, as are the concepts of critical group, de minimis, and ALARA, in the context of a waste disposal facility. Guidance is given on the selection of the preferred waste disposal concept from among several alternatives, and for judging proposed design improvements to the chosen concept

  17. Radioactive waste disposal assessment - overview of biosphere processes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report provides an overview of biosphere processes and models in the general context of the radiological assessment of radioactive waste disposal as a basis for HMIP's response to biosphere aspects of Nirex's submissions for disposal of radioactive wastes in a purpose-built repository at Sellafield, Cumbria. The overview takes into account published information from the UK as available from Nirex's safety and assessment research programme and HMIP's disposal assessment programme, as well as that available from studies in the UK and elsewhere. (Author)

  18. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  19. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  20. Control of radioactive waste disposal into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The body of this publication is intended to provide adequate information on the broad aspects of radioactive waste disposal into the sea. The introduction of radionuclides into the sea from uncontrollable sources, such as weapons test explosions, is outside the scope of this publication, as are releases of radionuclides from nuclear-powered vessels. It should be stressed that agreements on practices for the marine disposal of wastes are being developed and the understanding of oceanographic processes is rapidly progressing; therefore, the conclusions presented here should always be considered in the context of changes in both knowledge and practice that occur subsequent to the completion of this text

  1. Polonium-210 in the environment around a radioactive waste disposal area and phosphate ore processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W J; Markham, O D

    1984-04-01

    Polonium-210 concentrations were determined for soil, vegetation and small mammal tissues collected at a solid radioactive waste disposal area, near a phosphate ore processing plant and at two rural areas in southeastern Idaho. Polonium concentrations in media sampled near the radioactive waste disposal facility were equal to or less than values from rural area samples, indicating that disposal of solid radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site has not resulted in increased environmental levels of polonium. Concentrations of 210Po in soils, deer mice hide and carcass samples collected near the phosphate processing plant were statistically (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than the other sampling locations; however, the mean 210Po concentration in soils and small mammal tissues from sampling areas near the phosphate plant were only four and three times greater, respectively, than control values. No statistical (P greater than 0.05) difference was observed for 210Po concentrations in vegetation among any of the sampling locations.

  2. A case study on the safety assessment for groundwater pathway in a near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Wan; Chang, Keun Moo; Kim, Chang Lak

    2002-01-01

    A safety assessment is carried out for the near-surface radioactive waste disposal in the reference engineered vault facility. The analysis is mainly divided into two parts. One deals with the release and transport of radionuclide in the vault and unsaturated zone. The other deals with the transport of radionuclide in the vault and unsaturated zone. The other deals with the transport of radionuclide in the saturated zone and radiological impacts to a human group under well drinking water scenario. The parameters for source-term, geosphere and biosphere models are mainly obtained from the site specific data. The results show that the annual effective doses are dominated by long lived, mobile radionuclides and their associated daughters. And it is found that the total effective dose for drinking water is far below the general criteria of regulatory limit for radioactive waste disposal facility

  3. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.C.; Walter, P.L.; Baird, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  4. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  5. Regulatory, administrative and financial problems raised by radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1980-03-01

    This paper analyses the salient aspects of the non-technical problems involved in radioactive waste disposal: the division of operational, regulatory and administrative responsibilities, the usefulness of providing a form of institutional control of the waste disposed of, and the question of the length of time for such mechanisms, both of which are closely linked to the preceding point. A description follows of the R and D financing mechanisms in the field and of the surveillance systems to be set up. Finally, mention is made of the legal and practical difficulties encountered in the application of the third party liability and insurance regime to long-term waste management and the international dimension of all these questions. (NEA) [fr

  6. Status report on Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created by Article 4590f-1 to site, develop, operate, decommission, and close a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for Texas generated waste. In 1989, the Authority's act was recodified by the Texas legislature in the Health and Safety Code., Title 5. Sanitation and Environmental Quality, Subtitle D. Nuclear and Radioactive Materials, Chapter 402. The Authority is governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Governor, composed of a certified health physicist, geologist, attorney, medical doctor, and two private citizens. Under the statute, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material with a half-life of 35 years or less or having less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Materials with half-lives of greater than 35 years may be classed as low-level waste if special criteria are established by the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control. Subsequent sessions of the legislature have amended the act to revise siting criteria, require consideration of state land, create a Citizen's Advisory Committee, incorporate alternative designs, and establish a special low-level radioactive waste account in the state treasury. The Authority began its activities in 1982. The Authority has proposed a site in far West Texas near Fort Hancock, but El Paso County, the neighboring county to the west, has instituted three separate lawsuits to slow or stop the site selection process. Particular attention was paid early in the site selection process to items which could be fatal flaws from a licensing standpoint. This paper discusses the Fort Hancock site description, site evaluation studies, siting issues, waste volume projections, facility design, license application, cost and schedule

  7. A user's guide to the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated software package:a low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Arnold, Bill Walter; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2007-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal and at the time of this publication is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In countries with small radioactive waste programs, international technology transfer program efforts are often hampered by small budgets, schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available software codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, revitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a credible and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. This document is a reference users guide for the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated modeling software package developed as part of a cooperative technology transfer project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low

  8. A user's guide to the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated software package:a low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Arnold, Bill Walter; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal and at the time of this publication is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In countries with small radioactive waste programs, international technology transfer program efforts are often hampered by small budgets, schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available software codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, revitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a credible and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. This document is a reference users guide for the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated modeling software package developed as part of a cooperative technology transfer project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low

  9. Hydrogeochemical assessment of crystaline rock for radioactive waste disposal: the Stripa experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.; Fontes, J.C.; Fritz, P.; Nordstroem, K.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents a program for the hydro-geochemical assessment of a crystalline rock site for radioactive waste disposal. It is based upon experience gained during the international program of hydrochemical work at the Stripa mine. The important result of this work are summarized in this report and fuller details may be found in the separate final reports of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 geochemical investigations of the Stripa groundwaters. The present report summarizes the general sampling requirements for a successful hydrochecmical investigation; the isotopic and chemical parameters which should be determined an the geochemical characterization of the rock matrix necessary for the interpretation of hydrochemistry. A general strategy for site evaluation by geochemical methods is presented. (authors)

  10. Estimation of contaminant transport in groundwater beneath radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.C.; Tauxe, J.D.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessments are required for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, consider human exposures from water, air, and inadvertent intruder pathways. Among these, the groundwater pathway analysis usually involves complex numerical simulations with results which are often difficult to verify and interpret. This paper presents a technique to identify and simplify the essential parts of the groundwater analysis. The transport process of radionuclides including infiltration of precipitation, leachate generation, and advection and dispersion in the groundwater is divided into several steps. For each step, a simple analytical model is constructed and refined to capture the dominant phenomena represented in the complex analysis included in a site-specific performance assessment. This step-wise approach provides a means for gaining insights into the transport process and obtaining reasonable estimates of relevant quantities for facility design and site evaluation

  11. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Hong, D. S.; Hwang, G. H.; Shin, J. J.; Yuk, D. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Characteristics and states of management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in site : state of management for each type of wastes, characteristics of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste, stage of management of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste. Survey of state of management and characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in foreign countries : state of management of disposal facilities, classification criteria and target radionuclides for assessment in foreign disposal facilities. Survey of the assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory and establishing the direction of requirement : assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory, analysis of radionuclides assay system in KORI site, establishment the direction of requirement in the assessment methods.

  12. Conception of the low and intermediate radioactive wastes disposal system in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalez Suares, G.; Peralta Vidal, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Franklin Saburrido, R.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R.

    1997-01-01

    According to the possibilities of conclusion the construction and operation of the Juragua NPP as well as the development of the nuclear application is necessary to have in the country a reliable Radioactive Wastes Disposal System. With this objective was worked in the conception of a variant of solution for disposal of these wastes that is adjustment to the characteristics of our country this work also includes a technical Economic Study of the Repositories. In this paper are shown the characteristics of wastes, the design of the installation, the package and the conditioning of these wastes as well as the process for the Site Selection of repositories the Safety Assessment and the Performance Assessment in preliminary stage

  13. Announced document collection of the 3rd information exchange meeting on radioactive waste disposal research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The 3rd meeting on 'Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network' was held at the Ricotti techno community square of JAEA on September 3 and 4, 2007. The 'Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network' was established in Interorganization Atomic Energy Research Program under academic collaborative agreement between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tokyo. The objective is to bring both research infrastructures and human expertise in Japan to an adequate performance level, thereby contributing to the development of the fundamental research area in the field of radioactive waste disposal. This lecture material is a collection of presentations and discussions during the information exchange meeting. (author)

  14. The potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    The aim of this report is to assess the potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal. It outlines the major factors which need to be considered in order to evaluate the importance of microbiological action. These include water and nutritional sources (particularly carbon) hostile conditions (particularly the effects of radiation and pH), the establishment of pH micro-environments and the degradative effect of microbial metabolic by-products on the disposed waste forms. Before an active microbial population can develop there are certain basic requirements for life. These are outlined and the possibility of colonisation occurring within the chemical, radiological and nutritional constraints of a repository are considered. Once colonisation is assumed, the effect of microbial activity is discussed under five headings, i.e. (i) direct attack, (ii) physical disruption (which includes consideration of fissuring processes and void formation), (iii) gas generation (which may be of particular importance), (iv) radionuclide uptake and finally (v) alteration of groundwater chemistry. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of environments becoming established both within the waste form itself (allowing microbes to attack from the inside of the repository outward) or attack on the encapsulant materials (microbes attacking from the outside inward). (author)

  15. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueero, A.; Pinedo, P.; Cancio, D.; Simon, I.; Moraleda, M.; Perez-Sanchez, D.; Trueba, C.

    2007-01-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS 'Reference Biospheres Methodology' and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates

  16. 'Reference Biospheres' for solid radioactive waste disposal: the BIOMASS Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Pinedo, P.; Kessler, J.H.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Walters, B.

    2005-01-01

    The BIOMASS Theme 1 project has developed a methodology for the logical and defensible construction of 'assessment biospheres': mathematical representations of biospheres used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The BIOMASS Methodology provides a systematic approach to decision making, including decisions on how to address biosphere change. The BIOMASS Methodology was developed through consultation and collaboration with many relevant organisations, including regulators, operators and a variety of independent experts. It has been developed to be practical and to be consistent with recommendations from ICRP and IAEA on radiation protection in the context of the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive wastes. The five main steps in the methodology are described in this paper. The importance of a clear assessment context, to clarify intentions and to support a coherent biosphere assessment process within an overall repository performance assessment, is strongly emphasised. A well described assessment context is an important tool for ensuring consistency across the performance assessment as a whole. The use of interaction matrices has been found to be helpful in clarifying the interactions between different habitats within the biosphere system and the significant radionuclide transfer pathways within the biosphere system. Matrices also provide a useful means of checking for consistency

  17. The geomicrobiology of European mines relevant to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofi, N.; Philp, J.C.; West, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Samples for microbiological analysis were taken from experimental mines, which are being used to investigate the technology for radioactive waste disposal, in Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany and Sweden. In total four mines were examined from the three countries. Generally, the number and types of microorganisms increased as the salinity of the water samples decreased. Higher populations were present in the least saline waters of Stripa (Sweden). Here exposed gallery stream-water contained aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as autotrophic and heterotrophic types. Water from a deep borehole, drilled into the Stripa granite from within the 360 m level gallery, contained a predominance of anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Activity monitored by gas chromatographic techniques showed that this population was organic carbon limited. A shallow borehole sample contained mainly aerobic heterotrophic bacteria which were also carbon limited. Samples from the mines in the FRG and Belgium contained small or no populations of bacteria determined by cultural techniques. Mol (Belgium) Boom clay, a potential backfill material, contained no determinable microbial content, and nutrients extracted from it were unable to support environmental isolates. For this reason it is considered a superior backfill material to Fuller's Earth (calcium montmorillonite). (author)

  18. Topic D. Retrievability: a spectrum of views radioactive waste disposal: taking societal views into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rip, A.; Smit, W.A.; Van der Meulen, B.J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the radioactive waste disposal. It takes into account the societal views. The main results as well as the methodological approach of argumentation patterns and argumentation scenarios are presented. (O.L.). 7 refs

  19. Review of national research programmes on the microbiology of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1991-06-01

    Published results on the microbial effects of relevance to radioactive waste disposal are reviewed. The subjects covered by each of the various national programmes are considered in turn and the important themes that emerge from these are summarised. Finally the relevance of this microbiological research to the Nirex Safety case is discussed in brief. All references to research papers that deal with microbial aspects of radioactive waste disposal are listed and the key publications identified. (author)

  20. Some legal aspects on high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    In Japan, it is considered to be an urgent problem to prepare the system for the research and execution of high level radioactive waste disposal. Under what regulation scheme the disposal should be done has not been sufficiently examined. In this research, the examination was carried out on the legal aspects of high level radioactive waste disposal as follows. First, the current legislation on the disposal in Japan was analyzed, and it was made clear that high level radioactive waste disposal has not been stipulated clearly. Next, on the legal choices which are conceivable on the way the legislation for high level radioactive waste disposal should be, from the aspects of applying the law on regulating nuclear reactors and others, applying the law on nuclear power damage reparation, and industrialization by changing the government ordinances, those were arranged in six choices, and the examination was carried out for each choice from the viewpoints of the relation with the base stipulation for waste-burying business, the speciality of high level radioactive waste disposal as compared with other actions of nuclear power business, the coordination with existing nuclear power of nuclear power business, the coordination with existing nuclear power law system and the formation of national consensus. In this research, it was shown that the execution of high level radioactive waste disposal as the business based on the separate legislation is the realistic choice. (K.I.)

  1. Radiation damage studies on natural rock salt from various geological localities of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a program to investigate radiation damage in geological materials of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program, radiation damage, particularly radiation induced sodium metal colloid formation, has been studied in 14 natural rock salt samples. All measurements were made with equipment for making optical absorption and other measurements on samples, in a temperature controlled irradiation chamber, during and after 0.5 to 3.0 MeV electron irradiation. Samples were chosen for practical and scientific purposes, from localities that are potential repository sites and from different horizons at certain localities

  2. Summary of investigations carried out prior to 19 October 1984 regarding the location of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site for the burial of intermediate and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1984-10-01

    A recommendation by a specialist study group that the State set in motion a program to locate a suitable site or sites for the storage/disposal of radioactive waste in South Africa was accepted in 1978. A site-selection program was therefore duly initiated and in February 1983 culminated in the purchase of three farms, Garing, Geelpan and Stofkloof, some 100 km south-southeast of the town of Springbok in the northwestern Cape. The site, known as Vaalputs, is about 10 000 ha in extent. Detailed geological, geophysical, geohydrological, geobotanical, geomorphological and environmental investigations have been completed, with emphasis on the Geelpan Block, previously recommended as being the most suitable area for a disposal site. The final site of 0,5 X 0,7 km has now been selected

  3. Development of a model for geomorphological assessment at U.S. DOE chemical/radioactive waste disposal facilities in the central and eastern United States; Weldon spring site remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockaway, J.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Landform development and long-term geomorphic stability is the result of a complex interaction of a number of geomorphic processes. These processes may be highly variable in intensity and duration under different physiographic settings. This limitation has influenced the applicability of previous geomorphological stability assessments conducted in the arid or semi-arid western United States to site evaluations in more temperate and humid climates. The purpose of this study was to develop a model suitable for evaluating both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes which may impact landform stability and hence the stability of disposal facilities located in the central and eastern United States. The model developed for the geomorphological stability assessment at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) near St. Louis, Missouri, included an evaluation of existing landforms and consideration of the impact of both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes. These parameters were evaluated with respect to their impact and contribution to three assessment criteria considered most important with respect to the stability analysis; evaluation of landform age, evaluation of present geomorphic process activity and; determination of the impact of the completed facility on existing geomorphic processes. The geomorphological assessment at the Weldon Spring site indicated that the facility is located in an area of excellent geomorphic stability. The only geomorphic process determined to have a potential detrimental effect on long-term facility performance is an extension of the drainage network. A program of mitigating measures has been proposed to minimize the impact that future gully extension could have on the integrity of the facility

  4. On the role of clay and its mineralogic components in low- and intermediary-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, C.; Balan, V.

    2001-01-01

    In site selection for radioactive waste disposal a special attention is paid to clay and its mineralogic components as it has an important potential of retarding for both the radionuclides in radioactive wastes and fluid dynamics in the disposal site. The most frequent reaction implied in the radioisotope migration from liquid to solid phase is the cationic exchange. This work aimed at finding the relationship of clay and its mineralogic components, on one hand, and the exchange properties of the deposits, on the other hand. These relationships are based on the data obtained from about 50 cores sampled in 5 drillings performed in Saligny site, selected for radioactive waste disposal. Four levels different from physical, chemical and mineralogical properties were evidenced. The ionic exchange rate, with values within 5 to 30 me/100 g, has a trend of reflecting the clay contents. The relations between the cationic exchange rate and the clay contents appears to be linear with correlation coefficients varying within 0.81 - 0.97. The mineralogical composition of clay includes smectite (predominantly), illite and kaolin. Close, linear relations between the cationic exchange rate and the smectite fraction in clay and deposits were established with correlation coefficients within 0.74-0.76 and 0.85-0.95, respectively. These results show that the potential of the investigated deposits of acting as natural barriers with retarding effects on both radionuclides and the fluids in the disposal zone is strongly correlated to the amount and the content of the clay in these deposits

  5. A geohydrological appraisal of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility in Namaqualand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1988-10-01

    The Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility is located on the Bushmanland Plateau. The disposal site is situated close to the junction of three river basins. All the parameters neccessary were obtained, and methodology developed, to monitor the moisture content of the clay layers underlying the disposal site. Environmental isotope studies established the percolation only reached 3,5m in depth during the past 50 years. The depth was confirmed by neutron meter measurements. The depth to the piezometric surface below the site is, on average, 55m. Ground water is confined to both vertical and horizontal fractures and weathered joints. The high transmissivity of water-bearing structures below the site and the flat piezometric surface are seen as advantageous. In the event of a serious leak and radionuclides reaching the ground water, sustained pumping may lower the piezometric surface creating a basin effect and preventing contamination from reaching private boreholes. Regional hydrogeochemical studies have confirmed that regional flow away from the disposal site toward the Koa drainage is slow and nearly stagnant. The geochemical environment is favourable for attenuating any radionuclide leakage. 1 map, 93 figs., 47 tabs., 158 refs

  6. Use of Formal Procedures in Developing Dialogue Between Operator and Regulator on Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearsley, Roger; Duerden, Susan; Bennett, David

    2001-01-01

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorisation of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its Drigg site near Sellafield in Cumbria. Drigg is the primary site for the disposal of solid low level radioactive waste generated by the UK nuclear industry. A small facility operated by United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland is used solely for wastes arising on the UKAEA site. Drigg also offers a disposal route for smaller users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals and universities. Significant benefits have been derived from implementing a formal Issue Resolution Procedure as part of a soundly based process for dialogue between the Agency and BNFL. Benefits include improved understanding of the Agency's expectations, which has in turn led to improvements in BNFL's documentation and technical approach. The Agency considers the use of a formal Issue Resolution Procedure has placed the dialogue with BNFL on firm foundations for the planned assessment of the PostClosure Safety Case for Drigg when it is submitted in September 2002

  7. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified, of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the second

  8. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the first

  9. Radiological impact assessment on non-human species from the radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Castillo, Reinaldo; Peralta Vital, Jose L.; Leiva Bombuse, Dennys

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows the use of a methodology in order to carry out the radiological impact assessment in non-human species (animals and plants) from a planned radioactive waste disposal facility. The application of modelling tools to simulate the behaviour (release and transport) of the radionuclides through the engineered barriers and the geosphere, and its final access to the soil and a river are described too. To evaluate the compliance with the adopted biota dose limits, were used the calculated maximum radionuclide concentrations for different environmental compartments (water, soil and sediment). Preliminary, the results showed that the Radiological Biota impacts are acceptable according to the adopted criteria (Radionuclides concentrations below the Biota Concentration Guides). The results showed that according theirs impact the more important radionuclides were: 241 Am/ 226 Ra/ 137 Cs/ 60 Co. The Riparian animals were the more exposed Biota organism. The results support the decision making process since could be identified the relevant radiological impact in the environment (plants and animals) near to a disposal facility (real or planned). Also the paper identified methodological tools useful to evaluate the site acceptance, for the early stages of disposal facilities (site selection process, licensing, etc), in absence of real data of radionuclides concentrations in the environment. (author)

  10. Outline of the radioactive waste management strategy at the national radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.F.; Tukhto, A.A.; Ivanov, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores' was started in 1964 and was designed for radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. It is located in the neighbourhood of Minsk (2 Mil. people) and it is the only one in this country. In 1997 the Government initiated the project for the facility reconstruction. The main reconstruction goal is to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing radioactive waste at the Ekores disposal facility. This covers modernising technologies for new coming wastes and also that the wastes currently disposed in the pits are retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as new coming wastes. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists was reviewed by the IAEA experts. The main provisions of the revised project strategy are given in this paper. The paper's intention is to outline the technical measures which may be taken at standard 'old type Soviet Radon' disposal facility so as to ensure the radiological safety of the site. (author)

  11. Characteristics study of bentonite as candidate of buffer materials for radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro; Arimuladi, S.P.; Sastrowardoyo, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Literature studies on bentonite characteristic of, as candidate for radioactive waste disposal system, have been conducted. Several information have been obtained from references, which would be contributed on performance assessment of engineered barrier. The functions bentonite includes the buffering of chemical and physical behavior, i.e. swelling property, self sealing, hydraulic conductivities and gas permeability. This paper also presented long-term stability of bentonite in natural condition related to the illitisazation, which could change its buffering capacities. These information, showed that bentonite was satisfied to be used for candidate of buffer materials in radioactive waste disposal system. (author)

  12. Ecology of carrion beetles (Nicrophorus spp.) at a solid radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, R.D.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the population ecology of three species of carrion beetles (Nicrophorus hecate, N. hybridus, N. marginatus) was initiated on a solid radioactive waste disposal area on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in June 1981. Successive mark and recapture procedures were used to document redistribution of individually numbered adults. During the first summer of research, 1410 individuals were captured in baited pitfall traps, marked, and released during three 12-day sampling periods. Eighty marked individuals were subsequently caught at sampling stations located at varied distances from the site of release, but half of the recaptures occurred within 66.2 m of this point, and a decline in number of recaptures was observed with increasing distance. Capture of beetles at trapping points was related to the prevailing wind direction. Based upon the observed densities, local populations of these species could have an important role in the organic breakdown of small mammals that die on or adjacent to the disposal area. Thus, they may also be an important vector in the redistribution of radionuclides present in small mammals taht become contaminated prior to death

  13. Risk, uncertainty in risk, and the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual model for the organization and execution of a performance assessment of a radioactive waste disposal site, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, is described. This model is based on a formal definition of risk as a collection of ordered triples, where the first element in each triple is a set of similar occurrences, the second element is the probability or frequency of the first element, and the third element is a vector of consequences associated with the first element. This division of risk into its three constituent parts provides a useful model for the structure of a performance assessment for several reasons. First, it provides a clear distinction between the major parts of a performance assessment. Second, it provides a way to distinguish between different types of uncertainty, including completeness, aggregation, model selection, imprecisely known variables, and stochastic variation. Third, it leads naturally to the representation of stochastic variation with a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) and the representation of state of knowledge uncertainty with a family or distribution of CCDFs. Fourth, it provides a context in which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency limits for radioactive releases to the accessible environment can be represented and calculated. The preceding ideas are illustrated with results obtained in a preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico

  14. Estimated longevity of reducing environment in grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, Scott; Pabalan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A key factor determining the release and transport of redox-sensitive radioelements (e.g., technetium, selenium) from grouted, near-surface, low-activity waste disposal facilities at US DOE sites is the redox potential of the cement-based material. The objective of this study is to estimate how long reducing conditions could persist in near-surface, slag-bearing grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. The oxidant of most concern is oxygen (in the gas phase or dissolved in infiltrating water) which could react with the blast furnace slag and decrease the grout reductive capacity. The study used a numerical model to simulate oxygen transport in fractures and porous grout and to assess the lifetime of reducing conditions for a range of hydrological conditions, fracturing scenarios, and grout parameter values. The evolution of the oxygen concentration in the grout is modeled by coupling one-dimensional advection-dispersion in a partially saturated fracture with one-dimensional diffusion into a fully saturated porous grout

  15. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.; Dean, R.B.; Hobbs, G.D.; Knowles, N.C.; Putney, J.M.; Wrigley, J.

    1984-01-01

    This Directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, stress analysis, heat transfer, groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Biosphere modelling, surface water flow and risk analysis are not covered. A total of 248 programs are identified, of which 50 are reviewed in detail, 134 in summary and 64 in tabular fashion. The directory has been compiled using a combination of literature searches, telephone and postal correspondence and meetings with recognised experts in the respective areas of work covered. It differs from previous reviews of computer programs for similar topics areas in two main respects. Firstly, the method of obtaining information has resulted in program descriptions of considerable breadth and detail. Secondly, the Directory has concentrated wherever possible on European codes, whereas most previous work of this nature has looked solely at programs developed in North America. The reviews are presented in good faith, but it has not been possible to run any of the programs on a computer, and so truly objective comparisons may not be made. Finally, although the Directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described could also be used in other areas of repository analysis (eg repository design)

  16. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H.

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  17. Achievements of research and development of Kajima on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaka, Yoshikazu; Morikawa, Seiji; Okutsu, Kazuo; Furuichi, Mitsuaki; Toida, Masaru; Yamamoto, Takuji

    2004-01-01

    Kajima Corporation has been committed to the construction of nuclear power plant for a long time as a construction company. In 1957 Kajima made its first construction of the main building for the JRR-1 (Japan Research Reactor No.1) of JAERI, which was the first and historical one in Japan. Since then the company has been involved in many projects related to nuclear power generation. In addition to the construction, Kajima has been playing an important role in the technology development of decommissioning system as well as radioactive waste waste disposal facilities, both of which are now having an increasing importance. In a sense of technology development, the technology of civil engineering is commonly applicable to the construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities, however, some other technology developments have to be made due to the unique characteristics of radioactive waste disposal. Kajima has promoted many research and development projects related to radioactive waste disposal in order to improve the reliability and the feasibility of the nuclear recycling process. This report introduces some of the achievements as follows made by Kajima: Construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities, Natural barrier, Engineering barrier, Monitoring. (author)

  18. Consultancy and knowledge management for radioactive waste disposal. Use of external knowledge of the Asse archive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driftmann, Christian; Josipovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    The booklet on consultancy and knowledge management for radioactive waste disposal - use of external knowledge of the Asse archive covers the following topics: (i) Basic principles for consulting the government by external consultants: terminology, external consultancy in the legislative process, external consultancy in the administration. (ii) External consultancy in the frame of the final repository search: external consultancy profiles, legal appraisal.

  19. Geotechnical aspects of tunnel construction in deep clay formations for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Moor, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    The significant factors affecting the construction of tunnels in deep clay formations for radioactive waste disposal were outlined. Two aspects of tunneling were discussed; the feasibility of tunnel construction and changes in pore water pressure that might occur with time. Some results of model tunnel tests and analyses were presented. (U.K.)

  20. External effect of natural events on depth long-lived radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliberda, I.V.; Levin, A.G.; Murlis, D.V.; Smetnik, A.A.; Tsypin, S.G.; Sharafutdinov, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of different native events on depth long-lived high-level radioactive waste disposals is reviewed. Possible effects of cosmogenic events, glaciation, climatic change are described. Data on safety of engineering constructions created by mankind before are presented [ru

  1. Radionuclide export and elimination by coyotes at two radioactive waste disposal areas in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.J. III; Markham, O.D.

    1982-01-01

    Coyote fecal samples were collected near a radioactive waste leaching pond and a solid radioactive waste disposal facility and analyzed for radioactivity. Elevated concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 238 Pu in the samples from the liquid radioactive waste leaching area were attributed to coyotes ingesting contaminated pond water and/or small mammals. Elevated 241 Am concentrations in coyote fecal samples collected around the solid radioactive waste disposal facility were due to ingestion of contaminated small mammals. Assumptions relative to the coyote use of these areas permitted an estimate of the maximum quantity of radioactivity exported and eliminated around the facilities. An annual total of 7.2, 31.4 and 1.8 μCi( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm and 244 Cm) was eliminated by coyotes within a 6.3 km radius of the solid radioactive waste disposal facility, liquid waste leaching pond, and control area, respectively. These quantities of radioactivity eliminated by coyotes were similar or less than quantities transported by other mechanisms such as waterfowl and vegetative uptake of radioactivity. Coyotes are a mode of radionuclide transport from the two radioactive waste disposal areas; however, due to the low radionuclide concentrations and low yearly radionuclide inventories in coyote fecal samples, it is doubtful that any significant environmental consequences occur as a result of this transport mechanism. (author)

  2. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  3. A convenient method for estimating the contaminated zone of a subsurface aquifer resulting from radioactive waste disposal into ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Uchida, Shigeo.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to estimate the contamination spread resulting from the radioactive waste disposal into a subsurface aquifer. A general equation, expressing the contaminated zone as a function of radioactive decay, the physical and chemical parameters of soil is presented. A distribution coefficient was also formulated which can be used to judge the suitability of a site for waste disposal. Moreover, a method for predicting contaminant concentration in groundwater at a site boundary is suggested for a heterogeneous media where the subsurface aquifer has different values of porosity, density, flow velocity, distribution coefficient and so on. A general equation was also developed to predict the distribution of radionuclides resulting from the disposal of a solid waste material. The distributions of contamination was evaluated for 90 Sr and 239 Pu which obey a linear adsorption model and a first order kinetics respectively. These equations appear to have practical utility for easily estimating groundwater contamination. (author)

  4. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Use of Multimedia for Enhancing Transparency in Radioactive Waste Disposal. Evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, Jerry; Avis, John; Freeze, Geoff; Miller, Debbie; Long, Lori

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The project is technically and politically complex, has multiple stakeholders, as well as schedule constraints. All of these factors contribute to a difficult environment in which to provide a transparent (clear and understandable) documentation of the analyses of the site. This paper describes the development and use of multimedia to present a summary of the results of the recent Total System Performance Assessment of the repository system in a transparent fashion, accessible to a variety of audiences. Transparency includes imparting a high level of understanding to the stakeholders, many of whom are not technically sophisticated in the nuances of radioactive waste disposal. The technical complexity of radioactive waste requires evaluation of uncertainties in the processes and rates that will occur in the disposal system in the future. Forecasting the performance of the system with models attempts to establish the limits of the possible performance outcomes of the disposal system. The forecasting is limited by available data and our current ability to assess what might happen to the disposal system through time. Coupled processes add uncertainty to the behavior of the system through time. The overall approach to developing the multimedia summary of the recent TSPA involved coordination of technical specialists, graphic specialists, multimedia experts, and technical editors. The ultimate product is contained on a single CD, with a single entry point, that allows the user full control in navigating through the information

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  8. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program

  9. Preparation of safety analysis reports (SARs) for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities. Format and content of SARs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    All facilities at which radioactive wastes are processed, stored and disposed of have the potential for causing hazards to humans and to the environment. Precautions must be taken in the siting, design and operation of the facilities to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved. The processes by which this is evaluated is called safety assessment. An important part of safety assessment is the documentation of the process. A well prepared safety analysis report (SAR) is essential if approval of the facility is to be obtained from the regulatory authorities. This TECDOC describes the format and content of a safety analysis report for a near surface radioactive waste disposal facility and will serve essentially as a checklist in this respect

  10. Managing Uncertainties Associated With Radioactive Waste Disposal: Task Group 4 Of The IAEA PRISM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  11. Collaboration of the Dutch research program for radioactive waste disposal (OPERA) and TU Delft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, D.M.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste in the Netherlands is collected, treated and stored by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval) in the interim storage facility for at least 100 a. After this period of long-term storage, geological disposal is foreseen. The policy is based on a step-wise decision process in which all decisions are taken to ensure safe disposal in a repository, but without excluding unforeseen alternative solutions that might develop in the future. OPERA is the Dutch acronym for research program into geological disposal of radioactive waste. It started in 2011 and is running for five years. The OPERA Research plan is developed by NRG in close collaboration with COVRA. Radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands is at an early, conceptual phase. The aim of Opera is to develop a first preliminary safety case to structure the research necessary for the eventual deployment of a repository in the Netherlands. The OPERA research program aims at a close cooperation with the Belgian research program on radioactive waste disposal. The result of OPERA will be to detail a first roadmap for the long-term research on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands, based initially on a re-evaluation of existing safety and feasibility studies conducted more than ten years ago, making use of present international and, wherever possible, national knowledge. This will be done by developing initial and conditional safety cases for generic GDFs in Zechstein rock salt and Boom Clay formations in the Netherlands. The goal in OPERA is to develop initial safety cases that are intended to mark the start of the research development process and to iterate these as knowledge grows to new developed insights. The safety case is conditional since plausible assumptions must later be confirmed in a safety case e.g. for site selection. Dutch, Belgian, German, English and French organizations participate in OPERA. These organizations can be found in the two documents with

  12. Collaboration of the Dutch research program for radioactive waste disposal (OPERA) and TU Delft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, D.M.; Kloosterman, J.L. [TU Delft (Netherlands). Reactor Inst. Delft; Neeft, E.A.C.; Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Nieuwdorp (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste in the Netherlands is collected, treated and stored by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval) in the interim storage facility for at least 100 a. After this period of long-term storage, geological disposal is foreseen. The policy is based on a step-wise decision process in which all decisions are taken to ensure safe disposal in a repository, but without excluding unforeseen alternative solutions that might develop in the future. OPERA is the Dutch acronym for research program into geological disposal of radioactive waste. It started in 2011 and is running for five years. The OPERA Research plan is developed by NRG in close collaboration with COVRA. Radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands is at an early, conceptual phase. The aim of Opera is to develop a first preliminary safety case to structure the research necessary for the eventual deployment of a repository in the Netherlands. The OPERA research program aims at a close cooperation with the Belgian research program on radioactive waste disposal. The result of OPERA will be to detail a first roadmap for the long-term research on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands, based initially on a re-evaluation of existing safety and feasibility studies conducted more than ten years ago, making use of present international and, wherever possible, national knowledge. This will be done by developing initial and conditional safety cases for generic GDFs in Zechstein rock salt and Boom Clay formations in the Netherlands. The goal in OPERA is to develop initial safety cases that are intended to mark the start of the research development process and to iterate these as knowledge grows to new developed insights. The safety case is conditional since plausible assumptions must later be confirmed in a safety case e.g. for site selection. Dutch, Belgian, German, English and French organizations participate in OPERA. These organizations can be found in the two documents with

  13. Risk management and organizational systems for high-level radioactive waste disposal: Issues and priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, J.; Cook, B.; Kasperson, R.; Brown, H.; Guble, R.; Himmelberger, J.; Tuller, S.

    1988-09-01

    The discussion to follow explores the nature of the high-level radioactive waste disposal tasks and their implications for the design and organizational structure of effective risk management systems. We organize this discussion in a set of interrelated tasks that draw upon both relevant theory and accumulated experience. Specifically these tasks are to assess the management implications of the high levels of technical and social uncertainty that characterize the technology and mission; to identify the elements of organizational theory that bear upon risk management system design; to explore these theoretical issues in the context of two hypothetical risk scenarios associated with radioactive waste disposal; to consider the appropriate role of engineered and geological barriers; to examine briefly issues implicit in DOE's past waste management performance, with special attention to the Hanford facility; and to suggest findings and recommendations that require further attention. 74 refs

  14. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Vedernikova; I. A. Pron; M. N. Savkin; N. S. Cebakovskaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on d...

  15. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  16. An American perspective. Yucca mountain, or: The struggle for radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, A.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the US President and Congress (which includes both the Republican House and Democratic Senate) approved a bill naming Yucca Mountain as the nation's sole repository for spent reactor fuel. This marks the first positive step for radioactive waste disposal in the US in nearly 20 years, and it puts the US government only a decade or so behind their obligations under the Radioactive Waste Act. What is really going on here? (orig.)

  17. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont province of North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews the geology of the Piedmont province in North Carolina, emphasizing those features most pertinent to selection of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. Discussion of criteria for selection indicates that the outcrop area of the rock body, probable homogeneity, low incidence of fractures, and low permeability are among the prime considerations. Application of the criteria leads to the selection of three large granite batholiths (Castalia, Churchland, and Rolesville) as potential field study areas. The report has an extensive bibliography

  18. Inter-generational Decision Making for Radioactive Waste Disposal, Policy and Science: Regulatory Protection Forever?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, E.P.; Wallo, A.

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions about this generation's duty to future generations underlie decisions on regulatory requirements for disposal of radioactive waste. Regulatory provisions related to time of compliance, dose criteria, and institutional controls, for example, continue to be topics of discussion as regulations are revised or compared. Subjective and difficult ethical issues are either explicit or implicit in these discussions. The information and criteria used must be relevant and help make good decisions that, ideally, increase the overall welfare of future generations. To what extent can or should science usefully inform such decision-making? Both the National Academies of Science and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) have reported on this topic, albeit from different viewpoints. This paper explains and expands upon the rationale used for setting compliance time periods such as the Department of Energy's requirement for a 1,000 year time of compliance with dose limits for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It evaluates radioactive waste disposal against principles of equity recommended by NAPA. Radioactive waste disposal standards require evaluation of impacts much farther into the future than has been common for other endeavors with very long term effects. While performance assessment analyses provide much useful information, their inherent uncertainties over long time periods preclude the projection of reality. Thus, the usefulness of extremely long projections in supporting good decisions that promote the welfare of future generations is limited. Such decisions are fundamentally a question of resource allocation, equity, and fairness. (authors)

  19. Buried for ever: The US experience of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnikoff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The United States is the largest producer of radioactive wastes, and has considerable experience with shallow disposal methods. This experience is mixed, with major problems of leakage and contamination occurring in those sites in the wetter eastern part of the country. As a result three sites have been closed down, and there is concern about the potential hazards at the remaining eastern site at Barnwell, South Carolina. This paper, written from the perspective of the national environmental pressure group, the Sierra Club, analyses the geological and technical problems at each of the sites, and suggests the lessons that can be learned from this experience

  20. Options open to a small country, like Slovenia, in relation to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontic, B.

    1996-01-01

    When a society of two million people, who live on scarcely 20500 km 2 , needs to plan, and afterwards to implement, a strategy for radioactive waste management, the first step in the process is to look round and ask its bigger, stronger and more experienced neighbours (neighbouring countries), how they performed that task. Unfortunately, it is usually found that only few of the numerous answers to these questions and sub-questions are suitable for questioner. So what is to be done when the society is a Mediterranean, Central European, relatively highly populated country, where the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in 1994 exceeded 7000 US dollars, where the territory is mainly intended for residence, tourism and agricultural purposes, and where there is only one nuclear power plant (NPP) and one uranium mill which are responsible for the greatest part of the highly undesired radioactive waste ? The producers of radioactive wastes, and the economy of the country as a whole, cannot afford the costs of seeking a unique way of disposing of those wastes, but nevertheless, answers to the two primary questions concerning radioactive waste management should be given in any case. First: What should be done with the radioactive wastes produced in one NPP (PWR, 632 MWe) during 35 years of operation (up to 8000 m 3 of low - and intermediate - level waste, about 600 tons of spent fuel), and a uranium mill closed after only six years of ore-processing operation (670000 tons of ore-processing wastes)? Second: Where should it be done? Both questions pose the problem of siting, environmental assessment and the appropriateness of (all kinds of) criteria. In this paper the situation in Slovenia is presented with emphasis on the possibility and feasibility of radioactive waste disposal. Methodology and criteria for site evaluation and site selection for low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal is described. Fifty-five criteria are included in a decision

  1. Low and medium level radioactive waste disposal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated management system allowing complete control of radioactive waste, from conditioning and packaging at the generator site to final disposal is presented. A central feature of the system is a comprehensive quality assurance and control program, including specifications for waste processing, packaging and labeling; requirements for transportation and acceptance at the disposal facility; and criteria for siting, design, construction and operation of the disposal facility. 3 refs., 5 figs

  2. Organizing and managing radioactive waste disposal as an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.J.; Emel, J.L.; Kasperson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines organization and management issues engendered by the national program for permanent disposal of commercial radioactive wastes. The description of current organizational and managerial responses to the waste disposal problem serves as a springboard for consideration of the technical, political, and organizational constraints that impinge upon the waste-management effort. Taking these constraints into account, the authors apply ideas that have emerged from previous radioactive waste-management studies and research on organizations, concluding that a change of course is needed. As an alternative, they propose an experimental approach predicated on the waste-management organization's acknowledging uncertainty and constructing responses that seek to reduce uncertainty systematically and without distortion

  3. Hydrogeological aspects of radioactive waste disposal into surface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Safe disposal is discussed of radioactive wastes in geological surface formations and basic criteria are shown of the radiological protection of population from possible effects of radioactive materials diffused in the environment. Main principles are listed governing the selection of suitable localities with respect to possible interactions of the locality and the storage site with the environment. (author)

  4. Public acceptability of risk of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millerd, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A ''public interest'' viewpoint is presented on the disposal of radioactive wastes. Criteria for the development of disposal methods are needed. The current program to develop disposal sites and methods has become an experiment. The advantages and disadvantages of radwaste disposal as an ongoing experiment are discussed briefly

  5. Pilot tests on radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the pilot test carried out in the underground facilities in the Asse salt mine (Germany) and in the Boom clay beneath the nuclear site at Mol (Belgium). These tests include test disposal of simulated vitrified high-level waste (HAW project) and of intermediate level waste and spent HTR fuel elements in the Asse salt mine, as well as an active handling experiment with neutron sources, this last test with a view to direct disposal of spent fuel. Moreover, an in situ test on the performance of a long-term sealing system for galleries in rock salt is described. Regarding the tests in the Boom clay, a combined heating and radiation test, geomechanical and thermo-hydro mechanical tests are dealt with. Moreover, the design of a demonstration test for disposal of high-level waste in clay is presented. Finally the situation concerning site selection and characterization in France and the United Kingdom are described

  6. High-level radioactive waste disposal problem in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation on radioactive waste management in Russia discusses criteria for the selection of disposal sites, how the various types of waste should be contained and stored, and gives a list showing the liable owner, type, volume, activity and storage place of the present amount of radioactive waste. The bulk of this waste, in volume and radioactivity, is at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation

  7. Radioactive waste disposal in Slovakia: Current practice and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, P.; Hanusik, V.; Ehn, L.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activities concerning the disposal of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic. For disposal of the low and intermediate short-lived radioactive waste, the National radioactive waste repository Mochovce (near surface type) was put into operation in 1999. History and approaches to repository development, siting and construction are briefly described. Recent activities regarding the repository are concerning on the safety re-assessment and re-derivation of coherent waste acceptance criteria, studies of repository covering and possible enlargement. In the second part, attention is given to the Slovak deep geological repository development programme, which has been under way since 1996. Most of the results were obtained from the siting part of the programme, where four localities (six sites) were identified as prospective for next investigation. The paper also gives an overview on next two routes of deep repository development programme: studies resulted later in performance assessment and general activities, i.e. design studies, analysis of legislative and infrastructure conditions, planning and evaluation of works. (author)

  8. Recent Research Status on the Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal and Identification of Aerobic Microbes in a Groundwater Sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel(KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Cho, Won Jin

    2006-11-01

    In this report, a comprehensive review on the research results and status for the various effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal including definition and classification of microbes, and researches related with the waste containers, engineered barriers, natural barriers, natural analogue studies, and radionuclide migration and retardation. Cultivation, isolation, and classification of aerobic microbes found in a groundwater sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the KAERI site have carried out and over 20 microbes were found to be present in the groundwater. Microbial identification by a 16S rDNA genetic analysis of the selected major 10 aerobic microbes was performed and the identified microbes were characterized

  9. Contributions to safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Ionescu, Alice; Deaconu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the progress in the frame of the safety assessments related to the potential near-surface Romanian National Repository, as well as to the geological repository in salt rock for CANDU spent fuel. The safety assessment of the near-surface repository follows the ISAM methodology. The repository design consists of a vault, in which the wastes resulted from the operation and decommissioning of the CANDU reactor from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) are disposed off. The repository is located nearby the CNPP. A layered unsaturated zone overlying a variable thickness confined aquifer, which consists of barremian limestones, characterizes the site. The interface with biosphere is considered to be the Danube-Black Sea Channel. The paper summarizes the results of the post-closure safety assessment for the design scenario and the prediction of the radionuclide release in the liquid phase. As to the final disposal of the CANDU spent fuel from the CNPP, we assumed that the repository is built in a salt dome. Romania has important salt formations, some of them being potentially suitable for hosting a repository. Up to now there are no detailed characterization studies of such formations in Romania, from the point of view of the suitability as a repository site. Therefore, generic data for hydrogeological characterization of the site have been used, coming from the Gorleben site in Germany. The spent fuel containers are disposed off in galleries, somewhere 500 m bellow the cap rock of the salt dome. The temporal loading scheme of the repository is based on a sequential filing of the disposal fields, with a delay of 10 years between filling of two neighbouring disposal areas. The disposal fields are accessed via a shaft. After filling of a disposal gallery, the remaining space is backfilled with salt powder and the gallery is sealed with compacted salt bricks. The access galleries are also backfilled and sealed. Only the reference scenario is considered, in

  10. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Scientific and social polemy about radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Geza

    1988-01-01

    Major requirements towards final disposal of low- and medium-active wastes according to the recommendations of the IAEA and the Hungarian authority regulations are summarized. After preliminary examinations technical project for the establishment of a radioactive waste facility in the vicinity of the village Ofalu, Hungary was prepared. According to an independent ad hoc board of experts the selected site is unsuitable forwaste disposal because of disadvantageous geological, hydrological and seismic conditions. Due to the disagreement between official and independent experts the final scientific and legal decision is postponed. (V.N.) 7 refs

  12. 40 year experience of radioactive waste disposal in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solente, N.; Ouzounian, G.; Dutzer, M.; Miguez, R. [ANDRA Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2011-07-01

    France's experience in the management of radioactive waste is supported by forty years of operational activities in the field of surface disposal. This feedback is related to three disposal facilities: Centre de la Manche disposal, not far away Cherbourg, from design to post-closure facility; Centre at Soulaines-Dhuys from site selection to design to operation during nearly 20 years; and, Centre at Morvilliers from site selection to operation for seven years now. During the operational period of Centre de la Manche disposal facility (1969-1994), the safety concept for low-and intermediate level short lived waste (LIL-SLW) was developed and progressively incorporated in the procedures of the facility. The facility entered its institutional control period and the experience of this facility has been useful for the operating facilities. Centre de l'Aube that took over Centre de la Manche, and Morvilliers for very low level wastes. Both facilities currently accommodate the major part of the volume of radioactive wastes that are generated in France. However disposal facilities have to be considered as rare resources. Then new waste management options are being investigated as the disposal of large components or recycling metallic wastes within the nuclear industry. (author)

  13. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  14. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  15. Low-level radioactive waste disposal process and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, L.E.; Anderson, R.E.; Vander Wall, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    The primary object of this invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus for disposing of low-level liquid radioactive wastes wherein the volume of the wastes can be reduced by a factor of at least ten to thereby minimize costs of storage and ultimate disposal of the wastes. The wastes will be in a form more suitable for storage, transit and burial while still conforming to safety codes. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of disposing of low-level liquid radioactive wastes wherein the wastes are reduced in volume to a mass of free-flowing, solid particles by calcining and the particles are packaged in the presence of a solidifying agent or the particles are compressed, sintered or fused to cause the wastes to be converted to a monolithic product capable of being readily and more safely stored or moved to a burial site. (auth)

  16. Experience in the upgrading of radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive disposal facility 'Ekores' is designed for waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. Currently 12-20 tons of waste and over 6000 various types spent sources annually come to the 'Ekores'. Total activity in the vaults is evaluated as 352.8 TBq. Approximately 150 000 spent sources disposed of in the vaults and wells have total activity about 1327 TBq. In 1997 the Government initiated a project for the facility reconstruction in order to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing and storage of the waste. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists has been reviewed by IAEA experts. This covers modernising technologies for new coming waste and also that the waste currently disposed in the pits is retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as the new coming waste

  17. Geological evaluation of the Slovenian territory for radioactive waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Urbanc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing need for a final disposal of low and intermediate level (LILW radioactive waste, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is one of the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. In the Area Survey Stage of the site selection process for the final disposal the suitability of the Slovenian territory for a surface or underground repository of LILW is examined by cabinet investigations in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditionsof the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILWin Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10,000 km2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory.

  18. Lessons from radioactive waste disposal applied to other pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    In order to manage scientifically the quantities and kinds of waste disposal in coastal waters and open oceans, one needs to assess the environment's capacity to assimilate these materials. This knowledge may help us avoid an unacceptable biological impact on components of the ecosystem and on humans who harvest its resources. One approach available is the one that has been demonstrated to be applicable for the management of the disposal of radioactive wastes in the ocean. New generic and site-specific methodologies can establish relationships between discharge or release rates and associated radiation doses. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed guidelines and recommendations that govern acceptable amounts of radiation that people can be exposed to. The ICRP recommendations on justification and optimization can be integrated into an overall management philosophy in order to quantify alternative waste disposal options. These methodologies, which were developed for the control of radioactive wastes, should be applied directly to public health protection from nonradioactive wastes such as metals and organochlorine pesticides

  19. Financial compensation owed to municipalities that host radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Renata Amaral da

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities with viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits fro, low and medium activity. It was used as methodology the frameweork of normative act in the Resolution n. 96, August 10th, 2010. ('Model of Calculation for Financial Compensation due to Municipalities') where there are establidhed the parameters for the wastes, the facilities and the deployment sites. The calculation was made according with interim storage or definitive disposal of solid wastes, e.e. personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks etc) resins and filters used in waste water treatment from nuclear and radioactivity facilities. SOme examples of countries in which compensation, financial or not, was practiced in favor of municipalities due to construction of waste deposits were sown and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation bweween the stakeholders. Were also presented other forms of financial compensation in Brazil due to large-scale industrial activities that result in potential risk for the surrounding population and environment, as oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used the waste inventory designed by RMBN project (Waste Repository of Low and Medium Activity) developed in CDTN (2009) which presents the implementation of a repository for disposal of radioactive waste. Based on these data it was possible to develop a case study, establishing four scenarios for initial/interim storage and final disposal of wastes. The results reached monthly values that ranged from 2,6 to 79,8 thousand Brazilian Reais, from which it was performed a critical analysis of the range of parameters and the apportionment of the amount due. Likewise, these values were compared with the budget revenues of some previously selected municipalities and were examined divergent points in the normative act as well. (author)

  20. High-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A joint programme has begun between the Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley to study the dispersion of radioactivity in the deep ocean arising from the possible dumping of high level waste on the sea bed in vitrified-glass form which would permit slow leakage over a long term scale. The programme consists firstly of the development of a simple diffusion/advection model for the dispersion of radioactivity in a closed and finite ocean, which overcomes many of the criticisms of the earlier model proposed by Webb and Morley. Preliminary results from this new model are comparable to those of the Webb-Morley model for radio isotopes with half-lives of 10-300 years but are considerably more restrictive outside this range, particularly for those which are much longer-lived. The second part of the programme, towards which the emphasis is directed, concerns the field programme planned to measure the advection and diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean to provide realistic input parameters to the model and increase our fundamental understanding of the environment in which the radioactive materials may be released. The first cruises of the programme will take place in late 1976 and involve deep current meter deployments and float dispersion experiments around the present NEA dump site with some sediment sampling, so that adsorption experiments can be started on typical deep sea sediments. The programme will expand the number of long-term deep moored stations over the next five years and include further float experiments, CTD profiling, and other physical oceanography. In the second half of the 5-year programme, attempts will be made to measure diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean using radioactive tracers

  1. Issues in radioactive waste disposal. Second report of the working group on principles and criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report discusses issues related to long time-scale underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The chapters are devoted to the following issues: (1) Post closure issues of underground repositories, e.g., record keeping and markers, public reassurance and prevention of misuse; (2) Optimization of radiation protection by optimizing radioactive waste management, siting analysis, repository design etc.; (3) An interface between nuclear safeguards and radioactive waste management by safeguarding conditioning of spent fuel, during operational phase of repository and post-closure phase of the repository. 31 refs

  2. Reference biospheres for the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Torres, C.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory guidance on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals usually requires the consequences of any radionuclide releases to be considered in terms of their potential impact on human health. This requires consideration of the prevailing biosphere and the habits of the potentially exposed humans within it. However, it could take many thousands of years for migrating radionuclides to reach the surface environment. In these circumstances, an assessment model that was based on the present-day biosphere could be inappropriate while future biospheres would be unpredictable. These and other considerations suggest that a standardised, or reference biosphere, approach may be useful. Theme 1 of the IAEA BIOMASS project was established to develop the concept of reference biospheres into a practical system that can be applied to the assessment of the long term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The technical phase of the project lasted for four years until November 2000 and brought together disparate interests from many countries including waste disposal agencies, regulators and technical experts. Building on the experience from earlier BIOMOVS projects, a methodology was constructed for the logical and defensible construction of mathematical biosphere models that can be used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The methodology was then further developed through the creation of a series of BIOMASS Example Reference Biospheres ('Examples'). These are stylised biosphere models that, in addition to illustrating the methodology, are intended to be useful assessment tools in their own right. (author)

  3. Present status of R and D for radioactive waste disposal and expectations for civil engineering in advances of their technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Onishi, Yuzo; Yui, Mikazu

    2005-01-01

    About high-level radioactive waste disposal, the general invitation in a voluntary approach for selection of ''preliminary investigation areas'' which is the 1 st step of the stepwise site selection by Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan is started. On the other hand, about low-level radioactive waste disposal, several kinds of investigation for the burial disposal approach of the underground tunnel facility system in about 50-100 m depth below ground surface have been performed for disposing of high βγ radioactive wastes. For carrying forward each disposal project of these radioactive wastes, the integration of the state-of-the-art technology in an interdisciplinary broad research field is indispensable. Especially the role that civil engineering can play in fields, such as investigation, design, development of new materials and performance assessment for underground disposal facility is very large. In this paper, the role and expectation of civil engineering, and the latest trend in the disposal techniques to need an argument to the order of very-long term of longer than 1,000 to 10,000 years which civil engineering have not experienced until now, are described. (author)

  4. Review and estimation of degradation rates for concrete barriers used in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoshi, Minoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-08-01

    The processes and models of concrete degradation used as engineered barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal were reviewed. Example calculations were performed to illustrate the degradation rates. And also, the preparation methods to make durable concrete were reviewed. In conclusion, the concrete degradation processes to be considered for the safety performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are as follow : (a) reinforcement corrosion, (b) calcium hydroxide leaching, (c) sulfate attack, (d) freeze-thaw attack, and (e) alkali aggregate reaction. The models to estimate the degradation rates due to main degradation processes except for alkali aggregate reaction were developed in the USA, etc. Example calculations show that concrete barriers prepared under the good quality control and assurance will maintain the performance for more than 500 years which is the requirement for the service life of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the USA. (author)

  5. Safety indicators for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Sixth report of the Working Group on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The report describes a few indicators that are considered to be the most promising for assessing the long term safety of disposal systems. The safety indicators that are discussed here may be applicable to a range of disposal systems for different waste types, including near surface disposal facilities for low level waste. The appropriateness of the different indicators may, however, vary depending on the characteristics of the waste, the facility and the assessment context. The focus of the report is thus on the use of time-scales of containment and transport, and radionuclide concentrations and fluxes, as indicators of disposal system safety, that may complement the more usual safety indicators of dose and risk. Summarised are the broad elements that a safety case for an underground radioactive waste disposal facility should possess and the role and use of performance and safety indicators within these elements. An overview of performance and safety indicators is given. The use is discussed of dose and risk as safety indicators and, in particular, problems that can arise in their use. Also presented are some specific indicators that have the potential to be used as complementary safety indicators. Discussed is also how fluxes of naturally occurring elements and radionuclides due to the operation of natural processes such as erosion and groundwater discharge may be quantified for comparison with fluxes of waste derived contaminants

  6. Lead isotope evidence for recent uranium mobility in geological formations of Brazil: implications for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.S.; Babinski, M.; Marinho, M.M.; Barbosa, J.S.F.; Sato, I.M.; Salvador, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Lead-lead isotope data from whole rock samples are used to investigate the recent (last few million years) mobility of U and Th. The method is based on the comparison of the calculated present day U and Th concentrations required to yield the Pb isotope composition in the samples with the actual present day concentrations of U and Th obtained by direct measurement. The geological formations studied include the Neoproterozoic carbonate sediments of the Bambui Group, Archean/Paleoproterozoic granite-greenstone terrain of the Contendas-Mirante Complex and a Proterozoic ortho-gneisses hosting U deposit in Lagoa Real. All these formations are in the Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil. The data show high U mobility in the carbonate sediments and in the deformed ortho-gneisses set in a ductile shear zone. Infiltration of groundwater through fault zones seems to have facilitated the U mobility. The Pb isotope approach is a useful technique complementing U-series disequilibrium studies and may be included for site characterization studies for radioactive waste disposal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Transfer of radioactive waste disposal knowledge to future generations: A stiff challenge for universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabet, B.B.; Elorza, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In general, effective knowledge management strategies rely on the capacity to perform a full range of allied functions, among which education and research are the key components. However, in most countries and notably in Europe, universities which have to conduct leading-edge research and to supply society with future skilled staffs on radioactive waste disposal, suffer from both the shortage of the institutional national support and the decline of interest among students. This paper gives an overview of the academic educational challenges in geological disposal of radioactive waste. Prior to presenting possible solutions to overcome difficulties encountered in this field, the causes of the present failure that seriously threaten the future provision of human resources are identified and analysed. Some of the main findings are: The poor image of nuclear issues in general and the lack of public confidence in the management and disposal of radioactive waste in particular; The smallness of the radwaste community and the narrowness of the job market at the national level; The organisational structure of most universities that inhibits partnerships with non-academic institutions and impedes collaborative activities; The reticence of most governments to invest public funds in the academic education on radwaste disposal. These particular motives added to the common problems shared by the whole nuclear sector such as the lack of educational programmes, the ageing of teachers, and the decline in academic R and D activities, bring about the need for collaborative actions. The paper gives an example of possible solutions through the development of a European academic initiative. In response to the rising alarm about the future shortage of expertise, EURATOM has launched the ENEN II (European Commission 6th FP project No. FP6-036414 for years 2007-2008) project. The goal of this project is to consolidate the European nuclear education, training and knowledge

  8. Groundwater flow analysis using mixed hybrid finite element method for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Hiroomi; Shimomura, Masanori; Kawakami, Hiroto; Suzuki, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    In safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities, ground water flow analysis are used for calculating the radionuclide transport pathway and the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities. For this type of calculations, the mixed hybrid finite element method has been used and discussed about the accuracy of ones in Europe. This paper puts great emphasis on the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities, and describes the accuracy of results obtained from mixed hybrid finite element method by comparing of local water mass conservation and the reliability of the element breakdown numbers among the mixed hybrid finite element method, finite volume method and nondegenerated finite element method. (author)

  9. Evaluation on construction quality of pit filler material of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Shin-ichi; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Shimbo, Hiroshi; Terada, Kenji; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Yada, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    The pit filler material of the underground cavern-type radioactive waste disposal facility, which is poured directly around the radioactive waste packages where high temperature environment is assumed by their decay heat, is concerned to be adversely affected on the filling behavior and its hardened properties. There also are specific issues that required quality of construction must be achieved by unmanned construction with remote operation, because the pit filler construction shall be done under radiation environment. In this paper, the mix proportion of filler material is deliberated with filling experiments simulating high temperature environment, and also the effect of temperature on hardened properties are confirmed with high temperature curing test. Subsequently, the feasibility of unmanned construction method of filler material by pumping, and by movable bucket, are comparatively discussed through a real size demonstration. (author)

  10. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs

  11. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  12. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes

  13. Observations on the use of cost-benefit analysis in the control of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.G.; Hetherington, J.A.

    1975-10-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste to the environment can lead to the irradiation of large numbers of people, and although the individual doses may be very small compared with the ICRP dose limits the total population dose may not be insignificant. In these circumstances the control procedure is likely to be determined by the requirement that doses be kept 'as low as is readily achievable'(see ICRP-9, para. 52). This recommendation has been interpreted in ICRP-22, where the use of cost-benefit analysis is suggested as a means of application in practice. This paper discusses some of the implications of these recommendations in relation to the control of radioactive waste disposal, under the following headings: the use of collective dose; the costing of collective dose; the assessment and use of detrimental costs; and the payment of detrimental costs. (author)

  14. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency's long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards

  15. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, M.M. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards.

  16. Modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal. Project BIOCLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texier, D.; Degnan, P.; Loutre, M.F.; Lemaitre, G.; Paillard, D.; Thorne, M.

    2000-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project (Modelling Sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for Radioactive Waste Disposal) is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. It is coordinated by ANDRA, the French national radioactive waste management agency. The project brings together a number of European radioactive waste management organisations that have national responsibilities for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes, and several highly experienced climate research teams. Waste management organisations involved are: NIREX (UK), GRS (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), NRI (Czech Republic) and ANDRA (France). Climate research teams involved are: LSCE (CEA/CNRS, France), CIEMAT (Spain), UPMETSIMM (Spain), UCL/ASTR (Belgium) and CRU (UEA, UK). The Environmental Agency for England and Wales provides a regulatory perspective. The consulting company Enviros Consulting (UK) assists ANDRA by contributing to both the administrative and scientific aspects of the project. This paper describes the project and progress to date. (authors)

  17. Risk communication by utilizing environmental ethics as meta-cognition for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    Though the high level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan has been clearly stated, this issue is still unfamiliar with the general public, who tend to make a social decision based on heuristics. Therefore, much effort such as developing risk communication system is required to restrain the general public from making a negative decision which may bring social dilemma. However, societal consensus on acceptable disposal practice will be very difficult to attain in a short period of time. The purpose of this research was to verify the effect of web risk communication model which has dialog-mode contents with environmental ethics as a meta-cognition and a bulletin board system in light of developing objective risk cognition. The experimental result suggested that this model was able to inspire subjective norm and introspection towards the necessity of pro-social behaviors more effectively than a one-way lecture. (author)

  18. Geomorphologic characteristic of low-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal land candidate at Lemahabang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphological aspect is a factor should be considered on land evaluation for radioactive wastes disposal purpose. The aspect is important because geomorphological factors contribute on hydrological and erosion condition of the land. The objective of the study is to characterize the geomorphological condition of the land, i.e. land form, geomorphological processes, rock type, soil, surface water, ground water, vegetation and land use. The study was conducted by descriptive analyses from literature study and field geomorphological method, with evaluation as well as developed for terrain analyses. The study area can be divided industry for land from units, I.e. tuff undulating unit (land use: plantation), coastal deposits plain unit, silty sand fluvial plain unit (land use: wet rice field) and unconsolidated sand beach deposits plain unit (opened land without vegetation). Hydrologically, the study area can be divided indus tri three small river stream area (RSA). Detailed description of geomorfological condition is showed by table and geomorphological map. (author)

  19. International conference on the safety of radioactive waste disposal. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Conference is to foster information exchange on the safety of radioactive waste disposal covering; the choice of appropriate waste disposal options, safety standards, safety cases for presenting safety arguments and demonstrating compliance with standards, safety assessment methodologies and their application, dealing with uncertainty, regulatory review and decision making, the derivation of limits, controls and conditions to be applied to the development and operation of disposal facilities to ensure safety and the communication of safety issues to all interested stakeholders and confidence development. The conference will consider all possible disposal options available, drawing from experience in Member States with near surface and geological disposal facilities and those at intermediate depths and giving consideration to any multilateral approach that may be adopted. Each of the contributed papers is indexed separately

  20. S. 705: A Bill to assure fair consideration of the interests of states likely to be affected by the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, April 5, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    S. 705 is a bill to assure fair consideration of the interests of states likely to be affected by the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Notification of adjacent states is proposed when waste disposal operations are contemplated at border sites

  1. International intercomparison and harmonization projects for demonstrating the safety of radioactive waste management, decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Phil; O'Donnell, Patricio; Jova Sed, Luis; Batandjieva, Borislava; Rowat, John; Kinker, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and the safety of radioactive waste management and the international safety standards on radioactive waste management, decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal call for assessment and demonstration of the safety of facilities and activities; during siting, design and construction prior to operation, periodically during operation and at the end of lifetime or upon closure of a waste disposal facility. In addition, more recent revisions of the international safety standards require the development of a safety case for such facilities and activities, documentation presenting all the arguments supporting the safety of the facilities and activities covering site and engineering features, quantitative safety assessment and management systems. Guidance on meeting these safety requirements also indicates the need for a graded approach to safety assessment, with the extent and complexity of the assessment being proportional to the complexity of the activity or facility, and its propensity for radiation hazard. Safety assessment approaches and methodologies have evolved over several decades and international interest in these developments has been considerable as they can be complex and often subjective, which has led to international projects being established aimed at harmonization. The IAEA has sponsored a number of such initiatives, particularly in the area of disposal facility safety, but more recently in the areas of pre disposal waste management and decommissioning, including projects known as ISAM, ASAM, SADRWMS and DeSa. The projects have a number of common aspects including development of standardized methodological approaches, application on test cases and assessment review; they also have activity and facility specific elements. The paper presents an overview of the projects, the outcomes from the projects to date and their future direction aimed very much at practical application of

  2. Applying multi-criteria analysis to radiation protection optimisation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Schneider, T.; Lombard, J.

    1991-01-01

    Introduction of ALARA principles in the field of radioactive waste management implies a definition of the main characteristics of the decisional framework. Specific aspects should be taken into account: long term effects, large uncertainties and/or probabilistic events, with particular attention to the public and the political authorities. Traditional cost-benefit analysis is not qualified to deal with these different dimensions of the risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the principles of multi-criteria analysis applied to low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. Three categories of barriers can be distinguished acting at different protection levels: site characteristics, waste package and disposal system. A set of possible solutions can be identified, but the selection of the 'optimum' is not easy because of the diversity of the factors to be allowed for. For example, the following problem needs to be addressed: is it preferable to limit public radiation exposure several hundred years ahead or to reduce occupational exposure during the monitoring period of the disposal facility? An optimisation study is currently being performed on the various components of the structure, assuming given site and waste package characteristics. Four steps are distinguished: identification and analysis of options for the structure; selection and estimation of the qualitative and quantitative criteria; determination of the 'most interesting' solutions using multi-criteria analysis; sensitivity analysis and discussion on uncertainties related to the various assumptions. Based on the preliminary findings, the paper focuses on practical solutions to address the methodological issues raised in applying the optimisation procedures to radioactive waste management. (au)

  3. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme

  4. Southwestern Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Consent Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 26, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The Committee on Energy and Commerce recommends passage of H.R.5232 to grant the consent of the Congress to the Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact. The compact includes the states of California and Arizona, but North and South Dakota are eligible upon ratification by their legislatures. The compact agreement provides that California will host the disposal facility for the first 30 years. Unless California elects to continue hosting the facility, Arizona (or the member state other than California which generates the largest amount of low-level waste) is required to host the facility for the next 30 years. A site outside Needles, California near the Arizona border has been selected for the initial facility

  5. Ground-water flow near two radioactive-waste-disposal areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; results of flow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Bugliosi, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper 3 meters of till generally moves downward through a 20- to 30-meter thick sequence of tills underlain by lacustrine and kame-delta deposits of fine sand and silt. Groundwater in the weathered, upper 3 meters of till can move laterally for several meters before either moving downward into the kame-delta deposits or discharging to the land surface. A two-dimensional finite-element model that simulates two vertical sections was used to evaluate hydrologic factors that control groundwater flow in the till. Conditions observed during March 1983 were reproduced accurately in steady-state simulations that used four isotropic units of differing hydraulic conductivity to represent two fractured and weathered till units near land surfaces, an intermediate group of isolated till zones that contain significant amounts of fine sand and silt, and a sequence of till units at depths that have been consolidated by overburden pressure. Recharge rates used in the best-fit simulation ranged from 1.4 cm/yr along smooth, sloping or compacted surfaces to 3.8 cm/yr near swampy areas. Values of hydraulic conductivity and infiltration used in the calibrated best-fit model were nearly identical to values used in a previous model analysis of the nearby commercial-waste burial area. Results of the model simulations of a burial pit assumed to be filled with water indicate that water near the bottom of the burial pit would migrate laterally in the shallow, weathered till for 5 to 6 meters before moving downward into the unweathered till, and water near the top of the pit would move laterally

  6. Comparative assessment of status and opportunities for carbon Dioxide Capture and storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal In North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-07-22

    Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) and radioactive waste disposal (RWD) share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste (RW). There is well-documented capacity in North America for 100 years or more of sequestration of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. Aside from economics, the challenges of GCS include lack of fully established legal and regulatory framework for ownership of injected CO{sub 2}, the need for an expanded pipeline infrastructure, and public acceptance of the technology. As for RW, the USA had proposed the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the region's first high-level RWD site before removing it from consideration in early 2009. The Canadian RW program is currently evolving with options that range from geologic disposal to both decentralized and centralized permanent storage in surface facilities. Both the USA and Canada have established legal and regulatory frameworks for RWD. The most challenging technical issue for RWD is the need to predict repository performance on extremely long time scales (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} years). While attitudes toward nuclear power are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changes in climate occur, public perception remains the most serious challenge to opening RW repositories. Because of the many significant differences between RWD and GCS, there is little that can be shared between them from regulatory, legal, transportation, or economic perspectives. As for public perception, there is currently an opportunity to engage the public on the benefits and risks of both GCS and RWD as they learn more about the urgent energy-climate crisis created by greenhouse gas emissions from current fossil-fuel combustion practices.

  7. Development of a reference biospheres methodology for radioactive waste disposal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorp, F. van [NAGRA (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The BIOMOVS II Working Group on Reference Biospheres has focused on the definition and testing of a methodology for developing models to analyse radionuclide behaviour in the biosphere and associated radiological exposure pathways(a Reference Biospheres Methodology). The Working Group limited the scope to the assessment of the long-term implications of solid radioactive waste disposal. Nevertheless, it is considered that many of the basic principles would be equally applicable to other areas of biosphere assessment. The recommended methodology has been chosen to be relevant to different types of radioactive waste and disposal concepts. It includes the justification, arguments and documentation for all the steps in the recommended methodology. The previous experience of members of the Reference Biospheres Working Group was that the underlying premises of a biosphere assessment have often been taken for granted at the early stages of model development, and can therefore fail to be recognized later on when questions of model sufficiency arise, for example, because of changing regulatory requirements. The intention has been to define a generic approach for the formation of an 'audit trail' and hence provide demonstration that a biosphere model is fit for its intended purpose. The starting point for the methodology has three. The Assessment Context sets out what the assessment has to achieve, eg. in terms of assessment purpose and related regulatory criteria, as well as information about the repository system and types of release from the geosphere. The Basic System Description includes the fundamental premises about future climate conditions and human behaviour which, to a significant degree, are beyond prediction. The International FEP List is a generically relevant list of Features, Events and Processes potentially important for biosphere model development. The International FEP List includes FEPs to do with the assessment context. The context examined in

  8. Development of a reference biospheres methodology for radioactive waste disposal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, F. van

    1996-09-01

    The BIOMOVS II Working Group on Reference Biospheres has focused on the definition and testing of a methodology for developing models to analyse radionuclide behaviour in the biosphere and associated radiological exposure pathways (a Reference Biospheres Methodology). The Working Group limited the scope to the assessment of the long-term implications of solid radioactive waste disposal. Nevertheless, it is considered that many of the basic principles would be equally applicable to other areas of biosphere assessment. The recommended methodology has been chosen to be relevant to different types of radioactive waste and disposal concepts. It includes the justification, arguments and documentation for all the steps in the recommended methodology. The previous experience of members of the Reference Biospheres Working Group was that the underlying premises of a biosphere assessment have often been taken for granted at the early stages of model development, and can therefore fail to be recognized later on when questions of model sufficiency arise, for example, because of changing regulatory requirements. The intention has been to define a generic approach for the formation of an 'audit trail' and hence provide demonstration that a biosphere model is fit for its intended purpose. The starting point for the methodology has three. The Assessment Context sets out what the assessment has to achieve, eg. in terms of assessment purpose and related regulatory criteria, as well as information about the repository system and types of release from the geosphere. The Basic System Description includes the fundamental premises about future climate conditions and human behaviour which, to a significant degree, are beyond prediction. The International FEP List is a generically relevant list of Features, Events and Processes potentially important for biosphere model development. The International FEP List includes FEPs to do with the assessment context. The context examined in detail by

  9. Technical feasibility of a concept radioactive waste disposal facility in Boom clay in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.; Fokker, P.A.; Fokkens, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The current management strategy in the Netherlands for radioactive waste is interim storage for approximately 100 years, followed by final deep geological disposal. At present, both Boom Clay and Salt formations are being considered and investigated via the OPERA (Onderzoeks Programma Eindberging Radioactief Afval) and CORA (Commissie Opberging Radioactief Afval) research programmes respectively, instigated by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval). This paper outlines the on-going investigation into the initial technical feasibility of a high-level radioactive waste disposal facility, located within a stratum of Boom Clay, as part of the OPERA research programme. The feasibility study is based on the current Belgian Super-container concept, incorporating specific features relevant to the Netherlands, including the waste inventory and possible future glaciation. The repository is designed to be situated at approximately 500 m depth in a Boom Clay stratum of approximately 100 m thickness, and will co-host vitrified High Level Waste (HLW), spent fuel from research reactors, non-heat generating HLW, Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) and depleted uranium. The total footprint is designed to be 3050 m by 1300 m, and will be segregated by waste type. The waste will be stored in drifts drilled perpendicular to the main galleries and will vary in length and diameter depending upon waste type. The repository life-cycle can be considered in three phases: (i) the pre-operation phase, including the conceptual development, site investigation and selection, design and construction; (ii) the operational phase, including waste emplacement and any period of time prior to closure; and (iii) the post-operational phase. The research on the technical feasibility of the repository will investigate whether the repository can be constructed and whether it is able to perform the appropriate safety functions and meet

  10. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J. P.; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

  11. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Kass, J.N.

    1988-06-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview

  12. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented.

  13. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J.P.; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the 131 I solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of 131 I- much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. (author)

  14. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms. Their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). General and Marine Microbiology; Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a broad and thorough description of how microorganisms may influence safety of repositories for radioactive waste. First, an overview of the Swedish concepts for disposal is given, including a discussion of the geological, chemical and hydrological conditions in repositories. Then the limiting and stimulating factors for life of microorganisms are reviewed, such as relations to oxygen, temperature, pH, radiation, pressure, water and nutrients availability. Bacteria in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and hydrogen are also discussed. A literature review of subterranean bacteria is given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats investigations of microorganisms in repository-like environments, and microbial corrosion and redox processes relevant for materials in the repository and for the mobility of radionuclides. Possibilities to predict the activity and presence of microorganisms through mathematical models are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusion drawn in the report, how microorganisms may influence performance safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, and also identifies research needs. 293 refs, 43 figs, 36 tabs.

  15. The role of cement to be expected in radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya; Ohe, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    Based on the present states of cement in radioactive waste disposal system, its roles and functions to be further expected were discussed diming at safety evaluation of wastes. In the present waste disposal system, cement has two important roles as the structural materials for the system and as the barrier materials for protecting from various radiations. In order to enhance the durability of those materials, it is needed to improve them in respects of acid resistance and repression of the reactions with radioactive wastes. Generally development of cracks in concrete structures is inevitable and the repairs become necessary in old structures. Therefore, it is desirable that cement for a disposal system has self-diagnostic and self-repairing abilities to keep the efficiency for a long period. The compressive strength of ordinary high-strength concrete is around 50-60 Nmm -2 . However, it is needed to further increase the strength to decrease the amount of hardening materials and the width of concrete vessel for wastes. In addition, it is desirable to develop new techniques to recycle concrete wastes involving radioactive materials at ultra-low levels. (M.N.)

  16. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  17. Studies concerning the degradation of concrete vaults for intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Arva, Esteban A; Giordano, Celia M.; Lafont, Claudio J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of this concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in the structure. All the information obtained from the sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities. (author) [es

  18. Major and trace elements regulation in natural granitic waters: Application to deep radioactive waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michard, G.; Negrel, G.; Toulhoat, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Ouzounian, G.

    1991-01-01

    In order to forecast the evolution of deep groundwaters in the environment of a radioactive waste disposal, one must be able to understand the behaviour of major and trace elements in natural systems. From granitic geothermal and groundwater systems the authors establish that major elements are controlled by mineral precipitation. Regulation levels depend both on equilibration temperature and mobile anion concentration (mainly C1). From empirical laws, the regulation levels with temperature of some trace elements (alkaline and most divalent) elements can be estimated, although a precise explanation for the regulation mechanism is not yet available. They demonstrate that some transition metals are controlled by sulphide precipitation; that uranium is controlled by uraninite solubility; that trivalent and tetravalent metals are present in association with colloidal particles. Maximum regulation levels can be estimated. Such studies can also be useful to forecast the concentration levels of many elements related to nuclear wastes, mainly fission products, uranium, thorium and by analogy artificial actinide elements, as the behaviour of corresponding natural elements can be evaluated

  19. Reasoning by analogy: rational foundation of natural analogue studies. [Application to radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.-C. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux Roses, (France). DRDD/SESD)

    1992-01-01

    Long-term extrapolations concerning the safety of a nuclear waste repository cannot be satisfactorily made on the sole basis of short-term laboratory investigations. Most nuclear countries have hence developed an approach relying on the following research directions: 1. laboratory experiments; 2. in situ testing; 3. modeling; and 4. natural analogues, which are the only means by which very slow mechanisms can be identified and by which long-term predictions of models can be tested for pertinence (if not truly validated). Although the field of natural analogues has grown very rapidly in recent years, receiving support from varied specialists and institutions involved in radioactive waste disposal, there is not yet a full consensus on their actual usefulness. More problematic is the criticism sometimes made that analogical reasoning is not ''true science'' and that information retrieved from the study of natural analogues will always remain questionable. The present paper gives some clues about the exact status of reasoning by analogy, compared to more ''scientific'' ways of deriving information from investigated systems. It is not a thorough discussion of this very complex, and by far too philosophical issue but we hope, at least, to present to readers of papers devoted to natural analogue studies arguments showing that this approach has some sound foundation. (author).

  20. Rodent movements, densities and radionuclide concentrations at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Movements and densities of rodents at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area were studied from June to September 1981 using trap line and assessment line techniques. The average distance between points of successive capture was 42 +- 25 (SD) m for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and 37 +- 21 m for kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii). Densities of deer mice averaged 10.2/ha with a population estimate of 57 within the area of rodent captures. The population estimate of 4 species of small mammals at the waste pond complex was 93. Radionuclide concentrations averaged 133 +- 97 pCi/g for rodents captured inside the disposal area boundary, 18 +- 22 pCi/g for those captured outside of the dispoal area fence and 0.50 +- 0.6 pCi/g for control animals. Species captured outside of the waste area boundary had significantly lower (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co and 65 Zn) in rodents at the liquid waste disposal area was estimated to be about 162 nCi

  1. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms. Their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a broad and thorough description of how microorganisms may influence safety of repositories for radioactive waste. First, an overview of the Swedish concepts for disposal is given, including a discussion of the geological, chemical and hydrological conditions in repositories. Then the limiting and stimulating factors for life of microorganisms are reviewed, such as relations to oxygen, temperature, pH, radiation, pressure, water and nutrients availability. Bacteria in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and hydrogen are also discussed. A literature review of subterranean bacteria is given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats investigations of microorganisms in repository-like environments, and microbial corrosion and redox processes relevant for materials in the repository and for the mobility of radionuclides. Possibilities to predict the activity and presence of microorganisms through mathematical models are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusion drawn in the report, how microorganisms may influence performance safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, and also identifies research needs. 293 refs, 43 figs, 36 tabs

  2. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented.

  3. Objectives, standards and criteria for radioactive waste disposal in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    The present report, edited by a working group within the framework of the European Commission research programme on radioactive waste management and disposal, reviews the objectives, standards and criteria for radioactive waste disposal in the European Community with a view to identifying common features and differences in the regulatory frameworks of its Member States. Suggestions for possible harmonization are made. A few common general principles form the basis for legal and regulatory measures. These principles apply to and are discussed for the following: radiation protection (with the systems of dose limitation and control), ethical and sociological questions, environmental and natural resources protection, and nuclear safeguards. A description is given of the implementation of common principles, standards and requirements at Community level, in line with requirements laid down in the European Community Treaties, and in international conventions and recommendations. This is followed by a review of the implementation of basic criteria by national safety authorities. Regulatory measures and national policies, and the approaches used in devising criteria are discussed for both near-surface disposal of low-level waste, and for deep geological disposal of waste in continental geological formations. Finally, the roles and duties of the operators of radioactive waste facilities are reported. More detailed information on particular aspects is presented in the annexes

  4. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  6. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1988-05-01

    Three copper-based alloys --- CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni) --- are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement. The three copper-based alloys discussed here are being considered in addition to the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials discussed in Volume 3. The decay of radionuclides will result in substantial heat generation and in fluxes of gamma radiation. In this environment, container materials may degrade by atmospheric oxidation, uniform aqueous phase corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in tarnishing environments, or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in nontarnishing environments. This report is a critical survey of available data on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three copper-based alloys. The requisite conditions for TGSCC and IGSCC include combinations of stress, oxygen, ammonia or nitrite, and water. Note that nitrite is generated by gamma radiolysis of moisture films in air but that ammonia is not. TGSCC has been observed in CDA 102 and CDA 613 exposed to moist ammonia-containing environments whereas SCC has not been documented for CDA 715 under similar conditions. SCC is also promoted in copper by nitrite ions. Furthermore, phosphorus-deoxidized copper is unusually susceptible to embrittlement in such environments. The presence of tin in CDA 613 prevents IGSCC. It is believed that tin segregates to grain boundaries, where it oxidizes very slowly, thereby inhibiting the oxidation of aluminum. 117 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  9. Environmental impact statements: Nuclear generation, radioactive waste disposal, and isotope-separation projects. June 1973-September 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1973-September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning draft and final impact statements for environmental radiation hazards. Prepared by the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and others, these reports provide environmental input into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) decisions on proposed construction and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, radioactive-waste-disposal facilities and sites, and isotope-separation projects. Minor emphasis is placed upon community awareness and public concern where it applies to Federal guidelines and atomic facility location. (Contains 175 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  10. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  11. Recent studies on radiation damage formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt for radioactive waste disposal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swyler, K.J.; Klaffky, R.W.; Levy, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation damage formation in natural rock salt is described as a function of irradiation temperature and plastic deformation. F-center formation decreases with increasing temperature while significant colloidal sodium formation occurs over a restricted temperature range around 150 0 C. Plastic deformation increases colloid formation; it is estimated that colloid concentrations may be increased by a factor of 3 if the rock salt near radioactive waste disposal canisters is heavily deformed. Optical bandshape analysis indicates systematic differences between the colloids formed in synthetic and natural rock salts

  12. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  13. Alternative disposal technologies for new low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Waste Management Activities for groundwater protection has been prepared for the Savannah River Plant. Support documentation for the DEIS included an Environmental Information Document on new radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities in which possible alternative disposal technologies were examined in depth. Six technologies that would meet the needs of the Savannah River Plant that selected for description and analysis include near surface disposal, near surface disposal with exceptions, engineered storage, engineered disposal, vault disposal of untreated waste, and a combination of near surface disposal, engineered disposal, and engineered storage. 2 refs

  14. Who should foot the bill? A discussion of alternative organizational models to finance dismantling and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaensch, Elisabeth; Hirschhausen, Christian von; Moeckel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Based on the costs-by-cause principle everybody has to be responsible for the environmental damage produced. Accordingly the electricity supply companies should have to pay for the dismantling of nuclear power plants and the radioactive waste disposal. The implementation of a fond under public law seems to be an adequate solution. Critical arguments concerning the costs-by-cause principle shows that instead of a constrained enforcement of this principle a solution in the sense of the society as a whole should be in the focus.

  15. Equity of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal fees. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    In the Report accompanying the Fiscal Year 1997 Senate Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill, the Senate Appropriations Committee directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a study of the costs of operating a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility such as the one at Barnwell, South Carolina, and to determine whether LLW generators are paying equitable disposal fees. The disposal costs of four facilities are reviewed in this report, two operating facilities and two planned facilities. The operating facilities are located at Barnwell, South Carolina, and Richland, Washington. They are operated by Chem-Nuclear, LLC, (Chem-Nuclear), and US Ecology, Inc., (US Ecology), respectively. The planned facilities are expected to be built at Ward Valley, California, and Sierra Blanca, Texas. They will be operated by US Ecology and the State of Texas, respectively. This report found that disposal fees vary significantly among facilities for a variety of reasons. However, the information suggests that at each disposal facility, LLW generators pay equitable disposal fees

  16. Proceedings of the international symposium on radioactive waste disposal: Health and environmental criteria and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultcrantz, K.

    1999-04-01

    The co-organisers of the International Symposium on Health and Environmental Criteria and Standards for Radioactive Waste Disposal are pleased to present these proceedings. This Symposium succeeded in bringing together a wide range of participants and perspectives in order to address in a common forum the technical and non-technical issues related to long-term storage of radioactive waste. The papers presented herein reflect both the diversity of the participants and the complexity of the issues addressed. The sessions, panels, and papers developed for the symposium focused on some of the daunting challenges posed by long-term isolation and storage of high level radioactive waste. Panel sessions addressed the basic principles of criteria and standards, the context of the risks involved, and an overview of relevant philosophical, social, and ethical issues. Paper sessions considered national laws, policies and experiences; criteria formulation; environmental protection; compliance; human intrusion; and fundamental philosophical, social, and ethical issues. The presentations stimulated lively discussion and debate, and the contributors received valuable feedback. The interplay between technical and social aspects reflected in some papers and in the discussion highlights the changing role of the public in radioactive waste issues. The average citizen has become more aware of and more involved in radioactive waste matters in recent years. Solutions that were previously analysed through a technological lens are now being viewed in a much broader perspective that better addresses the concerns of local communities as well as national and international interests. Public involvement must begin earlier, last longer, and improve in quality so as to create an ongoing dialogue and debate rather than cycles of dictates and discord. The symposium has offered suggestions as to how government, industry, and the public can foster a broader dialogue on the formulation and

  17. Definition of the OPERA safety case for radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Jaap; Wildenborg, Ton; Davis, Paul; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper first gives a short introduction on OPERA, the current Dutch five-year research programme on disposal of radioactive waste. It then zooms in on OPERA WP (Work Package) 2 Safety Case - the OSCAR project, and presents (preliminary) results on the structure of the OPERA safety case, the subject of safety statements, and the OPERA safety assessment methodology. The structure of the initial long-term, post-closure safety case for a disposal facility for radioactive waste in Boom Clay in the Netherlands is being developed in the OSCAR project. Hereto a selection of relevant national and international efforts concerning the set-up of a safety case for geological disposal of radioactive waste (safety case structure, safety assessment methodology, FEP database) has been reviewed considering the objectives and outlines of the OPERA programme described in the OPERA research plan. Not surprisingly, it turned out that the guidelines and databases of the IAEA and NEA developed by the international community pretty well covered all aspects of nationally developed safety cases. Although in OPERA only 'initial and conditional' safety cases (for disposal in low permeable clay and rock salt) will be developed, the programme objective is detailing a first road-map for the long-term research on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands. The safety case being developed will serve as a basis for the further development of the subsequent stages of the Dutch radioactive waste disposal programme. The focus of OSCAR is, therefore, to develop and propose a 'future proof' structure for the safety case, drawing on the NEA and IAEA/PRISM methodologies. The OPERA safety case structure being developed will encompass all relevant aspects, or components, of a modern safety case and will link the different components in a practical and transparent way. It will assist in steering the flow of information generated within the different OPERA and as such provide a structured

  18. Execution techniques for high-level radioactive waste disposal. 2. Fundamental concept of geological disposal and implementing approach of disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Komada, Hiroya; Tsuchino, Susumu; Shiozaki, Isao; Kitayama, Kazumi; Akasaka, Hidenari; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawamura, Hideki

    1999-01-01

    The making high activity of the high-level radioactive waste disposal business shall be fully started after establishing of the implementing organization which is planned around 2000. Considering each step of disposal business, in this study, the implementation procedure for a series of disposal business such as the selection of the disposal site, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of the disposal facility and the management after closure, which are carried forward by the implementation body is discussed in detail from the technical viewpoint and an example of the master schedule is proposed. Furthermore, we investigate and propose the concept of the geological disposal which becomes important in carrying forward to making of the business of the disposal, such as the present site selection smoothly, the fundamental idea of the safe securing for disposal, the basic idea to get trust to the disposal technique and the geological environmental condition which is the basic condition of this whole study for the disposal business making. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste safety appraisal. An international peer review of the licence application for the Australian near surface radioactive waste disposal facility. Report of the IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    Radioactive waste has been generated in Australia for a number of decades from the production and use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry, from the processing of various minerals containing natural radionuclides and from various research activities. It has been decided in the overall interest of safety and security to develop a radioactive waste disposal facility to accommodate the low level and short lived intermediate level waste, which make up the bulk of the waste, other than mining and minerals processing residues. A site selection process has been undertaken and environmental impact statement report prepared and approved. A licence application has been submitted to the national nuclear regulatory authority, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) for siting, construction and operation of the facility. In order to assist the CEO of ARPANSA with his deliberations in this regard a request was made to the IAEA, in terms of its statutory mandate to establish international safety standards for radioactive waste safety and to provide for their application, to undertake an international peer review of the licence application and to advise the CEO accordingly. The outcome and recommendations of this peer review are presented in the report

  20. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  1. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-01-01

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further

  2. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1980:] Search for potential [disposal] sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Glanzman, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada suitable as host media for high-level radioactive wastes; to describe the areal and depth distribution and structural integrity of these rock masses; and to assess the potential for contaminant release by hydrologic transport, or as a result of tectonic, and (or) volcanic activity. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and geophysical techniques. 10 refs., 1 figs

  3. Studies of radionuclide availability and migration at the Nevada Test Site relevant to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewhey, J.D.; Weed, H.C.; Coles, D.G.; Ramspott, L.D.; MacLean, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    The sorption distribution coefficient, K/sub d/, of a nuclide is defined as the concentration of a nuclide on a solid phase divided by its concentration in the liquid phase subsequent to equilibrium being attained. In the case of batch K/sub d/ measurements done in the laboratory, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of equilibration, and experiments may not reflect true K/sub d/ values. Kurt Wolfsberg of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has referred to laboratory K/sub d/ measurements as distribution ratios or R/sub d/'s. An R/sub d/ is obtained in the same manner as a K/sub d/ but does not imply equilibrium. The term R/sub d/ is used in this study. The results from the batch R/sub d/ studies are listed in tabular form. The standard deviation of the counting data for each R/sub d/ is given. The R/sub d/ values can be arranged according to the following inequalities: Pu > Cs, except for biotite; Cs > Sr, except for limestone; and Sr > Tc. The exceptions are considered significant for Pu vs Cs on biotite, but not for Cs vs Sr on limestone. The low R/sub d/ values for Tc indicate that within the limits of measurement it is not sorbed under the experimental conditions in this study. One possible cause for the negative values is preferential sorption of the sample on the walls of the sample container, so that the sample container sorbs less Tc than the blank container does

  4. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-06-30

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further.

  5. Zoological aspects of the ecological integrity of a radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nel, J.A.J.; Picker, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The possible effects of nuclear waste disposal at the Vaalputs terrain on the endemic fauna are being monitored by assessing changes in the occurrence of small mammal species, their density, food, reproduction, parasite load, gross abnormalities and longevity, as well as the occurrence of chromosome and chromatid lesions. Interactions between the radiation source and animals are studied by monitoring burrowing activity of arthropods, and the soil they transfer to the surface, as well as the burrowing activity of rodent species

  6. Numerical evaluation of the water saturation in a high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L.V.; Bouillet, Ch.; Tulita, C.; Wendling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work is a contribution of the ANDRA's program of numerical simulations of the evolution in time of hydrogeological flows in a radioactive waste repository in deep clay formations. This study aims at evaluating the water contact areas with steel for corrosion modeling in a High-Level radioactive waste disposal, from the building to the total saturation, more than 100 000 years later [HSPA6b]. Energy release by radioactive spent fuel and thermal expansion of the interstitial water is taken into account in the models. Thermal transfers in the porous media and free convection in the gaps (Navier-Stokes equations) are computed with a linear Finite Element scheme. The mass transfers in the porous media are solved with a P0-P1 Mixed Finite Element method (Richard's equations during exploitation and two phases flow equations after the closure). All numerical simulations are performed with the Cast3M code (http://wwwcast3m. cea.fr/). During the exploitation, the H-L radioactive waste storage cell is not supposed to be hermetically closed. The pressure in the storage cell remains atmospheric and mass transfers towards the main gallery are possible. So a seepage boundary condition is used on excavation surface in order to provide evolution in time of saturation limit along the storage cell. For each cell of the boundary mesh: - No water flux is imposed in contact with unsaturated media. - Atmospheric pressure is imposed in contact with saturated media. A relative humidity of 50% is imposed for the atmosphere in the gallery. Vapour diffusive flux is implemented in Richard's equations with a suction pressure formula according to Kelvin law. Temperature impact on vapour flux is neglected. Vapour diffusive flux is significant in the concrete wall of gallery due to the ventilation. The free convection steady state in the gap is solved at different times of the thermal transient to evaluate location of

  7. Analysis of Weld Fabrication Flaws in High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Containers: Experiences from the US Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, Daniel; Apted, Mick

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine key issues regarding the fabrication, closure and defect detection in canisters for radioactive waste disposal in a deep geological repository. As a preliminary step, a review is made of the closure-weld design and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of the closure seal for the US high-level waste repository programme. This includes statistical analysis of the data obtained by NDE and identification of key areas of investigation where additional data are required. Information from other industrial experiences on closure and flaw detection of metal containers is also reviewed. The canister material and closure methods for the US programme and industrial activities reviewed here differ from those of SKB's KBS-3 reference design. The issues and approaches to issue resolution identified from the US programme and industrial analogues, however, can provide an initial basis for preparing for independent review of SKB's canister closure plans and encapsulation facility

  8. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  9. Role of National Academies in radioactive waste disposal projects. Implications from the comparison of the science council of Japan with the U.S. National Academies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yuji; Tanaka, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    We made a descriptive inference about the role of the U.S. National Academies in the U.S. radioactive waste disposal projects on the basis of literature-based information and compared the U.S. National Academies with the Science Council of Japan to determine their implications on the progress of social acceptability of radioactive waste disposal projects in Japan. The descriptive inference was made as follows. We described the organizational characteristics of the U.S. National Academies and the U.S. federal governments related to the projects. We outlined the related bills and demonstrated chronologically the activities related to the projects by the U.S. National Academies and the U.S. Government. As a consequence, we identified some specific roles that the U.S. National Academies played in the U.S. radioactive waste disposal projects. The U.S. National Academies have acted not only as a scientific and engineering adviser for the governments but also as an anchor for some political decision making or judicial actions. Furthermore, we analyzed the credibility of the Science Council of Japan and the U.S. National Academies from the viewpoint that a reliable third party must exhibit fairness, expertise and continuity. From the results of the comparison, it was found that the Science Council of Japan has the possibility to become a reliable third party that can help the radioactive waste disposal projects in Japan. (author)

  10. Safety cases for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Kelly, E.; Guskov, A.; Blerk, J. van

    2002-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has recently been completed on the Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). A major aspect of the project was the use of safety cases for the practical application of safety assessment. An overview of the ISAM safety cases is given in this paper. (author)

  11. CHEMVAL project. Critical evaluation of the CHEMVAL thermodynamic database with respect to its contents and relevance to radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield and Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with assessing the applicability of the CHEMVAL Thermodynamic Database (Version 3.0) to studies of radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield and Dounreay. Comparisons are drawn with similar listings produced elsewhere and suggestions made for database enhancement. The feasibility of extending the database to take into account simulations at elevated temperatures is also addressed. (author)

  12. US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal: Fiscal Years, 1983, 1984, and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinwiddie, G.A.; Trask, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The USGS has been assisting the DOE in evaluating the suitability of the Yucca Mountain area, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and about 160 km northwest of Las Vegas, as a possible repository site for the disposal of commercially generated high-level radioactive wastes and wastes from DOE facilities. An essential part of this work is defining the geology and hydrology of the area in order to assess the potential for the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the human environment. In addition, the potential for disruption of a repository as a result of volcanic or tectonic activity or accelerated erosion is being evaluated. As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, the USGS is performing multi-disciplinary studies involving detailed surface mapping, surface geophysics, exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and topical studies of hydrology, climate, and tectonics. Studies are being performed to assess the potential for faulting, damaging earthquakes, recurrence of volcanism, and local acceleration of erosion in parts of the southern Great Basin. Hydrologic investigations are directed to determination of present and past hydrologic regimes of the NTS and vicinity in order to predict the potential for ground-water transport of radioactive waste from a repository in Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. Paleoclimatic studies are also being performed to aid in predicting future climate in the NTS vicinity

  13. Study of the chemo-hydro-mechanical behavior of stiff clays in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Phu

    2013-01-01

    The present research aims to understand the chemo-hydro-mechanical behavior of stiff clays through two geological formations, the Boom Clay and the Ypresian clays which are considered as possible host formations for the radioactive wastes disposal in Belgium. The volume change behavior was studied in both intact and reconstituted states, and under different conditions: under K0 and isotropic loading, under loading/unloading loops. The results show that the volume change behavior is governed by the competition between the physico-chemical effect and the mechanical effect, characterized by a threshold stress which corresponds to the swelling stress in terms of structure changes. A constitutive law was developed to capture this aspect. The permeability was determined, compared with the results in literature and correlated with the parameters as void ratio. The permeability variation with depth shows the important role of macro-pores in fluids' transfer. The volume change behavior and permeability of intact Boom Clay and Ypresian clays are also influenced by pore water chemical composition changes which modify the diffuse double layer and give rise to the aggregation of clay particles. The elastic parameters, yield curve and failure envelope of Boom Clay and Ypresian clays were identified. A conceptual elasto-plastic model was developed, accounting for the swelling effects and the competition between the physico-chemical effect and the mechanical effect. (author)

  14. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  15. LIFETIME PREDICTIONS OF TOXIC AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL AND REMEDIATION SCHEMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Ewing, R.C.; Bruno, J.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power production epitomizes the need for predictive geoscience (Ewing, 2004). Current global carbon emissions of ∼7 Gt/y, largely from fossil fuel consumption, are expected to grow and result in a variety of adverse global effects, including acid rain, toxic smog, and hypothetically, sea level rise and increased frequency and severity of adverse weather conditions. One of the most reliable and sufficiently large alternative sources of energy is nuclear power, which currently provides about 17% of the world's electricity, equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of ∼0.5 Gt/y. The U.S. currently consumes ∼40% of the world's fossil fuel production, but generates only about 20% of it's electricity from nuclear plants. One major factor inhibiting increased power production form this source in the US. is the lack of a licensed repository for spent nuclear fuel, and Yucca Mountain is the only site being considered at this time. The licensing issue hinges on DOE's ability to present a credible case before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that releases of radionuclides from the repository will not pose a threat to the accessible environment. This case is being built using a performance assessment model that incorporates a thermochemical database (EQ3/6) fed by experiments and theoretical developments in aqueous geochemistry and fluid rock interactions, coupled reaction/transport models which combine both the chemical and physical aspects of fluid and heat transport through porous and fractured media, geohazard and climate change models, and information gleaned from natural analogs. The assessment period is currently 10,000 years, but this has recently been challenged in a court of law, and may be extended to 300,000 years or more. Yucca Mountain has a design capacity that only marginally exceeds the current U.S. inventory of commercial spent fuel, currently stored on site at power plants through the country. Some analysts suggest that in order to have a

  16. Overview of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This paper provides a summary and an overview of the modeling approaches selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology. This performance assessment methodology is designed to provide the NRC with a tool for performing confirmatory analyses in support of license reviews related to postclosure performance. The methodology allows analyses of dose to individuals from off-site releases under normal conditions as well as on-site doses to inadvertent intruders. 24 refs., 1 tab

  17. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kote, F.; Peres, J.M.; Olivier, M.; Lewi, J.; Assouline, M.; Mejon-Goula, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10 -3 m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  18. Planning and consultation procedures for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1989-03-01

    This Report is the result of a year-long study funded by UK Nirex Ltd. between 1986 and 1987. The central purpose was to learn from overseas experience of planning and public consultation procedures associated with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. The most recent information on LLW developments in the United States, Canada, France, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, and West Germany was sought, particularly in regard to: (1) the efficacy of public consultation and negotiation procedures, focusing in particular on the perceived problems, successes and areas for improvement; (2) the key aspects bearing on the public acceptability of LLW proposals; and (3) the form and effect of any compensation mechanisms in operation. The greatest success overseas appears to be linked to some combination of the following elements: authority and clarity in the exposition of the direction of radioactive waste management policy, backed up by authoritative and independent analysis; the early involvement of local authority (county council/regional authority) organisations in the site selection process; careful attention to the potential contribution of authoritative independent advisory groups on both technical and procedural/site selection matters; the development and nurturing of local liaison committees to establish good communications at the local level; careful consideration of means of devolving some power to local authority level for safety reassurance, for example, in relation to site inspections and safety monitoring; the development of an incremental, openly negotiated approach to compensation. (author)

  19. New low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities for the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Within the next few years the Savannah River Plant will require new facilities for the disposal and/or storage of solid low-level radioactive waste. Six options have been developed which would meet the regulatory and site-specific requirements for such facilities

  20. Climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessment of solid radioactive waste disposal: Results of an initiative of the IAEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, T; Thorne, M; Andersson, E; Becker, J; Brandefelt, J; Cabianca, T; Gunia, M; Ikonen, A T K; Johansson, E; Kangasniemi, V; Kautsky, U; Kirchner, G; Klos, R; Kowe, R; Kontula, A; Kupiainen, P; Lahdenperä, A-M; Lord, N S; Lunt, D J; Näslund, J-O; Nordén, M; Norris, S; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Proverbio, A; Riekki, K; Rübel, A; Sweeck, L; Walke, R; Xu, S; Smith, G; Pröhl, G

    2018-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The work has been supported by results of parallel on-going research that has been published in a variety of reports and peer reviewed journal articles. The project is due to be described in detail in a forthcoming IAEA report. Noting the multi-disciplinary nature of post-closure safety assessments, here, an overview of the work is given to provide researchers in the broader fields of radioecology and radiological safety assessment with a review of the work that has been undertaken. It is hoped that such dissemination will support and promote integrated understanding and coherent treatment of climate change and landscape development within an overall assessment process. The key activities undertaken in the project were: identification of the key processes that drive environmental change (mainly those associated with climate and climate change), and description of how a relevant future may develop on a global scale; development of a methodology for characterising environmental change that is valid on a global scale, showing how modelled global changes in climate can be downscaled to provide information that may be needed for characterising environmental change in site-specific assessments, and illustrating different aspects of the methodology in a number of case studies that show the evolution of site characteristics and the implications for the dose assessment models. Overall, the study has shown that quantitative climate and landscape modelling has now developed to the stage that it can be used to define an envelope of climate and landscape change scenarios at specific sites and under specific greenhouse-gas emissions assumptions that is suitable for use in quantitative post-closure performance assessments. These scenarios are not predictions of the future, but

  1. Characteristics of low-level radioactive waste disposed during 1987--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roles, G.W.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the volume, activity, and radionuclide distributions in low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposed during 1987 through 1989 at the commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. The report has been entirely assembled from descriptions of waste provided in LLW shipment manifests. Individual radionuclide distributions are listed as a function of waste class, of general industry, and of waste stream. In addition, information is presented about disposal of wastes containing chelating agents, about use of solidification media, about the distribution of radiation levels at the surfaces of waste containers, and about the distribution of waste container sizes. Considerably more information is presented about waste disposed at the Richland and Beatty disposal facilities than at the Barnwell disposal facility

  2. Normal and Abnormal Scenario Modeling with GoldSim for Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) template program, by which an assessment of safety and performance for the radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases could be assessed has been carried out by utilizing a commercial development tool program, GoldSim. Scenarios associated with the various FEPs and involved in the performance of the proposed repository in view of nuclide transport and transfer both in the geosphere and biosphere has been also carried out. Selected normal and abnormal scenarios that could alter groundwater flow scheme and then nuclide transport are modeled with the template program. To this end in-depth system models for the normal and abnormal well and earthquake scenarios that are conceptually and rather practically described and then ready for implementing into a GoldSim TSPA template program are introduced with conceptual schemes for each repository system. Illustrative evaluations with data currently available are also shown

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK)

  4. An underground research tunnel for the validation of high-level radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Park, S. I.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Han, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of high-level radioactive waste(HLW) safely in geological formations, it is necessary to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness, and stability of the disposal concept at an underground research site, which is constructed in the same geological formation as the host rock. In this study, minimum requirements and the conceptual design for an efficient construction of a small scale URL, which is named URT, were derived based on a literature review. To confirm the validity of the conceptual design for construction at KAERI, a geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, electronic resistivity survey, borehole drilling, and in situ and laboratory tests were carried out. Based on the results, it was possible to design URT effectively with a consideration of the site characterization. The construction of URT was started in May 2005 and the first stage of the construction of the access tunnel could be successfully completed in Aug. 2005

  5. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Trends and opportunities for the radioactive waste disposal in the Earth crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsold Szentirmai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of designing and realization of permanent disposal sites for nuclear wastes. It points out the possibilities of the development of new and modern technologies of drilling, mining, or driving of underground works.The paper is primarily aimed at the cuttingof the period of storage building, the reaching of larger depths, the reduction of territory of storage area as well as the increase of its safety.

  8. Technical and socio-political issues in radioactive waste disposal 1986. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Kasperson, R.E.; Andersson, T.L.; Parker, S.A.

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an integrated technical and socio-political analysis of how six countries (Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States of America) have responded to four key issues in radioactive waste management: a) What constitutes 'safe' or 'absolutely safe' disposal, b) site selection processes, c) timing and type of interim storage. (orig./HP)

  9. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal into the sub-seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Charles, D.; Delow, C.E.; McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an assessment of the radiological impact of sub-seabed disposal of vitrified high level waste, carried out as part of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. Where possible the data used in this study have been taken from those provided by the Nuclear Energy Agency Seabed Working Group. The waste was assumed to be placed into the sub-seabed sediments by means of the free fall penetrator technique. An alternative method, emplacement in a deep borehole, was also studied. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Great Meteor East, in the N.E. Atlantic, and two alternative sites: Southern Nares Abyssal Plain in the N.W. Atlantic and Cape Verde Rise in N.E. Atlantic. Models were used to describe the release of radionuclides from the waste, their migration through the sediments, their dispersion in the world oceans and the pathways to man. For the normal evolution scenario, best estimate peak individual dose rates for the penetrator option was evaluated at 2 x 10 -10 Sv y -1 arising 0.1 million years after emplacement. The collective dose commitment was 10,000 man Sv. The corresponding figures for the borehole option were 2 x 10 -14 Sv y -1 and 1 man Sv. The risks from seven altered evolution scenarios were also calculated and the risk was predicted to be always less than 10 -9 y -1 . Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were also performed and showed that the peak dose was most sensitive to variations in Kd values, pore water velocity, pore water diffusivity and burial depth. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  10. Quality assurance guidance for low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This document provides guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. The QC requirements are the basis for developing of a quality assurance (QA) program and for the guidance provided herein. The criteria are basic to any QA program. The document specifically establishes QA guidance for the design, construction, and operation of those structures, systems, components, as well as, for site characterization activities necessary to meet the performance objectives and to limit exposure to our release of radioactivity. 7 refs

  11. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Bonne, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, performance assessment studies have been undertaken on the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste in clay layers at a reference site at Mol (B) and a variant site at Harwell (UK). The calculations performed for the reference site shown that most radionuclides decay to negligible levels within the first meters of the clay barrier. The maximum dose rates arising from the geological disposal of HLW, as evaluated by the deterministic approach are about 10 -11 Sv/y for river pathways. If the sinking of a water well into the 150 m deep aquifer layer in the vicinity of the repository is considered together with a climatic change, the maximum calculated dose rate rises to a value of 3.10 -7 Sv/y. The calculated maxima arise between 1 million and 15 million years after disposal. The maximum dose rates evaluated by stochastic calculations are about one order of magnitude higher due to the considerable uncertainties in the model parameters. In the case of the Boom clay the estimated consequences of a fault scenario are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for the normal evolution scenario. The maximum risk is estimated from stochastic calculations to be about 4.10 -8 per year. For the variant site the case of the normal evolution scenario has been evaluated. The maximum dose rates calculated deterministically are about 1.10 -6 Sv/y for river pathways and 6.10 -5 Sv/y for a water well pathways; these doses would occur after about 1 million years. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  12. Rethinking high-level radioactive waste disposal: making the safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    There is worldwide consensus that geological disposal is best for disposing of high-level radioactive waste; nevertheless, the U.S. program is unlikely to succeed. The program is hampered by its high degree of inflexibility with respect to both schedule and technical specifications that assume the properties and future behavior of a geological repository can be determined and specified with a very high degree of certainty. Geological models, and scientific knowledge generally, have been inappropriately applied. Geophysical analysis can and should have a key role in the assessment of long-term repository isolation; however, geophysial models are being asked to predict the detailed structure and behavior of sites over thousands of years. This is scientifically unsound and will lead to bad engineering practice. The United States has written detailed regulations for repository siting and construction before all of the data are in and is thus bound by requirements that may be impossible to meet. An alternative approach emphasizing flexibility can succeed. It will require time to assess performance, a willingness to respond to problems as they arise, remediation if necessary, and revision of the design and regulations if they are found to impede progress toward the health goal already defined as safe disposal. 6 refs

  13. Principal aspects of petrographical examination of rock salts to assess their suitability for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    To solve the problem of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) isolation in Ukraine a preparatory stage of feasibility study as to the construction of a pilot laboratory has been completed. Salty formations are considered as possible host rocks for HLRW isolation. 7 salt formations located in 5 regions of Ukraine have been examined and was found that only two, i.e. the Upper Devonian and Lower Permian halogenic formations of the Dnieper-Donets Depression appeared to have considerable promise for these purposes. In these two formations 4 zones with 12 candidate-sites were selected. The promising zones are located both in bedded salt and in salt domes. Analytical treatment our previous studies as well as a special-purpose research have resulted in designing packages of the schematic information models for the zones and some candidate-sites. Now we are preparing to start exploration drilling at several promising structures. Research has been carried out by the Institute of Geological Sciences (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) on budget and contract financial basis with the participation of branch institutes and the State Committee on Nuclear power Utilization (Goskomatom). The drilling and geophysical data were presented by Goskomgeologiya production organizations

  14. Necessary contents of public outreach for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Noriko; Okamoto, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is one of the solutions for global warming. However, the nuclear power generation technology can not be completed unless the disposal method of the radioactive waste is decided. Various actions are performed about the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal in particular in each country. However, planning of HLW disposal site was not successful, except Finland and Sweden. In Japan, geological disposal of HLW was selected. The operating body and the capital management body are also decided. Up to the present, no municipality apply the disposal site candidate. An important social element for HLW disposal is careful explanation and communication for municipality. For this purpose, a symposium to explain necessity of HLW is held in each district in Japan. The symposium is not successful, because of lack of carefulness to local situation considered. In this study, we evaluates the questionnaire by the symposium attendee to extract the idea and requests by the local people. With these questionnaire, the responsibility of the government should be more enhanced. Also, the detail answer to the people's questions are needed. Using these knowledge, the HLW disposal social acceptance has been discussed. (author)

  15. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  16. Uncertainty analysis for low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Yambert, M.W.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    A performance assessment of the operating Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) facility for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been prepared to provide the technical basis for demonstrating compliance with the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A, Chapter 111.2 An analysis of the uncertainty incorporated into the assessment was performed which addressed the quantitative uncertainty in the data used by the models, the subjective uncertainty associated with the models used for assessing performance of the disposal facility and site, and the uncertainty in the models used for estimating dose and human exposure. The results of the uncertainty analysis were used to interpret results and to formulate conclusions about the performance assessment. This paper discusses the approach taken in analyzing the uncertainty in the performance assessment and the role of uncertainty in performance assessment.

  17. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secor, D.T. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews the geology of the Piedmont Province of South Carolina with the aim of designating rock units favorable for field exploration for a potential underground repository for the storage of radioactive waste. Most of the rocks in the South Carolina Piedmont are metamorphosed sedimentary volcanic or igneous rocks that have experienced at least one episode of strong deformation. As a consequence of this deformation, they have irregular shapes, making it difficult to predict their subsurface extent. In evaluating the suitability of the rock units for radioactive waste storage, certain criteria were found to be particularly useful. The requirements that the storage site be located in a large volume of homogeneous, impermeable, relatively unfractured rock was the most important criteria in eliminating most of the Piedmont rock units for consideration as field study areas. Six large late- to post-tectonic igneous plutons (Winnsboro, Liberty Hill, Ogden, Newberry, Lowrys, and Bald Rock) are recommended as field study areas

  18. Hydrodynamic analysis and design of high-level radioactive waste disposal model penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visintini, L.; Mazazzi, R.; Murray, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is studying in the framework of the NEA/OECD Internationally Co-ordinational Seabed Programme the feasibility of using deep ocean sedimentary geological formations as a final disposal medium for vitrified high level waste and fuel elements. At present, two options are being considered for the embedment of such wastes in the sediment column, drilling and free fall penetrators. In the second case, the high level waste would be contained in specially designed drums which would be placed into torpedo-shaped projectiles. These penetrators would then be launched from a semi-submersible platform or ship and allowed to fall freely through the water column (≅ 5 km depth) and to bury themselves within the sediment column. The present article reports some work which has been carried out by the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment on designing large model penetrators for tests at two sites in the North Atlantic

  19. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    For the final disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes clay formations have plasticity, low permeability and high sorption capacity in their favour. Their disadvantage lies in their thermal conductivity and moisture content. The aim of this document is to take stock of the state of the art pertaining to the thermal phenomena linked to the dispoasl of conditioned radioactive wastes. The study, limited to normal, non-accident operating conditions, considers vitrified wastes cast in metal containers and disposal of in an underground infrastructure built in clay. The composition and characteristics of clays can vary widely between formations and even between sites, since the nature and content of argillaceous and other minerals depend on age, sedimentation conditions, depth, origin of the sediments, etc. This study is therefore limited to a specific clay in a specific deposit, i.e., the Boom clay located at Mol beneath the CEN/SCK establishment

  20. Questions on geology in connection with final radioactive waste disposal in the Fennoscandian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerklund, A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear power involves handling and disposal of radioactive waste. A number of methods for disposal have been proposed, one of which is the construction of repositories in crystalline bedrock of old continental crust. This possibility is usually considered reliable because of the relative stability of such bedrock. The Fennoscandian area has repeatedly been glaciated during the past 3 mission years. The last glacial event terminated some 10 000 years ago. This glacial ''massage'' has maintained a dense network of fractures and faults open for circulating water and ascending gas. Blocks of relatively unfractured bedrock have been proposed as suitable sites for the disposal of nuclear waste. Such questions concern neotectonic activity, the movement, salt content and amount of water at a few hundred metres depth, the mobility of elements in the bedrock as well as the geological processes which might be active beneath any future ice cap. Deep groundwaters, dating of young fracture minerals and neotectonic movements have been studied during 1985 - 1989 in a Nordic reserach program sponsored by NKA, the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. Deep saline groundwaters may have a negative effect on repositories of nuclear waste and the knowledge of the location of such waters may also give a hint as to the pattern of water movement in the bedrock. Therefore the composition, origin and location of deep groundwaters were studied. The development of faults in the bedrock through a site of waste disposal before the radioactivity in the waste has decayed to a safe level is considered a serious risk factor. Neotectonic movements have mostly followed old faults and fracture zones in the bedrock, which repeatedly have been reactivated during geological time, leaving blocks between the faults tectonically undisturbed. (CLS) 80 refs

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B.

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials [CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)], which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B.

    1988-08-01

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel ∼ Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Radiohygienic aspects of the safety analysis of the Puespoekszilagy radioactive waste disposal and treatment facility, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerekes, A.; Juhasz, L.; Berci, K.; Ormai, P.

    2001-01-01

    A temporary disposal was established for low level radioactive waste (LLW) at Solymar close to Budapest in 1960. Approx. 900 m 3 LLW was disposed in concrete ring bells on the site until 1975. A new disposal (Radwaste Treatment and Disposal Facility, RWTDF) for low and intermediate radioactive waste (L/ILW) was put into operation at Puespoekszilagy, about 40 km to Budapest in 1976. The site was operated by the Metropolitan Institute of National Public Health and Medical Officer Service until 1997, when according to the new Hungarian Act on Atomic Energy the Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management was established to perform the tasks connected to radwaste management and decommissioning of nuclear installations. The Solymar facility was dismantled and the radioactive waste transported to Puespoekszilagy. The RWTDF is situated on the ridge of a hill in a clay formation with conductivity from 10 -8 to 10 -6 cm.s -1 ; the groundwater depth is 17-20 m from the bottom of the disposal units. The waste is deposited in near surface disposal units (trenches, cells, and wells) with engineered barriers. Up to now about 4900 m 3 of solid and solidified waste has been emplaced and 2 trenches of about 3000 m 3 has been temporary sealed. More than 80% of the disposed waste is of low level. Approx. 700 TBq is the total activity of the radwaste including long-lived and alpha emitting radionuclides with the activity of the order of magnitude of 10 TBq. As the safety analysis was performed in a simple way in 1970's during the commissioning of the facility a comprehensive safety analysis was prescribed to get the license for the operation of the storage units extended at the end of 1980's. ETV-EROETERV Ltd. has won the tender for the safety analysis and the NRIRR was involved in the biosphere characterisation of the region and in the dose estimations for different accidental scenarios as well. The biosphere characterisation included the following categories: meteorology

  5. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Aschenbach, J.; Hirsekom, R.P.; Nies, A.; Stelte, N.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in rock salt formations has been carried out. The first volume of the study is split into four tasks. Task 1 recalls the main steps that have led to the selection of the reference and the variant site. Task 2 condenses all information available on the rock formations which are planned to host the repository, the overlying geosphere and the geohistoric development of the sites. Task 3 states the technical details of repository planning, while in Task 4 conceivable release scenarios are discussed. Volume II (Tasks 5 to 10) is concerned with the modelling procedures. In Task 5 data for the waste inventory are collected and the selection of relevant nuclides for transport calculations is discussed. Task 6 gives the near-field modelling, i.e. the models for corrosion of the waste canisters, the degradation of the waste matrix and the models used for the HLW boreholes. Task 7 deals with the modelling of the repository. Its division into sections is discussed and models for physical and chemical effects taken into account in each section are presented. In Task 8 the modelling of the overburden is given. In Task 9 additional models for the subrosion scenario and a human intrusion scenario are given. Task 10 is concerned with the biosphere modelling. In Volume III results of deterministic and probabilistic calculations are presented. Task 11 gives the results for deterministic calculations with best estimate values for the parameters involved in the models. Task 12 presents the result of the uncertainty analysis, and Task 13 those of local and global sensitivity analyses followed by concluding remarks. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the

  6. A biosphere assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Tobias; Valentin, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Licence applications to build a repository for the disposal of Swedish spent nuclear fuel have been lodged, underpinned by myriad reports and several broader reviews. This paper sketches out the technical and administrative aspects and highlights a recent review of the biosphere effects of a potential release from the repository. A comprehensive database and an understanding of major fluxes and pools of water and organic matter in the landscape let one envisage the future by looking at older parts of the site. Thus, today's biosphere is used as a natural analogue of possible future landscapes. It is concluded that the planned repository can meet the safety criteria and will have no detectable radiological impact on plants and animals. This paper also briefly describes biosphere work undertaken after the review. The multidisciplinary approach used is relevant in a much wider context and may prove beneficial across many environmental contexts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Optimization of protection as a decision-making tool, for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1988-01-01

    Politically-based considerations and processes including public perception and confidence appear to be the basis for real decisions affecting waste management activities such as siting, construction, operation and monitoring. Optimization of radiation protection is not a useful general tool for waste disposal decision making. Optimization of radiation protection is essentially a technical tool which can, under appropriate circumstances, provide a clear preference among major management options. The level of discrimination will be case-specific but, in general, only fairly coarse differences can be discriminated. The preferences determined by optimization of protection tend not to be related to the final choices made for disposal of radioactive wastes. Tools such as multi-attribute analysis are very useful as they provide a convenient means to rationalize the real decisions and give them some air of technical respectability. They do not, however, provide the primary basis for the decisions. Technical experts must develop an awareness of the non-technical approach to decision making an attempt to adjust their method of analyses and their presentation of information to encourage dialogue rather than confrontation. Simple expressions of technical information will be needed and the use of analogues should prove helpful

  8. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenner, D.B.; Gillon, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the Piedmont province of Georgia to designate areas that may be favorable for field exploration for consideration of a repository for storage of radioactive waste. The criteria utilized in such a designation was based upon consideration of the rock unit having favorable geological, geotechnical, and geohydrological features. The most important are that the rock unit have: (1) satisfactory unit dimensions (> 100 km/sup 2/ outcrop area and at least 1500 meters (approx. 5000 feet) depth of a continuous rock type); and (2) acceptable geohydrological conditions. Among all rock types, it is concluded that the granites of the large post-metamorphic plutons and large, homogeneous orthogneissic units offer the most favorable geologic settings for exploration for siting a radioactive waste repository. Virtually all other rock types, including most metavolcanic and metasedimentary lithologies have unacceptable unit dimensions, generally unfavorable geohydrologic settings, and deleterious mechanical and physical geotechnical properties. After consideration of all major lithologies that comprise the Georgia Piedmont, the following units were deemed favorable: (1) the Elberton Pluton; (2) the Siloam Pluton; (3) the Sparta Pluton; (4) two unnamed plutons adjacent to the Snelson body of S.W. Georgia; (5) the Lithonia Gneiss; (6) basement orthogneisses and charnockites of the Pine Mountain Belt.

  9. R and D programme on radioactive waste disposal into a clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.

    1984-01-01

    The present report presents the main results obtained during the period 1980-82 in the Belgian R and D work on geological disposal of conditioned radioactive waste in the boom clay beneath the Mol site. Multiple research projects have been continued: both experimental research in the field and in the laboratory and theoretical studies. A regional hydrological observation network has been set up which permitted an assessment of the hydrogeological system over- and underlying the Boom clay as well as the modelling of groundwater flow in the area. Clay samples collected during the drilling campaigns were submitted to a number of analyses with a view to chemical characterization and determination of geotechnical properties. Various studies were performed concerning the migration of radionuclides through the clay and an analytical computer model was developed. The corrosion behaviour of various candidate materials for HLW containers and repository linings were tested under different conditions possibly encountered in the clay formation. Furthermore, various backfill and sealing materials and mixtures have been selected and are being tested. Finally, the activities deployed for the safety analysis were continued, mainly concentrated upon two approaches: the probabilistic risk assessment and the performance assessment of a mined repository under normal evolution conditions

  10. Derivation methods for clearance levels and safety assessments for very low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    The clearance level was evaluated by the dose of concrete and metal when they would be recycled and reused from shallow land burial of radioactive facilities. The state of waste after clearance is not specified, so that we studied large scale of exposure pathways. The parameter values used for safety assessment were determined as the average values under the consideration of natural and social environment in Japan. Propriety of these values was confirmed by a probability analysis. On the safety assessment of very low-level waste disposal facility, the disposer pathway and parameters were determined under the consideration of special site conditions (natural and social environment) and properties of waste. However, the same exposure pathway of them used the same model for external (exposure by sky shine' s ray) and internal exposure. The calculation results of estimated pathway showed 1.2x10 -5 mSv/y the largest dose for the external exposure pathway by sky shine's ray. (S.Y.)

  11. Geological assessment of crystalline rock formations with a view to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Field work has been concentrated at the Altnabreac Research Site on north-east Scotland, where three deep boreholes to approximately 300 m and 24 shallow boreholes to approximately 40 m were drilled. The movement of groundwater within 300 m of the surface was investigated using a specially developed straddle packer system. Geochemical studies have demonstrated that most groundwater is dominated by recent recharge but one borehole yielded water with an age of around 10 4 years. Geophysical borehole logging has shown that the full wave train sonic logs and the acoustic logs show most promise for the assessment of crystalline rocks. In the laboratory the interaction of rocks and groundwater at the temperature/pressure conditions to be expected in a repository has established the geochemical environment to which waste canisters and backfill materials would be subjected. Other generic studies reported include the characterization of geotechnical properties of rocks at elevated temperatures and pressures, the development of a new cross-hole sinusoidal pressure test for the measurement of hydraulic properties and the use of thermal infra-red imagery to detect groundwater discharge zones

  12. Feasibility of high level radioactive waste disposal in deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    For the past ten years, an international program has been conducted to investigate the concept feasibility for disposing of spent nuclear fuel waste in deep ocean sediments. These studies by the Seabed Working Group were coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Penetrators have been considered as the primary method of waste emplacement. This required emphasis on studies of the nature of the plastic sediments which would form the primary barrier to the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Site qualification guidelines, included criteria for tectonic and sedimentary stability over periods of at least 10 5 years. Using these guidelines two potential areas were identified: one in the Madeira Abyssal Plain; and one in the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain, both in the North Atlantic. The sediment barrier properties are quite different in terms of dominant mineralogy (carbonates in MAP, and silicous clays in SNAP). The MAP is dominated by thick wide-spread turbidites, but SNAP is dominated by thin discontinuous turbidites

  13. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenner, D.B.; Gillon, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the Piedmont province of Georgia to designate areas that may be favorable for field exploration for consideration of a repository for storage of radioactive waste. The criteria utilized in such a designation was based upon consideration of the rock unit having favorable geological, geotechnical, and geohydrological features. The most important are that the rock unit have: (1) satisfactory unit dimensions (> 100 km 2 outcrop area and at least 1500 meters (approx. 5000 feet) depth of a continuous rock type); and (2) acceptable geohydrological conditions. Among all rock types, it is concluded that the granites of the large post-metamorphic plutons and large, homogeneous orthogneissic units offer the most favorable geologic settings for exploration for siting a radioactive waste repository. Virtually all other rock types, including most metavolcanic and metasedimentary lithologies have unacceptable unit dimensions, generally unfavorable geohydrologic settings, and deleterious mechanical and physical geotechnical properties. After consideration of all major lithologies that comprise the Georgia Piedmont, the following units were deemed favorable: (1) the Elberton Pluton; (2) the Siloam Pluton; (3) the Sparta Pluton; (4) two unnamed plutons adjacent to the Snelson body of S.W. Georgia; (5) the Lithonia Gneiss; (6) basement orthogneisses and charnockites of the Pine Mountain Belt

  14. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, H.W. Jr.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-10-01

    The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia

  15. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Bullen, D.B.

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Nuclear energy and radioactive waste disposal in the age of recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, James L.; Apted, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of humanity's energy needs requires that we embrace a multitude of various energy sources and applications. For a variety of reasons, nuclear energy must be a major portion of the distribution, at least one third. The often-cited strategic hurdle to this approach is nuclear waste disposal. Present strategies concerning disposal of nuclear waste need to be changed if the world is to achieve both a sustainable energy distribution by 2040 and solve the largest environmental issue of the 21. century - global warming. It is hoped that ambitious proposals to replace fossil fuel power generation by alternatives will drop the percentage of fossil fuel use substantially, but the absolute amount of fossil fuel produced electricity must be kept at or below its present 10 trillion kW-hrs/year. Unfortunately, the rapid growth in consumption to over 30 trillion kW-hrs/year by 2040, means that 20 trillion kW-hrs/yr of non-fossil fuel generated power has to come from other sources. If half of that comes from alternative non-nuclear, non-hydroelectric sources (an increase of 3000%), then nuclear still needs to increase by a factor of four worldwide to compensate. Many of the reasons nuclear energy did not expand after 1970 in North America (proliferation, capital costs, operational risks, waste disposal, and public fear) are no longer a problem. The WIPP site in New Mexico, an example of a solution to the nuclear waste disposal issue, and also to public fear, is an operating deep geologic nuclear waste repository in the massive bedded salt of the Salado Formation. WIPP has been operating for eight years, and as of this writing, has disposed of over 50,000 m 3 of transuranic waste (>100 nCi/g but <23 Curie/liter) including high activity waste. The Salado Formation is an ideal host for any type of nuclear waste, especially waste from recycled spent fuel. (authors)

  17. Role of microbial activity on corrosion of steel used for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajj, H.; Abdelouas, A.; Grambow, B.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Medium and high-level radioactive wastes require a secure and reliable disposal for hundreds of millions of years. According to current designs in France, high-level waste (HLW) are stored in stainless steel containers. At the moment, one HLW disposal concept has been chosen consisting of overpacks placed in a clay host rock to delay the access of water to the waste form during the first hundreds to thousands of year An underground laboratory built at - 500 m depth in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay (called hereafter COX argillite) formation in eastern France confirmed the feasibility of a nuclear waste disposal site in this rock formation. The role of microbial activity on the alteration of steel containers used for nuclear waste disposal is increasingly discussed. In this work we isolated and identified sulphate- reducing bacteria (SRB) from the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock studied as a potential host rock formation for a repository for high level and long-lived radioactive waste in France. Then, the effect of the SRB growth on the overpack steel corrosion was investigated. The corrosion rate of the steel coupons was high under biotic conditions (∼ 30 μm.y -1 ) in comparison to blank sterilized runs (∼ 14 μm.y -1 ). Additional experiments studying the effect of sequential corrosion of the steel under aerobic and anaerobic SRB conditions, to simulate the transition between early aerobic conditions following the closure of the disposal gallery and the long-term anaerobic conditions naturally prevailing in the argillite formation at - 500 meters, were conducted and the results will be presented. Culture experiments in column experiments with argillite cores and steel coupons under 120 bar, simulating deep geological conditions, gave results similar to those obtained in batch experiments (e.g. production of H 2 S) indicate the plausibility of SRB growth under disposal conditions, which may cause fast corrosion of the

  18. Pre-feasibility study for final disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal concepts. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.; Skov, C.; Kueter, A.; Schepper, L.; Gottberg Roemer, H.; Refsgaard, A.; Utko, M.; Kristiansen, Torben

    2011-05-01

    contains the recommendations that are the result of the preliminary design and the preliminary safety assessment. These are divided into three subparts: General recommendations with respect to site selection etc., recommendations that are a result of the preliminary safety assessment (other than the suggestions for waste conditioning described in part II), and recommendations for the process forward including supplementary investigations. The main report is supplemented by a number of annexes containing details about specific issues, data basis and more detailed results and outcomes of the prefeasibility study. (LN)

  19. Pre-feasibility study for final disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal concepts. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.; Skov, C.; Kueter, A.; Schepper, L.; Gottberg Roemer, H.; Refsgaard, A.; Utko, M.; Kristiansen, Torben (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    report contains the recommendations that are the result of the preliminary design and the preliminary safety assessment. These are divided into three subparts: General recommendations with respect to site selection etc., recommendations that are a result of the preliminary safety assessment (other than the suggestions for waste conditioning described in part II), and recommendations for the process forward including supplementary investigations. The main report is supplemented by a number of annexes containing details about specific issues, data basis and more detailed results and outcomes of the prefeasibility study. (LN)

  20. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects. (author)

  1. The TIMODAZ project: Thermal impact on the damaged zone around a radioactive waste disposal in clay host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XiangLing, L.

    2009-01-01

    on a large spatial scale and in a relatively short period of time. Consequently the TIMODAZ research priorities are to study the combined effect of the excavation and the thermal output on the host rocks around a radioactive waste disposal. The knowledge gained will allow an assessment of the significance of the damaged zone in the safety case for disposal in clayey host rock and provide direct feedback to repository design teams. In order to ensure an appropriate link between end-user needs and the project priorities, an end-user group composed of major national agencies for management of radioactive waste has been formed

  2. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction

  3. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  4. Safety cases for radioactive waste disposal facilities: guidance on confidence building and regulatory review IAEA-ASAM co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Bennett, D.G.; Metcalf, P.; Nys, V.; Goldammer, W.

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA has been conducting two co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) projects to develop and apply improved safety assessment methodologies for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities. The more recent of these projects, ASAM (application of safety assessment methodologies), included a Regulatory Review Working Group (RRWG) which has been working to develop guidance on how to gain confidence in safety assessments and safety cases, and on how to conduct regulatory reviews of safety assessments. This paper provides an overview of the ASAM project, focusing on the safety case and regulatory review. (authors)

  5. Corrosion assessment of submerged demineralizer system vessels for burial as high-integrity containers at the Hanford commercial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The available corrosion literature was reviewed in order to estimate the extent of corrosion that would occur to electrically isolated Type 316L stainless steel buried at a depth of 14 m at the Hanford commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site. After 300 y of exposure in Burbank loamy sand the estimated corrosion is as follows: the average uniform metal loss would be less than 1 mil; pitting penetration is estimated at 200 mil; and the pit density (assuming that all of the metal loss is due to pitting and that all of the pits are of uniform depth) should be less than 1 pit/ft 2 . 7 figures, 9 tables

  6. Performance assessment and licensing issues for United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the performance assessment and licensing issues, the performance the objectives, the performance assessment phases, the scenario selection, the mathematical modeling and computer programs, the final results of performance assessments submitted for license applications, the institutional control period, and the licensing issues. 38 refs

  7. Performance assessment and licensing issues for United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    The final objective of performance assessment for a near-surface LLW disposal facility is to demonstrate that potential radiological impacts for each of the human exposure pathways will not violate applicable standards. This involves determining potential pathways and specific receptor locations for human exposure to radionuclides; developing appropriate scenarios for each of the institutional phases of a disposal facility; and maintaining quality assurance and control of all data, computer codes, and documentation. The results of a performance assessment should be used to demonstrate that the expected impacts are expected to be less than the applicable standards. The results should not be used to try to predict the actual impact. This is an important distinction that results from the uncertainties inherent in performance assessment calculations. The paper discusses performance objectives; performance assessment phases; scenario selection; mathematical modeling and computer programs; final results of performance assessments submitted for license application; institutional control period; licensing issues; and related research and development activities

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Card, D.H.; Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.; de Souza, F.; Felthauser, K.; Winkler, V.; White, R.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the alternatives for disposing of the low-level waste on the site are compared with the alternative of transporting the waste to the nearest commercial waste disposal site for permanent disposal. Both radiological and nonradiological impacts on the local socioeconomic infrastructure and the environment are considered. Disposal on the site was found to cost considerably less than off-site disposal with only negligible impacts associated with the disposal option on either mankind or the environment

  9. Polymeric radioactive waste disposal containers: an investigation into the application of polymers vice metals to house low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.W.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research carried out in Canada in the design of containers for the disposal of radioactive waste has focussed on spent nuclear fuel, even though the quantities of other currently stored radioactive wastes are substantially greater. Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive waste disposal containers. The purpose of this research was to determine if thermoplastic polymers could be used as superior materials to replace metals in the application of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal containers. Polymers have the advantage that they do not corrode like metals. The experimental methods, used in this research, focused on the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials. Polypropylene, Nylon 66, Polycarbonate, and Polyurethane, with and without glass fibre reinforcement, were studied. The method involved irradiating injection moulded tensile test bars with the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. To determine the effects of the various doses on the materials, density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests were run. For each polymer, the test methods supported predominant crosslinking of polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of crosslinking. The mechanical changes included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included differences in chemical transition temperatures characteristic of radiation damage. The test methods also evidenced minor radiation degradation at the fibre/matrix interfaces in the glass fibre reinforced

  10. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  11. Confirmation tests of construction method and initial performance quality for low permeable engineered barrier in side part of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Komine, Hideo; Iizuka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    As for the low permeable layer, important functions are expected as an engineered barrier of radioactive waste disposal for low-level waste with comparatively high radiation levels. On examining the construction methods of this low permeable layer, it is important to confirm the possibility of the construction in the conditions similar to the actual constructed conditions with a true scale size. Therefore, the construction examination for the side part of the low permeable layer by bentonite and the performance check test of the low permeable layer were carried out. The result of the construction examination showed that the possibility of the construction were confirmed, and the result of performance check test showed that it was possible to ensure the required performance of the low permeable layer, such as hydraulic conductivity. (author)

  12. Follow-up and control of analytical results from environmental monitoring program of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility - Abadia de Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano

    2000-01-01

    The analytical results for the 12 month period (August/1997 to July/1998) of the Environmental Monitoring Program operational phase of the radioactive waste disposal facility 'Abadia de Goias' (DIGOI), located in the District of Goiania, are summarized in this report. A statistical treatment of the data using control graphs is also presented. The use of these graphs allows the arrangement of the data in a way that facilitates process control and visualization of data trends and periodicity organized according to temporal variation. A comparison is made of these results vs. those obtained during the pre-operational phase. Moreover, the effective equivalent dose received by the public individuals for different critical pathways is estimated. (author)

  13. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  14. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff`s review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission`s regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements.

  15. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz F.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  16. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan (ESRP) (NUREG-1300) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform environmental reviews of environmental reports prepared by applicants in support of license applications to construct and operate new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The individual ESRPs that constitute this document identify the information considered necessary to conduct the review, the purpose and scope of the review, the analysis procedure and evaluation, the formal input to the environmental statement, and the references considered appropriate for each review. The ESRP is intended to ensure quality and uniformity of approach in individual reviews as well as compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. In addition, the ESRP will make information about the environmental component of the licensing process more readily available and thereby will serve to improve the understanding of this process among the public, States and regional compacts, and the regulated community

  17. Standard review plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  18. Confirmation tests of construction method and initial performance quality for low permeable engineered barrier in bottom of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujiwara, Tadafumi; Yada, Tsutomu; Komine, Hideo; Iizuka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    As for the low permeable layer, important functions are expected as an engineered barrier of radioactive waste disposal for low-level waste with comparatively high radiation levels. On examining the construction methods of this low permeable layer, it is important to confirm the possibility of the construction in the conditions similar to the actual constructed conditions with a true scale size. Therefore, the construction examination for the bottom part of the low permeable layer by bentonite and the performance check test of the buffer layer were carried out. The result of the construction examination showed that the possibility of the construction were confirmed, and the result of performance check test showed that it was possible to ensure the required performance of the low permeable layer, such as hydraulic conductivity. (author)

  19. THE RADIOECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES OF URANIUM PRODUCTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Ten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the issues of management of the uranium industry wastes at the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The characteristics of the main uranium deposits and mining methods are given. The environmental problems associated with presence of large areas occupied by the uranium industry wastes and with the influence of natural processes on the integrity of such storage places are discussed. The author gives a generalized description of the measures on improving radiation situation in the ecosystems at contaminated territories and facilities of the country. The efforts of the State in relation to the remediation of contaminated land on dangerous facilities are described. The main directions of responsibility and control of radiation safety at the territories containing the uranium industry wastes are indicated. Based on the analysis, the author highlights promising areas of the state policy to improve the system of protective actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The main tasks in the field of protection of public health and the environment are defined in the paper.

  20. Study of prediction of migration of radiocesium and radiostrontium in soil for environmental control around shallow radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution coefficients, migration velocity and dispersion coefficients for radiocesium and radiostrontium in soil were determined in laboratory while simulating some field conditions. The experimental and predicted data of breakthrough of Cs-134, Sr-85 e Sr-89 using I-131 + 0.01 NKI to describe the hydrodynamic dispersion were in good agreement. Data of variation of dispersion coefficient with various carrier concentration of Cs and Sr are presented. (Author) [pt

  1. Background studies: climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research into some climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land disposal environments for radioactive wastes in Britain. The work has supported development of the TIME2 simulation code. Modelling approaches are presented and discussed, along with supporting data, for climatic change, ice sheet growth and decay, groundwater effects and denudation. The potential effects of periglacial processes on a repository are also briefly discussed. (author)

  2. A risk-informed approach of quantification of epistemic uncertainty for the long-term radioactive waste disposal. Improving reliability of expert judgements with an advanced elicitation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Chida, Taiji; Fujita, Tomonari; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    A quantification methodology of epistemic uncertainty by expert judgement based on the risk-informed approach is developed to assess inevitable uncertainty for the long-term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The proposed method in this study employs techniques of logic tree, by which options of models and/or scenarios are identified, and Evidential Support Logic (ESL), by which possibility of each option is quantified. In this report, the effect of a feedback process of discussion between experts and input of state-of-the-art knowledge in the proposed method is discussed to estimate alteration of the distribution of expert judgements which is one of the factors causing uncertainty. In a preliminary quantification experiment of uncertainty of degradation of the engineering barrier materials in a tentative sub-surface disposal using the proposed methodology, experts themselves modified questions appropriately to facilitate sound judgements and to correlate those with scientific evidences clearly. The result suggests that the method effectively improves confidence of expert judgement. Also, the degree of consensus of expert judgement was sort of improved in some cases, since scientific knowledge and information of expert judgement in other fields became common understanding. It is suggested that the proposed method could facilitate consensus on uncertainty between interested persons. (author)

  3. Psacoin level S intercomparison: An International code intercomparison exercise on a hypothetical safety assessment case study for radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report documents the Level S exercise of the Probabilistic System Assessment Group (PSAG). Level S is the fifth in a series of Probabilistic Code Intercomparison (PSACOIN) exercises designed to contribute to the verification of probabilistic codes and methodologies that may be used in assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal systems and concepts. The focus of the Level S exercise lies on sensitivity analysis. Given a common data set of model output and input values the participants were asked to identify both the underlying model's most important parameters (deterministic sensitivity analysis) and the link between the distributions of the input and output values (distribution sensitivity analysis). Agreement was generally found where it was expected and the exercise has achieved its objectives in acting as a focus for testing and discussing sensitivity analysis issues. Among the outstanding issues that have been identified are: (i) that techniques for distribution sensitivity analysis are needed that avoid the problem of statistical noise; (ii) that further investigations are warranted on the most appropriate way of handling large numbers of effectively zero results generated by Monte Carlo sampling; and (iii) that methods need to be developed for demonstrating that the results of sensitivity analysis are indeed correct

  4. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments

  5. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the establishment of scientific consensus on the interpretation and significance of the results of science programmes into radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This document presents conclusions and recommendations on establishment of scientific consensus on the interpretation and significance of the results of science programmes into radioactive waste disposal. The topics discussed include: the nature of science and its limitations; societal views of science and the radioactive waste problem; issues upon which consensus will be needed; evidence of past attempts at greater involvement of the public; the linking of scientific and social consensus; communicating the nature of consensus to the public

  6. Regulatory decision making in the presence of uncertainty in the context of the disposal of long lived radioactive wastes. Third report of the Working group on principles and criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Plans for disposing of radioactive wastes have raised a number of unique and mostly philosophical problems, mainly due to the very long time-scales which have to be considered. While there is general agreement on disposal concepts and on many aspects of a safety philosophy, consensus on a number of issues remains to be achieved. The IAEA established a subgroup under the International Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (INWAC). The subgroup started its work in 1991 as the ''INWAC Subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal''. With the reorganization in 1995 of IAEA senior advisory committees in the nuclear safety area, the title of the group was changed to ''Working Group on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal''. The working group is intended to provide an open forum for: (1) the discussion and resolution of contentious issues, especially those with an international component, in the area of principles and criteria for safe disposal of waste; (2) the review and analysis of new ideas and concepts in the subject area; (3) establishing areas of consensus; (4) the consideration of issues related to safety principles and criteria in the IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme; (5) the exchange of information on national safety criteria and policies for radioactive waste disposal. This is the third report of the working group and it deals with the subject of regulatory decision making under conditions of uncertainty which is a matter of concern with respect to disposal of radioactive wastes underground. 14 refs

  7. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora.

  8. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora

  9. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  10. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-01-01

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  11. Humans and ecosystems over the coming millennia: overview of a biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Tobias; Valentin, Jack

    2013-05-01

    This is an overview of the strategy used to describe the effects of a potential release from a radioactive waste repository on human exposure and future environments. It introduces a special issue of AMBIO, in which 13 articles show ways of understanding and characterizing the future. The study relies mainly on research performed in the context of a recent safety report concerning a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (the so-called SR-Site project). The development of a good understanding of on-site processes and acquisition of site-specific data facilitated the development of new approaches for assessment of surface ecosystems. A systematic and scientifically coherent methodology utilizes the understanding of the current spatial and temporal dynamics as an analog for future conditions. We conclude that future ecosystem can be inferred from a few variables and that this multidisciplinary approach is relevant in a much wider context than radioactive waste.

  12. Radioactive waste disposal: Waste isolation pilot plants (WIPP). (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located in New Mexico for transuranic wastes generated by the U.S. Government. Articles follow the development of the program from initial site selection and characterization through construction and testing, and examine research programs on environmental impacts, structural design, and radionuclide landfill gases. Existing plants and facilities, pilot plants, migration, rock mechanics, economics, regulations, and transport of wastes to the site are also included. The Salt Repository Project and the Crystalline Repository Project are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 228 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Microbial effects on radioactive wastes at SLB sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the significance of microbial degradation of organic wastes on radionuclide migration on shallow land burial for humid and arid sites, establish which mechanisms predominate and ascertain the conditions under which these mechanisms operate. Factors contolling gaseous eminations from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and possibly hydrogen from the site stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or 14 C into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste materials, primary emphasis of the study involved on examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Although the methane and carbon dioxide production rate indicates the degradation rate of the organic substances in the waste, it does not predict the methane evolution rate from the trench site. Methane fluxes from the soil surface are equivalent to the net synthesis minus the quantity oxidized by the microbial community as the gas passes through the soil profile. Gas studies were performed at three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (West Valley, New York; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky) during the period 1976 to 1978. The results of these studies are presented. 3 tables

  14. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys

  15. Planning and consultation procedures for low-level radioactive waste disposal: a comparative analysis of overseas experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1989-03-01

    The results are presented of a study the purpose of which was to learn from experience in countries other than the UK, of planning and public consultation procedures associated with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Information on LLW developments in the United States, Canada, France, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, and West Germany was sought. Particular regard was given to the efficacy of public consultation and negotiation procedures; the key aspects bearing on the public acceptability of LLW proposals; and the form and effect of any compensation mechanisms in operation. The main findings include: (i) Public acceptability of radioactive waste proposals depends upon a combination of basic understanding, trust, consultation and negotiation. (ii) There is no overall correct approach. (iii) The greatest success overseas appears to be linked to some combination of the following elements: authority and clarity in the exposition of radioactive waste management policy; the early involvement of local authority organisations in site selection; careful attention to the potential contribution of authoritative independent advisory groups; the development and nurturing of local liaison committees to establish good communications at the local level; careful consideration of means of devolving some power to local authority level for safety reassurance; and the development of an incremental, openly negotiated approach to compensation. (author)

  16. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of Virginia and Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed follow-up of a broad study of the Southeastern Piedmont by Acres American, Inc. (1978) based upon literature and existing knowledge. The purpose is to designate broad areas in which the rock type is favorable for field exploration for the possible designation of a site for disposal of solidified radioactive waste. The Acres study classified rock units as favorable, potentially favorable, and unfavorable. The objective of the present study is: (1) to review the criteria used in this classification, and (2) on the basis of a detailed knowledge of local rock units to reassign the rock types in the potentially favorable category to either the favorable or the unfavorable categories. As in the Acres study, the objective is to designate field study areas, not potential sites. This study was based entirely upon a literature study, discussions with persons knowledgeable of the region, and a personal acquaintance with the rocks and structures. No field work was done specifically for this project. No consideration was given to sociological, economic, or non-technical factors

  17. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G. [Waste Control Specialists LLC, Andrews, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from

  18. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  19. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success

  20. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, B.; D'Alessandro, M.; Girardi, F.; Vanossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  1. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  2. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  3. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, W.; Weir, J.E. Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000 to 50,000 ft or 9,140 to 15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000 to 20,000 ft or 305 to 6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000 to 20,000 ft or 610 to 6,100 m). Areas considered to be unsuitable for waste disposal are those where seismic risk is high, where possible sea-level rise would inundate potential sites, where high topographic relief coincides with high frequency of faults, where there are unfavorable ground-water conditions, and where no suitable rocks are known to be present to depths of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) or more, and where these strata either contain large volumes of ground water or have high oil and gas potential

  4. King's Trough Flank: geological and geophysical investigations of its suitability for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, R.B.; Searle, R.C.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.; Noel, M.J.; Schultheiss, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The King's Trough Flank study area in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean was chosen in 1979 as a location at which to examine the suitability of pelagic carbonate sequences for sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarises investigations up to the end of 1982; following visits by four research ships to the area during which geophysical data and sediment samples were collected. The region is a characteristically rugged portion of the deep ocean floor with hills and scarps 10 to 30 km apart and slopes around the hills ranging from 18 deg to 30 deg. Areas of relatively smooth seafloor occur, however, up to 35 km across, where slopes no greater than 2 deg are recorded. At this stage an apparent discrepancy between the geophysical and sediment core data leaves some uncertainty regarding the stability of the sediment cover and the likelihood of current erosion in these areas. The general suitability of the area is discussed by comparing our present geological and geophysical data with the set of 'desirable characteristics' for a sub-seabed disposal site first outlined in 1979. The difficulties involved in extrapolating findings from presently-sampled depths of up to 10 metres to depths envisaged for shallow waste disposal are emphasised. (author)

  5. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G's Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC's), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC's), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 ampersand 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G's disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred

  6. R and D program concerning radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formation (Study of an argilaceous formation in Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In 1974 it was decided to start up research with a view to safe disposal of conditioned waste in geological formations in Belgium. A first R and D programme was set up for study of the Boom clay in the Mol region. Multiple research projects have been undertaken; both experimental research in the field and in the laboratory and theoretical studies. Different exploratory drillings for geohydrological and geotechnical research were performed at the potential site. Teledetection and seismic prospection campaigns have provided data on the dimensions of the argillaceous layer and on the absence of major faults. Clay samples collected during drilling campaigns have been submitted to a number of analyses in laboratory as well as analyses of possible interactions between the clay and the conditioned waste to be stored. Some of these laboratory analyses, in particular, those concerning heat transfer and corrosion have been completed by more representative experiments in a clay pit. Various mathematical models have been developed and adapted with a view to better understanding of physical and physico-chemical phenomena like heat transfer, migration and retardation of radionuclides. A feasibility study was performed. Concerning safety analyses, a probabilistic study was undertaken on the behaviour of the geological barrier. The fault tree analysis technique was applied and the study was carried out in close collaboration with the Joint Rsearch Centre in Ispra. The underground experimental room at about 220 m depth was not yet relised but the technico-economical dossier has made such progress that the excavation can start in the very beginning of the next five-year programme

  7. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  9. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has already been published with new, stricter restrictions on waste management. This is described as follows: Liquid: The disposal of liquid radioactive waste to the public drainage is permitted only if the maximum concentration in any part of it is less than 1 GBq/m 3 . Under no circumstances the daily disposed quantity should exceed 18 MBq for in vitro labs, 37 MBq for in vivo diagnostic labs, and 110 MBq for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic labs. H-3 and C-14 used as organic solvents in liquid scintillators can be disposed if they contain less than 3 GBq and 0.3 GBq per day, respectively. Solid: Solid radioactive waste is permitted to be thrown away as normal waste if it does not contain reusable objects and its concentration is below the clearance levels for each radionuclide. For example, the clearance levels for Tc-99m, Mo-99, I-131, I-125, and Tl-201 are 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 Bq/g, respectively. The clearance levels are below the exception levels used to declare a substance as radioactive or not. Short-lived (half-life < 60 days) solid waste that cannot be disposed according to the regulations is stored in vaults inside the labs until their radioactivity falls below the limits. All the other solid waste is returned to its supplier abroad. In summary, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, which is the national competent authority for radiation protection, controls the use of all radioactive sources and their proper disposal, according to our effective regulatory system, which assures control of inventory, placing responsibility on people, transfer, storage, and disposal to prevent any accident

  10. Cements in Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of cement and concrete to immobilise radioactive waste is complicated by the wide- ranging nature of inorganic cementing agents available as well as the range of service environments in which cement is used and the different functions expected of cement. For example, Portland cement based concretes are widely used as structural materials for construction of vaults and tunnels. These constructions may experience a long pre-closure performance lifetime during which they are required to protect against collapse and ingress of water: strength and impermeability are key desirable characteristics. On the other hand, cement and concrete may be used to form backfills, ranging in permeability. Permeable formulations allow gas readily to escape, while impermeable barriers retard radionuclide transport and reduce access of ground water to the waste. A key feature of cements is that, while fresh, they pass through a fluid phase and can be formed into any shape desired or used to infiltrate other materials thereby enclosing them into a sealed matrix. Thereafter, setting and hardening is automatic and irreversible. Where concrete is used to form structural elements, it is also natural to use cement in other applications as it minimises potential for materials incompatibility. Thus cement- mainly Portland cement- has been widely used as an encapsulant for storage, transport and as a radiation shield for active wastes. Also, to form and stabilise structures such as vaults and silos. Relative to other potential matrices, cement also has a chemical immobilisation potential, reacting with and binding with many radionuclides. The chemical potential of cements is essentially sacrificial, thus limiting their performance lifetime. However performance may also be required in the civil engineering sense, where strength is important, so many factors, including a geochemical description of service conditions, may require to be assessed in order to predict performance lifetime. The nature of Portland cement is explained. Portland cement is the most widely used cement type and benefits from technology transfer from civil engineering research; also of the more than 150 years of experience of its durability and performance in a range of service environments. The origin of the chemical binding potential of cement arises from a combination of mechanisms: chemisorption on cement solids, incorporation by solid solution in cement solids and, at higher concentrations, precipitation of a solubility-limiting phase or phases in a calcium rich, high pH environment. These favourable potentials, especially pH conditioning, are, as noted, essentially sacrificial: cement must dissolve or react to maintain these conditions in the course of its service life. However the immobilisation potential will also change with time, even in isolation, because cement minerals undergo internal aging and slow reaction with other materials in the near field. Much research has been conducted, often on an empirical basis, leading to the characterisation of these potentials and of their time dependence. Yet the picture which emerges is incomplete and of variable quality. New research is described which, it is expected, will lead to a more scientific basis for the extrapolation of present-day cement performance into the future. The high pH of Portland cement matrices has advantages but also, disadvantages. For example, Portland cement gives excellent protection against corrosion to embedded steel but, on the other hand, it corrodes electropositive metals with evolution of hydrogen. Formation of a high pH 'plume' may also spread from the concrete to the near field, degrading other barriers such as bentonite and affecting the sorptive potential of the near field for radionuclides. These considerations have led to the search for alternative lower pH cements which are less alkaline than Portland cement. A description of some common types is given. However alternative choices present a burden of proof because with few exceptions, much less is known about their ability chemically to immobilise waste species and their long- term durability relative to Portland cement in a range of natural environments. It is concluded that the most robust of these alternative formulations are based on calcium aluminate and sulfoaluminate cements, on magnesium phosphate and on geopolymers. (author)

  11. Microcracks and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.; Caruso, L.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of microcracks in crystalline rocks has shown that the open microcracks form a spatially continuous network that communicates with larger openings. The open cracks become filled with new minerals that often contain U and LREEs (light rare earths). The crystalline rocks most desirable as a host for a repository have low crack porosity, moderate alteration, and occur in an environment that promotes rapid sealing

  12. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7.5 double rows for disposal all LLW and to build new VLLW repository for a total capacity of 68 thousand m3. (author)

  13. BENCHPAR PROJECT. How to Incorporate ThermaI-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes into Performance Assessments and Design Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Geological Formations. Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom); Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this Guidance Document is to provide advice on how to incorporate thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes into Performance Assessments (PAS) and design studies for radioactive waste disposal in geological formations to be experienced in a European context. The document has been generated by the EU research project BENCHPAR: Benchmark Tests and Guidance on Coupled Processes for Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories. The document starts in Section 1 with an explanation of why numerical analyses incorporating THM mechanisms are required for radioactive waste studies and provides background material on the subject. Then, the THM processes and their interactions are explained in Section 2. Three case examples of THM numerical analysis are presented in Section 3 to illustrate the type of work that can be conducted to study the near-field, upscaling, and the far-field. For the three cases, there is discussion on the main findings, the relevance to a safety case, the relative importance of the different couplings, and the uncertainties involved. The importance and priority of the THM couplings are then summarized in Section 4. It is especially important to be able to technically audit the numerical analyses in order to establish that all the relevant variables, parameters and mechanisms have been included in the modelling and hence that the numerical model adequately represents the rock and engineering reality. Accordingly, recommended soft and hard auditing procedures are presented in Section 5. In this Guidance Document, we emphasize especially that the most important step in numerical modelling is not executing the calculations per se, but the earlier conceptualization of the problem regarding the dominant processes, the material properties and parameters, the engineering perturbations, and their mathematical presentations. The associated modelling component of addressing the uncertainties and estimating their influence on the

  14. BENCHPAR PROJECT. How to Incorporate ThermaI-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes into Performance Assessments and Design Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Geological Formations. Guidance Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.; Andersson, Johan

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this Guidance Document is to provide advice on how to incorporate thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes into Performance Assessments (PAS) and design studies for radioactive waste disposal in geological formations to be experienced in a European context. The document has been generated by the EU research project BENCHPAR: Benchmark Tests and Guidance on Coupled Processes for Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories. The document starts in Section 1 with an explanation of why numerical analyses incorporating THM mechanisms are required for radioactive waste studies and provides background material on the subject. Then, the THM processes and their interactions are explained in Section 2. Three case examples of THM numerical analysis are presented in Section 3 to illustrate the type of work that can be conducted to study the near-field, upscaling, and the far-field. For the three cases, there is discussion on the main findings, the relevance to a safety case, the relative importance of the different couplings, and the uncertainties involved. The importance and priority of the THM couplings are then summarized in Section 4. It is especially important to be able to technically audit the numerical analyses in order to establish that all the relevant variables, parameters and mechanisms have been included in the modelling and hence that the numerical model adequately represents the rock and engineering reality. Accordingly, recommended soft and hard auditing procedures are presented in Section 5. In this Guidance Document, we emphasize especially that the most important step in numerical modelling is not executing the calculations per se, but the earlier conceptualization of the problem regarding the dominant processes, the material properties and parameters, the engineering perturbations, and their mathematical presentations. The associated modelling component of addressing the uncertainties and estimating their influence on the

  15. Who should foot the bill? A discussion of alternative organizational models to finance dismantling and radioactive waste disposal; Wer soll die Zeche zahlen? Diskussion alternativer Organisationsmodelle zur Finanzierung von Rueckbau und Endlagerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaensch, Elisabeth; Hirschhausen, Christian von; Moeckel, Christian [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Infrastrukturpolitik; Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (FFU)

    2017-09-01

    Based on the costs-by-cause principle everybody has to be responsible for the environmental damage produced. Accordingly the electricity supply companies should have to pay for the dismantling of nuclear power plants and the radioactive waste disposal. The implementation of a fond under public law seems to be an adequate solution. Critical arguments concerning the costs-by-cause principle shows that instead of a constrained enforcement of this principle a solution in the sense of the society as a whole should be in the focus.

  16. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  17. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien [Andra, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-07-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  18. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  19. Coupling Legacy and Contemporary Deterministic Codes to Goldsim for Probabilistic Assessments of Potential Low-Level Waste Repository Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattie, P. D.; Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Tien, N.; Kuo, M.

    2006-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in radioactive waste disposal and is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. International technology transfer efforts are often hampered by small budgets, time schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel in countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, re-vitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a creditable and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. External model linkage capabilities in Goldsim and the techniques applied to facilitate this process will be presented using example applications, including Breach, Leach, and Transport-Multiple Species (BLT-MS), a U.S. NRC sponsored code simulating release and transport of contaminants from a subsurface low-level waste disposal facility used in a cooperative technology transfer

  20. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan; Teddy Sumantry; Heru Sriwahyuni; Hendra A Pratama; Nurul Efri E; Achmad Sjarmufni; Pratomo Budiman; Dadang Suganda; Soegeng Waluyo; Ari Pudyo; Dewi Susilowati; Marwoto

    2008-01-01

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  1. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudic, D.E.; Randall, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, NY, are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 -8 centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and/or reduced soil in their walls extend 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975--76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 10 -5 to 10 -3 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes

  2. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Randall, Allan D.

    1977-01-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y., are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and (or) reduced soil in their walls extend to 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975-76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 0.00001 to 0.001 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudic, D.E.; Randall, A.D.

    1977-07-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y. are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 -8 centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and(or) reduced soil in their walls extend 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975--76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 10 -5 to 10 -3 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes

  4. Movement of a tritium plume in shallow groundwater at a legacy low-level radioactive waste disposal site in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C E; Cendón, D I; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S I; Johansen, M P; Payne, T E; Vine, M; Collins, R N; Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2011-10-01

    Between 1960 and 1968 low-level radioactive waste was buried in a series of shallow trenches near the Lucas Heights facility, south of Sydney, Australia. Groundwater monitoring carried out since the mid 1970s indicates that with the exception of tritium, no radioactivity above typical background levels has been detected outside the immediate vicinity of the trenches. The maximum tritium level detected in ground water was 390 kBq/L and the median value was 5400 Bq/L, decay corrected to the time of disposal. Since 1968, a plume of tritiated water has migrated from the disposal trenches and extends at least 100 m from the source area. Tritium in rainfall is negligible, however leachate from an adjacent and fill represents a significant additional tritium source. Study data indicate variation in concentration levels and plume distribution in response to wet and dry climatic periods and have been used to determine pathways for tritium migration through the subsurface.

  5. Remediation of the Maxey Flats Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets

  6. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry's Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model

  7. Evaluation of the quality of groundwater sampling: Experience derived from radioactive waste disposal programmes in Sweden and Finland during 1980-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.A.T.; Laaksoharju, M.; Snellman, M.V.; Ruotsalainen, P.H.

    1999-09-01

    Existing Finnish and Swedish hydrogeochemical field data from the 1980s and the early 1990s have been closely examined in the light of other influencing activities, such as geology and hydrology, which form an integral part of site-specific investigations. The report has considered data relating to the monitoring of groundwater chemical trends and groundwater sampling and analysis. These data have been used to simulate the effects of important parameters on groundwater quality and representativeness, to generate recommendations to improve the standard of hydrogeochemical sampling and analyses, and to discuss these results in the broader context of future site-specific investigations. (orig.)

  8. 'Reference Biospheres' for solid radioactive waste disposal. Report of BIOMASS Theme 1 of the BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) Programme. Part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The IAEA Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in Vienna in October 1996. The programme was concerned with developing and improving capabilities to predict the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. The programme had three themes: Theme 1: Radioactive Waste Disposal. The objective was to develop the concept of a standard or reference biosphere for application to the assessment of the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. Under the general heading of 'Reference Biospheres', six Task Groups were established: Task Group 1: Principles for the Definition of Critical and Other Exposure Groups. Task Group 2: Principles for the Application of Data to Assessment Models. Task Group 3: Consideration of Alternative Assessment Contexts. Task Group 4: Biosphere System Identification and Justification. Task Group 5: Biosphere System Descriptions. Task Group 6: Model Development. Theme 2: Environmental Releases. BIOMASS provided an international forum for activities aimed at increasing the confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to environmental releases. Two Working Groups addressed issues concerned with the reconstruction of radiation doses received by people from past releases of radionuclides to the environment and the evaluation of the efficacy of remedial measures. Theme 3: Biosphere Processes. The aim of this Theme was to improve capabilities for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in particular parts of the biosphere identified as being of potential radiological significance and where there were gaps in modelling approaches. This topic was explored using a range of methods including reviews of the literature, model inter-comparison exercises and, where possible, model testing against independent sources of data. Three Working Groups were established to examine the modelling of: (1) long term tritium dispersion in the environment; (2) radionuclide uptake by fruits; and (3

  9. Some considerations in the evaluation of concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW [low-level radioactive waste] disposal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop information needed to evaluate the long-term performance of concrete and reinforced concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal methods. The capability to carry out such an evaluation is required for licensing a site which employs one of these alternative methods. The basis for achieving the study objective was the review and analysis of the literature on concrete and its properties, particularly its durability. In carrying out this program characteristics of concrete useful in evaluating its performance and factors that can affect its performance were identified. The factors are both intrinsic, i.e., associated with composition of the concrete (and thus controllable), and extrinsic, i.e., due to external environmental forces such as climatic conditions and aggressive chemicals in the soil. The testing of concrete, using both accelerated tests and long-term non-accelerated tests, is discussed with special reference to its application to modeling of long-term performance prediction. On the basis of the study's results, conditions for acceptance are recommended as an aid in the licensing of disposal sites which make use of alternative methods

  10. De minimis concepts in radioactive waste disposal. Considerations in defining de minimis quantities of solid radioactive waste for uncontrolled disposal by incineration and landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This document deals with recommendations addressed to those national authorities wishing to dispose of low level radioactive waste into the terrestrial environment, on how de minimis levels or quantities can be derived. The only radioactive materials covered here are declared solid radioactive wastes of very low activity which are controlled up to the point where deliberate control is lost, or wastes below a level that requires regulatory control. As regards the disposal sites, these wastes are not intended to be disposed of in fully controlled disposal facilities, such as repositories located in shallow land, rock cavities, etc. On the other hand, it is considered that these materials should not be disposed of in any place, but should be handled like other municipal wastes. Among the different techniques available, only two are considered in this document, namely a sanitary landfill facility, and an urban incineration plant

  11. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier

  12. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier. 413 refs, 56 figs, 39 tabs.

  13. Performance and safety assessment of the co-location of the near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities and borehole disposal concept in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Edmundo; Reyes, Rolando [Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Nuclear Regulatory Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Aurelio, Mario [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Gedeon, Matej [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Luna, Roy Anthony C. [AMH Philippines, Inc., Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in collaboration with the interagency technical committee on radioactive waste has been undertaking a national project to find a final solution to the country's low to intermediate level radioactive waste. The strategy adopted was to co-locate 2 disposal concepts that will address the types of radioactive waste generated from the use of radioactive materials. This strategy is expected to compensate for the small volumes of waste generated in the Philippines as compared to countries with big nuclear energy programs. It will also take advantage of the benefits of a shared infrastructure and R and D work that accompany such project. The preferred site selected from previous site selection and investigations is underlain by highly fractured 'andesitic volcaniclastics' mantled by residual clayey soil which act as the aquifer or water bearing layer. Results of investigation show that the groundwater in the area is relatively dilute and acidic. Springs at the lower elevations of the footprint also indicate acidic waters. The relatively acidic water is attributed to the formation of sulfuric acid by the oxidation of the pyrite in the andesite. A preliminary post closure safety assessment was carried out using the GMS MODFLOW and HYDRUS softwares purchased through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical assistance. Results from MODFLOW modeling show that the radionuclide transport follows the natural gradient from the top of the hill down to the natural discharge zones. The vault dispersion model shows a circular direction from the vaults towards the faults and eventually to the creeks. The contaminant transport from borehole shows at least one confined plume from the borehole towards the creek designated as Repo1 and eventually follows downstream. The influx of surface water and rainfall to the disposal vault was modeled using the HYDRUS software. The pressure head and water content at the base

  14. Performance and safety assessment of the co-location of the near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities and borehole disposal concept in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Edmundo; Reyes, Rolando; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso; Aurelio, Mario; Gedeon, Matej; Luna, Roy Anthony C.

    2013-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in collaboration with the interagency technical committee on radioactive waste has been undertaking a national project to find a final solution to the country's low to intermediate level radioactive waste. The strategy adopted was to co-locate 2 disposal concepts that will address the types of radioactive waste generated from the use of radioactive materials. This strategy is expected to compensate for the small volumes of waste generated in the Philippines as compared to countries with big nuclear energy programs. It will also take advantage of the benefits of a shared infrastructure and R and D work that accompany such project. The preferred site selected from previous site selection and investigations is underlain by highly fractured 'andesitic volcaniclastics' mantled by residual clayey soil which act as the aquifer or water bearing layer. Results of investigation show that the groundwater in the area is relatively dilute and acidic. Springs at the lower elevations of the footprint also indicate acidic waters. The relatively acidic water is attributed to the formation of sulfuric acid by the oxidation of the pyrite in the andesite. A preliminary post closure safety assessment was carried out using the GMS MODFLOW and HYDRUS softwares purchased through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical assistance. Results from MODFLOW modeling show that the radionuclide transport follows the natural gradient from the top of the hill down to the natural discharge zones. The vault dispersion model shows a circular direction from the vaults towards the faults and eventually to the creeks. The contaminant transport from borehole shows at least one confined plume from the borehole towards the creek designated as Repo1 and eventually follows downstream. The influx of surface water and rainfall to the disposal vault was modeled using the HYDRUS software. The pressure head and water content at the base

  15. An integrated degradation and structural model for predicting the service life of buried reinforced concrete structures for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, E.R.; Lolcama, J.L.; Reed, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine the possible rates of roof and wall failure and the times to structural collapse of the roof and walls of three vault designs at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Failure was defined as a loss of ability to divert soil water around the vault. Collapse was defined as the total loss of structure integrity of the vault. Failure and eventual collapse of the three vault types results from concrete deterioration under stress, in the presence of corrosive soil water. Degradation rates for reinforced concrete were utilized, and the resultant changes in properties (such as strength, thickness, cracking and hydraulic conductivity) were evaluated. Baseline times to failure and collapse of the walls and roof components were modeled, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to provide boundaries on these estimated times. Thus, the goal of the project was to provide a bounding analysis of the time to roof and wall failure and potential collapse, rather than an actual prediction of the time to failure, and collapse

  16. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cotthem, Alain [TRACTEBEL ENGINEERING SA (Belgium); Van Humbeeck, Hughes [ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Biurrun, Enrique [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  17. Closure of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hydrofracture Facility: An opportunity to study the fate of radioactive wastes disposed of by subsurface injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Von Damm, K.L.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, subsurface injection has been used to dispose of liquid low-level nuclear waste for the past two decades. The process consists of mixing the liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of approximately 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the well along hydraulic fractures and sets to form irregularly shaped grout sheets of up to 200 m (650 ft) in radius. Closure-related site characterization provides a unique opportunity to study the fate of the injected wastes. A series of monitoring wells are in place to measure groundwater chemistries within the injection strata and within overlying and underlying confining units. Initial results indicate that contaminated groundwater surrounds the grout sheets in the injection zone, extending at least as far as 300 m (1000 ft) from the injection well; contaminated groundwater is largely and perhaps exclusively confined to the host formation; and of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs radionuclides disposed of, only 90 Sr is present in the contaminated groundwater. The illite-rich mineralogy of the injection formation strongly absorbs 137 Cs and greatly retards its migration. Movement of 90 Sr is not as greatly retarded by the injection formation. Geochemical modeling is being used to identify and to evaluate hydrogeological controls on 90 Sr behavior. Preliminary results suggest that the groundwaters within the injection formation are saturated with Sr from natural sources, and that 90 Sr mobility may be lessened by precipitation/dissolution reactions associated with such a saturated condition. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Financial compensation owed to municipalities that host radioactive waste disposal; Compensacao financeira devida aos municipios que hospedem depositos de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata Amaral da

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities with viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits fro, low and medium activity. It was used as methodology the frameweork of normative act in the Resolution n. 96, August 10th, 2010. ('Model of Calculation for Financial Compensation due to Municipalities') where there are establidhed the parameters for the wastes, the facilities and the deployment sites. The calculation was made according with interim storage or definitive disposal of solid wastes, e.e. personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks etc) resins and filters used in waste water treatment from nuclear and radioactivity facilities. SOme examples of countries in which compensation, financial or not, was practiced in favor of municipalities due to construction of waste deposits were sown and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation bweween the stakeholders. Were also presented other forms of financial compensation in Brazil due to large-scale industrial activities that result in potential risk for the surrounding population and environment, as oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used the waste inventory designed by RMBN project (Waste Repository of Low and Medium Activity) developed in CDTN (2009) which presents the implementation of a repository for disposal of radioactive waste. Based on these data it was possible to develop a case study, establishing four scenarios for initial/interim storage and final disposal of wastes. The results reached monthly values that ranged from 2,6 to 79,8 thousand Brazilian Reais, from which it was performed a critical analysis of the range of parameters and the apportionment of the amount due. Likewise, these values were compared with the budget revenues of some previously selected municipalities and were examined divergent points in the normative act as well. (author)

  19. Assessment of radioactive waste disposal in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.; Bonne, A.; Marivoet, J.; Dalrymple, G.J.; Laurens, J.M.; Winters, K.H.

    1990-09-01

    Two assessments of the potential radiological impact of disposal of medium-level and alpha-bearing wastes in clay formations have been carried out for the CEC PACOMA project. Both studies included uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The results indicate that the radiological impact of disposal of these wastes in clay will be small, but a number of topics are identified for further study in order to confirm these results and produce more definitive estimates of the uncertainties associated with them. (author)

  20. Inventory of radioactive waste disposals at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for having such an inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides from different sources entering the marine environment can be assessed and compared. To respond to the request of the London Convention, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include: disposal at sea of radioactive wastes, and accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive materials. This report addresses disposal at sea of radioactive waste, a practice which continued from 1946 to 1993. It is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-588, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste, published in 1991. In addition to the data already published in IAEA-TECDOC-588, the present publication includes detailed official information on sea disposal operations carried out by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation provided in 1993 as well as additional information provided by Sweden in 1992 and the United Kingdom in 1997 and 1998

  1. Radioactive waste disposal and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties presented by the current atomic energy law for the nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland are shown. It is emphasised how important scientific information is in the political solutions for nuclear disposal

  2. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  4. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison

  5. ALLIANCES: simulation platform for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, E.; Montarnal, Ph.; Loth, L.; Chavant, C.

    2009-01-01

    CEA, ANDRA and EDF are jointly developing the software platform ALLIANCES whose aim is to produce a tool for the simulation of nuclear waste storage and disposal. This type of simulations deals with highly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical and radioactive (T-H-M-C-R) processes. ALLIANCES' aim is to accumulate within the same simulation environment the already acquired knowledge and to gradually integrate new knowledge. The current version of ALLIANCES contains the following modules: - Hydraulics and reactive transport in unsaturated and saturated media; - Multi-phase flow; - Mechanical thermal-hydraulics; - Thermo-Aeraulics; - Chemistry/Transport coupling in saturated media; - Alteration of waste package coupled with the environment; - Sensitivity analysis tools. The next releases will include more physical phenomena like: reactive transport in unsaturated flow and multicomponent multiphase flow; incorporation of responses surfaces in sensitivity analysis tools; integration of parallel numerical codes for flow and transport. Since the distribution of the first release of ALLIANCES (December 2003), the platform was used by ANDRA for his safety simulation program and by CEA for reactive transport simulations (migration of uranium in a soil, diffusion of different reactive species on laboratory samples, glass/iron/clay interaction). (authors)

  6. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  7. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  8. Geomechanics of clays for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1989-01-01

    Clay formations have been studied for many years in the European Community as potential disposal media for radioactive waste. This document brings together results of on-going research about the geomechanical behaviour of natural clay bodies, at normal and elevated temperatures. The work is carried out within the third Community R and D programme on Management and storage of radioactive waste

  9. Siting commercial fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-09-01

    This document discusses siting requirements for fusion power plants. The current concept of the reference first commercial reactors was developed from analysis of the characteristics of current design concepts. Because those reactors use the deuterium-tritium fuel reaction, large quantities of activation products and tritium are created and must be considered as potential sources of radiation doses (Young, 1976 and Young and Gore, 1976). However, advanced reactors using fuel reactions that neither consume nor create radionuclides are briefly considered

  10. United States of America. Status of commercial LILW site closure in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The United States has adopted the requirements of 10 CFR Part 61 for the licensing standards of all new commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facilities. In general, low level waste as addressed in 10 CFR Part 61 is that waste that is not classified as high level waste, transuranic waste, or naturally occurring or accelerator produced radioactive materials. The requirements of this regulation dictate that certain standards be met by any new licensed facility. Obviously, arid locations offer certain advantages over humid locations with regards to controlling moisture infiltration and movement, the primary mechanism for radionuclide transport. Whereas relatively simple thick vegetated caps designed for enhancing evapotranspiration may be suitable for arid locations, more humid facilities may require more elaborate means to provide for the same degree of long term isolation of wastes from the biosphere. In general, the closure systems at low level disposal facilities built in humid areas of the United States tend to have more engineering features than those in more arid locations

  11. Impact of liability and site closure and long-term care issues on future siting efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hana, S.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Washington's research in the area of financial responsibility for liability and cleanup for radioactive materials licensees and low-level radioactive waste permittees is offered to assist unsited states and regions in their planning and development of new low-level waste disposal capacity. The state considered the need for third party bodily injury and property damage financial responsibility and determined that the USDOT requirements comprehensively cover transport of wastes. In regard to licensees' facilities, it is the state's opinion that an adequate technical basis for third party requirements has not yet been developed. Also considered was the need for financial assurance for cleanup, which is covered for transportation, but generally not available for facilities. Three options are examined to provide such coverage, and the economic impact on licensees assessed. Finally, the current low-level waste disposal site operator's insurance coverage is analyzed and deficiencies are identified. Washington is also conducting research into site closure and perpetual care and maintenance requirements for the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located on the Hanford reservation near Richland, Washington. This research includes a site assessment and identification and formulation of site-specific design elements for closure and long-term care

  12. An isotopic and fluid inclusion study of fracture calcite from borehole OL-KR1 at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, A.; Frape, S.; Blomqvist, R.; Nissinen, P.; McNutt, R.

    1998-04-01

    A study of the geochemistry of fracture filling calcite in borehole OL-KR1 at the radioactive waste disposal investigation site Olkiluoto (in Finland) was undertaken in 1998. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the fracture calcite using mineralogy, oxygen, carbon and strontium isotopes, and fluid inclusions in order to determine past and present chemical and isotopic condition at the site

  13. Geochemical modelling study on the age and evolution of the groundwater at the Romuvaara site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Vuorinen, U.; Leino-Forsman, H.; Snellman, M.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the study was to interpret the processes and factors which control the hydrogeochemistry (e.g. pH and redox conditions) in the radioactive waste disposal environment. A model of the hydrogeochemical evolution and the chemical flowpaths in different parts of the bedrock at the Romuvaara (in Finland) site has been created. The significance of chemical reactions along different flowpaths is calculated. Furthermore, the consistency of the hydrogeochemical model and the hydrogeological model is examined. (107 refs.)

  14. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CFR Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  15. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  16. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, C.P.; Mills, D.; Razor, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  18. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  19. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Liliana; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  1. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Radionuclide Inventory and Waste Site Selection Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Will E.; Mehta, Sunil

    2017-09-13

    The updated Hanford Site Composite Analysis will provide an all-pathways dose projection to a hypothetical future member of the public from all planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities and potential contributions from all other projected end-state sources of radioactive material left at Hanford following site closure. Its primary purpose is to support the decision-making process of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE O 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management (DOE, 2001), related to managing low-level waste disposal facilities at the Hanford Site.

  2. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  3. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  4. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

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    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0 soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  5. Civilian radioactive waste disposal. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 1007, S. 1141, S. 1211, S. 1266 and S. 1428, July 16 and 17, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Sen. Mark Hatfield, in opening the hearing, noted that each of the five bills to be addressed, although differing in a