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Sample records for commercial poultry production

  1. A survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production in Gombe metropolis, 2,121 poultry cases were presented at the Gombe State Veterinary Clinic between January 1995 and December 2004. Out of the total number of cases presented, Newcastle disease (ND) accounted for 14.66%, chronic respiratory ...

  2. Analysis OfProductivity And Risk Factors In Commercial Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry production is unique and it offers the quickest returns to investment outlay in livestock enterprises. Poultry has the highest feed conversion rates and produces the cheapest, commonest and best sources of animal protein (Orji et a) 1981 ). The contribution of poultry production (meat and eggs) to total livestock output.

  3. Analysis OfProductivity And Risk Factors In Commercial Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the resource usc efficiency nnd occurrence of risk factors in poultry production in osun state, nigeria ... enterprises. Poultry has the highest feed conversion rates and produces the cheapest, commonest and best sources of animal protein (Orji et a) 1981 ). ... by adopting better management practices.

  4. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  5. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, C V; Igbokwe, I O; Atsanda, N N

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = -0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak.

  6. Production function analysis for smallholder semi-subsistence and semi-commercial poultry production systems in three agro-ecological regions in Northern provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tung, Dinh Xuan; Rasmussen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A formal cross section survey of 360 smallholder poultry keeping farms located in three agro-ecological regions in Vietnam was conducted. Cobb-Douglas production functions were applied to analyse and compare semi-subsistence and semi-commercial smallholder poultry systems in three regions....... The general assumption is that the poultry production output at the farm level depends on the number of birds, feed amount, labor amount, garden size, income level and veterinary costs. In this study statistical tests were conducted to analyze the differences between regions and production systems....... The results from the analysis of production functions shows that the coefficients of flock size, feed amount per bird, labour amount per bird, household income level, and veterinary costs were highly significant in different models. Garden size has a significant influence only among the poultry farmers...

  7. Management of waste by-products in medium-scale commercial poultry facilities in peri-urban Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    AKINTAYO OLUREMI; QUAINOO JEMIMAH

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing human population in and around the city, it is important to pay attention to issues related to the environment and human health, especially poultry waste management towards environmental sustainability in peri-urban areas. The three waste by-products of primary concern in poultry production are the litter, the manure and dead birds common to all operations. With the aid of a pre-tested and validated questionnaire, data were obtained from forty poultry farmers whose medium-sc...

  8. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and products derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry production, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.

  9. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framework...... to review how smallholder poultry contributes to households and livelihoods. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework emphasizes the vulnerability context of rural livelihoods and the need to consider many types of “capital” in the analysis of livelihoods. The paper finds that social-capital aspects...... of smallholder poultry productionhave been given little attention in research and or in development projects. Poultry has played, and still plays, important social and cultural roles in the life of rural people, not least for building social relations with other villagers. While income and consumption have been...

  10. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A.; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L.; Zedek, Andrea S.; Kwan, Tiffany W.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L.; Oakley, Brian B.; Collett, Stephen R.; Maurer, John J.; Lee, Margie D.

    2013-01-01

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no

  11. Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L; Zedek, Andrea S; Kwan, Tiffany W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L; Oakley, Brian B; Collett, Stephen R; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2013-09-25

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically

  12. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Maurer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB, the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vat

  13. Analysis of poultry production costs

    OpenAIRE

    Budayeva, Larisa

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of production costs reduction and increasing poultry meat and eggs production. The ways of qualitative and economic feeds evaluation and efficient use of modern methods of expenses reduction in the poultry farming industry of the Orenburg region have been studied.

  14. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...) poultry meat from regions designated in § 94.6(a) as regions where END is considered to exist, have a...

  15. Information needs of commercial poultry farmers in southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial poultry farming contributes to food security and employment generation but management problems often impede optimal performance. Therefore, the study investigated information needs of commercial poultry farmers in southwestern Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 163 members ...

  16. Characteristics of commercial poultry and spatial distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, Oyo State had moderate to high potential for metabolic and behavioural diseases spread in 23 Local Government Areas while vent pecking and heat stress were the major diseases affecting most of the poultry commercial farms. Commercial poultry farms in Oyo State are enjoined to improve on their management ...

  17. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  18. THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DETERMINATION POULTRY GRADE AND POULTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Makhonina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There was proposed the system of classification of poultry by grades, taking into account the rate of individual bone-in and boneless pieces, and minced meat according to objective quality indexes, namely the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and mass fraction of protein in terms of protein quality (ratio of tryptophan to hydroxyproline, the ratio of the energy value and other indicators established for land and water-floating bird and is comparable to similar measures for beef and pork. Was given the quantitative criteria for rating the quality of poultry meat for content of muscle, connective and fatty tissues (skin with fat in gutted carcass and its parts, installed there output and factors consumer value (FCV. Also was given the comparative rate of biological value of raw meat of slaughter animals and poultry, poultry meat mechanically deboning and nutritional supplements of animal and vegetable origin. It is established, that poultry meat mechanically separated on the functional-technological properties and bioavailability significantly superior to animal and vegetable proteins. The biological value of the lump meat of chickens-broilers and hens egg directions 1 grade has values 73.12 and 72.92%, the same time the biological value of goose meat from deboning carcasses of 2 and 1 grades has high values and varies from 79.77 to 81.14%. The new approach of the definition types of meat poultry and poultry products increases the range of foods allowed by the introduction in the recipe of sausage stuffing alternative sources of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin, adequate and balanced protein composition that is a definite contribution to the solution of the problem of providing the population with goods of high quality and enhance production efficiency.

  19. Innovation in Feed Technology for Self Sufficiency in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is self sufficient in poultry production to meet the local demand for broiler and egg, mainly derived from modern poultry rather than the local village chicken. Feed may contribute up to 70% of total cost of poultry production. Poultry feed is formulated using least cost feed formulation technique to meet the bird requirement and composed by several ingredients both locally available and imported materials. Feed ingredients are classified based on energy sources, protein sources, agro-industrial by products, mineral sources and supplements. In many cases the poultry feed was supplemented with additives (antibiotics, enzymes, preservatives, etc. to improve animal performance. In 2005, Indonesian feed production reached almost 7 million tonnes and comprised around 85% as poultry feed, while the rest for aquaculture, swine and others. Poultry feed is based on corn-soy diet and average corn usage may reach more than 55% while soybean meal more than 23%. Ingredients requirement has been calculated based on the feed production and in order to fulfill the requirement. In 2006, Indonesia will import more than 1.6 million tonnes of corn from Argentina, USA and China, and more than 1.5 million tonnes of protein meal due to insufficiency of the local production. Major problems related in feed production are raw materials supply, quality and price fluctuation along with limited information. Several research have been conducted to use unconventional ingredients as protein sources such as local beans, leguminous seeds, leaf protein, animal by products but they were limited in availability. Research to improve protein level from carbohydrate source or by products had been attempted but it was not feasible for commercial feed industry. In future, technology innovation should be developed based on the existing problems related with feed industry including the areas to improve production efficiency, managing feed quality, processing technology and feed

  20. Transforming poultry production in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Since the widespread outbreaks of avian influenza in China and Southeast Asia in the early 2000s, government policies intended to reduce the risk of future outbreaks have led to thousands of small-scale poultry farmers moving to designated poultry production areas. But these relocation efforts have been ...

  1. Family poultry production in Mauritius: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugessur, V.S.; Seenevassen Pillay, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of Mauritius has been self-sufficient in poultry meat and eggs for more than two decades and has been successfully meeting the increasing demand for these commodities. About 85% of the poultry meat is presently produced by four industrial farms, 10% by small commercial producers, and around 5% by family (backyard) poultry farms. The flourishing broiler production industry has transformed the erstwhile important traditional backyard poultry farming of indigenous chickens into an insignificant side activity on the main island of Mauritius, while on the other hand, scavenging chickens continue to be an important source of both food and income on Rodrigues, the second biggest island territory of the Republic. A survey carried out on 30 selected family poultry farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues in 1999 and 2000 enabled the identification of the major problems faced by smallholder poultry farmers. At the same time the results provided a basis for future interventions for improving family poultry production. The results showed that diseases like fowl pox, Newcastle disease, Gumboro disease, respiratory and parasitic diseases occurred all year round on 42% and 82% of farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. Low to mild helminth and lice infestations were detected on 40% and 50% of the farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. (author)

  2. Outbreaks of Salmonella paratyphi A in a commercial poultry farm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An outbreak of Salmonella paratyphi A in a commercial poultry farm in Ibadan is hereby reported. The clinical findings manifested by the birds were reduced appetite, increased water consumption and passed yellowish green stool. There was decreased egg production, prostration and death. Morbidity was 50% while ...

  3. Poultry Production and Marketing in Nepal : with Comparison to Other South Asian Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    杉山, 道夫; 小栗, 克之; BHATTARAI, Til Chandra; スギヤマ, ミチオ; オグリ, カツユキ; SUGIYAMA, Michio; OGURI, Katsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the present situation of the Nepalese poultry industry and its comparison to other South Asian Countries with the help of survey and available secondary data. There were about 15.9 million poultry producing 10,962 Mt meat and 421,460 thousands of eggs including commercial and backyard poultry in the year 1996/97. The commercial poultry produced 269 eggs in 48 weeks of production with feed conversion ratio 2.9. The per Kg production cost of eggs was ab...

  4. Aflatoxin in commercial poultry feeds and clinico-pathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin remains the most studied mycotoxin with aflatoxin B1 making up 66 to 82% of total aflatoxin found in feed. In poultry, it can cause high production losses and vaccine failure resulting from its hepatocarcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive effects. This study aimed to determine the level of ...

  5. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 53, 71, 82, 93... poultry meat and poultry products pose more of a potential disease threat to the U.S. poultry industry...), New Zealand, and Switzerland. * * * * * Sec. 94.23 [Amended] 20. Section 94.23 is amended by removing...

  6. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  7. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: A poultry welfare and economic perspective1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Urbano, T.; Matté, F.; Layton, S.; Kallapura, G.; Latorre, J.; Morales, B. E.; Prado, O.; Vicente, J. L.; Barton, J.; Filho, R. L. Andreatti; Lovato, M.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  8. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  9. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baron

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1 characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2 microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3 motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  10. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ is multi-dimensional, encompassing economic, environmental, social, and institutional governance aspects. The theoretical framework for this article on sustainability in poultry production is built on this multi-dimensional understanding...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...... of the concept, acknowledging that it is complex and contested. It is challenging to analyse or discuss the sustainability of one single sector within agriculture, because this sector is part of a global food system, and a systems approach is necessary. This article gives examples of elements which link to one...

  11. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  12. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voidarou, C; Vassos, D; Rozos, G; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Tsinas, A; Skoufou, M; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. but, from the commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a role as potential threats. Regarding food safety, the primary target should be the production of pathogen-free live animals, thus allowing slaughter plants to keep the processing line free of those microorganisms. Consumers believe that quality of foods from organic production is superior to foods from conventional production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the bacterial quality of chicken meat from organic and conventional production on the basis of traditional meat quality criteria. Fresh free grazing broiler carcasses were purchased directly from rural households (n = 80) and fresh retail chicken parts from conventional broiler carcasses from the local supermarkets in the region of Epirus (Poultry Producers Association. Arta) (n = 200). The samples were microbiologically tested for the presence of bacteria such as: Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and C. perfringens. Total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was also determined. Bacteriological tests were performed by means of standard methods of isolation and identification of individual species of bacteria according to ISO requirements. API-tests (bioMerieux) and Vitek 2 Identification System (bioMerieux) were used for biochemical determination. High levels of microbial contamination and occurrence of pathogenic bacteria at then fresh free grazing broiler carcasses reflect the poor hygienic quality of the slaughter conditions in the rural households. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain...

  14. An ecohealth assessment of poultry production clusters (PPCs) for the livelihood and biosecurity improvement of small poultry producers in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Basuno, Edi; Nguyen, Tuan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Ilham, Nyak; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Poultry production cluster (PPC) programs are key strategies in many Asian countries to engage small commercial poultry producers in high-value production chains and to control infectious poultry diseases. This study assessed the multiple impacts of PPCs through a transdisciplinary ecohealth approach in four Asian countries, and drew the implications for small producers to improve their livelihoods and reduce the risk of spreading infectious diseases in the poultry sector. The data collection combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. It comprised: formal structured household survey questionnaires, measuring the biosecurity level of poultry farms with a biosecurity score card; and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to process the quantitative data and a content analysis was used to process the qualitative data. This research found that poultry farms in clusters do not necessarily have better economic performance than those outside PPCs. Many farmers in PPCs only consider them to be an advantage for expanding the scale of their poultry operations and improving household incomes, and they are less concerned about-and have limited capacities to-enhancing biosecurity and environmental management. We measured the biosecurity level of farms in PPCs through a 14-item checklist and found that biosecurity is generally very low across all sample sites. The increased flies, mosquitoes, rats, and smells in and around PPCs not only pollute the environment, but also cause social conflicts with the surrounding communities. This research concluded that a poultry cluster, mainly driven by economic objectives, is not necessarily a superior model for the control of infectious diseases. The level of biosecurity in PPCs was found to be low. Given the intensity of poultry operations in PPCs (farms are densely packed into clusters), and the close proximity to residential areas of some PPCs, the risk of spreading infectious diseases, in fact, increases

  15. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  17. Farmers' reason for going into poultry production in Plateau state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those in poultry production have reasons for going into the business. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the reasons for going into poultry production on the profit of poultry farmers in Plateau State. Random sampling technique was used to select 60 respondents from 4 Local Government Areas of the state.

  18. Climate change and poultry production in Nigeria: Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined perceived effects and adaptation measures employed by poultry farmers against climate change in derived savannah zone of Enugu State. One hundred and twenty randomly selected poultry farmers were used. The respondents were mainly small scale with 6 years of experience in poultry production ...

  19. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide.

  20. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive...

  1. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products......, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey...

  2. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    OpenAIRE

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive....

  3. Chromium and lead contamination in commercial poultry feeds of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Jothi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals contamination into food chain is considered as an emerging crisis throughout the world especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. The concentration of heavy metals including Cr and Pb in commercial poultry feed samples (protein meal feed, meat and bone meal and fish meal feed were detected by using Air/ Acetylene Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of heavy metals were found in protein meal feed in a range where Cr 10.63 to 218.10 mg kg-1 and Pb 7.37 to 52.25 mg kg-1. In meat and bone meal feed samples, Cr was recorded from 9.15 to 40.59 mg kg-1 and Pb 5.0 to 61.42 mg kg-1. Cr was found 17.68 to 78.39 mg kg-1 and Pb 3.54to 16.44 mg kg-1 in fish meal feed samples. However, results showed that all feed samples contained chromium and lead where both metals were present at alarming levels in most of the samples. It is therefore suggested that regular detection of heavy metals especially Cr and Pb should be done to evaluate the health risks and to protect the end user from food that might harmful for their health.

  4. Garbage Management: An Important Risk Factor for HPAI-Virus Infection in Commercial Poultry Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Emily; Linskens, Eric; Umber, Jamie; Culhane, Marie Rene; Halvorson, David; Contadini, Francesca; Cardona, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Garbage management represents a potential pathway of HPAI-virus infection for commercial poultry operations as multiple poultry premises may share a common trash collection service provider, trash collection site (e.g., shared dumpster for multiple premises) or disposal site (e.g., landfill). The types of potentially infectious or contaminated material disposed of in the garbage has not been previously described but is suspected to vary by poultry industry sector. A survey of representatives from the broiler, turkey, and layer sectors in the United States revealed that many potentially contaminated or infectious items are routinely disposed of in the trash on commercial poultry premises. On-farm garbage management practices, along with trash hauling and disposal practices are thus key components that must be considered to evaluate the risk of commercial poultry becoming infected with HPAI virus.

  5. The quality of commercial poultry feeds in Nigeria: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of various types and brands of commercial poultry feeds were taken from six poultry farms and subjected to proximate analysis. The feeds were found to be adequate in metabolisable energy and fat. Protein, calcium and phosphorus content were below recommended levels and there was an improper ratio ...

  6. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2008-10-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary due to the low occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in retail Finnish poultry products.

  7. Occurrence of Mycoplasma synoviae on commercial poultry farms of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia R. Barros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Pernambuco is the largest producer of eggs in the North and Northeast of Brazil and second one in the broiler production. Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS in broilers and commercial laying hens in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Tracheal fragments were analyzed from 55 healthy broilers, 35 broilers with respiratory signs and 30 commercial laying hens with respiratory signs, from 24 commercial poultry farms, each sample was composed of a pool of five birds. The bacteriological exam, PCR and nested PCR were used for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS. All samples were negative in bacteriological isolation. In the PCR analyses, seven samples from birds with respiratory signs were positive for MS and one was positive for MG, the latter of which was confirmed as the MG-F vaccine strain. The occurrence of MS in chickens with respiratory signs may indicate inadequate sanitary management on poultry farms, favoring the propagation of mycoplasmosis.

  8. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  9. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  10. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, poultry meat and other poultry products from the States of Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico, may be imported into the United States...

  11. Entrepreneurial Characteristics And Constraints Of Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five(55.6%) of poultry farmers use commercial poultry feeds in feeding their flocks. Small-scale commercial poultry farms (40.4%) were more as against middle and large scale units that averaged 30.8 and 28.9% respectively. 82.9% of the poultry farmers sell their products unprocessed either by retails and wholesales ...

  12. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY BALANCE OF POULTRY MEAT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Grgić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an important protein source in the human consumption. The main factors that have a positive effect on the development of the poultry industry are short production cycle, relatively low cost and the lack of religious restrictions on consumption. Chicken meat has the biggest share in the structure of poultry meat. The paper objective was to calculate the level of self-sufficiency degree in poultry meat in Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012 and the degree of self-sufficiency in 2016 based on the results obtained. The method of balancing was used for calculation of self-sufficiency degree. The degree of self-sufficiency in the production of poultry meat in Croatia is higher than in other types of meat being between 80 and 90%. However, further decrease is expected and in 2016 domestic production would meet 81.17% of the domestic needs.

  14. Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that enhanced research, extension delivery and farm advisory services should be put in place for farmers to learn the best farm practices carried out on the robustly efficient farms. This will go a long way to increase the efficiency level of the poultry farmers in the study area. Keywords: DEA, efficiency and poultry production

  15. Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on different retention times in the anaerobic fermentation of slurry from poultry droppings and cassava peels. The system adopted in this work was batch-type. Daily gas production fell slightly from 130 to 32 litres as retention time was increased from 10 to 40 days for poultry droppings. For cassava ...

  16. Profitability of poultry production among school leavers in Anaocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to investigate the profitability of poultry production in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Ten poultry farmers were randomly drawn from each of the ten autonomous communities that make up the local Government Area to give a sample size of one hundred. Structured ...

  17. Effects of Climate Change on Poultry Production in Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83) poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority ...

  18. Assessing the economic impacts of commercial poultry feeds supplementation and vaccinating against Newcastle disease in local chickens, in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njue, S.W.; Kasiiti, J.L.; Gacheru, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Despite of the rapid growth in poultry population in the past decade, various constraints continue to adversely affect the productivity of local birds in Kenya. Sustainable cost effective interventions are necessary if full potential is to be realised. The impact of Newcastle disease (ND) control using vaccination and commercial poultry feed supplementation was assessed in 16 farms found in Kiambu district (ECZ II). Information on flock size, flock structure and disease control was gathered from these farms. F strain ND vaccine administration and commercial poultry feed supplementation was also done. Generally there was a notable increase in flock size when birds were supplemented and vaccinated. There was marked increase in numbers of growers and chicks with feed supplementation and vaccination. It was economically profitable to supplement and vaccinate local birds as returns were >1.0. Vaccination gave the highest return on investment (3,36) and feed supplementation the least (1,15). The high cost of commercial poultry feed discourages farmers from supplementing local chicken; therefore farm formulations using locally available materials should be encouraged. There is need to produce thermostable vaccines locally to use in local birds which would bring vaccine costs further down. (author)

  19. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella and Campylobacter but, from commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a

  20. Effects of labor motivation in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Broiler production is a significant economic activity in Brazil, and employs a large number of stockpeople in the integration process. Considering that the stockperson's perception may lead to better performance of his/her tasks and flock handling, this study aimed at verifying possible interactions between poultry productivity and stockperson's perception, emotions, and motivation. The study methodology considered two aspects: qualitative analysis, using Ergonomic Work Analysis, with observational method, and by applying a questionnaire and interview, and classification of the answers into positive relationship and "affection" to the job or negative relationship and "disaffection" to the job; and quantitative analysis, applying the Test of Hypothesis for Comparison of Means both for total flock mortality and Weight Equivalent Index data. Qualitative results showed that the stockpeople were aware that the housing environment causes specific health symptoms, as well as they presented different responses as to flock handling. Quantitative data showed a correlation between reduction of total flock mortality and positive relationship towards the broilers and "affection" to the job, whereas no statistical evidence that the same individuals influenced broiler Weight Equivalent Index was detected.

  1. Evaluation of aflatoxicosis in hens fed with commercial poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    DHANASEKARAN, Dharumadurai; PANNEERSELVAM, Annamalai; THAJUDDIN, Noorudin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of aflatoxin in the growth of hens was histopathologically analyzed. Mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated and characterized as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The aflatoxin was extracted from Aspergillus flavus and their impact on the growth pattern of hens was evaluated. The histopathological analysis reveals that more lesions were found in the vital organs of hens in comparison with the control chick group. In the present study, it is concluded that the quality of poultry ...

  2. Molecular Characterization of Motile Serovars of Salmonella enterica from Breeder and Commercial Broiler Poultry Farms in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Shil, Subrata K.; Christensen, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java) and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5–17%). S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1–4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in

  3. Molecular characterization of motile serovars of Salmonella enterica from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himel Barua

    Full Text Available Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5-17%. S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1-4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry

  4. Molecular characterization of motile serovars of Salmonella enterica from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K; Olsen, Katharina E P; Shil, Subrata K; Christensen, Jens P

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java) and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5-17%). S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1-4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

  5. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  6. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  7. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  8. Salmonella in Wastes Produced at Commercial Poultry Farms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D. J.; Olechowski-Gerhardt, Carolyn; Berkowitz, J.; Finstein, M. S.

    1969-01-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study. PMID:5370457

  9. Salmonella in wastes produced at commercial poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D J; Olechowski-Gerhardt, C; Berkowitz, J; Finstein, M S

    1969-11-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study.

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  11. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    .... FSIS-2008-0039] RIN 0583-AD37 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry... to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce. The final rule was published in the Federal... and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final rule amended the Federal meat and poultry products...

  12. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella...... at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent...... serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty...

  13. Bacteriological Investigation of Poultry Feeds Sold Within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of some pathogenic microorganisms in poultry feeds lucidly reveals the level of contamination. Therefore, the commercial poultry feeds should be periodically examined for biosafety, so as to reduce or probably prevent the risk of cross contamination of poultry and poultry products. Keywords: Poultry feeds ...

  14. Antimicrobials usage assessments in commercial poultry and local birds in North-central Nigeria: Associated pathways and factors for resistance emergence and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Haruna, A E; Muhammad, B; Lawan, M K; Isola, T O

    2018-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recommended monitoring of antimicrobial use (AMU) through surveillance and research to help mitigate AMR. This survey was aimed at assessing poultry owners' knowledge/awareness and practices regarding AMU, identified pathways for AMR emergence and spread in small-scale commercial poultry farms and free-range local bird flocks in North-central Nigeria. An interview questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on commercial poultry farmers and local bird flock keepers in 2017. Also, a Traffic Light system model was used assess risk status of AMU in farms and flocks. All the 384 recruited poultry farmers/keepers participated in the survey. Female respondents were the majority (67.2%). Low proportion of poultry farmers (46.4%, 89/192) and very low proportion of bird keepers (6.8%, 13/192) knew antimicrobials misuse to be when administered under dose. About 48% (93/192) of farmers and 93% (179/192) of keepers arbitrary determined antimicrobial dosage before administration. Respondents used antimicrobials for therapeutic, prophylactic, and growth promotion in birds. Also, participants significantly identified contaminated poultry products, infected poultry or contaminated formites, and discharged contaminated faeces into environment as pathways for transmission of antimicrobial resistant pathogens to humans. Traffic Light system model revealed 88.5% of small-scale commercial poultry farms to frequently used antimicrobials without veterinarians' consultations thereby attaining Class 1 (Red risk) status. The model showed that 92.1% of free-range local bird flocks rarely used antimicrobials thereby attaining Class 3 (Green risk) status. Improper antimicrobial dosage in poultry (OR: 7.23; 95% CI: 2.74, 19.21), non-enforcement of AMU regulating laws in poultry (OR: 4.12; 95% CI: 2.39, 7.10), weak financial status of poultry owners (OR: 3.00; 95% CI: 2.39, 7.10), and management

  15. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  16. Transgenesis techniques and its application in poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenesis is applied in production of therapeutic proteins, improvement of economic traits such as meat quality, disease resistance, feed conversion efficiency; as well as protection of humans from zoonotic diseases. Thus, transgenic technologies may revolutionalize the production of poultry birds with improved meat ...

  17. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the

  18. Modelling the feed mix for poultry production, the case of Adama Musa farms, in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Amponsah; Dominic Otoo; A. K. Peprah; S. D. Ampofo

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has a significant importance on national economy. It is a popular industry for the small holders with tremendous contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment creation. Poultry feed cost represents over sixty (60) percent of the total cost of poultry production; consequently, efficient feed formulation practice is required for a sustainable poultry industry. Many Ghanaian poultry farmers, however, employ inefficient methods like rule of thumb, experiences, a...

  19. Parameters for quantity calculations of poultry by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant group of inedible by-products from industrial slaughterhouses that can be used as a raw material for processing into quality feed for pigs and pets are byproducts of slaughtered poultry. The poultry industry yields a large amount of inedible byproducts of which the removal or processing requires hygienic and economic solutions. These activities primarily include the protection of the environmental from degradation processes and biological pollution, as well as securing high-protein animal feed. The incorporation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products into food for animals involves the application of various technological processes. These processes should be simple and feasible for investments where it is necessary to obtain a quality product. At the same time, it must be taken into account that the production process does not create new secondary products or waste gases that could contaminate the environment. Scientific knowledge in the field of exploitation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products provides the necessary basis for calculating the amount of certain types of raw materials.

  20. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  1. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  2. Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JPC

    Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry. Droppings and Cassava Peels. Ezekoye, V.A1., Ezekoye, B.A2. and Offor P.O3. 1School of General Studies, Natural Science Unit University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 3Department of Metallurgical and ...

  3. Production constraints and mortality rate in poultry farms in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that farmers faced severe production limitations particularly disease infestation with a mean value of 4.64, high feed cost (x = 3.98), prevalence of ineffective drugs (x = 3.74) and seasonal glut (x = 3.70). Mortality rate in the poultry farms was high with a percentage of 47%, largely caused by disease infection (x ...

  4. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  5. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... solutions affects the product's nutrition profile because there may be a significant difference in sodium... component of a poultry product is represented by a standard cut for raw poultry prescribed in 9 CFR 381.170, the common or usual name of the product would include the name of the standard poultry cut, the...

  6. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A(1), (2), (3)), semiautomatic systems (S(1), (2)), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S(1)--without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms.

  7. Diversification and epidemic risks of poultry production systems in Hanoi suburb

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Dang, Thang; Duquesne, Brigitte; Lebailly, Philippe; Vu Dinh, Ton

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to address this question and to improve the income of small poultry producers through identification of poultry production systems and the supply chains with their various constraints, including the diseases and to analyze the explicative factors of the poultry development at local level. The research was conducted by interviewing and production record keeping system at the household farms which have poultry production at different scales in Hanoi suburb from...

  8. Bacteriophage application on red meats and poultry: Effects on Salmonella population in final ground products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y; Purushothaman, P; Gupta, N; Ragnone, M; Verma, S C; de Mello, A S

    2017-05-01

    This research was conducted to study the effects of bacteriophage application during tumbling on Salmonella populations in ground meat and poultry. Red meat trim and poultry were inoculated with a Salmonella cocktail to result in a contamination level of 7logCFU/g in ground products. A commercial preparation containing bacteriophages S16 and Felix-O1a (FO1a) was applied during tumbling at 10 7 and 10 8 PFU/ml. Samples were held at 4°C for 6h and 18h (red meat) and 30min and 6h (poultry). Overall, bacteriophage application on trim reduced 1 and 0.8logCFU/g of Salmonella in ground beef and ground pork, respectively. For ground chicken and ground turkey, Salmonella was reduced by 1.1 and 0.9logCFU/g, respectively. This study shows that bacteriophage application during tumbling of red meat trim and poultry can provide additional Salmonella control in ground products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himel Barua

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty isolates were randomly selected, from the ninety obtained from the survey, for serotyping and characterized further by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results of the survey showed that the prevalence of motile Salmonella at layer farm level was 18% (95% confidence interval 15-21%, and Salmonella Kentucky was identified to be the only serovar circulating in the study population. Plasmid analysis of the S. Kentucky and non-serotyped isolates revealed two distinct profiles with a variation of two different sizes (2.7 and 4.8 kb. PFGE of the 30 S. Kentucky and 30 non-serotyped isolates showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh.

  10. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K; Olsen, Katharina E P; Christensen, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty isolates were randomly selected, from the ninety obtained from the survey, for serotyping and characterized further by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results of the survey showed that the prevalence of motile Salmonella at layer farm level was 18% (95% confidence interval 15-21%), and Salmonella Kentucky was identified to be the only serovar circulating in the study population. Plasmid analysis of the S. Kentucky and non-serotyped isolates revealed two distinct profiles with a variation of two different sizes (2.7 and 4.8 kb). PFGE of the 30 S. Kentucky and 30 non-serotyped isolates showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh.

  11. Chick quality control: a key to sustainable poultry production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chick's quality and made recommendations for quality control of the products for the sustainability of the poultry industry in Nigeria. Keywords: Chick quality, assessment methods, poultry industry, Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol.

  12. Perspectives of poultry products export of Ukrainian enterprises to the world food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available poultry industry has been developing very fast in recent years. Expanding speed of production in modern terms is characterized by increasing of poultry meat and eggs export to the world market with satisfaction of domestic market. The article described tendencies of export of poultry products on the world and European food markets, investigated use if European export quotas, defined ways of export increasing of poultry meat export to the European food market.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  14. Biogas from poultry waste-production and energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Karoline Carvalho; Schneider, Roselene Maria; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m -2 were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days. The efficiency of the biodigestion process was evaluated by biogas production in relation to total solids (TS) added, as well as the potential for power generation. Quantified volumes ranged from 8.9 to 41.1 L of biogas for aviary 1, and 6.7 to 33.9 L of biogas for aviary 2, with the sixth bed reused from both aviaries registering the largest biogas potential. Average potential biogas in m 3  kg -1 of TS added were 0.022 to 0.034 for aviary 1 and 0.015 to 0.022 for aviary 2. Energy values ​​of biogas produced were calculated based on calorific value and ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kWh for chicken litter without fermentation and from 0.05 to 0.27 kWh for chicken litter with fermentation. It was concluded that the re-use of poultry litter resulted in an increase in biogas production, and the use of fermentation in the microbiological treatment of poultry litter seems to have negatively influenced production of biogas.

  15. PRODUCTION OF POULTRY MEAT AND EGGS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA AND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Bošnjaković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and eggs are a significant source of nutrients in the human diet. Poultry products are widely consumed because they are nutritionally valuable, there are no religious restrictions on consumption, it is relatively easy to prepare diverse meals based on poultry, and the price of such products is relatively low. The aim of this research was to investigate the development of poultry production in the Republic of Croatia in the period 2010-2014, comprising the period of two years after Croatia joined the EU. The paper also compares data of poultry production in Croatia and in the EU. Over the period in question, total meat production in Croatia was reduced by 23%, meat import was increased by 45%, poultry meat export was increased by 46%, and production of eggs decreased by 20%. At the same time, in the EU countries poultry production was increased by 8.8% on average, export was increased by 10%, and import was reduced by 3.7%, while the egg production stagnated. In 2014, consumption of poultry meat in Croatia was 18.3 kg per capita, and in the EU 26.8 kg per capita. Self-sufficiency in the poultry production over the analyzed period was not satisfactory, therefore in the coming years, Croatia will have to develop quickly this important branch of livestock breeding. In addition to conventional production, faster development refers to production of organic and functional poultry products.

  16. 76 FR 76890 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    .... FSIS-2005-0018] Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry... (FSIS) is delaying the effective date of the final regulations that require nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products and ground or chopped meat and poultry...

  17. The transmissibility of highly pathogenic avian influenza in commercial poultry in industrialised countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tini Garske

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increased occurrence of outbreaks of H5N1 worldwide there is concern that the virus could enter commercial poultry farms with severe economic consequences.We analyse data from four recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI in commercial poultry to estimate the farm-to-farm reproductive number for HPAI. The reproductive number is a key measure of the transmissibility of HPAI at the farm level because it can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures. In these outbreaks the mean farm-to-farm reproductive number prior to controls ranged from 1.1 to 2.4, with the maximum farm-based reproductive number in the range 2.2 to 3.2. Enhanced bio-security, movement restrictions and prompt isolation of the infected farms in all four outbreaks substantially reduced the reproductive number, but it remained close to the threshold value 1 necessary to ensure the disease will be eradicated.Our results show that depending on the particular situation in which an outbreak of avian influenza occurs, current controls might not be enough to eradicate the disease, and therefore a close monitoring of the outbreak is required. The method we used for estimating the reproductive number is straightforward to implement and can be used in real-time. It therefore can be a useful tool to inform policy decisions.

  18. Assessment of different surveillance systems for avian influenza in commercial poultry in Catalonia (North-Eastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, A; Casal, J; Napp, S; Martin, P A J

    2010-11-01

    Compulsory surveillance programmes for avian influenza (AI) have been implemented in domestic poultry and wild birds in all the European Member States since 2005. The implementation of these programmes is complex and requires a close evaluation. A good indicator to assess their efficacy is the sensitivity (Se) of the surveillance system. In this study, the sensitivities for different sampling designs proposed by the Spanish authorities for the commercial poultry population of Catalonia were assessed, using the scenario tree model methodology. These samplings were stratified throughout the territory of Spain and took into account the species, the types of production and their specific risks. The probabilities of detecting infection at different prevalences at both individual and holding level were estimated. Furthermore, those subpopulations that contributed more to the Se of the system were identified. The model estimated that all the designs met the requirements of the European Commission. The probability of detecting AI circulating in Catalonian poultry did not change significantly when the within-holding design prevalence varied from 30% to 10%. In contrast, when the among-holding design prevalence decreased from 5% to 1%, the probability of detecting AI was drastically reduced. The sampling of duck and goose holdings, and to a lesser extent the sampling of turkey and game bird holdings, increased the Se substantially. The Se of passive surveillance in chickens for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) were also assessed. The probability of the infected birds manifesting apparent clinical signs and the awareness of veterinarians and farmers had great influence on the probability of detecting AI. In order to increase the probability of an early detection of HPAI in chicken, the probability of performing AI specific tests when AI is suspected would need to be increased. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. The value of anticoccidials for sustainable global poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadykalo, Stefanie; Roberts, Tara; Thompson, Michelle; Wilson, Jeff; Lang, Marcelo; Espeisse, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a self-limiting disease that is universally present in poultry operations, causing extensive damage to the intestinal lining of the bird. Global economic losses from coccidiosis are estimated to be $3 billion per year. In-feed anticoccidial use has been the predominant form of coccidiosis control. However, due to widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of anticoccidials and the potential impact on human, animal, and environmental health. To investigate the benefits, risks, and alternatives to anticoccidial use, a comprehensive review of recent literature was conducted. Several live vaccines are available, which, when used in combination with anticoccidials, have been shown to help restore sensitivity of infective parasites. However, their use has been limited because of increased cost; increased susceptibility to bacterial enteritis; challenges with consistent application; and slow development of immunity. Various alternative feed products are available, but do not have a direct anticoccidial effect, and few studies have demonstrated consistent field efficacy of these products. Consumer and environmental safety of anticoccidials is monitored and assessed by governing bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of current evidence to indicate that bacterial resistance poses a public health concern. The findings from this review indicate that in the absence of alternatives, poultry production is optimized by using anticoccidials, benefiting all three pillars of sustainability, including social (bird health, welfare, and food safety), economic (production efficiency), and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors and characteristics of low pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from commercial poultry in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Tombari

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the seroprevalence of influenza A virus in various commercial poultry farms and evaluate specific risk factors as well as analyze their genetic nature using molecular assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This report summarizes the findings of a national survey realized from October 2010 to May 2011 on 800 flocks in 20 governorates. Serum samples were screened for the presence of specific influenza virus antibodies using cELISA test. Additionally, swab samples were tested by real time and conventional RT-PCR and compared with results obtained by others assays. Phylogenetic and genetic analyses of the glycoproteins were established for some strains. RESULTS: Out of the 800 chicken and turkey flocks tested by cELISA, 223 showed positive anti-NP antibodies (28.7%, 95% CI: 25.6-32.1. Significantly higher seroprevalence was found among the coastal areas compared to inland and during the autumn and winter. Broiler flocks showed significantly lower seroprevalence than layers and broiler breeders. The influenza virus infection prevalence increased after the laying phase among layer flocks. In addition, AIV seropositivity was significantly associated with low biosecurity measures. The Ag EIA and rRT-PCR tests revealed significantly higher numbers of AI positive samples as compared to cell cultures or egg inoculation. All new strains were subtyped as H9N2 by real time and conventional RT-PCR. Drift mutations, addition or deletion of glycosylation sites were likely to have occurred in the HA and NA glycoproteins of Tunisian strains resulting in multiple new amino acid substitutions. This fact may reflect different evolutionary pressures affecting these glycoproteins. The role of these newly detected substitutions should be tested. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the potential risk of AIV to avian health. Strict enforcement of biosecurity measures and possible vaccination of all poultry flocks with continuous monitoring of poultry stations

  1. Biosecurity Assessment and Seroprevalence of Respiratory Diseases in Backyard Poultry Flocks Located Close to and Far from Commercial Premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, T; Lampron, R; Hauck, R; Pitesky, M; Gallardo, R A

    2018-03-01

    Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). All visited flock owners answered a biosecurity questionnaire that assessed biosecurity measures. The questionnaire revealed that backyard poultry owners lack simple biosecurity measures such as use of dedicated shoes, their chicken sources are unreliable, and few of them benefit from veterinary oversight. Only one flock had a clear vaccination history against ND and IB. ORT, ND, IB, MS, MG, and ILT were the most seroprevalent in backyard poultry flocks with 97% (41/42), 77.5% (31/40), 75% (30/40), 73% (31/42), 69% (29/42), and 45% (19/42), respectively. The vaccinated flock was not considered in these calculations. When examining the distance between backyard flocks and the nearest commercial poultry facility, ND and MG were significantly more likely to be found in backyard flocks close to (4 miles) commercial poultry. Birds purchased directly from National Poultry Improvement Plan hatcheries showed a reduced ND, MG, and MS antibody prevalence. Wearing dedicated shoes decreased MS antibody-positive birds. Finally, history of wild bird contact had a clear effect on an increased seroprevalence of NDV and MG. Serological results suggest that backyard poultry flocks have the potential to serve as a reservoir or amplifier for poultry respiratory diseases. The information generated in this project should direct extension efforts toward emphasizing the importance of small flock biosecurity and chick acquisition sources.

  2. THE ROLE OF' POULTRY IN FOOD PRODUCTION r63

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size of poultry" natrrral flocking instinct and advances made in intensified disease control and prevention. coupled with engineering break- throughs in housing design. have all resulted in suc- cessful intensiflcation of poultry fanning. A mo- dern poultry enterprise utilising lhe abovernen- tioned adv:rntages oan prodrrce ...

  3. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat species....... The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats...

  4. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.444 Identification of major cuts of poultry products. The major cuts of single-ingredient, raw...

  5. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  6. COMPLEX PROCESSING OF CELLULOSE WASTE FROM POULTRY AND SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sklyadnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.To solve the problem of disposing of huge volumes of cellulose waste from sugar production in the form of beet pulp and waste of poultry farms in the form of poultry manure is proposed to use the joint use of two methods of thermal processing of waste - pyrolysis and gasification. The possibility of using pyrolysis applied to the waste are confirmed by experimental results. Based on the results of laboratory studies of the properties of by-products resulting from the thermal processing of the feedstock, it is proposed complex processing to produce useful products, to be implemented in the form of marketable products, and the organization's own process energy utilization. Developed flow diagram of an integrated processing said waste comprises 3 sections, which successively carried out: pyrolytic decomposition of the feedstock to obtain a secondary product in the form of solid, liquid and gas fractions, the gasification of solids to obtain combustible gas and separating the liquid fraction by distillation to obtain valuable products. The main equipment in the first region is the pyrolysis reactor cascade condensers; the second section - gasifiers layers and stream type; the third - one or more distillation columns with the necessary strapping. Proper power supply installation is organized by the use of the heat produced during combustion of the synthesis gas for heating and gasification reactor. For the developed scheme presents calculations of the heat balance of the installation, supporting the energy efficiency of the proposed disposal process. Developments carried out in the framework of the project the winner of the Youth Prize Competition Government of Voronezh region to support youth programs in the 2014-2015.

  7. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector, base year 2015 : international comparison of production costs

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, P.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the European Union (EU) is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. This report examines how lowering import levies impacts the competitiveness of the EU poultry industry. The results show that the offer price of broiler breast fil...

  8. Risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in commercial poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morales-Barrera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Exp 1 consisted of 2 trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Exp 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighted and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of FITC-D to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics and SH infection. In both trials of Exp 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05. In Exp 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. In contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest Proteobacteria. The results of the present study

  9. Commercial imagery archive product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Alysa

    1999-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience in digital imagery management and analysis for the US Government at numerous worldwide sites. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data involves with bandwidths ranging up to multi-gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client- to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of filters in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

  10. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of nine commercially available H5 vaccines against challen...

  12. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  13. Keratin Production by Decomposing Feather Waste Using Some Local Bacillus spp. Isolated from Poultry Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Salouti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feather waste is generated in large amounts as a by-product of commercial poultry processing. The main component of feather is keratin. The main purpose of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. (the keratinolytic bacteria that are able to degrade the feather for producing keratin. Methods: Bacillus spp. Were isolated from the waste of poultries located in Miyaneh city. The bacteria were grown on basal medium containing 1% hen feather as the sole source of carbon ,nitrogen, sulfur and energy at 27ºC for 7 days. Then,the isolates capable of feather degrading were identified. The Bradford method was used to assay the production of keratin in the feather samples. Different pH and temperatures were studied to determine the best conditions for production of keratinase enzyme. Results: Seven Bacillus spp. including: B. pumilis, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. macerance, B. popilliae, B. lentimorbus and B. larvae were found to be able to degrade the feather with different abilities. Conclusion: B. subtilis was found to be most productive isolate for keratinase enzyme production.

  14. Economic Analysis Of Small Scale Poultry Production In Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the production of Shika Brown commercial layers from day old to full cycle layer production (0-72weeks). A total of fifty (50) farmers were purposively interviewed using structured questionnaires. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics, farm budgeting analysis, production and profit ...

  15. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sory Diarra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics in feed (growth promoters need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2,600 regulated chicken producers. There are several antibiotics approved as feed additives available for poultry farmers. Feed recipes and mixtures greatly vary geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While sporadic reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno

  16. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  17. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... solutions are added. (a) Butter alone, or solutions of poultry broth, poultry stock, water, or edible fats... manner of addition to the products must be found acceptable by the Administrator, in all cases. The... in the product name must be printed with the same prominence, except that the words which describe...

  18. Comments on the sustenance of poultry production in Nigeria, in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sustainable feeding and feed formulation were examined. The paper argued that practitioners should look inwards for alternative feed ingredients for cheaper formulation of poultry feeds in order to continue producing affordable products for the populace. Keywords: Poultry production, Sustenance, feed ingredient, Nigeria ...

  19. Economics of poultry production in Bauchi State: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to examine the economics of poultry production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State. Cost, returns and constraints associated with poultry production under intensive system of management were examined. Four farms were randomly selected for the study. The major tools used for ...

  20. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  1. Characterization of broiler poultry production system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuza, Francis; Manishimwe, Rosine; Mahoro, Janvier; Simbankabo, Thomas; Nishimwe, Kizito

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48.6 %) and urban (37.8 %) areas and hired male youth (62.2 %) mainly aged 19-35 years. The majority of respondents (68 %) kept less than 500 birds per batch. Recordkeeping was well practiced (91.9 %) and (62.6 %) had permanent poultry houses and all farmers used deep litter system. Purchased feedstuffs were reportedly (92 %) mixed at farm level as the main feed resource. Maize bran was reported (97.06 %) the main, basal feedstuff. The mortality rates of chick and growers were 12.3 and 9.4 %, respectively. The slaughter age was reportedly 60 days with an average dressing percentage of 75.67 %. The main challenges reported were scarcity and unaffordability of quality feeds (59.5 %), lack of market access (45 %) and lack of credit (21 %). The farmers had various views on improving broiler production in Rwanda ranging from establishing feed processing industries 62.2 %, improving marketing facilities 35.1 %, increasing availability of day-old chick and access credit 27 %, to intensification of farmer training 16.2 %.

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in Danish poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hintzmann, Ann-Sofie; Sørensen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most prevalent serovars in Europe - where both poultry and poultry related products are common sources of human salmonellosis. Due to efficient control programs, the prevalence of S. Typhimurium in Danish...... poultry production is very low. Despite this, during the past decades there has been a reoccurring problem with infections with S. Typhimurium phage type DT41 in the Danish poultry production without identifying a clear source. In the end of 2013 and beginning of 2014 an increased isolation of S....... Typhimurium DT41 was noted mainly in this production, but also in other samples. To investigate this is in more detail, 47 isolates from egg layers (n = 5, 1 flock), broilers (n = 33, 13 flocks), broiler breeding flocks and hatches (n = 5; 2 flocks and 1 environmental hatchery sample), feed (n = 1), poultry...

  3. Incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a poultry processing environment and in poultry products and their rapid confirmation by multiplex PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, L M; Gilmour, A

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a poultry processing plant and in raw and cooked poultry products was determined over a 6-month period. Within the raw and cooked poultry processing environments, 46% (36 of 79) and 29% (51 of 173) of the samples contained Listeria spp. while 26% (21 of 79) and 15% (27 of 173) contained L. monocytogenes, respectively. Various sites within the processing environment were found to be consistently positive for L. monocytogenes througho...

  4. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health...] Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of.... importers and brokers on the electronic filing of import inspection applications for certain meat, poultry...

  5. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  6. Poultry production constraints: the case of Esan West LGA of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry production constraints: the case of Esan West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria. ... They also identified the lack of good quality water, and proper marketing outlets. High cost and at times ... By so doing, their resources `can be pooled together for meaningful development of their farms and the poultry industry in general.

  7. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector, base year 2015 : international comparison of production costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the European Union (EU) is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus from normal and condemned carcasses with airsacculitis in commercial poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Spanamberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carcass inspection is important for the detection of certain diseases and for monitoring their prevalence in slaughterhouses. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in commercial poultry, through mycological and histopathological diagnosis, and to verify the causal association between the aspergillosis diagnosis criteria and condemnation due to airsacculitis in broilers through a case-control study. The study was carried out with 380 samples. Lungs were collected from broilers that were condemned (95 or not condemned (285 due to airsacculitis directly from the slaughter line. Forty-six (12% lung samples were positive for A. fumigatus in mycological culture. Among all samples, 177 (46.6% presented histopathological alterations, with necrotic, fibrinous, heterophilic pneumonia; heterophilic pneumonia and lymphoid hyperplasia being the most frequent. Out of the 380 lungs analyzed, 65.2% (30 showed histopathological alterations and isolation of fungi. The statistical analysis (McNemar's chi-square test indicated a significant association between the presence of histopathological lesions and the isolation of A. fumigatus. Mycological cultivation and histopathological diagnosis increase the probability of detecting pulmonary alterations in birds condemned by the Final Inspection System, which suggests that such diagnostic criteria can improve the assessment and condemnation of birds affected by airsacculitis.

  9. Action of Antimicrobial Copper on Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Commercial Poultry Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RFR Depner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since 2008, when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA registered copper and its alloys as an antimicrobial agent for contact surfaces, research has demonstrated their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial copper against bacteria and fungi isolated from commercial poultry hatcheries in order to develop a microbiological control alternative in these environments. Samples were collected from the surfaces of hatcher baskets from two hatcheries. Mesophilic microorganisms and fungi/yeasts were isolated and standardized in concentration of 105 cells/mL. Four copper plates and four stainless steel plates were completely immersed for one minute in bacteria and fungi/yeasts solutions and left to dry for a day at room temperature. Subsequently, samples were collected from the metal plates with the aid of sterile swab and delimiter. These samples were planted onto Plate Count Agar (for mesophilic culture and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (for fungi and yeast culture and incubated at 36°C for 48 hours and at 25°C for 5-7 days, respectively. After incubation, the colonies recovered from the plates were counted according to IN 62 of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Almost all contamination was eliminated from the surface of copper plates in a single day, while the stainless steel plates proved to be innocuous to the screened microorganisms. Copper, as a contact surface, proved to have important antimicrobial action on bacteria, fungi and yeasts common to hatcheries.

  10. Prevalence, phenotypic and genetic diversity of Campylobacter in poultry fresh meat and poultry products on retail sale in Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Turchi, Barbara; Torracca, Beatrice; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Marotta, Francesca; Cerri, Domenico

    2017-03-31

    In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry fresh meat and ready‑to‑cook products was evaluated. Seventy‑three samples were collected at retail level from supermarkets and discount stores, obtaining 61.6% positivity. Of 133 Campylobacter isolates, 86 strains (Campylobacter coli, 58.1% and Campylobacter jejuni, 41.9%) were selected for characterisation on the basis of their SmaI and kpnI pulsed field gel‑electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, to exclude clonal replicates. Campylobacters resulted highly resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid (79.1%, 72.1% and 65.1%, respectively); 50% of C. coli and 13.9% of C. jejuni were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, the most important antimicrobials for human campylobacteriosis therapy. Five C. coli were resistant to 5/7 of the tested antimicrobials. HS4c was the prevailing C. jejuni serotype group (22.3%), whereas 8 other serotypes were identified in low percentages. SmaI and kpnI profiles showed a wide variability. The survey showed a high Campylobacter contamination of poultry meat and poultry products at retail level in Tuscany, Italy. A wide strains' heterogeneity and a remarkable level of strains' antimicrobial resistance have been reported, confirming the need for an improvement of specific preventive measures along the production chain.

  11. USING OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS (ESSENTIAL OIL FOR MICROBIOLOGY POULTRY AND ITS PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulltana Ajçe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is increasing of the consume of the poultry product in the World and European market. The aboveconsume is now related with the tendency to buy and consume healthy food products. Group of populations thatconsuming poultry products industry searching them safety and guarantee. The pollution of fresh and packagingpoultry meat and other poultry product derives from the environment and from the operating procedures applied in thecompanies of the production. The evaluation of their safety and quality involves also microbiological analysis ofcontrol, as an important part to evaluate and manage the risk, originated from the microbial strains presented there. Inthis framework, there are realized many scientific studies using natural antimicrobials (essential oils, drizzle etc.. toreduce the microbial load of the poultry products.

  12. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  13. 76 FR 69146 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions-Reopening of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    .... FSIS-2010-0012] RIN 0583-AD41 Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added... for 60 days the comment period for the proposed rule, ``Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry..., FSIS published the proposed rule ``Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing...

  14. Trends in the market of poultry production in the conditions of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available according to the author, in modern conditions of globalization of food markets, the researching the state of the domestic market of poultry products in order to provide the population with high-grade food products is important. It is established that the formation of demand in the poultry market is mainly due to production by domestic producers, while imports for the period under review are being reduced and meet mainly the needs of processing industry enterprises.

  15. THE STATE OF THE POULTRY PRODUCTION MARKET IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Gayduk V. I.; Kalitko S. A.; Yudin M. O.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of the marketing research of consumers and consumer preferences that affect the formation of the market of poultry products in the Krasnodar region. We have shown a composition of market participants of poultry products: agricultural organizations, private households, small farms; trade and procurement enterprises and their associations, consumers' organizations; processing plants; enterprises and organizations of industrial infrastructure (production and tech...

  16. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, Anders L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The control of human Campylobacteriosis is a priority in public health agendas all over the world. Poultry is considered a significant risk factor for human infections with Campylobacter and risk assessment models indicate that the successful implementation of Campylobacter control strategies...... in poultry will translate on a reduction of human Campylobacteriosis cases. Efficient control strategies implemented during primary production will reduce the risk of Campylobacter introduction in chicken houses and/or decrease Campylobacter concentration in infected chickens and their products. Consequently...... managers in specific decisions related to vaccination of commercial broilers for the control of Campylobacter. Epidemiological considerations and other crucial aspects including challenges associated with the quantitative part of the models are discussed in this manuscript. The outcome of the PGMs...

  17. Rural poultry production in two agro-ecological zones of Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illango, J.; Etoori, A.; Olupot, H.; Mabonga, J.

    2002-01-01

    A baseline study on rural poultry production, management and health was conducted in six selected villages in an agro-pastoral and montane zone of Uganda during the wet and dry season. In the 114 rural households visited, the farmers were interviewed by using a questionnaire. Poultry flocks were examined and samples were collected for laboratory investigations. A free-range management system with mixed poultry species was practiced by farmers in both zones. The major poultry flock parameters in the agro-pastoral and montane zone were, respectively, mean flock size of 22 (with a range of 3-65) and 17.5 (with a range of 6-60); mean hen:cock ratio of 2.6 to 1 and 4.8 to 1; mean egg production per hen per year of 8.8 and 11.5; mean hatchability of 70.8% and 85.7%; mean chick mortality of 39.6% and 28.6%. The flock ownership was single, mixed or shared among family households. Women were more involved in most of the activities regarding poultry management, although in both zones a division of labour existed within the household. Men predominantly made the decisions on sale, consumption and treatment of poultry. The most important health problems in the flocks in both zones in the two seasons were coughing, diarrhoea, fowl pox and internal parasites. It was concluded that the major constraints affecting rural poultry production in the two zones were diseases especially Newcastle disease and parasites, inadequate housing and poor feed supplementation especially in the dry season. Women had important responsibilities in rural poultry production in the two zones. The findings form the basis for an assessment of the effects of interventions on rural poultry production in the two zones. (author)

  18. Feeding and management strategies for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop
    contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production,
    growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens

    The

  19. Evolution and strategy of poultry production development in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbacaru (Pistol Zinaida

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poultry farming is a strategic branch of the livestock sector with high potential recovery in a short period of time. Today poultry farming in our country is developed in three basic systems: industrial-intensive, household-intensive and household-extensive, more importance and priority being given to intensive-industry system, the share of which in the production of eggs and meat consumption, is 50-60% of the total volume of poultry production. Intensive-industrial system is characteristic of poultry factories using biological material with valuable productive potential, are equipped with modern technological equipment, which ensures increasing the rate of production and delivery of eggs and meat, poultry achieve high production, reducing costs per unit production. In this system annually will produce 25-30 thousand tons of meat, 280-350 million eggs for consumption, including 100-150 million eggs for export.The household-intensive system is specific for small and medium farms is characteristic of which optimal dimension is considered of 1-10 thousand laying hens or up to 20-40 thousand chickens bred for meat.Household-extensive system is specific for individual poultry farms; the production obtained was mainly used to ensure family needs.

  20. EVOLUTION AND STRATEGY OF POULTRY PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinaida BARBACARU (Pistol,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poultry farming is a strategic branch of the livestock sector with high potential recovery in a short period of time. Today poultry farming in our country is developed in three basic systems: industrial-intensive, household-intensive and household-extensive, more importance and priority being given to intensive-industry system, the share of which in the production of eggs and meat consumption, is 50-60% of the total volume of poultry production. Intensive-industrial system is characteristic of poultry factories using biological material with valuable productive potential, are equipped with modern technological equipment, which ensures increasing the rate of production and delivery of eggs and meat, poultry achieve high production, reducing costs per unit production. In this system annually will produce 25-30 thousand tons of meat, 280-350 million eggs for consumption, including 100-150 million eggs for export. The household-intensive system is specific for small and medium farms is characteristic of which optimal dimension is considered of 1-10 thousand laying hens or up to 20-40 thousand chickens bred for meat. Household-extensive system is specific for individual poultry farms; the production obtained was mainly used to ensure family needs.

  1. Analysis of poultry meat production volume in Serbia from 1984. to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glamočlija Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat production has doubled in past 40 years in the world, with the tendency of constant growth, and its production volume exceeds beef, but is behind pork production. For poultry meat production it is typical that its annual increase exceeds pork as well as beef production. The biggest producers of poultry meat are Asia, North and South America and Europe. The most significant category of poultry is meat of young chicken (broilers. Cobb, Ross and Hubbard broiler provenance are most common in Serbia. The objective of this investigation was to analyse poultry meat production volume in Serbia, observed during three six-years periods - A (1984-1989, B (1994-1999 i C (2004-2009. For data processing there were used the data obtained from Statistical Yearbooks of Serbia from 1984. to 2009. It was found out that average poultry meat production in period A was 108,33 ± 7,00 thousand tonnes, than it statistically significantly decreased and in period B it was 76,67±5,54 thousand tonnes, and finally in period C it was 72,17± 5,78 thousand tonnes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31034

  2. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jonges

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48 x 10(4 genome copies/m(3. Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m(3 that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R(2 varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance.

  3. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonges, Marcel; van Leuken, Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48x104 genome copies/m3. Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m3 that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R2 varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance. PMID:25946115

  4. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonges, Marcel; van Leuken, Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48 x 10(4) genome copies/m(3). Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m(3) that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R(2) varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance.

  5. transgenesis techniques and its application in poultry production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-27

    May 27, 2015 ... (Pettite, 1998; Jahav and Siddiqui, 2007 and Scott et al.,. 2010). The last two decades have witnessed significant progress in understanding of molecular basis of the genetics of growth and development. This knowledge combined with transgenesis in poultry has the potential to enhance current breeding ...

  6. Antimicrobial drug usage for poultry production within a local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out to determine the use and misuse of antimicrobial drugs in 1he poultry industry within Ijebu North local Government, Ogun State. A questionnaire to adequately cover all relevant information needed for the study was designed, and depending on the literary level of the respondents an interview ...

  7. THE ROLE OF' POULTRY IN FOOD PRODUCTION r63

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today the reserve has dwindled to an estimated 26 days. Whenever the world food supply reaches a preca- rious level. Maltusian enthusiasts always lobby against using grains to producc livcstock and poultry. Those who apologise for the growing taste tur meat in the. "have" nations. and who would forcc all of us onto a.

  8. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON POULTRY PRODUCTION IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Adesiji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83 poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority (93.3% of the respondents are aware of climate change, 78%, 98.8% and 86.7% of the respondents agreed that temperature fluctuation, increased in sunshine intensity and global warming has a negative effects on poultry production, 72.4% of the respondents agreed that prices of feed grains are usually high in hot and dry seasons which may affect cost of production and number of birds to raise for egg and meat production in the farm, 73.5% of the respondents agreed that climate change has effect on feed grain availability, this implies that high temperature and low rainfall are climatic factors that affect general grain harvest, their supply to the market and ultimately cost of poultry production. the findings further revealed that 94% of the respondents agreed that climate change affects egg and meat production pattern and 95.2% of the respondents agreed that moist climatic conditions encouraged the distribution and development of diseases. Infrential statistics shows that there is a significant relationship between respondents' socio-economic characteristics and perception of poultry farmers on effects of climate change on poultry production since p > 0.05 (r = 0.454, p= 0.001, the findings also shows that there is a significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondents and their level of awareness of climate change since the p > 0.05 (r = 0.652, p = 0.001. it is recomended extension agents and other development agencies need to educate the poultry farmers more about the effects posed by climate change on poultry production and intensify awareness campaign to poultry farmers on how to reduce

  9. A Review of the Poultry Meat Production Industry for Food Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, N. D.; Utami, M. M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Poultry meat is an indispensable source of animal protein in human growth and development, so it is in great demand by people all over the world. Poultry meat has several advantages, namely the quality of nutrition is good enough, delicious taste, relatively affordable price, easy to get and accepted all levels of society with diverse backgrounds. The era of globalization requires competitive products, such as chicken meat in Indonesia, the current chicken meat industry is not only based on high production capacity and decreased production costs but also chicken products are safe to eat. As a consequence of trade liberalization, the poultry industry faces the threat of competition with cheaper products with better quality. The food safety of chicken meat starts from the farm, processing process until consumed. Food safety is a requirement of food products that must be handled by involving government, industry and consumers.

  10. PCR Based Detection of Shiga Toxin Producing E. coli in Commercial Poultry and Related Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homaira Anzum Himi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing E. coli (STEC is the most important foodborne pathogen which is the causal agent of mild diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS in human. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence and identification of Shiga toxin (Stx-producing E. coli in poultry, detection of its source of infection in poultry and transmission pattern to human. For this purpose a total of 150 samples (cloacal swab-60, feed -15, water-15 and egg -60 were collected and analyzed in bacteriology laboratory by cultured in different bacteriological media followed by gram’s staining, biochemical tests and Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR. The PCR was performed by targeting 16s rRNA gene and shiga toxin producing gene in E. coli. Out of 150 collected samples, E. coli was found in 81 (54% samples. Presence of E. coli was 100% in both feed (n=15 and egg (n=60, whereas 10% in cloacal swab (n=6. Water samples were totally free of E. coli. The stx2 gene was detected in all samples whether all samples were negative for stx1 gene. The study revealed that, poultry feed acts as a source of E. coli infection in poultry, which may be transmitted to environment and human via meat or eggs. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that isolated bacteria were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin.

  11. Production of biogas from poultry litter mixed with the co-substrate cow dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Roman Miah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter (a mixture of rice hulls, sawdust and chicken excreta of broilers mixed with the co-substrate cow dung and poultry droppings was evaluated under anaerobic conditions for the production of biogas (methane. Four laboratory scale reactors, R1, R2, R3 and R4, were set up with different proportions of waste poultry litter, cow dung and poultry droppings and had a 6% total solid concentration. Digestion was carried out for 50 days at room temperature, 32 ± 3 °C. Volatile solid degradation and specific gas production in the four reactors was 46%, 51.99%, 51.96%, 43% and 0.263, 0.469, 0.419, 0.221 l/g, respectively, based on the volatile solid (VS feed. The methane yields were 71%, 72.5%, 72.6% and 70%, respectively. The COD reductions were 46.1%, 50.76%, 48.23% and 45.12%, respectively. A kinetic analysis showed that the anaerobic digestion of poultry litter with a co-substrate followed first order kinetics. Among the experimental reactors, R2 (25% cow dung, 75% poultry litter gave the optimum results: a VS reduction of 51.99%, a specific gas yield of 0.469 l/g and a methane yield of 72.5%.

  12. The Role Of Rural Women In Crop And Poultry Production In Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the roles of rural women in crops and poultry production in rural areas in Cross River State, and their contribution to food production and preservation. The paper also revealed that rural women participate in food production and bearing responsibility for food marketing and distribution, family health, ...

  13. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... freezer promptly under such supervision by an inspector as is necessary to assure preservation of the...

  14. effects of climate change on poultry production in ondo state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-19

    Mar 19, 2013 ... warming has a negative effects on poultry production, 72.4% of the respondents agreed that prices of feed grains are usually high in hot and dry seasons which may affect cost of production and number of birds to raise for egg and meat production in the farm, 73.5% of the respondents agreed that climate.

  15. Radiation processing of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Hauser, G.A.M.; Clarke, I.R.; Thomas, A.C.

    1977-06-01

    Gamma irradiation, through its ability to inactivate microorganisms, has been shown to effectively extend the shelf life of commercially slaughtered chickens from 2-4 d to 14-21 d under normal refrigeration temperatures. Although a high percentage of carcasses were contaminated with Salmonella, the level of contamination was relatively low; the doses applied for shelf-life extention thus also served to eliminate this pathogen. Even when carcasses were artificially inoculated with Salmonella of levels several orders of magnitude higher than normal, the recommended radiation doses (3 or 5 kGy) were still capable of rendering the product 'pathogen free'. Irradiated poultry could not be distinguished organoleptically from control samples, even when twice the maximum recommended dose was applied. In conclusion, the irradiation of commercially produced poultry in South Africa with relatively low doses can be of significant benefit by (1) markedly extending the acceptable shelf life and (2) eliminating pathogenic bacteria present on the commercially available product [af

  16. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  17. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat or...

  18. Commercial production of chopped firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhiaho, A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the reseach project was to improve the competitiveness of chopped firewood by producing information that can help to reduce production and distribution costs as well as increase the quality of chopped firewood produced. The sub-project 'New logistics solutions for the chopped firewood production process' studied current production and distribution efficiency of commerical chopped firewood and tried to find cost saving methods. The sub-project 'The current situation of the firewood trade in Europe' surveyed firewood trade volumes, operational methods and the firewood production equipment found on sale in European countries. Information about the chopped firewood trade and chopping device market was for the most part an estimate. This is because there is no research and statistical information available. Indicative information was obtained from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Finland. The sub-project 'Productivity, costs and development targets of new chopped firewood machines' researched ten new firewood processing devices suitable for professional and domestic use by means of work-study methods. The research studied productivity and chopping costs, and analysed the quality of chopped firewood manufactured by the firewood processing devices. It also analysed the occupational safety and ergonomics of chopping work and suggestions were made for the device manufacturers on how to develop chopping devices. Sub-project 'The artificial drying and storage management for chopped firewood' carried out field tests on different types of cold and warm air dryers being used by chopped firewood entrepreneurs. The aim was to find the most promising dryer type according to its cost and operating efficiency. In addition, the suitability of resistance based electronic wood moisture meter for measuring the moisture content of single chopped firewood pieces was also studied. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  20. [Molecular typing ofSalmonellaisolates from poultry production chains in four cities of Heilongjiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X J; Liang, X; Bai, L; Li, W W; Yan, J; Wang, K L; Li, X

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To study the PFGE type of Salmonella ( S. ) strains isolated from poultry production chains (hatching, breeding, slaughter, distribution and retail) of four cities in Heilongjiang province. Methods: DNA collected from S . strains in 2012 was digested by Xba Ⅰ according to the standard PFGE protocol of US CDC. The PFGE patterns were then analyzed by BioNumerics software. Results: The contamination of S . appeared most serious during the process of slaughtering (13.84%). PFGE was used to determine the genetic relationships between these isolates from poultry production chains, 89 pulsotypes from 150 S. enteritidis isolates and 55 pulsotypes from 65 S. indiana isolates showed considerable diversity. The same pulsotypes of S. enteritidis can be found between different food chains and cities. In contrast, no identical pulsotypes of S. indiana were found between different food chain and cities. In these four cities, the above said two kinds of S. were from different sources. The source of S. contamination in HLJ2 city had been traced back to the chain of poultry hatching. Conclusions: The distribution of pulsetypes of the S. enteritidis and S. indiana isolates was from different regions and the dominant bands were also different between the chains of poultry production. Cross contamination existed in slaughterhouses and contamination can be traced back to the poultry hatching.

  1. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  2. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., when raw and when cooked. Table V Product name Percent skin Raw Cooked Boneless Turkey Breast or Boneless Turkey Breast Roll 14 Boneless Turkey Thigh or Boneless Turkey Thigh Roll 8 Boneless Turkey or...

  3. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Best broiler husbandry system and perceived importance of production aspects by Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and veterinarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Kemp, B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the views of Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians regarding: (1) best broiler husbandry systems; (2) the importance of production aspects of broiler production and (3) the relation between best husbandry system and the importance of

  5. The numbers game: Campylobacter survival in poultry products through the pH effects of polyphosphate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter species are responsible for the largest number of food-borne gastrointestinal bacterial infections in the developed world. Poultry products are a primary pathway for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply. Undercooked poultry products and the cross-contamination of ot...

  6. Assessment of biosecurity measures against highly pathogenic avian influenza risks in small-scale commercial farms and free-range poultry flocks in the northcentral Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Odetokun, I A

    2011-04-01

    There is considerable global concern over the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that has affected domestic poultry flocks in Nigeria and other parts of the world. There have been little investigations on the proposition that free-range flocks are potentially at higher risk of HPAI than confined small-scale commercial enterprises. The objective is to analyse the biosecurity measures instituted in the small-scale commercial poultry farms and established free-range bird flocks owned by households in the rural areas and qualitatively assess the risk status at the two levels of poultry management systems in northcentral Nigeria. We used data collected through questionnaire administration to farms and flock owners and subjected them to a traffic light system model to test for relative risks of HPAI infection based on the biosecurity measures put in place at the farm and flock levels. The results indicate that free-range flocks are at lower risk compared to small-scale commercial operations. These findings are plausible as birds from free-range flocks have more opportunities to contact wild bird reservoirs of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains than small-scale commercial poultry, thus providing them with constant challenge and maintenance of flock immunity. The development of efficient and effective biosecurity measures against poultry diseases on small-scale commercial farms requires adequate placement of barriers to provide segregation, cleaning and disinfection, while concerted community-led sanitary measures are required for free-range poultry flocks in the developing topical and subtropical economies. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. A SYBR Green real-time PCR assay to detect and quantify pork meat in processed poultry meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sónia; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Species identification in meat products has grown in interest in recent years since these foodstuffs are susceptible targets for fraudulent labelling. In this work, a real-time PCR approach based on SYBR Green dye was proposed for the quantitative detection of pork meat in processed meat products. For the development of the method, binary meat mixtures containing known amounts of pork meat in poultry meat were used to obtain a normalised calibration model from 0.1 to 25% with high linear correlation and PCR efficiency. The method revealed high specificity by melting curve analysis, being successfully validated through its application to blind meat mixtures, which confirmed its adequacy for pork meat determination. The fully applicability of the method was further demonstrated in commercial meat products, allowing verification of labelling compliance and identification of meat species in processed foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Ikonen, Ilona; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Raninen, Kaisa; Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Pelkonen, Sinikka

    2012-11-16

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on the survival of ExPEC as strains from

  9. Determining system boundaries on commercial broiler chicken production system using ISO 14040/14044 guideline: A case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, ‘A. A.; Suffian, S. A.; Al-Hazza, M. H. F.; Yusof, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    The demand of poultry product in Malaysia market shows an escalation throughout the year and expected to increase in the future. The expansion of poultry production has led to environmental concern in relation to their operational impact to environmentAt present, assessment of waste management of poultry production in Malaysia is lacking. A case study research was conducted in a commercial broiler farm to identify and assess the system boundaries in the lifecycle supply chain of broiler chicken production using ISO 14040/44 guidelines. ISO 14040/44 standard includes Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework guidelines to evaluate environmental influence associated with a product/process throughout its life span. All attributes associated with broiler operation is defined and the system boundaries is determined to identify possible inputs and outputs in the case study. This paper discuss the initial stage in the LCA process, which set the context of the research and prepare for the stage of Life Cycle Inventory.

  10. Small-Scale Family Poultry Production As A Substantial Source Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and ranking. The result showed that the 3 most available and preferred species of poultry were local chicken (47.5%), layer birds (21.9%) and broilers (17.5%). Most of the respondents agreed that although productivity of local fowl had fallen compared ...

  11. The effects of high pressure treatments on C. jejuni in ground poultry products containing polyphosphate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinades containing polyphosphates have been previously implicated in the enhanced survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry product exudates. The enhanced Campylobacter survival was attributed primarily to the ability of some polyphosphates to change the pH of the exudate to one more amenable to ...

  12. Meta-analysis as a tool to study crop productivity response to poultry litter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research on the use of poultry litter (PL) under different agricultural practices in the USA has shown both negative and positive effects on crop productivity (either yield or aboveground biomass). However, these experimental results are substantially dependent on the experimental set-up, ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  14. Radiation processing of foods: microbial aspects with special reference to fish, meat and poultry products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkar, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    After explaining the mode of action of ionizing radiation on microorganisms and factors affecting radiation sensitivity of microorganisms, advantages of radiation processing of foods are described with special reference to fish, meat , poultry products and sea foods. (M.G.B.)

  15. Risk profiles of pork and poultry meat and risk ratings of various pathogen/product combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragas, M; Skandamis, P N; Drosinos, E H

    2008-08-15

    Risk profiles of pork and poultry meat were carried out using an Excel-based software program, Risk Ranger. It is a semi-quantitative risk estimator answering various questions relating to the probability of exposure to a hazard, susceptibility of the population of interest, severity of the illness caused by the hazard if present and probability of food containing an infectious dose. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative inputs were used to estimate and rank the risk of various hazards/food combinations. Risk scores provided by the tool were characterized as low, medium and high. Also, health risk was estimated separately, where needed, for low and high risk populations. Low risk scores were obtained for Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) for low risk population. High risk scores were obtained for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in raw pork products (both low and high risk populations). Moderate risk scores for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes in processed pork or poultry-meat products (ready-to-eat or to be reheated) and partially cooked pork products were also obtained (low risk population). Scores for Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus and various product types were mostly in the "medium" risk category, except for S. aureus/ready-to-eat pork products able to support growth of the organism, which fell into the high risk category. Campylobacter spp. gave moderate risk scores with one exception (raw poultry products), whereas Y. enterocolitica showed combinations of low risk and few of medium risk. High risk pathogen/product combinations identified were: 1) temperature abused, ready-to-eat pork and/or poultry-meat products with extended shelf life and cross-contaminated by L. monocytogenes (high risk population), EHEC (high risk population) or S. aureus (all population), 2) partially cooked or processed intended to be reheated pork products cross-contaminated by L. monocytogenes

  16. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  17. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates originating from joint lesions and the respiratory tract of commercial poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, W.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Feberwee, A.

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial poultry to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin was examined. Three isolates originated from joint lesions and 14 were from the respiratory tract. The type strain M. synoviae WVU 1853 was

  18. Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Wilbrink, B.; Conyn, M.; Natrop, G.; Nat, H. van der; Vennema, H.; Meijer, A.; Steenbergen, J. van; Fouchier, R.; Osterhaus, A.; Bosman, A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 started at the end of February, 2003, in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Although the risk of transmission of these viruses to humans was initially thought to be low, an outbreak investigation was launched

  19. Developments in commercially produced microbials at Biochem Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lublinkhof; Douglas H. Ross

    1985-01-01

    Biochem Products is part of a large industrial and scientific family - the Solvay Group. Solvay, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium is a multinational company with 46,000 employees worldwide. In the U.S., our working partners include a large polymer manufacturer, a peroxygen producer and a leading poultry and animal health products company. Biochem Products is a...

  20. 78 FR 14635 - HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency Verification..., 2012, Federal Register document ``HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-to-Eat Comminuted Poultry... additional 45 days for establishments that produce not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) comminuted chicken or turkey...

  1. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... THE UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 exists. (a...

  2. Observational study of the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. from different poultry production systems in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Linda A; Essack, Sabiha Y

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are important foodborne pathogens that cause acute diarrheal illness, and infection is often associated with contaminated poultry. In a blind observational study, the prevalence and resistance profiles of thermophilic Campylobacter strains collected from different poultry production systems were tested against the clinically used antibiotics ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. Campylobacter strains were isolated from chickens in rural production systems, a free-range commercial facility, and industrially raised broiler and egg-laying chickens all situated in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Isolates were collected from the chicken cecae and were identified with conventional methods and tested for antibiotic resistance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute agar dilution method. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolates in chickens was 68% (56 samples) in rural production, 47% (140 samples) in commercial free-range broilers, 47% (133 samples) in industrial broilers, and 94% (34 samples) in industrial layer hens. Isolates from the rurally raised chickens showed significantly (P resistance against ciprofloxacin (7.9%), erythromycin (0%), and tetracycline (21.6%) than those from commercially produced chickens. Isolates from the commercially raised chickens (free range and industrial) were highly resistant to tetracycline (98.9 to 100%). The incidence of gentamicin and streptomycin resistance was 1.6 and 11.5%, respectively, in commercial free-range broilers, 1.7 and 16.4%, respectively, in industrially raised broilers, and 12.9 and 40%, respectively, in industrially raised layers. It is possible that variations among the poultry production systems, including antimicrobial usage, result in differences in antibiotic resistance profiles in Campylobacter.

  3. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Pre-packaged Processed Meat and Poultry Products to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures for the irradiation of pre-packaged refrigerated and frozen processed meat and poultry products. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines "meat" (including poultry and game) as "the edible part of any mammal slaughtered in an abattoir," and "poultry meat" as "the edible part of slaughtered domesticated birds, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons." (CAC/RCP 13-1976) Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This guide addresses all refrigerated and frozen meat and poultry products NOT covered by Guide F 1356. 1.3 This guide provides information regarding absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load. Such doses are typically less than 10 kilogray (kGy).

  4. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  5. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, G D; Behura, N C; Sardar, K K; Mishra, P K

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. The overall regression was significant (pvariables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (pvariables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these variables in adverse weathers may increase production.

  6. Integration of a linear accelerator into a production line of mechanically deboned separated poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Theo; Volle, Christophe

    2000-03-01

    Linear accelerators, commonly called Linacs, are being used for different industrial processes. This kind of machine produces high power electron beams and can treat many products with a high throughput. The main application of a Linac is the sterilization of medical disposable devices, polymerization and decontamination of food products. Salmonella commonly contaminates poultry. Thanks to E-beam treatment, it eradicates the pathogen quickly and permits the use of meat that should have been thrown away because of its infection. The world's first Linac dedicated to treat mechanically deboned poultry meat is located in Brittany at the Société des Protéines Industrielles. It is a Thomson CSF Linac product, the CIRCE II, with an energy of 10 MeV and a power of 10 kW. This Linac has been used for more than 8 years, and its technology is fully proven.

  7. Integration of a linear accelerator into a production line of mechanically deboned separated poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, Theo; Volle, Christophe

    2000-01-01

    Linear accelerators, commonly called Linacs, are being used for different industrial processes. This kind of machine produces high power electron beams and can treat many products with a high throughput. The main application of a Linac is the sterilization of medical disposable devices, polymerization and decontamination of food products. Salmonella commonly contaminates poultry. Thanks to E-beam treatment, it eradicates the pathogen quickly and permits the use of meat that should have been thrown away because of its infection. The world's first Linac dedicated to treat mechanically deboned poultry meat is located in Brittany at the Societe des Proteines Industrielles. It is a Thomson CSF Linac product, the CIRCE II, with an energy of 10 MeV and a power of 10 kW. This Linac has been used for more than 8 years, and its technology is fully proven. (author)

  8. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum at Batna Commercial poultry farms in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzha Heleili

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in broiler and layer chickens in the area of Batna, eastern Algeria. This investigation was conducted during the period from 2008 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 505 sera samples were collected and tested by serum plate agglutination (SPA test using Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antigens (Soleil Diagnostic to detect the presence of antibodies against MS and MG. Results: The overall prevalence of MS and MG infection in the 27 flocks visited in this investigation were recorded as 66.33% and 69.90% respectively. Seroprevalence of MG infection was found significantly (p<0.05 higher during winter season (61.48% than in summer (47.74% while MS infection is more dominant in summer (91.25% against 46.69%. Again this was recorded in different age groups, with significantly higher occurrence in young compared to adult with 85.14% in layer hens and 90.73% in broiler chickens. On the other hand, the seroprevalence of MG and MS infection was found little (p>0.05 higher in large flocks (76.97% in comparison to small flocks (63.63%. The highest prevalence (76.59% of mycoplasmal infection in layer hens was found in Lohman strain. Conclusion: It has been found that MG and MS infections are still important disease problems in poultry farms in Algeria. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 709-712

  9. Utilization of a novel autologous killed tri-vaccine (serogroups B [Typhimurium], C [Mbandaka] and E [Orion]) for Salmonella control in commercial poultry breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, Anthony; Groves, Peter J; Cox, Julian M

    2010-02-01

    An autologous killed trivalent vaccine (3x10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]), based on three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium - serogroup B, Mbandaka - serogroup C, and Orion - serogroup E) prevalent in the flocks of Australian poultry companies, was developed using Salenvac techniques. At 20 weeks, hens vaccinated at 12 and 17 weeks as well as non-vaccinated hens were challenged (250 microl of 10(7) CFU) with autologous and heterologous serovars belonging to serogroup B (Typhimurium and Agona), serogroup C (Mbandaka and Infantis) and serogroup E (Orion and Zanzibar). Overall, vaccination resulted in a significant difference in carriage of Salmonella between non-vaccinated and vaccinated commercial Cobb hens (P 0.05) could be determined for serogroup E. All vaccinated flocks produced a significant antibody response (P<0.001) to the S. Typhimurium vaccine strain, measured using a S. Typhimurium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Guildhay), which peaked at 20 weeks of age, with 39% of the hens positive. Maternal antibodies were detected in 16% of the yolks from eggs produced by these flocks. There was a significant difference after challenge with Salmonella (P <0.05) among 1-day-old chicks from vaccinated versus non-vaccinated parents, when challenged using 10(4) CFU but not when challenged with 10(8) CFU. The success of this trial resulted in the incorporation of this vaccine into a Salmonella control system in commercial broiler breeder production.

  10. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host......’s genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection...... commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample...

  11. 75 FR 82148 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... poultry products inspection regulations to require nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single... cuts: This final rule requires nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and... in the voluntary nutrition labeling program to provide nutrition labeling for the major cuts of...

  12. Detection and identification of food-borne pathogens of the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter by multiplex PCR in poultry and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, C; Hess, M

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect and differentiate food-borne pathogens of the three genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter in a single step procedure. One common reverse primer and three genus-specific forward primers were designed by hybridizing to the 16S rRNA of selected reference strains. Besides the species with significance as food-borne pathogens isolated from poultry meat--Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Arcobacter butzleri and Helicobacter pullorum--several other members of these genera were tested to determine the specificity of the designed multiplex PCR. In total, 20 ATCC and NCTC reference strains of Campyobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter were used to evaluate the PCR. Specific amplificates were obtained from all thermophilic species of Campylobacter as well as from species of Arcobacter and Helicobacter. No amplification product was obtained from the non-thermophilic Campylobacter, C. hyointestinalis and C. fetus. Furthermore, a total of 43 field strains of the three genera isolated from poultry, pigs, cattle and humans were investigated using this PCR. To confirm the classification of 10 H. pullorum strains the 16S rRNAs were sequenced. The developed PCR is a helpful diagnostic tool to detect and differentiate Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter isolated from poultry and poultry products.

  13. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  14. Multi-Criteria Analysis to Prioritize Energy Sources for Ambience in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DC Collatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper intends to outline a model of multi-criteria analysis to pinpoint the most suitable energy source for heating aviaries in poultry broiler production from the point of view of the farmer and under environmental logic. Therefore, the identification of criteria was enabled through an exploratory study in three poultry broiler production units located in the mountain region of Rio Grande do Sul. In order to identify the energy source, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied. The criteria determined and validated in the research contemplated the cost of energy source, leadtime, investment in equipment, energy efficiency, quality of life and environmental impacts. The result of applying the method revealed firewood as the most appropriate energy for heating. The decision support model developed could be replicated in order to strengthen the criteria and energy alternatives presented, besides identifying new criteria and alternatives that were not considered in this study.

  15. Biogas production from poultry rendering plant anaerobic digesters: systems comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  16. Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using structured questionnaire while analytical tools used were multiple regression analysis and paired t –test statistic. The findings showed that age, rearing experience, Total Variable cost, depreciation and household size stood out as the major determinants of productivity while impacts were felt on ...

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Brazilian poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Samara P; Drescher, Guilherme; Barth, Valdir C; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles and presence of resistance determinants and integrons were evaluated in Salmonella enterica strains from Brazilian poultry. The analysis of 203 isolates showed that those from the poultry environment (88 isolates) were significantly more resistant to antimicrobials than isolates from other sources, particularly those isolated from poultry by-product meal (106 isolates). Thirty-seven isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. Class 1 integrons were detected in 26 isolates, and the analysis of the variable region between the 5' conserved segment (CS) and 3' CS of each class 1 integron-positive isolate showed that 13 contained a typical 3' CS and 14 contained an atypical 3' CS. One Salmonella Senftenberg isolate harbored two class 1 integrons, showing both typical and atypical 3' CSs. The highest percentage of resistance was found to sulfonamides, and sul genes were detected in the majority of the resistant isolates. Aminoglycoside resistance was detected in 50 isolates, and aadA and aadB were present in 28 and 32 isolates, respectively. In addition, strA and strB were detected in 78.1 and 65.6% isolates resistant to streptomycin, respectively. Twenty-one isolates presented reduced susceptibility to β-lactams and harbored bla(TEM), bla(CMY), and/or bla(CTX-M). Forty isolates showed reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, and most presented tet genes. These results highlight the importance of the environment as a reservoir of resistant Salmonella, which may enable the persistence of resistance determinants in the poultry production chain, contributing, therefore, to the debate regarding the impacts that antimicrobial use in animal production may exert in human health.

  18. Sustainable coccidiosis control in poultry production: the role of live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Cherry, T E; Danforth, H D; Richards, G; Shirley, M W; Williams, R B

    2002-05-01

    The development of new methods of administering coccidiosis vaccines has facilitated their use in the hatchery and thereby improved prospects for the economic vaccination of broilers. The acquisition of protective immunity to Eimeria species is boosted by further exposure to infection after vaccination. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of non-attenuated and attenuated vaccines are considered and the key role that oocyst production plays in establishing and maintaining uniform immunity in a flock of chickens is discussed. In addition to immunisation, a possible advantage to the application of certain vaccines is that their use could repopulate poultry houses with drug-sensitive organisms. Theoretical rotation programmes in which the use of drugs is alternated with that of vaccines are described. Variability of the cross-protective immune response between strains of the same species should be considered during vaccine development and subsequent use. The significance of less common species of Eimeria, not included in all vaccines, also needs to be assessed. An important consideration is the occurrence of pathogens other than Eimeria (such as the bacterium Clostridium) in flocks given coccidiosis vaccines and the methods by which they might be controlled. More research is required into the relationship between bacterial and viral infections of poultry and coccidiosis vaccination. Vaccines need to be developed that are simple to apply and cost effective for use in areas of the world where small-scale poultry production is commonplace. In the near future it is likely that more live vaccines based upon oocysts derived from attenuated strains of Eimeria will be developed but in the longer term vaccines will be based on the selective presentation to the host of specific molecules that can induce protective immunity. This achievement will require significant investment from the private and public sectors, and, if successful, will facilitate the sustainable

  19. Assessing the Performance of Clostridium perfringens Cooling Models for Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, T B; Juneja, V K; Thippareddi, H H; Schaffner, D W; Bronstein, P A; Silverman, M; Cook, L V

    2015-08-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products when the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP uncured beef, chicken, and pork models; Smith-Schaffner version 3; and UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor) were evaluated for relative performance in predicting growth of C. perfringens under dynamic temperature conditions encountered during cooling of cooked, uncured meat and poultry products. The predicted growth responses from the models were extensively compared with those observed in food. Data from 188 time-temperature cooling profiles (176 for single-rate exponential cooling and 12 for dual-rate exponential cooling) were collected from 17 independent sources (16 peer-reviewed publications and one report) for model evaluation. Data were obtained for a variety of cooked products, including meat and poultry slurries, ground meat and poultry products with and without added ingredients (e.g., potato starch, sodium triphosphate, and potassium tetrapyrophosphate), and processed products such as ham and roast beef. Performance of the models was evaluated using three sets of criteria, and accuracy was defined within a 1- to 2-log range. The percentages of accurate, fail-safe, or fail-dangerous predictions for each cooling model differed depending on which criterion was used to evaluate the data set. Nevertheless, the combined percentages of accurate and fail-safe predictions based on the three performance criteria were 34.66 to 42.61% for the PMP 7.0 beef broth model, 100% for the PMIP cooling models for uncured beef, uncured pork and uncured chicken, 80.11 to 93.18% for the Smith-Schaffner cooling model, and 74.43 to 85.23% for the UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor model during single-rate exponential chilling. Except for the PMP 7.0 broth model, the other five cooling models (PMIP, Smith-Schaffner, and UK IFR ComBase) are

  20. Air pollution and their mitigation measures in Brazilian poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Dalólio, Felipe; Nogueira da Silva, Jadir; Teixeira Albino, Luiz Fernando; Moreira, Joerley; Barreto Mendes, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian broiler industry is the most prominent branch in farming, due to its high levels of productivity. However, there is a growing concern about the environmental damages caused by such an activity, in special the atmospheric air pollution, as a consequence of the high volume of residues generated and the damages made to the environment. Air pollution, despite being most of the time detected by undesirable odoriferous substances, can be caused by numerous atmospheric poll...

  1. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, Marcel; van Leuken, Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry

  2. Impact of Built-up-Litter and Commercial Antimicrobials on Salmonella and Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Carcasses Processed at a Pilot Mobile Poultry-Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaWang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (MPPU produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of USDA poultry products inspection act. Limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of MPPU-processed poultry carcasses. This study evaluated the Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on MPPU-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on broilers. In study I, straight-run Hubbard × Cobb broilers (147 were reared for 38 days on clean-shavings (CS, 75 or built-up-litter (BUL, 72 and processed at an MPPU. Aerobic plate counts (APCs, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and yeast/molds (Y/M of carcasses were analyzed on petrifilms. Ceca and carcass samples underwent microbial analyses for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. using the modified USDA method and confirmed by API-20e test (Salmonella, latex agglutination immunoassay (Campylobacter, and Gram staining (Campylobacter. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (CadF gene identified the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli in ceca and on carcasses. In study II, fresh chilled broiler carcasses were spot inoculated with C. jejuni (4.5 log10 CFU/mL and then undipped, or dipped into peroxyacetic acid (PAA (1,000 ppm, lactic acid (5%, lactic and citric acid blend (2.5%, sodium hypochlorite (69 ppm, or a H2O2–PAA mix (SaniDate® 5.0, 0.25% for 30 s. Surviving C. jejuni was recovered onto Brucella agar. APCs, coliforms, and E. coli populations were similar (P > 0.05 on CS and BUL carcasses. Carcasses of broilers raised on BUL contained a greater (P < 0.05 Y/M population (2.2 log10 CFU/mL than those reared on CS (1.8 log10 CFU/mL. Salmonella was not detected in any ceca samples, whereas 2.8% of the carcasses from BUL were present with Salmonella. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni was lower (P < 0.05, and C. coli was similar (P > 0

  3. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  4. The Consumption of Poultry Products in Sivas Province and Factors Affecting on the Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi Bircan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, face-to-face surveys were conducted with 461 families in order to determine the consumption values of poultry products in Sivas city centre and the factors affecting them. 85.5% of the participants are in the age range of 18-54, which is considered as the active age group. The sum of high school and college graduates was found to be 68.7%. In terms of monthly food intake, the difference between the income groups was significant and the average monthly food intake was calculated as TL 595.44. In terms of the proportion of poultry products among monthly food expenditures, significant differences were determined among the income groups and the average of the participants was determined as 10.49%. The difference observed in the monthly income of the household income groups was significant, average monthly egg consumption is calculated as 34.47 Units/Month and annual egg consumption per person is calculated as 123.40 Units/year. The difference in monthly household chicken’s consumption values between income groups was found to be significant, monthly household average consumption of chicken meat is 4.13 Kg/Month, average monthly consumption of chicken meat per person is 14.89 Kg/Year. On the consumption of poultry meet, family income level, number of family members and occupational groups were effective, but these factors as well as education levels were effective on egg consumption.

  5. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establishment may produce a new product for test marketing provided labeling for the product has been approved... product who has a total plant quality control system or plan for controlling such products, after ante... entering or at official establishments; examination and other requirements. (a) No poultry product...

  6. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OF A FOREIGN MULTINATIONAL IN BRAZILIAN POULTRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Barros de Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC. Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis of the current logistics process of the Company, identifying the strategies adopted and the advantages of the new process. In order to achieve the objectives, the study is based on the theoretical study of Porter's five competitive forces, SWOT analysis, generic strategies adopted to achieve return on investment and, based on issues such as import , logistics, warehousing and distribution center. The survey shows that deployment of the DC, the strategy involves the insertion in the national market, specifically in São Paulo that is the biggest market of laying hens in the country to gain competitive advantage, and the multinational also adopts the strategy generic differentiation, with regard to technology and product quality. Despite the high costs of construction and maintenance of the DC, they represent a barrier to market entry, have no financial risk for the multinational enterprise, since this deployment will also increase the demand for the product, allowing the return on invested capital.

  7. Coccidiosis in poultry: anticoccidial products, vaccines and other prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Landman, W J M

    2011-09-01

    Coccidiosis in chickens is a parasitic disease with great economic significance, which has been controlled successfully for decades using mainly anticoccidial products. However, large-scale and long-term use of anticoccidial drugs has led to the worldwide development of resistance against all these drugs. In order to minimize the occurrence of resistance, the rotation of various anticoccidial drugs in single and/or shuttle programmes is used. Unfortunately, this has not solved the anticoccidial resistance problem. Recently, live anticoccidial vaccines have been incorporated into rotation programmes, resulting in an increasing incidence of anticoccidial drug-sensitive Eimeria spp. field isolates, which may ameliorate the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs. Nevertheless, possible upcoming bans restricting the use of anticoccidials as feed additives, consumer concerns on residues and increasing regulations have prompted the quest for alternative coccidiosis control strategies. Although management and biosecurity measures could halt the introduction of Eimeria spp. to a farm, in practice they do not suffice to prevent coccidiosis outbreaks. Phytotherapy, aromatherapy and pre- and probiotics either show conflicting, non-consistent or non-convincing results, and have therefore not been applied at a large scale in the field. So far, live attenuated and non-attenuated anticoccidial vaccines have proved to be the most solid and successful coccidiosis prevention and control strategy. Despite the drawbacks associated with their production and use, their popularity is increasing. If with time, the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines can be improved, they could represent the next generation of highly efficient and low-cost anticoccidial strategies.

  8. Survey of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekue, F.N.; Pone, K.D.; Mafeni, M.J.; Nfi, A.N.; Njoya, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area in Cameroon was conducted using a baseline survey covering the rainy and dry seasons from December, 1999-June, 2000. This survey focused mainly on the characterization of the flock size and structure, housing system, feeding, marketing of chickens, health, flock breeding and ownership patterns. The results showed that among poultry species surveyed, chickens predominated in all households, followed by ducks (15.4%) and pigeons (7.7%). A cock had access to about 2-3 hens and one hen had a brood of 1-3 chicks at a time with an overall higher hen/cock and chicks/hen ratio for the dry season. Production and reproduction performance results showed that hens laid about 3 clutches of 12 eggs per year and this was similar for both seasons. The most predominant disease symptoms in descending order of importance included diarrhoea, coughing and ectoparasitism. Although the overall disease occurrence rate was high in growers, chicks suffered from many unclassified ailments. From the survey results, ethno-veterinary therapy featured as the most frequent method of treating diseases in rural poultry in the Bamenda area. With regard to flock ownership and management patterns, the survey results showed that women owned birds in the majority of the cases (38.5%) followed by men (23.1%) and children (15.3%). Although all gender categories were involved in village chicken management, the greatest participation came from women, followed by men, children and the family as a whole. Construction of shelters was mainly a job for the men with assistance from the children. Women were mostly involved in providing water to the birds, preparing supplementation rations and selling eggs. Finally, with regard to household decision making on issues related to poultry management, men played the leading role (66.7%), followed by women (28.4%) and then children (3.7%). (author)

  9. High pressure inactivation of relevant target microorganisms in poultry meat products and the evaluation of pressure-induced protein denaturation of marinated poultry under different high pressure treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgall, Johanna; Hertel, Christian; Bindrich, Ute; Heinz, Volker; Toepfl, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the possibility of extending shelf life of marinated poultry meat products by high pressure processing was evaluated. Relevant spoilage and pathogenic strains were selected and used as target microorganisms (MOs) for challenge experiments. Meat and brine were inoculated with MOs and treated at 450 MPa, 4 °C for 3 min. The results of inactivation show a decreasing pressure tolerance in the series Lactobacillus > Arcobacter > Carnobacterium > Bacillus cereus > Brochothrix thermosphacta > Listeria monocytogenes. Leuconostoc gelidum exhibited the highest pressure tolerance in meat. A protective effect of poultry meat was found for L. sakei and L. gelidum. In parallel, the influence of different marinade formulations (pH, carbonates, citrates) on protein structure changes during a pressure treatment was investigated. Addition of sodium carbonate shows a protection against denaturation of myofibrillar proteins and provides a maximum water-holding capacity. Caustic marinades allowed a higher retention of product characteristics than low-pH marinades.

  10. Production, Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Protease from Streptomyces sp. MAB18 Using Poultry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchanathan Manivasagan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value-added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of protease on poultry waste, with the subsequent use of the same poultry waste for the extraction of antioxidants. An extracellular protease-producing strain was isolated from Cuddalore coast, India, and identified as Streptomyces sp. MAB18. Its protease was purified 17.13-fold with 21.62% yield with a specific activity of 2398.36 U/mg and the molecular weight was estimated as 43 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8–10 and temperature 50–60°C and it was most stable up to pH 12 and 6–12% of NaCl concentration. The enzyme activity was reduced when treated with Hg2+, Pb2+, and SDS and stimulated by Fe2+, Mg2+, Triton X-100, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium sulphite, and β-mercaptoethanol. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of protease were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, such as DPPH radical-scavenging activity, O2 scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, Fe2+ chelating activity, and reducing power. The enzyme showed important antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 78±0.28 mg/mL. Results of the present study indicate that the poultry waste-derived protease may be useful as supplementary protein and antioxidant in the animal feed formulations.

  11. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  12. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  13. 41 CFR 101-29.213 - Commercial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial product. 101-29.213 Section 101-29.213 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.213 Commercial product. A commercial product is any item, component, or...

  14. Analysis of risk factors from salmonella infections and determination of critical control points in poultry industry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.

  15. Radiotracer studies of agrochemical residues in meat, milk and related products of livestock and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The joint FAO/IAEA programme was initiated in 1981 and terminates with this report. The specific objectives of the programme have been to evaluate the magnitude, fate and significance of agricultural chemical residues in edible tissues and by-products of livestock and poultry, aided by radiotracer techniques. It was anticipated that the data arising from studies conducted under this programme would be useful in assessing the toxicological significance of studied chemicals to exposed animals and to humans who may consume potentially polluted meat, milk or eggs. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  16. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, I; Joardar, S N; Ganguli, D; Das, P K; Sarkar, U

    2015-02-01

    On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (pbiosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  17. Biohydrogen production from dual digestion pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse sludge by anaerobic self-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittijunda, Sureewan [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added Agricultural Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); O-thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    Poultry slaughterhouse sludge from chicken processing wastewater treatment plant was tested for their suitability as a substrate and inoculum source for fermentation hydrogen production. Dual digestion of poultry slaughterhouse sludge was employed to produce hydrogen by batch anaerobic self-fermentation without any extra-seeds. The sludge (5% TS) was dual digested by aerobic thermophilic digestion at 55 C with the varying retention time before using as substrate in anaerobic self-fermentation. The best digestion time for enriching hydrogen-producing seeds was 48 h as it completely repressed methanogenic activity and gave the maximum hydrogen yield of 136.9 mL H{sub 2}/g TS with a hydrogen production rate of 2.56 mL H{sub 2}/L/h. The hydrogen production of treated sludge at 48 h (136.9 mL H{sub 2}/g TS) was 15 times higher than that of the raw sludge (8.83 mL H{sub 2}/g TS). With this fermentation process, tCOD value in the activated sludge could be reduced up to 30%. (author)

  18. Evaluation of detection methods for screening meat and poultry products for the presence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaychuk, Valerie M; Gensler, Gary E; King, Robin K; Wu, John T; McMullen, Lynn M

    2005-12-01

    Rapid and molecular technologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation can reduce the time and labor involved in screening food products for the presence of pathogens. These technologies were compared with conventional culture methodology for the detection of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in raw and processed meat and poultry products. Recommended protocols were modified so that the same enrichment broths used in the culture methods were also used in the ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation assays. The percent agreement between the rapid technologies and culture methods ranged from 80 to 100% depending on the pathogen detected and the method used. ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation all performed well, with no statistical difference, compared with the culture method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. ELISA performed better for the detection of Salmonella, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 100%. PCR performed better for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni, with 100% agreement to the culture method. PCR was highly sensitive for the detection of all the foodborne pathogens tested except Listeria monocytogenes. Although the lateral flow immunoprecipitation tests were statistically different from the culture methods for Salmonella and Listeria because of false-positive results, the tests did not produce any false negatives, indicating that this method would be suitable for screening meat and poultry products for these pathogens.

  19. Commercial green electricity products; Zakelijke groenestroomproducten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielders, L.M.L.; Afman, M.R.

    2012-12-15

    The Dutch 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT campaign initiated by Hivos targets data centres, appealing to these companies to consider the environmental footprint of the electricity they use. Hivos is keen for a debate on greener alternatives and wanted a review of the sustainability of the various options available for buying 'green power' on the commercial market in the Netherlands, with a reasoned discussion of each. That review, laid down in this report, examines and discusses the various 'green power products' for the commercial market, providing a springboard for data centres to switch to a 'greener' product. To that end 'green power products' were categorized to highlight the differences between them. The highest score was given to renewable energy produced without any operating subsidy (the so-called SDE+ scheme), or with the higher price being paid for entirely by customers. Supply in these two categories is still fairly negligible, as this essentially represents an energy market in which renewables are cost-competitive with 'grey' electricity, or one in which customers are willing to pay (far) more for their electricity. The lowest scores were assigned to renewable power sourced in other countries and to 'grey' electricity [Dutch] De Hivos-bedrijvencampagne 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT richt zich op de datacenterbedrijven. De datacenterbedrijven worden aangesproken op de duurzaamheid van hun keuze voor de ingekochte elektriciteit. Hivos wil het gesprek aangaan over meer duurzame alternatieven. Hiervoor heeft Hivos behoefte aan een overzicht van de duurzaamheid van de verschillende opties voor de afname van duurzame elektriciteit (groene stroom) zoals die op de zakelijke markt in Nederland worden aangeboden, inclusief een onderbouwing. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht en inzicht in de verschillende groenestroomproducten voor de zakelijke markt zodat de datacenters kunnen overstappen op een

  20. Potential of biogas and methane production from anaerobic digestion of poultry slaughterhouse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Sunada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of anaerobic digestion on the treatment of effluent from poultry slaughterhouse. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Waste Recycling from Animal Production/FCA/UFGD. During four weeks, eight experimental digesters, semi-continuous models, were loaded and set according to the hydraulic retention time (HRT of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and according to the solid fraction treatment, separated with 1 mm sieve or without separation. The average weekly production of biogas and methane as well as the methane concentrations, the potential production per amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD added and reduced, the concentrations of N, P and K at the beginning and end of process, and the most likely numbers of total and thermotolerant coliforms were evaluated. For data analysis, a completely randomized design was performed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 HRT: 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and separation with 1 mm sieve or without separation, with repetition over time. The highest production of biogas and methane was statistically significant for the HRT of 7 and 14 days (5.29 and 2.38 L of biogas and 4.28 and 1.73 L of methane, respectively. There was an interaction between HRT and the separation of the solid with sieve and the highest production was obtained in the treatment without separation. Similar behavior was observed for the potential production with a maximum of 0.41 m³ methane.kg-1 COD added with an HRT of 7 days without separation of the solid fraction. The separation of the solid fraction is not recommended in the pretreatment of liquid effluent from poultry slaughterhouse, once the potential for production and production of methane and biogas were reduced with this treatment.

  1. UTILIZATION OF POULTRY, COW AND KITCHEN WASTES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Animasahun

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solid wastes generated in developing countries such as Nigeria has steadily increased over the last two decades as a result of population explosion and continuous growth of industries and agricultural practices. In agriculture, particularly cattle rearing, large quantities of cow wastes are generated, which could be used as biogas inputs to compliment the fuel usage alternative. In addition, a large number of families generate heavy wastes in the kitchen on a daily basis, which could be converted to economic benefits. In this work, a comparative study of biogas production from poultry droppings, cattle dung, and kitchen wastes was conducted under the same operating conditions. 3kg of each waste was mixed with 9L of water and loaded into the three waste reactors. Biogas production was measured for a period of 40 days and at an average temperature of 30.5oC. Biogas production started on the 7th day, and attained maximum value on the 14th days for reactor 1. Production reached its peak on the 14th day with 85´10-3dm3 of gas produced in reactor 2. For reactor 3, biogas production started on the 8th day and production reached a peak value on the 14th day. The average biogas production from poultry droppings, cow dung and kitchen waste was 0.0318dm3/day, 0.0230dm3/day and 0.0143dm3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the wastes can be managed through conversion into biogas, which is a source of income generation for the society.

  2. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq

    2018-02-22

    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 41 CFR 101-29.214 - Commercial-type product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial-type product... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 29-FEDERAL PRODUCT... catalog or retail outlets; (b) Any product similar to a commercial product that is either assembled or...

  4. Characteristics and parameters of family poultry production in Africa. Results of a FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to promote the use of nuclear techniques for improving disease diagnosis and monitoring disease control programmes in order to optimise animal production in developing countries. An applied research programme was initiated in 1998 with funding from the Regular Budget to promote farmyard poultry production in Africa by developing practical vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease and Gumboro disease in various countries in Africa and monitoring immunity using an ELISA technique. Following initial discussions with experts from various universities and FAO it became clear that in order to improve farmyard poultry production effectively it was essential to initiate a holistic approach. Consequently, it was decided to first collect production data of the existing situation in a standardised fashion, subsequently analyse the production constraints and finally initiate interventions not only by vaccinating poultry but also by introducing improvements in housing, feeding and commercialisation. At the same time a practical and robust ELISA test for detecting antibodies against Newcastle disease was developed at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The results of the standardised survey to collect production data of the current situation are reported in the present publication together with an analysis of production constraints, a number of review articles on family poultry production in Africa and a comparative analysis of the results from the various countries

  5. Wind-mediated spread of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus into the environment during outabreaks at commercial poultry farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, Marcel; Leuken, Van Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne

  6. Incidence of Salmonella Infantis in poultry meat and products and the resistance of isolates to antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaba, V.; Golić, B.; Sladojević, Ž.; Kalaba, D.

    2017-09-01

    Globalisation, climate change, changes in eating habits and the food industry, modern animal husbandry and market demands often have a negative impact on quality assurance, food safety and animal health. After the eradication of some zoonotic diseases that previously often jeopardized the human population, today in developed countries, the focus is mainly on the control of zoonoses transmitted by food. Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens that can be transmitted from animals to humans, and its reservoirs are poultry, cattle and pigs, so one transmission route to humans is from contaminated food of animal origin. Multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella, which can transfer their resistance genes to other microorganisms, are considered a serious threat to public health. Control of Salmonella primarily depends on a good monitoring system and knowledge of the presence of serovars and strains in an epizootiological area. During the first nine months of 2016, 1321 samples of poultry meat and products were examined, among which 108 harboured Salmonella. Altogether, 29 of the 108 isolates (26.85%) were Salmonella Infantis. For all 29 S. Infantis isolates, antimicrobial resistance was tested by the disc diffusion method. The isolates showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin, and nalidixic acid.

  7. Health and management improvements of family poultry production in Africa - Survey results from Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njue, S.W.; Kasiiti, J.L.; Macharia, M.J.; Gacheru, S.G.; Mbugua, H.C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Kenya the poultry population is about 25 million, 80% of which comprises local chicken and the rest, improved breeds. With the ever-increasing prices of red meat, local chicken has become the main source of animal protein in the form of meat and eggs for the rural population. Both egg production and egg size varies with season as the quantity and availability of feed varies. This paper describes work done during the wet season to identify constraints of family chicken production in the study area. The study was repeated on the same farms that were identified in work done earlier during the dry season. Data were gathered from 24 family poultry farms located in Kangundo and Kikuyu divisions. Through the Veterinary Officers and the Animal Health Assistants who assisted in the dry season fieldwork the farmers were contacted a week before the intended f m visits. Baseline and disease survey forms were administered again. The baseline survey achieved 100% response rate. During the farm visits, serum samples, blood and faecal samples were collected. Post mortem examination was also done on sick birds. The flock size in the two ecological zones decreased during the wet season, most probably due to the Christmas festivities. The percentage deaths in Ecological Zone III (ECZIII) were high because most farmers in this zone set their chicken free thus predisposing them to predators, disease and harsh weather conditions. Disease control information was scanty as most farmers were not keen about it. Worm infestation was not as prevalent in the wet season as compared to the dry season. Except for three farms, all the other twenty-one farms had been exposed to Salmonellosis at one time or another. Women were involved in aspects of poultry management, while the men were significantly involved in shelter construction. The local birds were free-range feeding on green grass, leafy vegetables and insects. Occasionally, the birds were supplemented with crushed maize grains or

  8. Characteristics of Rural Poultry Production in Different Agroecological Zones in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndegwa, J.M.; Kimani, C.W.; Siamba, D.A.; Mukisira, E.A.; Jong, R.

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional was conducted to establish the characteristics of rural poultry production in Nyandarua, Nakuru and Laikipia districts of Kenya. Sites of diverse agroecological zones (AEZ) in the 3 district were selected, thus Ol Kalou in Nyandarua, Njoro in Nakuru and Ng'arua in Laikipia. Each site was divided into 4 clusters according to AEZ and land size. Systematic sampling techniques were applied to select farmers. A checklist was then used to collect the baseline information for every household. The study revealed that the average flock size was 17.3 chicken with Ng'arua region demonstrating the largest flock size of 21 chickens. The purpose of rearing indigenous chicken were stated as home consumption and sale of eggs and meat, hatching eggs, and as gifts.Farmers in Ng'arua region reported the highest sale of eggs and chicken meat. the average number of broodings per year, number of eggs laid before a chicken becomes broody, eggs set for hatching and hatchability was 2.5, 16.5, 11.1 and 84.2%, respectively. The average chick mortality reported by farmers in te first eight weeks was 47.9%. Disease especially Newcastle, were cited as the main cause of mortality. Farmers did not commonly practice selection for genetic improvement, but occasionally they purchased a cock or hen to control inbreeding. In all the 3 regions, 78.4% of the respondents indicated that women took greater responsibility and decision making in the production of indigenous chicken; 54.8% of farmers used different herbs to treat and control diseases. Conventional vaccination,disinfection and deworming rarely practiced. On most farms, chickens were left to scavenge around the homestead, often they were supplemented with kitchen leftovers and a handful of grains. The survey results demonstrated that there was potential for improving rural poultry production through interventions using appropriate technologies that are currently on-shelf

  9. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain - From culture to genes and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Bhunia, Arun; Engvall, Eva Olsson

    2015-01-01

    numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors......Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large......, chromatographic techniques and DNA sequencing can improve our monitoring capacity at a lower cost. Combined with innovative sampling and sample treatment, these techniques could become realistic options for on-farm and liquid-sample monitoring at slaughterhouses....

  11. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain—from culture to genes and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Bhunia, Arun K; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Fachmann, Mette S R; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors, chromatographic techniques and DNA sequencing can improve our monitoring capacity at a lower cost. Combined with innovative sampling and sample treatment, these techniques could become realistic options for on-farm and liquid-sample monitoring at slaughterhouses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Putative Virulence Genes in Campylobacter and Arcobacter Species Isolated from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Hassena, Amal Ben; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C. jejuni and 8 C. coli. All the Campylobacter isolates were positive for the cadF gene. The plasmid gene virB11 was not detected in any strain. The invasion associated marker was not detected in C. jejuni. Lower detection rates were observed for flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC. The presence of nine putative Arcobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, tlyA, irgA, hecA, and hecB) was checked in a set of 22 Arcobacter butzleri and 4 Arcobacter cryaerophilus isolates. The pldA and mviN genes were predominant (88.64%). Lower detection rates were observed for tlyA (84.76%), ciaB (84.61%), cadF and cj1349 (76.92%), IrgA and hecA (61.53%), and hecB (57.69%). The findings revealed that a majority of the Campylobacteraceae strains have these putative virulence genes that may lead to pathogenic effects in humans.

  13. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  14. Scientific opinion on the link between Salmonella criteria at different stages of the poultry production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colin, P.; Davies, R.; Nørrung, B.; Ranta, J.; Aabo, S.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Providing guidance on detailed rules of a food safety criterion (FSC) for fresh poultry meat (chicken and turkey) during shelf life (i.e. n and c values) with the purpose to be in accordance with the existing process hygiene criterion (PHC) on poultry carcasses (i.e. n=50, c=7) proved to be

  15. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  16. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nayak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01 in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH was significant (p<0.05 for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05 for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05 on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling

  18. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed

  19. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption.

  20. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY... as hotels, restaurants, and boardinghouses, for use as a soup base or flavoring; (2) It contains less...

  1. The commercial use of gamma facilities in North and South America for agricultural product processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of agriculture and food products with ionizing radiation has been proven to be safe, effective, economical, and according to consumer surveys, the end product is better. However, commercial implementation of food irradiation has been slow because of the following: the lack of profit incentives; the failure of the political system to deal with antinuclear groups; the failure of public health authorities to actively support this technology. Food irradiation cannot be considered successfully implemented until the commercial industry is making a profit by the use of this technology. Use of this technology will: (1) reduce food borne infections (FBI); (2) decrease the hazards of the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry production; (3) reduce the need for agriculture quarantine procedures; and (4) increase shelf-life of perishable foods. However, only (1) and (3) are being considered as economic alternatives by the present day's food industry. Previously, agriculture has focused on technology that would increase production and reduce costs. Today this is rapidly changing to implementing technology that markets a product the consumer wants and is perceived as being safer and environmentally responsible. (author)

  2. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  3. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  4. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  5. Urban Residents' Food Safety Awareness and Purchasing Decisions about Name-brand Livestock and Poultry Products: A Case Study of Beijing City

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ning; Qin, Fu

    2015-01-01

    Through the data on Beijing urban residents' purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products, the article analyzes consumers’ food safety awareness about the name-brand livestock and poultry products and the effects on the purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products. Research shows that urban residents obtain information on food safety through TV programs and newspaper and there are a great of problems in food. 55.43% of the consumers consider...

  6. Quality Inspection of Poultry Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract A machine vision is feasible for grading poultry production as well as for identifying parts of poultry carcasses at the processing line. Several different machine vision systems including color, multi-, and hyper-spectral imaging, have been developed and tested for poultry quali...

  7. Automated early detection of drops in commercial egg production using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Morales, I; Fernández-Blanco, E; Rivero, D; Pazos, A

    2017-12-01

    1. The purpose of this work was to support decision-making in poultry farms by performing automatic early detection of anomalies in egg production. 2. Unprocessed data were collected from a commercial egg farm on a daily basis over 7 years. Records from a total of 24 flocks, each with approximately 20 000 laying hens, were studied. 3. Other similar works have required a prior feature extraction by a poultry expert, and this method is dependent on time and expert knowledge. 4. The present approach reduces the dependency on time and expert knowledge because of the automatic selection of relevant features and the use of artificial neural networks capable of cost-sensitive learning. 5. The optimum configuration of features and parameters in the proposed model was evaluated on unseen test data obtained by a repeated cross-validation technique. 6. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value are presented and discussed at 5 forecasting intervals. The accuracy of the proposed model was 0.9896 for the day before a problem occurs.

  8. beta-Lactamases among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-resistant Salmonella from poultry, poultry products and human patients in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Mevius, D.; Veldman, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this work was to study the genetic determinants responsible for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) resistance of Salmonella isolated from Dutch poultry, poultry meat and hospitalized humans. Methods: Thirty-four ESBL-resistant Salmonella isolates from The Netherlands...

  9. Beta-lactamases among Extended spectrum Beta-lactamase resistant (ESBL) Salmonella from poultry, poultry products and human patients in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Mevius, D.; Veldman, K.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this work was to study the genetic determinants responsible for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) resistance of Salmonella isolated from Dutch poultry, poultry meat and hospitalized humans. Methods: Thirty-four ESBL-resistant Salmonella isolates from The Netherlands...

  10. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Terry Lee [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Boulware, Charles H. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Hollister, Jerry L. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Jecks, Randall W. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Mamtimin, Mayir [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  11. Estimate of rational use of electricity in production systems of poultry chickens with different types of air conditioning and intensity; Producao de frangos de corte com diferentes tipos de climatizacao e intensidade luminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Leda G.F.; Moura, Daniella J.; Carvalho, Thayla M.R.; Lima, Karla A.O.

    2010-07-01

    With the advancement in the broiler production has become necessary to use larger poultry houses and automated, such as the Dark House. It is necessary to adjust the electrical system of these companies to contribute to the improvement and quality of electric power. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of production systems: Dark House and Conventional, verify means to optimize them. The study was conducted in commercial poultry houses located in the region of Capivari-SP being a conventional production system and the other with negative tunnel (Dark House). Two Sagas 4500 were installed in each poultry house and record consumption (kWh) Demand (kW) and Power Factor in both production systems. Was calculated indicators of electricity, which are: Load Factor and Specific Consumption. It was found that the results could be optimized by implementing a program of preventive maintenance and repair of Power Factor. Was found to be necessary for implementation of technical efficiency in production systems aimed at optimizing the use of electricity even the system Dark House showing feasibility in use due to the higher value obtained in the same production period. (author)

  12. An immunomagnetic separation/loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid direct detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. during poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M R; D'Agostino, M; Arias, A Pérez; Robles, S; Casado, C Fernández; Iturbe, L Orueta; Lerma, O Gurrutxaga; Andreou, M; Cook, N

    2016-02-01

    To develop a rapid test for thermotolerant Campylobacter in poultry faeces. The reported method is based on immunomagnetic separation and loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (IMS/LAMP). This LAMP assay is specific (demonstrated using 10 Campylobacter strains and 13 non-Campylobacter bacterial species) and sensitive (95% probability of detecting 22 genome copies). A competitive internal amplification control (IAC) has been incorporated to give unambiguous determination of negative results. Immunoseparation of Campylobacter allows direct LAMP detection from poultry boot swab samples in 90 min without enrichment or DNA purification (74% probability of detecting 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of a boot swab suspension). The analysis of 17 samples from commercial turkey farms showed 100% correlation with parallel results obtained by standard microbiological methods. A rapid test has been developed for direct detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in boot swab samples, thus bypassing culture enrichment or DNA extraction. The test has potential to be carried out by farm personnel on site. The method offers an inexpensive approach to monitor poultry infection in near real time, assisting flock management and controls to prevent introduction of Campylobacter into the food chain. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Dietary estimates of dioxins consumed in U.S. Department of Agriculture-regulated meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearfield, Kerry L; Edwards, Sarah R; O'Keefe, Margaret M; Abdelmajid, Naser M; Blanchard, Ashley J; Labarre, David D; Bennett, Patty A

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) examined whether levels of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) measured in FSIS-regulated meat and poultry products indicate possible concern for U.S. public health based on usual and recommended consumption patterns of meat and poultry for the U.S. population. The FSIS estimated daily dietary exposures and compared them with the reference dose (RfD) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for potential noncancer risks from 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), assuming that all measured DLCs were represented by the RfD (i.e., not just TCDD alone). The estimates indicate that a typical U.S. adult daily exposure of DLCs from FSIS-regulated products is below the EPA-established RfD. Only children consuming chronic average daily servings of meat or poultry products containing the highest measured levels of DLCs may exceed the RfD. If one follows the recommendations from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, all expected exposures to DLCs from FSIS-regulated products are estimated to be well below the RfD.

  14. Studies on the structure and problems of family poultry production in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msami, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify the major disease conditions and factors limiting family chicken production in Coast and Dar-es-Salaam regions of Tanzania a survey was undertaken in six villages in two zones involving a total of 43 households. Field data were collected through identified farmer interviews in the wet and dry seasons of 1999/2000. During farm visits, the birds were clinically examined, sick and dead ones autopsied. Blood smears, serum and faecal samples were collected for laboratory examination. There was significant variation in the flock size and structure in the interviewed households. The 43 households kept 1099 chickens with an average of 25.5 per household in the wet season while in the dry season the numbers were 1352 and an average of 31.4. The ratio of chicks:growers: aduIts was 10:10:14 in the wet season and 11:10:10 in the dry season. The cock:hen ratio was 1:3.5. Average numbers of clutches per year ranged from 2.80-3.02 (average 2-94). The average number of eggs per clutch was 12 and consequently the number of eggs was 36 per hen/year. Hatchability was recorded to be 84.5. Chick mortality was found to be 30% and resulted mainly from diseases and predation. Out of 43 households interviewed, 23 kept their chickens in the chicken house, 12 within the family house, four in the kitchen/store, three kept their birds perched in trees and one used a woven basket. In all the households, scavenging was the system of feeding and sometimes supplemented by household scraps and other feeds. Poultry movement into the household's flocks resulting in mixing of birds from different flocks was rampant. Several diseases and in particular Newcastle disease were mentioned by farmers in both zones as the major constraints restricting rural chicken development. Other diseases included coughing/sneezing, fowl pox and parasitic diseases (helminths, external parasites, protozoa). Women played a major role in family poultry development through provision of labour, but men

  15. Poultry products enriched with nutricines have beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Gordana; Kralik, Zlata

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents nutritive value of broiler meat and table eggs, as these animal products are used for human nutrition on a daily basis. In the Republic of Croatia, average consumption of poultry meat amounts to 18.3 kg and to 160 eggs per capita.The most quality parts of broiler carcass are breasts and drumsticks with thighs. Breast muscles contain 21-23% protein, 1.90-1.97% fat, 75.28-76.01% water and 0.74-0.77% collagen. Thigh muscles contain 4.70-6.05% fat, 19.03-19.93% protein and 0.91-1.13% collagen. White meat contains more potassium and magnesium and less zinc and iron than dark meat. In 100 g of edible egg part there is 12.5-13.5 g protein, 10.7-11.6 g fat and 1.0-1.1 g minerals. Caloric valueof eggs is 167 Kcal. Eggs contain high amount of essential amino acids, especially leucine, isoleucine, lysine, arginine, valine and phenylalanine. Furthermore, eggs contain many vitamins, especially A, D, E, K and B-complex, as well as various macroelements and microelements. Eggs and meat enriched with one or more functional ingredients - nutricines (polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, selenium and lutein) meet the criteria of functional food because of their added value and benefits for human health. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  16. Technology for Intensive Poultry Production as a Source of Odour Emissions with Time-Varying Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuneš Radim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology for intensive broiler breeding using deep litter method provides convenient conditions for production of odour substances inside the barn. As a consequence, there are relatively high odour emissions in the breeding area and its surrounding, which has significant impacts on the life quality of both people and animals. The amount of produced emissions increases in time because it is closely related to the amount of poultry droppings accumulated in litter inside the barn. This paper deals with changes in odour intensity depending on time measured since the beginning of broiler fattening. Odour intensity was measured by methods of dynamic olfactometry. The estimated values gradually increased from 45 ouE·m-3 to the highest value of 259 ouE·m-3, which was determined in the final fattening phase (broilers’ age 33 days. The calculated odour substances emission values were in range from 0.02 ouE·s-1·bird-1 at the beginning of fattening up to 0.10 ouE·s-1·bird-1 in the final fattening phase. Odour emissions increased five times during the fattening period.

  17. An investigation of sources of Campylobacter in a poultry production and packing operation in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Suzanne N; Mathison, George E; Lavoie, Marc C

    2008-01-15

    Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and is thought to be the major source of organisms causing human Campylobacter enteritis. Genotypic similarities between Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat at retail outlets and patients with gastroenteritis in Barbados suggested that it is a vehicle for infection of humans on the island and prompted this investigation of transmission of Campylobacter in a local poultry operation. Campylobacter testing was conducted at the hatchery, on the broiler farm and in the processing plant for two consecutive production cycles. The genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates was determined by RAPD typing with primer OPA 11. Hatchery samples and week-old chicks were negative for Campylobacter. Flocks became colonized as early as three weeks after introduction to the farm. Ten distinct RAPD genotypes were identified among isolates. Some genotypes were similar and may be of clonal origin. There was no evidence of vertical transmission of Campylobacter. The results suggest that the broiler flock was infected from more than one source in the farm environment.

  18. Economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max

    2015-01-01

    condition, reduces mal-pigmentation and allows breeding of ‘new’ marine finfish species. However, copepods are not yet commercially produced and therefore not widely used in the aquaculture industry. One of the bottlenecks for large-scale production has been lack of economic knowledge on the feasibility...... of producing copepods for commercial application. This is the first empirical study to investigate the economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use. To this end, a standard cost-benefit analysis based on a prototype production facility of Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs at Roskilde University......, Denmark, is employed. The result reveals that commercial production of copepods is economically feasible considering the existing market prices on both copepods and competing live feed items such as rotifers. The study provides valuable information for businesses who consider investing in live feed...

  19. Isothiazolinones in commercial products at Danish workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, a steep increase in the frequency of occupational contact allergy to isothiazolinones has been reported from several European countries. OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent and occurrence of isothiazolinones in different types of product at Danish workplaces. METHODS: Se...

  20. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  1. Major commercial products from micro- and macroalgae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffiths, M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available , used as gelling agents in a variety of foods and healthcare products. Pigments extracted from algae include ß-carotene, astaxanthin, and phycobiliproteins. These are generally used as food colorants, as additives in animal feed or as nutraceuticals...

  2. Freeware Versus Commercial Office Productivity Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    proprietary system to open source” (Vaughan-Nichols, 2009). It is reported that “98% of enterprise-level companies use open source software offerings...functionality of cloud computing’s five characteristics in a DOD environment. H. SUMMARY With the use of any available OSS or proprietary software...non- government agencies, and civilian companies . To navigate this new and open environment, the DOD can no longer rely on closed productivity systems

  3. SELECTION OF DNA MATRIX FOR JUSTIFICATION OF THRESHOLD FOR CONTAMINATION OF PROCESSED MEAT PRODUCTS WITH UNDECLARED POULTRY COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Minaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available  Differentiation between adulteration and accidental meat raw material contamination in meat industry enterprises that carry out the combined processing of slaughtering products from farm animals and poultry is necessary to establish a threshold of technically non-removable impurities. Justification of the thresholds, e.g. for chicken meat, requires determination of the target analytical matrix, which content in meat raw material is stable. In the Russian certified methods, the species-specific DNA matrix for chickens is a multi-copy gene of cytochrome B in mitochondrial DNA. Taking into consideration that mitochondrial DNA copy number can depend on a muscle fiber type, animal age, and other factors, the effectiveness of using multi-copy mitochondrial genes for quantifying the poultry content in meat products was justified in this study. Analysis of the samples from the pectoral and hip muscles of three chicken carcasses and one duck carcass obtained from different manufacturers showed that the poultry pectoral and hip muscles contained approximately equal amounts of mitochondrial DNA, which allows its use as a matrix to justify the level of technically non-removable chicken impurities in finished meat products.  

  4. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  5. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-01-06

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non

  6. Enhancement of biogas production at the municipal wastewater treatment plant by co-digestion with poultry industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budych-Gorzna, Magdalena; Smoczynski, Marcin; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory and full-scale trials on co-digestion of sludge and poultry waste were performed. • Successful scaling-up of the results from laboratory to full-scale was accomplished. • Incremental addition of poultry waste to the full-scale anaerobic digesters did not cause any inhibition of the process. • WWTP energy dependency can be reduced significantly by co-digestion of sludge and external source of waste. - Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are energy-intensive and thus cost-intensive facilities; therefore, it is crucial to increase energy production directly at the WWTP. Enhancement of biogas production by addition of external substrates is one of the solutions to increase energy self-sufficiency of the WWTPs with an additional benefit of cutting down the greenhouse gas emission. The main aim of the work was to investigate full utilization of the capacity of full-scale digesters at the municipal WWTP by addition of poultry industry waste. At first, laboratory trials were conducted in order to identify the most suitable dose for co-digestion with primary and waste activated sludge and finally, based on the achieved laboratory results, full-scale trials were carried out directly at the municipal WWTP. Poultry industrial waste yielded between 0.39 and 0.88 m 3 of methane per kg of volatile solids during laboratory trials, depending on the added concentration. During full-scale investigation yield of 0.81 m 3 /kg VS was achieved. Enhanced biogas production improved WWTP energy self-sufficiency bringing closer to the aim of increasing the share of self-produced energy up to 80%.

  7. Neighbourhood Acceptability of Poultry Farms Located in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... due to poultry production in their neighbourhood. It was recommended that farmers should be encouraged to adopt technologies that can keep poultry litters dry and odourless. In addition, poultry farm locations should be sited far away from residential areas. Keywords: Poultry Farms, Acceptability, Waste management, ...

  8. Comparison of dry, wet and microwave digestion methods for the determination of Pb in commercially available poultry feed samples in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Hussain, A.; Hussain, I.; Sher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The poultry feed ingredients, contaminated by Lead (Pb) from different sources, may pose serious threats towards health of bird as well as consumers. Toxicity of Pb requires accurate quantification from poultry samples, which in turn is dependent on efficiency of digestion procedure. Therefore, aim of this study was to compare three main digestion methods; microwave-assisted wet digestion, wet-acid digestion on hot plate and dry ashing mineralization in muffle furnace for the maximum recovery of Pb from 28 poultry feed samples of 7 commercial brands from Pakistan. Novelty in wet-acid digestion on hot plate lies in applying 6 different compositions of nitric acid with oxidants and other mineral acids i.e. hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ ), perchloric (HClO/sub 4/), hydrochloric (HCl), and hydrofluoric (HF) acids. The concentration of Pb in samples was found to be in the range of 43-58.5, 26-35.5, 17- 30, 11-18.5, 22-30.5, 27-37 .5, 36-48 and 2- 6.5 mg/kg by 1 MW (microwave-assisted wet digestion), 2 AW (wet digestion with HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ mixture), 2 BW (wet digestion with mixture of HNO/sub 3/ and HClO/sub 4/), 2 CW (wet digestion with aqua regia), 2 DW (wet digestion with reverse aqua regia), 2 EW (wet digestion with mixture of HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), 2 FW (wet digestion with mixture of HNO/sub 3/ and HF) and 3 DD (Dry digestion in Muffle furnace), respectively. The results were subjected to statistical analysis i.e. ANOVA, which showed significant differences among all the digestion methods and cluster analysis, which confirmed the similarity between 2 FW (wet digestion with mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid) and microwave-assisted digestion method. (author)

  9. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed "robust" Hellevad chickens with two chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample to positive ratio of natural antibodies in serum and concentration of mannose-binding lectin in serum as compared to Bovans. Moreover, indications of an inflammatory response were observed in the Bovans at week 5, corresponding to 1 week after vaccination with live infectious bursal disease virus. With regard to adaptive immune parameters such as IgY concentration in blood and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-specific antibody titres, the Hellevad and Hisex chickens had lower

  10. Commercial production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine, 1970-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The first small cyclotrons were installed for commercial production of radioisotopes at New England Nuclear Corporation, Billerica, Massachusetts, and at Medi-Physics, Emeryville, California. Both machines were Cyclotron Corporation Cs-22 multiple particle, fixed energy cyclotrons. In the ten years that followed, the total number of commercial radioisotope producing small accelerators has grown to ten, with four more projected for 1981. The beam energy requirement for the first accelerators was modest; 22 MeV protons, 12 MeV deuterons, 24 MeV He-4, and 31 MeV He-3; and commercial radioisotope production for nuclear medicine utilized all four particles. The first product available from cyclotron production was fluorine-18 from the 16 O( 3 He, p) 18 F reaction. Injected intravenously as no-carrier-added Na 18 F, the radionuclide quickly concentrated in bone, providing the nuclear medicine physician with diagnostic information on skeletal abnormalities including metastatic bone disease

  11. 25 CFR 309.6 - When does a commercial product become an Indian product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 309.6 Section 309.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.6 When does a commercial product become an Indian product? In addressing Indian embellishments to originally commercial products, the Indian labor expended to add art or...

  12. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of RandD programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  13. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of R and D programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  14. Effects of Crop Commercial Orientation on Productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural productivity has the key role of assisting farmers to link themselves to the global trading ... Table 1. Distribution of farm households by total factor productivity and commercial orientation indices. Total factor ... wheat, barley, sorghum and millets); j = jth input (human labor, animal traction, land, seed, fertilizer ...

  15. Effect of Cultural Conditions on the Commercial Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Cultural Conditions on the Commercial Production of Polygalacturonase by Rhizoctonia bataticola. ... Culture produced PG formed more reducing groups that PG from diseased tissue. PG production and ... The industrial use of the enzyme to separate cellulose fibres and the maceration of vegetables are discussed.

  16. In vitro evaluation of commercial probiotic products used for marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of commercial probiotic products used for marine shrimp cultivation in Thailand. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 22 (2011) > ... labels as regards the number and types of microorganisms and acceptability of the number of probiotic microorganisms at 10,sup>6 colony forming unit (CFU)/g in the products.

  17. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  18. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  19. Use of octanoic acid as a postlethality treatment to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Scott L; Chopskie, Jocelyn H; Podtburg, Teresa C; Gutzmann, Timothy A; Gilbreth, Stefanie E; Bodnaruk, Peter W

    2007-02-01

    The antilisterial efficacy and organoleptic impact of an octanoic acid (OA)-based treatment for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products were investigated. Whole-muscle and comminuted RTE products were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes. The OA treatments were applied to the surface of RTE products by dispensing a specific volume of solution directly into the final package prior to vacuum sealing. Once sealed, the vacuum-packaged RTE products containing OA were immersed in water heated to 93.3 degrees C (200 degrees F) for 2 s to effect adequate film shrinkage. Extending the time at which the packaged, treated RTE products were exposed to water heated to 93.3 degrees C was also evaluated with a commercial cascading shrink tunnel fitted with a modified drip pan. Once treated, RTE products were examined for survivor populations of L. monocytogenes after 24 h of storage at 5 degrees C. Sensory evaluation was conducted with a 60-member trained panel on 11 uninoculated, treated RTE products. The OA treatment of RTE products reduced L. monocytogenes numbers to between 0.85 log CFU per sample (oil-browned turkey) and 2.89 log CFU per sample (cured ham) when compared with controls. The antilisterial activity of OA was improved by increasing the duration of the heat shrink exposure. Specifically, reductions of L. monocytogenes ranged from 1.46 log CFU per sample (oil-browned turkey) to 3.34 log CFU per sample (cured ham). Results from the sensory evaluation demonstrated that 10 of the 11 treated RTE products were not perceived as different (P < or = 0.05) from the untreated controls. Panelists detected reduced (P < or = 0.05) smoke flavor intensity with treated mesquite turkey, although the treated product was viewed as acceptable. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of OA as a postlethality treatment meeting U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service regulatory guidelines for RTE meat and poultry products with minimal impact on sensory

  20. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.

    2006-01-01

    originating from outside the country. The study shows that most C. jejuni subtypes found in poultry food samples, broiler chickens, and cattle were represented in the domestically acquired cases, indicating that C. jejuni from these reservoirs are likely sources of human infections in Denmark....

  1. Chick quality control: a key to sustainable poultry production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry industry is one of the fastest growing segments in the agricultural sector and undoubtedly, it plays an important role in the Nigerian economy. However, the growth of this profitable sub sector is threatened by a number of factors critical among which is the quality of day-old-chicks supplied to farmers. The quality of ...

  2. Development of export and import operations in the market of poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the current trends in the development of the poultry industry in Ukraine in the context of the deepening of European integration; the priorities of export and import operations in the world food markets are examined. In recent years, Ukraine has officially changed the vector of foreign policy and economy.

  3. Commercial breaks vs. product placement: what works for young consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Mircea ŢIEREAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a quantitative marketing research conducted on young consumers from Braşov County regarding their perceptions about commercial breaks and product placement during the most important reality shows. The purpose of this research is to determine to what extent young consumers watch the evening shows and to what extent they remember the brands advertised during commercial breaks and product placement within the shows. For young consumers, the evening shows are time spent with family and friends. A large majority do not watch the commercial breaks and they mostly remember brands that also practice product placement during the shows. There is a direct corelation between numbers of shows watched and the percentage of consumers who remember the main sponsors for evening shows.

  4. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Moran, R; Rivera, D; Toledo, V; Moreno-Switt, A I; Hamilton-West, C

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01-1·07), mixed productive objective (P = 0·030; OR = 5·35; IC (95%) = 1·24-27·59) and mixed animal replacement origin (P = 0017; OR = 5·19; IC (95%) = 1·35-20·47) were detected as

  5. Effects of two different broiler flooring systems on production performances, welfare, and environment under commercial production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Wen, X; Alphin, R; Zhu, Z; Zhou, Z

    2017-05-01

    Research comparing conventional litter and alternative perforated flooring (netting) systems is relatively limited under commercial production conditions. A comprehensive comparison of broiler production performances, welfare quality, and housing environment of two broiler houses with conventional litter and new perforated plastic floors was conducted over four flocks for eight months in eastern China. The two broiler houses each had 31,700 broilers per flock on average and were ventilated using a negative-pressure system. Prior to the onset of the monitoring, litter/manure in all houses was removed. The environmental conditions, gaseous concentrations, and ventilation rate were recorded continuously. Production performance and welfare quality data were collected weekly. Results showed that indoor temperature and relative humidity were not affected by the different floors when the two houses had the same ventilation configuration and management. The average ammonia concentration was lower at 10.44 ppm in the litter house compared to 15.02 ppm in the netting flooring house due to the manure accumulation under the floor. Broiler production performance including live weight, feed conversion, and mortality, was not affected by the netting floor compared to the litter system. In addition, the results suggested that birds raised in the netting floor house may increase breast blister incidence. In this study, the welfare quality parameters including hock and foot pad lesions, lameness, and fearfulness levels were similar in both for both flooring systems. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Antimicrobial Consumption in Medicated Feeds in Vietnamese Pig and Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu; Mai Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobials are extensively used as growth promoters in animal feeds worldwide, but reliable estimates are lacking. We conducted an internet-based survey of commercial chicken and pig feed products officially approved for sale in Vietnam over the period March-June 2015. Information on the antimicrobial contents in feed products, alongside animal production data, was used to estimate in-feed antimicrobial consumption to produce one kilogram of live animal (chicken, pig), as well as to estimate country-wide antimicrobial consumption through animal feeds. A total of 1462 commercial feed formulations were examined. The survey-adjusted estimated antimicrobial contents were 25.7 and 62.3 mg/kg in chicken and pig feeds, respectively. Overall, it was estimated that 77.4 mg [95% CI 48.1-106.8] and 286.6 mg [95% CI 191.6-418.3] of in-feed antimicrobials were used to raise 1 kg of live chicken and pig, respectively. Bacitracin (15.5% feeds), chlortetracycline (11.4%), and enramycin (10.8%) were the most common antimicrobials present in chicken feed formulations, whereas bacitracin (24.8%), chlortetracycline (23.9%), and florfenicol (17.4%) were the most common in pig feed formulations. Overall, 57% of the total quantitative usage consisted of antimicrobials regarded by WHO of importance for human medicine, including amoxicillin, colistin, tetracyclines, neomycin, lincomycin, and bacitracin. These figures confirm a very high magnitude of in-feed consumption of antimicrobials, especially in pig production. Results from this study should encourage further monitoring of antimicrobials used in animal production, and foster discussion about existing policies on inclusion of antimicrobials in animal feed rations.

  7. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products. PMID:28396857

  8. Detecting parent of origin and dominant QTL in a two-generation commercial poultry pedigree using variance component methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Variance component QTL methodology was used to analyse three candidate regions on chicken chromosomes 1, 4 and 5 for dominant and parent-of-origin QTL effects. Data were available for bodyweight and conformation score measured at 40 days from a two-generation commercial broiler dam line. One hundred dams were nested in 46 sires with phenotypes and genotypes on 2708 offspring. Linear models were constructed to simultaneously estimate fixed, polygenic and QTL effects. Different genetic models were compared using likelihood ratio test statistics derived from the comparison of full with reduced or null models. Empirical thresholds were derived by permutation analysis. Results Dominant QTL were found for bodyweight on chicken chromosome 4 and for bodyweight and conformation score on chicken chromosome 5. Suggestive evidence for a maternally expressed QTL for bodyweight and conformation score was found on chromosome 1 in a region corresponding to orthologous imprinted regions in the human and mouse. Conclusion Initial results suggest that variance component analysis can be applied within commercial populations for the direct detection of segregating dominant and parent of origin effects.

  9. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Tammiranta, Niina; Rosengren, Heidi

    2012-02-28

    Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the 'polluter pays' principle, we need to understand how the costs are

  10. PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Measurement and mitigation of reactive nitrogen species from swine and poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2017-05-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production. Systems and practices associated with dry manure handling and bedded systems emit more NH than NO. Results from a turkey grow-out study estimated that just under 1% of consumed N was emitted as NO from housing, compared with just under 11% emitted as NH. Despite generally less NO emissions from animal housing compared with crop field emissions, NO emissions from housing are often greater than estimated. Lagoon systems emit more NO than either slurry or deep pit swine systems. Deep pit swine buildings emit only one-third the NO that is emitted from deep bedded swine systems. Laying hen, broiler chicken, and turkey buildings emit over 4 times as much NO as swine housing, on a weight-adjusted basis. Critical control points for mitigation center on: 1) reducing the amount of N excreted and, therefore, excreted N available for loss to air or water during housing, manure storage, or following land application of manures; 2) capturing excreted N to prevent release of N-containing compounds to air, water, or soil resources; or 3) conversion or treatment of N-containing compounds to non-reactive N gas.

  11. ANALYSIS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR POULTRY PRODUCTS IN OGBOMOSO NORTH AND SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OYO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunniyi Laudia Titilola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the urban household demand for poultry products in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were drawn from two local governments on 200 households with the aid of well-structured questionnaire in 2010.These were subsequently analyzed using the Almost Ideal Demand System. The study revealed that there was an inverse relationship between the household expenditure and the budget share of egg, a direct relationship between the price of egg and its budget share while an increase in the price of fish led to an increase in its budget share in the home.

  12. Determinants of production level of commercial snail farmers in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the determinants of productivity level among commercial snail farmers in Oyo State. A systematic sampling technique was employed to select one-hundred and forty–two snail farmers from the membership list provided by the Snail Farmers Association of Nigeria (SFAN), Oyo State Chapter.

  13. Potentials for commercial production of biogas from domestic food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work reported in this paper investigated the potentials of commercial biogas production from biodegradable waste in Benin metropolis. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved characterization of solid waste generated and determination of the quantity of potential feed stock for biogas ...

  14. Ten Niche Strategies To Commercialize New High-Tech Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J.R.; Langley, D.J.; Pals, N.

    2013-01-01

    There are serious gaps in the scientific literature relating to niche strategies as a means for commercializing new high-tech products. In particular, there is no clarity about what types of niche strategies can be distinguished, or how a niche strategy can be selected to suit a certain ituation. In

  15. Commercializing Culture: Artisanry Production and the Wodaabe in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WoDaabe images and artisanry products have become increasingly popular in the global market place, following a growing trend of commercialization of culture and tradition of indigenous people. WoDaaBe pastoral nomads in the Sahel area of Niger lost a majority of their herds in the Sahel droughts in the 1960s and ...

  16. The Microbial Status of Commercial 'SUYA' Meat Products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the microbial status of commercial suya products in Ekpoma, Edo, Nigeria. A total of 40 suya samples were collected from 20 randomly selected Suya spots; two samples from each spot respectively. The standard method of isolating micro-organisms was adopted. The total viable count obtained ranged ...

  17. Repellency of Dettol, a Commercial Cleaning Product, Against Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repellency of Dettol, a Commercial Cleaning Product, Against Adult American Cockroaches Periplaneta americana (L.) ... plastic material to have a finished form measuring 30×30×60cm. Two cardboard ... Twenty five adult roaches were released in the cage also provided with water and 50g dog biscuit at each trial.

  18. Factors influencing investment in commercial pig production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a systematic sampling procedure, 124 households were interviewed to identify variables that influence their decisions on whether or not to invest in commercial pig production. Using a binary logistic regression model the analytical results revealed that the decisions are significantly influenced by gender of ...

  19. Protein Engineering: Case Studies of Commercialized Engineered Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Programs in biochemistry invariably encompass the principles of protein engineering. Students often display increased understanding and enthusiasm when theoretical concepts are underpinned by practical example. Herein are presented five case studies, each focusing upon a commercial protein product engineered to enhance its application-relevant…

  20. Crop Productivity as Influenced by Commercial Orientation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this research was conducted to elucidate synergies existing between commercial orientation and total factor productivity (TFP) among smallholder farm households in the highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted in four districts: two districts, namely, Gurawa and Haramaya were selected from ...

  1. Demonstration of Kathon CG in some commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruvberger, B; Persson, K; Björkner, B; Bruze, M; Dahlquist, I; Fregert, S

    1986-07-01

    The preservative Kathon CG has become one of the most common sensitizers. It has, however, been difficult to explain the sensitization and to assess the clinical relevance of the contact allergy, partly due to lack of specification of the preservative in products. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to demonstrate Kathon CG in 123 commercial products of both "leave on" and "rinse off" types. 38 of these contained Kathon CG in the range of 1-15 ppm of active ingredients. There were no differences between "leave on" and "rinse off" products concerning the relative number of products containing Kathon CG and the concentrations of the preservative.

  2. Data on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This data article reports on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products associated with the fish sauce taste and flavor. All products were analyzed in triplicate. Dried solid content was analyzed by moisture analyzer. Fish sauce salinity was determined by a salt meter. pH was measured using a pH meter. The acidity was determined using a titration assay. Amino nitrogen and total nitrogen were evaluated using a titration assay and Combustion-type nitrogen analyzer, respectively. The analyzed products originated from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Italy. Data on the chemical properties of the products are provided in table format in the current article.

  3. Assessment of antimicrobial usage and residues in commercial chicken eggs from smallholder poultry keepers in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, H E; Simon, C; Karimuribo, E D; Mdegela, R H

    2010-08-01

    Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in commercial chicken eggs was determined in Morogoro municipality between January and February 2007. Twenty smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of antimicrobials, reasons of use and their awareness on antimicrobial withdrawal period. Seventy egg samples were collected for qualitative antimicrobial drug residues analysis by use of agar well diffusion and Delvotest SP assays. It was found that farmers use antimicrobial drugs as prophylaxis and treatment of common chicken diseases namely fowl typhoid (85%), infectious bursa disease (Gumboro) (65%) infectious coryza (65%), collibacilosis (55%), coccidiosis (54%), Newcastle disease (50%), helminthosis (20%) and fowl pox (15%). Antimicrobials accounted for 85% of the drugs commonly used. It was also found that 65% of the farmers treat their chicken themselves. The common drugs were oxytetracycline (75%), egg booster (50%), amprolium (35%), sulphamethoxypyridazine (35%), sulphanilamide (25%), chlortetracyclines (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), sulphadiazine-trimethoprim (20%), duoxycycline (20%), sulphadiazine (25%) and flumequine (10%). Eighty per cent of the farmers had knowledge on antimicrobial withdrawal period sold eggs before withdrawal period and almost 85% were unaware of possible effects of antimicrobial residues in humans. All 70 eggs were positive to antimicrobial residues by Delvotest kit, but 21.4% positive with agar well diffusion test. It was concluded that the presence of antimicrobial residues in table eggs could be of public health significance to the egg consumers in Morogoro municipality.

  4. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  5. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  6. Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects.

  7. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  8. Performance Measurement: Does Education Impact Productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of managers' educational levels on productivity in the commercial poultry industry in Ghana. The level of education of 33 production managers of the poultry farms were factored into a Cobb-Douglas production function with other explanatory variables. The computed percentage change in productivity due to higher…

  9. Optimization of biogas production from olive-oil mill wastewater, by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelegenis, John; Georgakakis, Dimitris; Angelidaki, Irini; Christopoulou, Nicholetta; Goumenaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of biogas production from olive-mill wastewater (OMW) was attempted by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure (DPM) at mesophilic conditions. A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors, fed with mixtures of OMW and DPM at various concentrations. It was concluded that codigestion of OMW with DPM is possible without any dilution of OMW or addition of any chemicals. Biogas production was slightly higher when OMW was added to DPM up to a critical concentration (about 40%, expressed as contribution of OMW to the volatile solids of the mixture), after which production is decreased. The results were further verified by scaling up to a continuously-operating pilot-plant reactor digesting DPM, and confirmed that no negative impact was imposed by adding OMW up to the above critical value

  10. Soft Robotics Commercialization: Jamming Grippers from Research to Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nadia; Fakhouri, Sami; Culley, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent work in the growing field of soft robotics has demonstrated a number of very promising technologies. However, to make a significant impact in real-world applications, these new technologies must first transition out of the laboratory through successful commercialization. Commercialization is perhaps the most critical future milestone facing the field of soft robotics today, and this process will reveal whether the apparent impact we now perceive has been appropriately estimated. Since 2012, Empire Robotics has been one of the first companies to attempt to reach this milestone through our efforts to commercialize jamming-based robotic gripper technology in a product called VERSABALL®. However, in spring 2016 we are closing our doors, having not been able to develop a sustainable business around this technology. This article presents some of the key takeaways from the technical side of the commercialization process and lessons learned that may be valuable to others. We hope that sharing this information will provide a frame of reference for technology commercialization that can help others motivate research directions and maximize research impact. PMID:28078197

  11. Commercial imagery archive, management, exploitation, and distribution product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Bruce; Sakkas, Alysa

    1999-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience on the U.S. Government's IDEX II (Imagery Dissemination and Exploitation) system. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes imagery, data and data products using a variety of sources and formats. LM selected 'best of breed' hardware and software components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System (ILS)TM, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive (5000 TB range) (b) automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data volumes with bandwidths ranging up to multi- gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client-to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of files in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

  12. Salmonella detection in poultry meat and meat products by the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella method, a LightCycler polymerase chain reaction system, and the International Organization for Standardization method 6579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelli, S; Eyigor, A; Carli, K T

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella (VIDAS ESLM) method and a specific real-time PCR system (LightCycler, LCPCR) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella from a total of 105 naturally contaminated samples comprised of poultry meat and poultry meat products. The detection limit of ISO and LCPCR was 9 cfu/mL for both poultry meat and poultry meat products, whereas that of VIDAS ESLM with both sample types was determined to be 90 cfu/mL. Twelve (33.33%), 11 (30.55%), and 18 (50.00%) out of 36 poultry meat samples were positive for Salmonella by ISO, VIDAS ESLM, and LCPCR, respectively. Salmonella detection rates from poultry meat products were 5.80% for ISO and 8.69% for LCPCR, whereas none of these products tested positive by VIDAS ESLM. In poultry meat samples, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with the relative accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 97.2, 91.7, and 100%, respectively, for VIDAS ESLM and 83.3, 100, and 75%, respectively, for LCPCR. This is the first report on the evaluation of both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR to complement ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry meat and meat products. We determined that both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR have the potential to complement the ISO standard culture method in the rapid screening of Salmonella from naturally contaminated poultry meats. For the poultry meat products, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR can be used for rapid primary screening, and they should be complemented absolutely by ISO. Although LCPCR can preferentially be used for initial screening poultry meat products, the results should definitely be confirmed by ISO. Also, the VIDAS ESLM did not seem to be a suitable method for detecting Salmonella in poultry meat products.

  13. Meat products and soil pollution caused by livestock and poultry feed additive in Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaojun; Dong, Rongfen; Zhao, Rongming

    2011-06-01

    Contents of copper and zinc in feed, manure, meat of livestock and poultry, and soil applied with manure in Liaoning, China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The average contents of copper in chicken and pork were exceed the maximum limit values provides by Chinese standard GB15199-94. The application of pig and chicken manure has led to a certainty extend pollution of copper and zinc in soil, which becomes severity in the release of heavy metals in plantation. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Detection of bacteria genus Campylobacter in poultry products by PCR method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakhov, A V; Efimochkina, N R; Sheveleva, S A

    2010-01-01

    Researches on method PCR adaptation for detection Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat with use of two devices and kits and its comparison with a bacteriological method under characteristics of specificity and the bottom limit of definition are carried out. Higher efficiency of detection of Campylobacters to PCR in real time, than a bacteriological method, and also suitability for the purposes of the foods control of the kits intended initially for clinical diagnostics is shown. It is specified on necessity of a stage of bacteria enrichment before PCR up to a level above 10(5) CFU/g.

  15. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  16. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  17. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  18. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two ...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start.......The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...

  19. Physiological and functional characteristics of Propionibacterium strains of the poultry microbiota and relevance for the development of probiotic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Babot, Jaime D; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

    2013-10-01

    The prevention and control of pathogens colonization through probiotics administration in poultry feeding is of increasing interest. The genus Propionibacterium is an attractive candidate for the development of probiotic cultures as they produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by carbohydrates fermentation. The presence of strains of this genus in hens of conventional production systems and backyard hens was investigated. Propionibacteria were isolated from the intestine and identified by physiological and biochemical tests. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates was performed and products were compared with sequences from databases. The presence of the genus Propionibacterium was demonstrated in 26% of hens and Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium avidum were the identified species. A comparative study of their physiological and functional characteristics was performed. P. acidipropionici strains were the most resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, but the adhesion to intestinal tissue was strain dependent. Some differences were found between both species with respect to their growth and SCFA production in an in vitro cecal water model, but all the strains were metabolically active. The production of SCFA in cecal slurries inoculated with the strain P. acidipropionici LET 105 was 30% higher than in non-inoculated samples. SCFA concentrations obtained were high enough to inhibit Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis when assayed in a cecal water model. P. acidipropionici LET 105 was also able to compete with Salmonella for adhesion sites on the intestinal mucosa in ex vivo assays. Results contribute to the knowledge of the species diversity of the genus Propionibacterium in the intestine of poultry and provide evidence of their potential for probiotics products development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Alicia G; Sharma, Abhisheak; McCurdy, Christopher R; Avery, Bonnie A; Babu, Kavita M; Boyer, Edward W

    2016-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine in methanol extract of marketed Kratom supplements. We found multiple commercial Kratom products to have concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine that are substantially higher than those found in raw M. speciosa leaves. We have found multiple packaged commercial Kratom products likely to contain artificially elevated concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine, the alkaloid responsible for M. speciosa's concerning mechanistic and side effect profile. This study describes a unique form of product adulteration, which stresses the importance of increased dietary supplement oversight of Kratom-containing supplements.

  1. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  2. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hindman, Larry J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Driscoll, Cindy P.; Nagel, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Sampling of key migratory waterfowl species occurred at 20 locations throughout the Delmarva Peninsula in fall and winter of 2013–14. Samples were collected from 400 hunter-harvested or live-caught birds via cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. Fourteen of the 400 (3.5%) birds sampled tested positive for the AIV matrix gene using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, all from five dabbling duck species. Further characterization of the 14 viral isolates identified two hemagglutinin (H3 and H4) and four neuraminidase (N2, N6, N8, and N9) subtypes, which were consistent with isolates reported in the Influenza Research Database for this region. Three of 14 isolates contained multiple HA or NA subtypes. This study adds to the limited baseline information available for AIVs in migratory waterfowl populations on the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly prior to the highly pathogenic AIV A(H5N8) and A(H5N2) introductions to the United States in late 2014.

  3. Viability of bifidobacteria in commercial dairy products during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Lee, J H; Pestka, J J; Ustunol, Z

    2000-03-01

    Commercial milk and two brands of yogurt containing bifidobacteria were obtained from retail outlets. All products were evaluated for viability of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C. Milk was evaluated at 9, 6, and 3 days prior and past its expiration date. The yogurts were evaluated at 3, 2, and 1 week prior and past their expiration. Viability of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in milk and yogurt remained above 10(6) CFU/ml or g until the expiration date of the respective products. This microbial concentration is the recommended minimum dose to receive the health benefits of these organisms.

  4. Logistics of the production and commercialization of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Delgado, Tamara; Guerrero Mudarra, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    In the work the different aspects of the logistical management of the productive processes and services of CENTIS, are characterized, as part of the quality system of the institution .The different topics of this activity , related with the support of the operation of the facilities, the realization of the production and its commercialization is also considered. A vision is given of how the logistic is integrated to the activity of CENTIS, generating benefits, and the importance of continuing its development. Some of the difficulties that confronts in the current stage are also pointed out. (author)

  5. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Organic poultry farming

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, John E.; Horsted, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The development in organic livestock production can be attributed to an increased consumer inter-est in organic products while, at the same time, farmers are interested in converting to organic pro-duction methods – often stimulated by governmental support or subsidies. It is important that the organic production systems can fulfil the expectations of each of these stakeholders if the organic livestock production is to increase further. This is in particular important if the organic poultry p...

  7. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and is a country that was affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI epidemics during 2003–2004. Nevertheless, the Thai government’s issuance policy of strict control and prevention of the disease has resulted in efficient disease control of avian influenza (AI. Poultry farmers have been both positively and negatively affected by this policy. There are three poultry cluster models worthy of attention in Thailand: (1 egg chicken poultry clusters over ponds; (2 egg chicken poultry clusters in coops raised from the ground and managed by a cooperative; and (3 poultry clusters in closed coops under contract with the private sector. Following the AI epidemics, additional poultry husbandry and biosecurity systems were developed, thereby generating income and improving the quality of life for poultry farmers. Nevertheless, raising large clusters of poultry in the same area results in disadvantages, particularly problems with both air and water pollution, depending upon the environments of each poultry model. Furthermore, the government’s policy for controlling AI during epidemics has had a negative effect on the relationship between officials and farmers, due to poultry destruction measures.

  8. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by multiplex PCR in commercial poultry Investigação epidemiológica de Mycoplasma gallisepticum e M. synoviae por PCR Multiplex em estabelecimentos comerciais de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Buim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses in Brazilian and world-wide poultry industry. This investigation regarding the main species of mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and M. synoviae (MS, responsible for the above mentioned conditions, was carried out through PCR Multiplex analysis. One thousand and forty-six (1,046 samples of tracheal swabs and piped embryos were collected from 33 farms with laying hens, breeders, broilers or hatchery, located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Pernambuco, where respiratory problems or drops in egg production had occurred. The MG and MS prevalence on the farms was 72.7%. These results indicated (1 high dissemination of mycoplasmas in the evaluated farms, with predominance of MS, either as single infectious agent or associated with other mycoplasmas in 20 farms (60.6%, and (2 an increase of MS and decrease of MG infection in Brazilian commercial poultry.Os Micoplasmas são importantes patógenos aviários que causam doenças respiratórias e de articulações que resultam em grandes perdas econômicas para a indústria avícola brasileira e mundial. O estudo das principais espécies de Mycoplasma, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG e M. synoviae (MS, responsáveis pelas doenças mencionadas acima, foram analisadas pela técnica de PCR Multiplex. Foram colhidas 1046 amostras de suabe traqueal e embriões bicados de 33 estabelecimentos de aves de postura, matrizes, frangos de corte e um incubatório, localizados nos Estados brasileiros de São Paulo, Paraná e Pernambuco, as quais apresentavam problemas respiratórios ou queda na produção de ovos. A prevalência de MS e MG nas granjas foi de 72,7%. Os resultados indicaram uma alta disseminação de Mycoplasma nas granjas avaliadas, com predominância de MS, como um único agente infeccioso ou associado com outros micoplasmas em 20 granjas (60,6%. Assim, este

  9. Aphid sex pheromones: from discovery to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A

    2003-03-01

    This review charts the progress made with aphid sex pheromone chemistry, from initial identification of cyclopentanoid nepetalactones, for example (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone (1). and (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol (2). to commercial production from a renewable non-food crop, the catmint, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae). The availability of aphid sex pheromone components is now facilitating the development of new aphid pest control strategies, incorporating the use of other semiochemicals, particularly in the manipulation of populations of aphid parasitoids and aphid predators such as lacewings, which can utilise the nepetalactones and closely related molecules to locate their hosts and prey. This is the first example of a plant resource being developed as a feedstock for the production of a commercially valuable insect pheromone. The development of a plant-based production route highlights the tremendous potential that higher plants offer as cheap and renewable resources for the production of insect semiochemicals, through the wide array of secondary metabolites that they can generate.

  10. Characterization of mouthguard materials: thermal properties of commercialized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G; Shin, Junghwan; McNair, Olivia; Hoyle, Charles E; Nazarenko, Sergei

    2009-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been purported to describe how mouthguards protect the orofacial complex against injury. As the properties needed for these mechanisms to be effective are temperature and frequency dependent, the specific aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive thermal characterization of commercial mouthguard materials. Five commercially representative thermoplastic mouthguard materials (Essix Resin, Erkoflex, Proform-regular, Proform-laminate, and Polyshok) were tested. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) techniques were implemented to measure thermal transitions and mechanical properties. Measurements were conducted three times per sample. One-way ANOVA and one-sample t-tests were used to test for differences between commercial products on selected mean thermal property values. The DSC measurements indicated no differences between commercial materials for mean glass transition (p=0.053), onset melt (p=0.973), or peak melt (p=0.436) temperatures. Likewise, DMA measurements revealed no differences between commercial materials for the mean glass transition (p=0.093), storage modulus (p=0.257), or loss modulus (p=0.172) properties, respectively. The one-sample t-tests revealed that glass transition temperatures were different from intra-oral temperature (psensitive to repetitive heating and cooling cycles, prolonged thermal treatment, and have glass transitions well below their end-use intra-oral temperature. As such, these materials are functioning as elastomers and not optimal mechanical damping materials. Dental clinicians, healthcare practitioners, or end-users should be aware that these materials are at best problematic with respect to this protective mechanism.

  11. Identification of unusual Campylobacter-like isolates from poultry products as Helicobacter pullorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-six unclassified Campylobacter-like strains previously isolated from 15 chicken carcasses and caecal contents, together with two more strains isolated from chicken faeces on a different occasion, were identified as Helicobacter pullorum using various phenotypic identification methods. API...... Campy identification kits and a 16-test identification scheme developed for campylobacters failed to identify these bacteria, or identified them as Campylobacter spp. Eighteen strains (including the two isolated on a different occasion) were chosen for examination using a more comprehensive......%) suggests that routine isolation and identification methods should be amended to enable a thorough evaluation of its role in human gastroenteritis and avian hepatitis. Some phenotypic characters useful in identifying poultry campylobacteria are presented which could be utilized, along with other technique...

  12. Formulating poultry processing sanitizers from alkaline salts of fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though some poultry processing operations remove microorganisms from carcasses; other processing operations cause cross-contamination that spreads microorganisms between carcasses, processing water, and processing equipment. One method used by commercial poultry processors to reduce microbial contam...

  13. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  14. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... change in the market price of poultry because the rule will not have much effect on consumer behavior... clearly describe poultry being marketed to consumers and to ensure that the labels for poultry products... weight more accurately reflects the actual weight of the carcass that a consumer is purchasing. This...

  15. Productivity and constraints analysis of commercial tilapia farms in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Antwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting productivity and constraints of commercial tilapia farms in the Dangme West District of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Primary data was obtained from 41 tilapia farms using multistage sampling. The data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, and the agreements within ranked constraints was assessed. The empirical results revealed that the tilapia farmers in the three towns from which the data were collected, namely Achavanya, Kajanya and Dormeliam, produced a mean output of 74 kg per cage (6 m × 6 m × 3 m as a productivity measure. Productivity of the cage farms were found to be positively affected by quantity of seed, feed and education level of managers; and negatively affected by cage size, labour and year of experience. Furthermore, the major constraints identified were high cost of inputs, lack of access to feed and credits and in adequate extension services and stealing of fish. The study suggests the need for supporting policies on inputs such as fingerlings and feed, and also providing education i.e. training to tilapia farmers. Efforts should also be made by financial institutions and NGOs to make credit easily available and accessible to commercial fish farmers so that they could cope with high cost of inputs.

  16. Chitinolytic enzymes: an appraisal as a product of commercial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, S B; Deshpande, M V

    2013-01-01

    Chitin, its deacetylated form, chitosan and chitinolytic enzymes viz. endo-chitinase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitosanase, chitin deacetylase (CDA) are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Presently, chitin degrading enzymes constitute high-cost low-volume products in human health care and associated research. Indeed chitinases and CDA-chitosanase complex possesss tremendous potential in agriculture to control plant pathogenic fungi and insects. The success in exploring chitinases especially for agriculture, i.e. as a high-volume low-cost product, depends on the availability of highly active preparations with a reasonable cost. Therefore, a reconsideration in terms of understanding the roles of chitinolytic enzymes in applications, e.g. host-pathogen interaction for biocontrol, different mechanisms of chitin degradation, and identification of new enzymes with varying specificities, may make them more useful in a variety of commercial processes in the near future. The possible issues and challenges encountered in the translation of proof of concept into a commercial product will be appraised in this review. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Commercial production of specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The chemical substances utilized in consumer products, and for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses are generally referred to as specialty chemicals. These may be flavor or fragrance substances, intermediates for synthesis of drugs or agrochemicals or the drugs or agrochemicals themselves, insecticides or insect pheromones or antifeedants, plant growth regulators, etc. These are in contrast to chemicals which are utilized in large quantities for fuels or preparation of plastics, lubricants, etc., which are usually referred to as industrial chemicals. The specific utilization of specialty chemicals is associated with a specific important physiochemical or biological property. They may possess unique properties as lubricants or waxes or have a very desirable biological activity such as a drug, agrochemical or perfume ingredient. These unique properties convey significant economic value to the specific specialty chemical. The economic commercial production of specialty chemicals commonly requires the isolation of a precursor or the specialty chemical itself from a natural source. The discovery, development and commercialization of specialty chemicals is presented and reviewed. The economic and sustainable production of specialty chemicals is discussed.

  18. Incorporation of essential oils and nanoparticles in pullulan films to control foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Khalaf, Hassan H; Sharoba, Ashraf M; El-Tanahi, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2014-04-01

    The incorporation of essential oils and nanotechnology into edible films has the potential to improve the microbiological safety of foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan films containing essential oils and nanoparticles against 4 foodborne pathogens. Initial experiments using plate overlay assays demonstrated that 2% oregano essential oil was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not inhibited. Two percent rosemary essential oil was active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 1%. Zinc oxide nanoparticles at 110 nm were active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 100 or 130 nm. Conversely, 100 nm silver (Ag) nanoparticles were more active against S. aureus than L. monocytogenes. Using the results from these experiments, the compounds exhibiting the greatest activity were incorporated into pullulan films and found to inhibit all or some of the 4 pathogens in plate overlay assays. In challenge studies, pullulan films containing the compounds effectively inhibited the pathogens associated with vacuum packaged meat and poultry products stored at 4 °C for up to 3 wk, as compared to control films. Additionally, the structure and cross-section of the films were evaluated using electron microscopy. The results from this study demonstrate that edible films made from pullulan and incorporated with essential oils or nanoparticles may improve the safety of refrigerated, fresh or further processed meat and poultry products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. CRADA Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Commercial Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.K.

    2002-01-31

    ORNL, through The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE), collaborated with The Village Botanica, Inc. (VB) on a project investigating carbon sequestration in soils and commercial products from a new sustainable crop developed from perennial Hibiscus spp. Over 500 pre-treated samples were analyzed for soil carbon content. ORNL helped design a sampling scheme for soils during the planting phase of the project. Samples were collected and prepared by VB and analyzed for carbon content by ORNL. The project did not progress to a Phase II proposal because VB declined to prepare the required proposal.

  20. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.G.; Sutton, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  1. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  2. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  3. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  4. Commercialization channels of organic products in Brazil: analysis at the first level of the production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rossi Scalco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specialized literature on organic production highlights the presence and concentration of retail, especially supermarkets, in the organic enhancement chain. This presents enormous obstacles for the entrance of small farmers in the production of organic products due to administrative barriers, in addition to pressure for lower prices by the supermarket retail network. This paper investigates the commercialization channels of organic production in Brazil. The survey was undertaken in 2013; questionnaires were sent to 900 out of approximately 11.200 farmers producing organic products; 216 answers were received. Analysis showed that approximately 90% of farmers provided for the internal market and 60% of the products were fresh fruits and vegetables. The distribution of organic products in Brazil is highly fragmented at the local, regional and national levels. The presence of supermarkets and intermediaries in the commercialization of fruits and vegetables is relevant, regardless of the size of the farm. There is a great dispersion of channels in the case of small farmers, although supermarkets rank second. However, direct commercialization (farmers markets is the main form of commercialization of the produce. Commercialization triggered by social programs has guaranteed a considerable part of the income on small production units or small farms. It seems that high involvement of retail networks and agents in the agribusiness segment causes low development rates in small agricultural units and in local development due to the latter’s low profit margins.

  5. Moving Technologies from the Test Tube to Commercial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Successful technologies include objects, processes, and procedures that share a common theme; they are being used to generate new products that create economic growth. The foundation is the invention, but the invention is a small part of the overall effort. The pathway to success is understanding the competition, proper planning, record keeping, integrating a supply chain, understanding actual costs, intellectual property (IP), benchmarking, and timing. Additionally, there are obstacles that include financing, what to make, buy, and sell, and the division of labor i.e. recognizing who is best at what task. Over the past two decades, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several commercially available technologies. The approach to commercialization of three of these inventions; Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI, Imitec Inc.), the Thin Layer Unimorph Driver (THUNDER, FACE International), and the Macrofiber Composite (MFC, Smart Material Corp.) will be described, as well as some of the lessons learned from the process. What makes these three inventions interesting is that one was created in the laboratory; another was built using the previous invention as part of its process, and the last one was created by packaging commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) materials thereby creating a new component.

  6. Mixed Substrate Fermentation for Enhanced Phytase Production by Thermophilic Mould Sporotrichum thermophile and Its Application in Beneficiation of Poultry Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Amit; Satyanarayana, T; Singh, Bijender

    2016-01-01

    The optimum values of the critical variables determined by the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) for maximum phytase production (1881.26 U g(-1) dry mouldy residue (DMR)) by Sporotrichum thermophile are 2.5 % Tween 80, 1.0 % yeast extract and 48 h of incubation period. Phytase production in the mixed substrate (sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran) fermentation enhanced 11.6-fold over the initial production as a consequence of optimization. Phytase titres are sustainable in flasks, trays and column bioreactor (1796 to 2095 U g(-1) DMR), thus validating the model and the process for large-scale phytase production. When the yeast extract was replaced with corn steep liquor (2 % w/v), a sustained enzyme titre (1890 U g(-1) DMR) was attained, making the process cost-effective. Among all the detergents, Tween 80 supported a higher phytase production than others. The enzyme efficiently liberated nutritional components from poultry feed (inorganic phosphate, soluble protein and reducing sugars) in a time-dependent manner.

  7. Validating bifidobacterial species and subspecies identity in commercial probiotic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zachery T; Shani, Guy; Masarweh, Chad F; Popovic, Mina; Frese, Steve A; Sela, David A; Underwood, Mark A; Mills, David A

    2016-03-01

    The ingestion of probiotics to attempt to improve health is increasingly common; however, quality control of some commercial products can be limited. Clinical practice is shifting toward the routine use of probiotics to aid in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and probiotic administration to term infants is increasingly common to treat colic and/or prevent atopic disease. Since bifidobacteria dominate the feces of healthy breast-fed infants, they are often included in infant-targeted probiotics. We evaluated 16 probiotic products to determine how well their label claims describe the species of detectable bifidobacteria in the product. Recently developed DNA-based methods were used as a primary means of identification, and were confirmed using culture-based techniques. We found that the contents of many bifidobacterial probiotic products differ from the ingredient list, sometimes at a subspecies level. Only 1 of the 16 probiotics perfectly matched its bifidobacterial label claims in all samples tested, and both pill-to-pill and lot-to-lot variation were observed. Given the known differences between various bifidobacterial species and subspecies in metabolic capacity and colonization abilities, the prevalence of misidentified bifidobacteria in these products is cause for concern for those involved in clinical trials and consumers of probiotic products.

  8. Field efficacy and safety of fluralaner solution for administration in drinking water for the treatment of poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestations in commercial flocks in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emmanuel; Chiquet, Mathieu; Sander, Björn; Zschiesche, Eva; Flochlay, Annie Sigognault

    2017-10-09

    Welfare concerns, production losses caused by Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), and widespread mite resistance to environmentally applied acaricides continue to drive an urgent need for new and effective control measures. Fluralaner is a novel systemic acaricide developed to address that need. A series of field studies was initiated to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fluralaner solution (10 mg/ml) administered in drinking water at a dose rate of 0.5 mg/kg on two occasions with a 7-day interval, for treatment of natural PRM infestations in chickens. Blinded, negative-controlled studies were completed in Europe across eight layer, two breeder, and two replacement chicken farms. At each farm, two similar flocks were housed in similar PRM-infested units (either rooms within a building, or separate buildings) varying from 550 to 100,000 birds per unit. One unit at each farm was allocated to fluralaner treatment, administered in drinking water on Days 0 and 7. One unit remained untreated. Mite traps were placed throughout each unit on Days -1, 0 or 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 or 14, then at weekly or two-weekly intervals, retrieved after 24 h and processed for mite counts. Efficacy at each farm was assessed by mean PRM count reductions from traps in treated units compared with those from control units. Production parameters and safety were also monitored. Efficacy was 95.3 to 99.8% on Day 3 and 97.8 to 100% on Day 9, thereafter remaining above 90% for 56 to 238 days after treatment initiation. Post-treatment improvement in egg-laying rate was greater by 0.9 to 12.6% in the treated group at 9 of the 10 layer or breeder farms. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Fluralaner administered at 0.5 mg/kg via drinking water twice, 7 days apart, was well tolerated and highly efficacious against the PRM in naturally infested chickens representing a range of production types and management systems. The results indicate that this novel treatment has

  9. Poultry Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  10. Influence of poultry litter and plant density on the production and chemical composition of the essential oil of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Tabaldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and chemical composition of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper fruits grown in single and double rows using different doses of semi decomposed poultry litter in two evaluation times. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Grande Dourados, in the city of Dourados, state o- Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from October 2009 to November 2010. Brazilian pepper plants were grown in single and double rows in soil with incorporated poultry litter at the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 5 factorial experiment in a randomized block design with four replications. Fruits were harvested 180 and 390 days after transplant (DAT. There was a significant interaction for fresh weight of fruits and weight of 50 fruits, being the values higher at 180 DAT in the double rows with increasing poultry litter doses. Fruits harvested 390 DAT showed higher diameter compared with those harvested 180 DAT. The number of fruits per bunch was significantly influenced by the doses of poultry litter, presenting a linear increase with increasing doses. The essential oil of the Brazilian pepper fruits obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry exhibited predominance of monoterpenes, highlighting α-pinene (20.14% as the major constituent. The chemical composition of the essential oil was not influenced by the number of plant rows in the plot or by the doses of poultry litter in any evaluation time. Therefore, the cultivation of Brazilian pepper plants is recommended in double rows, with 13.59 t ha-1 of incorporated poultry litter in the soi, and with harvest of 180 DAT for higher fruit production.

  11. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing...

  12. Eimeria species occurrence varies between geographic regions and poultry production systems and may influence parasite genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengat Prakashbabu, B; Thenmozhi, V; Limon, G; Kundu, K; Kumar, S; Garg, R; Clark, E L; Srinivasa Rao, A S R; Raj, D G; Raman, M; Banerjee, P S; Tomley, F M; Guitian, J; Blake, D P

    2017-01-15

    Coccidiosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global poultry industry. Recent studies have highlighted the ubiquitous distribution of all Eimeria species which can cause this disease in chickens, but intriguingly revealed a regional divide in genetic diversity and population structure for at least one species, Eimeria tenella. The drivers associated with such distinct geographic variation are unclear, but may impact on the occurrence and extent of resistance to anticoccidial drugs and future subunit vaccines. India is one of the largest poultry producers in the world and includes a transition between E. tenella populations defined by high and low genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the prevalence of Eimeria species defined by high and low pathogenicity in northern and southern states of India, and seek to understand factors which vary between the regions as possible drivers for differential genetic variation. Faecal samples and data relating to farm characteristics and management were collected from 107 farms from northern India and 133 farms from southern India. Faecal samples were analysed using microscopy and PCR to identify Eimeria occurrence. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to transform correlated putative risk factors into a smaller number of synthetic uncorrelated factors. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify poultry farm typologies, revealing three distinct clusters in the studied regions. The association between clusters and presence of Eimeria species was assessed by logistic regression. The study found that large-scale broiler farms in the north were at greatest risk of harbouring any Eimeria species and a larger proportion of such farms were positive for E. necatrix, the most pathogenic species. Comparison revealed a more even distribution for E. tenella across production systems in south India, but with a lower overall occurrence. Such a polarised region- and

  13. Biosecurity measures for backyard poultry in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2012-12-07

    Poultry represents an important sector in animal production, with backyard flocks representing a huge majority, especially in the developing countries. In these countries, villagers raise poultry to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes. Backyard production methods imply low biosecurity measures and high risk of infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease or zoonosis such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI).We reviewed literature on biosecurity practices for prevention of infectious diseases, and published recommendations for backyard poultry and assessed evidence of their impact and feasibility, particularly in developing countries. Documents were sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) website, and from Pubmed and Google databases. A total of 62 peer-reviewed and non-referred documents were found, most of which were published recently (after 2004) and focused on HPAI/H5N1-related biosecurity measures (64%). Recommendations addressed measures for flock management, feed and water management, poultry trade and stock change, poultry health management and the risk to humans. Only one general guideline was found for backyard poultry-related biosecurity; the other documents were drawn up for specific developing settings and only engaged their authors (e.g. consultants). These national guidelines written by consultants generated recommendations regarding measures derived from the highest standards of commercial poultry production. Although biosecurity principles of isolation and containment are described in most documents, only a few documents were found on the impact of measures in family poultry settings and none gave any evidence of their feasibility and effectiveness for backyard poultry. Given the persistent threat posed by HPAI/H5N1 to humans in developing countries, our findings highlight the importance of encouraging applied research toward identifying sustained and adapted biosecurity measures for

  14. Commercial Aspect of Research Reactor Fuel Element Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G; Suripto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects affecting the commercialization of the Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (RR FEPI) under a BUMN (state-owned company)have been studied. The break event point (BEP) value based on total production cost used is greatly depending upon the unit selling price of the fuel element. At a selling price of USD 43,500/fuel element, the results of analysis shows that the BEP will be reached at 51% of minimum available capacity. At a selling price of US$ 43.500/fuel element the total income (after tax) for 7 years ahead is US $ 4.620.191,- The net present value in this study has a positive value is equal to US $ 2.827.527,- the internal rate of return will be 18% which is higher than normal the bank interest rare (in US dollar) at this time. It is concluded therefore that the nuclear research reactor fuel element produced by state-owned company BUMN has a good prospect to be sold commercially

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biofilm Production by Salmonella sp. Strains Isolated from Frozen Poultry Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Sereno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and the biofilm-producing ability of Salmonella sp. strains isolated from frozen poultry carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. Biofilm-producing ability was determined in 96-well polystyrene microplates stained with crystal violet at 1%. Out of the 22 strains tested, all were multiresistant, that is, resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes, and 72.7% were able to form biofilms. The highest resistance rates obtained were against sulfonamides, tetracycline, and quinolones. On the other hand, 100% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. According to the rate of biofilm formation, 3 (13.6% and 13 (59.1% strains were classified as moderate and weak biofilm-producers, respectively, and 27.3% did not form biofilms. Biofilms increase the tolerance of microorganisms to stress, reducing their sensitivity to disinfectants and antimicrobials; favor equipment corrosion; and act as substrates for the adhesion of bacteria with lower biofilm-producing capacity. The results of the present study stress the importance of cleaning procedures in food processing plants and highlight the public health risks related to the emergence of multiresistant strains.

  16. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  17. Full-length genome sequence analysis of an avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) as contaminant in live poultry vaccine: The commercial live vaccines might be a potential route for ALV-J transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Lin, L; Li, H; Shi, M; Gu, Z; Wei, P

    2018-02-25

    One avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) strain was isolated from 67 commercial live poultry vaccines produced by various manufacturers during 2013-2016 in China. The complete genomes of the isolate were sequenced and it was found that the genes gag and pol of the strain were relatively conservative, while the gp85 gene of the strain GX14YYA1 had the highest similarities with a field strain GX14ZS14, which was isolated from the chickens of a farm that had once used the same vaccine as the one found to be contaminated with the GX14YYA1. This is the first report of ALV-J contaminant in live poultry vaccine in China. Our finding demonstrates that vaccination of the commercial live vaccines might be a potential new route for ALV-J transmission in chickens and highlights the need for more extensive monitoring of the commercial live vaccines in China. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. 78 FR 15009 - Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of... its consideration of DOE withdrawal from the commercial production and distribution of germanium-68... Statement of Policy, referenced above. In summary, DOE's evaluation will include consideration of: a...

  19. High diversity of genes and plasmids encoding resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in clinical Escherichia coli from commercial poultry flocks in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Giulia; Bortolaia, Valeria; Vanni, Michele

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to investigate occurrence and diversity of plasmid-mediated resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) and quinolones in clinical Escherichia coli from 200 industrial poultry farms across Italy. E. coli was isolated from colibacillosis lesions in turkeys (n = 109), broilers (...

  20. Medicinal and commercial uses of ostrich products in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magige, Flora; Røskaft, Eivin

    2017-08-23

    Traditional communities have been utilizing animal products for numerous purposes and have for a long time contributed to the accumulation of world knowledge. Local people in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa, have been using birds including ostriches as pets or their products such as meat, eggs as food; their body parts such as feathers, bones and hide for ornaments but more importantly have used such products in traditional medicine and rituals. Nevertheless, there is a general lack of information about the differences that exist between local people with different cultures, and the best use of such products to improve their livelihoods. This study aimed to determine the use of ostrich products among people residing around Serengeti National Park and explore the potential of improving livelihoods through game ranching. Use of the products was compared between that of agriculturalists with long hunting traditions in the Serengeti District to the west of Serengeti National Park (SNP) and the largely pastoral community in the Ngorongoro District to the east by using semistructured questionnaires in June 2006. A total of 115 respondents were interviewed, and the majority (74.5%) in the Serengeti district admitted that ostriches were mainly hunted for their products by snares, while in the Ngorongoro district, 98.2% of the respondents said that villagers only gathered products such as feathers and eggs. Ostriches were hunted for food, ornamentation, medical and economic purposes, and eggs and oil, which are believed to have medicinal properties, were used for the treatment of various ailments, including asthma. This indigenous knowledge of the medicinal value of ostrich products must be integrated with scientific knowledge to prove the supposed medical efficacy of the products. Ostrich products also had market value and were thus sold to the villagers. Since it has been found that ostrich products are commercially used, legal establishment of markets through game

  1. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies.

  2. Backyard Poultry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-18

    Dr. Colin Basler, an epidemiologist with CDC, discusses his article on Salmonella infections associated with keeping live poultry in backyards.  Created: 1/18/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/18/2017.

  3. Natural antimicrobial/antioxidant agents in meat and poultry products as well as fruits and vegetables: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Marya; Karboune, Salwa

    2018-02-11

    Synthetic preservatives are widely used by the food industry to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and to inhibit the process of lipid oxidation extending the shelf-life, quality and safety of food products. However, consumer's preference for natural food additives and concern regarding the safety of synthetic preservatives prompted the food industry to look for natural alternatives. Natural antimicrobials, including plant extracts and their essential oils, enzymes, peptides, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and fermented ingredients have all been shown to have the potential for use as alternatives to chemical antimicrobials. Some spices, herbs and other plant extracts were also reported to be strong antioxidants. The antimicrobial/antioxidant activities of some plant extracts and/or their essential oils are mainly due to the presence of some major bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, terpenes, aldehydes, and flavonoids. The proposed mechanisms of action of these natural preservatives are reported. An overview of the research done on the direct incorporation of natural preservatives agents into meat and poultry products as well as fruit and vegetables to extend their shelf-life is presented. The development of edible packaging materials containing natural preservatives is growing and their applications in selected food products are also presented in this review.

  4. A profitable use of by-products of the poultry slaughter. The tanning of hen’s feet skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Iade Vergara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this development is to add value to one of the by-products of the poultry slaughtery, the chicken’s feet. The process began with the skinning of the chicken’s feet, which underwent a tanning process to obtain a leather characterised for its similarity with exotic leathers such as the reptile ones. To facilitate its possible production by artisanal means we designed a more environmental-friendly process, eliminating the use of sodium sulfide in the stages corresponding to dehairing and liming, followed by a chromium-free tanning based on a combination of vegetable tannins and synthetic retanning agents. Confirmation of the tanning of the skins was performed by measuring the shrinkage temperature of leathers, obtaining a value of 80 °C, higher than those of the raw hides. Physical properties were evaluated to characterize the product, obtaining tensile strength values of 0,65 kg/mm2 and a tear resistance of 2,10 kg/mm.

  5. Current aspects of Salmonella contamination in the US poultry production chain and the potential application of risk strategies in understanding emerging hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy; Shi, Zhaohao; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-05-01

    One of the leading causes of foodborne illness in poultry products is Salmonella enterica. Salmonella hazards in poultry may be estimated and possible control methods modeled and evaluated through the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models and tools. From farm to table, there are many possible routes of Salmonella dissemination and contamination in poultry. From the time chicks are hatched through growth, transportation, processing, storage, preparation, and finally consumption, the product could be contaminated through exposure to different materials and sources. Examination of each step of the process is necessary as well as an examination of the overall picture to create effective countermeasures against contamination and prevent disease. QMRA simulation models can use either point estimates or probability distributions to examine variables such as Salmonella concentrations at retail or at any given point of processing to gain insight on the chance of illness due to Salmonella ingestion. For modeling Salmonella risk in poultry, it is important to look at variables such as Salmonella transfer and cross contamination during processing. QMRA results may be useful for the identification and control of critical sources of Salmonella contamination.

  6. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rouger, Amélie; Tresse, Odile; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-01-01

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments ...

  7. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of...

  8. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Canada 6 § 93.216 Poultry from Canada. Poultry imported from Canada is not required to meet the requirements of § 93.209 but shall meet all other requirements of this...

  9. A case study of possible health hazards associated with poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern husbandry practices, state or local concentration of the industry, high stocking densities, uniform age distribution of birds and continuous feeding may promote the spread of poultry diseases. Illness due to contaminated food, poultry wastes, poultry and poultry by products are one of the most widespread problems of ...

  10. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms What does 'mechanically separated ... Top of Page ] NATURAL: A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color and is only minimally ...

  11. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs - Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.

    Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried

  12. Issues and concerns in nanotech product development and its commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Kakkar, Vandita; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Yadav, Monika; Singh, Mandeep; Sharma, Ikksheta

    2014-11-10

    The revolutionary and ubiquitous nature of nanotechnology has fetched it a considerable attention in the past few decades. Even though its enablement and application to various sectors including pharmaceutical drug development is increasing with the enormous government aided funding for nanotechnology-based products, however the parallel commercialization of these systems has not picked up a similar impetus. The technology however does address the unmet needs of pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their solubility, bioavailability or toxicity profiles as observed from the wide array of high-quality research publications appearing in various scientific journals and magazines. Based on our decade-long experience in the field of nanotech-based drug delivery systems and extensive literature survey, we perceive that the major hiccups to the marketing of these nanotechnology products can be categorized as 1) inadequate regulatory framework; 2) lack of support and acceptance by the public, practicing physician, and industry; 3) developmental considerations like scalability, reproducibility, characterization, quality control, and suitable translation; 4) toxicological issues and safety profiles; 5) lack of available multidisciplinary platforms; and, 6) poor intellectual property protection. The present review dwells on these issues elaborating the trends followed by the industry, regulatory role of the USFDA and their implication, and the challenges set forth for a successful translation of these products from the lab and different clinical phases to the market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial Products Registered for Disinfection Use against Avian Influenza on Poultry Farms and Other Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA registers disinfectants against Avian Influenza A. Although there are no antimicrobial products registered for the H5N2 subtype of Avian Influenza A virus, based on available scientific information these products will work against other HPAI strains.

  14. A large-scale study of a poultry trading network in Bangladesh: implications for control and surveillance of avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N; Ahmed, G; Gupta, S; Tenzin, T; Khan, R; Khan, T; Debnath, N; Yamage, M; Pfeiffer, D U; Fournie, G

    2018-01-12

    Since its first report in 2007, avian influenza (AI) has been endemic in Bangladesh. While live poultry marketing is widespread throughout the country and known to influence AI dissemination and persistence, trading patterns have not been described. The aim of this study is to assess poultry trading practices and features of the poultry trading networks which could promote AI spread, and their potential implications for disease control and surveillance. Data on poultry trading practices was collected from 849 poultry traders during a cross-sectional survey in 138 live bird markets (LBMs) across 17 different districts of Bangladesh. The quantity and origins of traded poultry were assessed for each poultry type in surveyed LBMs. The network of contacts between farms and LBMs resulting from commercial movements of live poultry was constructed to assess its connectivity and to identify the key premises influencing it. Poultry trading practices varied according to the size of the LBMs and to the type of poultry traded. Industrial broiler chickens, the most commonly traded poultry, were generally sold in LBMs close to their production areas, whereas ducks and backyard chickens were moved over longer distances, and their transport involved several intermediates. The poultry trading network composed of 445 nodes (73.2% were LBMs) was highly connected and disassortative. However, the removal of only 5.6% of the nodes (25 LBMs with the highest betweenness scores), reduced the network's connectedness, and the maximum size of output and input domains by more than 50%. Poultry types need to be discriminated in order to understand the way in which poultry trading networks are shaped, and the level of risk of disease spread that these networks may promote. Knowledge of the network structure could be used to target control and surveillance interventions to a small number of LBMs.

  15. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  16. IMPROVING THE MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING IN ELABORATION OF NEW PRODUCTS AND POULTRY BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Varga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaboratingthe new products and brands is extremely expensive if it is not apply aperformant management in the distribution on the market of products obtainedfrom birds. It requires the improvement of the management of the marketing inthe introduction on market of the products and new brands or rebrands of the productsor brands on new markets gained in the last period. Marketing policies willtarget sales volume, level of the profit, the moment of the product or brand life cycle, short marketingchain, the speed of movement of products, lower sales prices due to directsales by the farm.

  17. Production of smectite organophylic clays from three commercial sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela Diaz, Francisco R.; Souza Santos, Persio de

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory cationic exchange procedures using Brazilian's commercial quaternary ammonium salt and three samples of commercial sodium bentonites (two Brazilian's and one from Wyoming (US) are described. Swelling values in some liquid organic media are shown for the organophilic clays and for a Brazilian's commercial organophilic clay. Organophilic clays with larger swelling values than the commercial organophilic clay in kerosene, Varsol, toluene and soya bean oil were obtained. (author)

  18. Review of Compact Commercial Accelerator Products and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Historically, particle accelerators were developed initially for nuclear, then for particle physics research. From this research resulted applications of accelerators in the field of medicine and industry. These application-oriented accelerators are generally built commercially, and they often emphasize other qualities than the accelerators for research. The research applications frequently require energies or beam qualities at the limit of the existing technologies. They offer the largest flexibility in term of particles and beam properties, but are more complex, more expensive and often require large and highly qualified staff to operate and maintain them. In contrast, most applications are done with low to moderate energy protons or electrons, but often with large average beam power. The accelerators are generally specialized for a specific application, and are therefore very simple and inexpensive to operate. The author will review some applications in the field of medicine, such as the production of radio-isotopes for medical diagnostic or the production of electrons, protons or fast neutron beams for cancer therapy. In the industrial field, high power electron beam are used for sterilization and for the modification of materials. Log No. 1001

  19. Serotypes and typability of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Nielsen, Niels Ladefoged

    1999-01-01

    from chicken products covered a large selection of serotypes. In contrast, the majority of the isolates from other product groups (turkey, poussin, wild birds) were concentrated on 1-3 serotypes. Using the standard procedure for antigen preparation and serotyping, 25 of the 156 strains (16%) were...

  20. Detection of irradiated poultry products using the direct epifluorescence filter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copin, M.P.; Bourgeois, C.

    1992-01-01

    Food irradiation has developed during the last few years. Nevertheless this development would be larger if there was a recognized method to detect whether a foodstuff had been irradiated. BETTS et al. (1988) suggested a method based on the comparison of an aerobic plate count (APC) with a count obtained using the Direct Epifluorescence Filter Technique (DEFT). They showed that the APC of an irradiated product was considerably lower than that obtained by the DEFT; in this case the DEFT count gave an indication of the number of viable microbial population in the product before irradiation; the APC of a non irradiated product was very well correlated with the DEFT count. In the present work both methods were tested on deep frozen mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and fresh chicken meat. The fluorochrome used for the DEFT was acridine orange; the mesophilic microflora was counted on 'Plate Count Agar'. According to the results obtained with the deep frozen MDCM, aerobic plate counts and DEFT counts are very similar during 100 days of storage when the product has not been irradiated; if it has been irradiated the difference between the two counts is high (about two logarithmic units). With this method it is thus possible to detect an irradiated product and to know the number of viable microbial cells in the irradiated product before the treatment. The method was tested on fresh chicken meat stored at 4 deg C. At the beginning of the storage period, it is possible to detect irradiated products, but at the end the method fails. In the latter case, irradiation can be detected, but it would be impossible to say that a product had not been irradiated. This method is potentially applicable to deep frozen products, more than to fresh products

  1. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  2. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  3. Agroindustrial Wastes as Alternative for Lipase Production by Candida viswanathii under Solid-State Cultivation: Purification, Biochemical Properties, and Its Potential for Poultry Fat Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fernando de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to establish improved conditions for lipase production by Candida viswanathii using agroindustrial wastes in solid-state cultivation and to purify and evaluate the application of this enzyme for poultry fat hydrolysis. Mixed wheat bran plus spent barley grain (1 : 1, w/w supplemented with 25.0% (w/w olive oil increased the lipase production to 322.4%, compared to the initial conditions. When olive oil was replaced by poultry fat, the highest lipase production found at 40% (w/w was 31.43 U/gds. By selecting, yeast extract supplementation (3.5%, w/w, cultivation temperature (30°C, and substrate moisture (40%, w/v, lipase production reached 157.33 U/gds. Lipase was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, presenting a molecular weight of 18.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The crude and purified enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 50°C and at pH 5.5 and 45°C, respectively. The estimated half-life at 50°C was of 23.5 h for crude lipase and 6.7 h at 40°C for purified lipase. Lipase presented high activity and stability in many organic solvents. Poultry fat hydrolysis was maximum at pH 4.0, reaching initial hydrolysis rate of 33.17 mmol/L/min. Thus, C. viswanathii lipase can be successfully produced by an economic and sustainable process and advantageously applied for poultry fat hydrolysis without an additional acidification step to recover the released fatty acids.

  4. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  5. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, A; Caro, D; Deimling, S; Binder, M; Finkbeiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle assessment according to international standards (ISO 14040/44) analyzed contributions from producing SFI and animals to global change. Three different alternatives were analyzed. In addition, partial sensitivity analysis was conducted using 5 scenarios for each region for both production systems. Specialty feed ingredient supplementation in pig and broiler diets reduced greenhouse gas emissions (cradle to farm gate) by 56% and 54% in Europe, 17% and 15% in North America, and 33% and 19% in South America, respectively, compared to an unsupplemented diet. A total of 136 Mt CO equivalent (CO eq) was saved in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication potential of unsupplemented diets was reduced by up to 35% in pig and 49% in broiler production systems compared to supplemented alternatives. The acidification potential of supplemented strategies was reduced by up to 30% in pig and 79% in broiler production systems. The primary energy demand was similar in all alternatives, and this could be an area where the SFI industry can improve. Overall, SFI supplementation substantially reduced the global warming, eutrophication

  6. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. This report examines how lowering import levies impacts the competitiveness of the EU poultry industry. The results show that the offer price of broiler breast fillet in 2011 of so...

  7. Avaliação do bem-estar de frangos de corte em dois galpões comerciais climatizados Evaluation of poultry well-being in two commercial climatized poultry houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Alves Damasceno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar as condições do ambiente interno em dois galpões comerciais de frangos de corte equipados com dois sistemas de resfriamento diferentes: placas porosas umedecidas de celulose associadas à nebulização (SRPN e placas umedecidas de sombrite associadas à nebulização (SRSN. Nos galpões estudados, situados em Itaberaí, GO, foram avaliadas quatro variáveis térmicas (temperatura, índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade, carga térmica de radiação e entalpia, três respostas fisiológicas (temperaturas retal e da pele, e frequência respiratória e três índices de desempenho produtivo (ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar das aves. Os resultados indicaram que os sistemas avaliados não foram suficientemente adequados para promover condições de conforto às aves, não sendo observada diferença estatística significativa entre o desempenho das aves neles alojados. A taxa de mortalidade no galpão SRSN foi 15% maior em relação ao galpão SRPN, porém, ambas são inferiores àquelas sugeridas para as aves em estudo.The main goal of this study was to evaluate the environmental conditions inside two commercial broiler houses equipped with different cooling systems: wet cellulose pads associated with misting (SRPN and wet black screen pads associated with misting (SRSN. In the studied broiler houses, located in Itaberaí, Goiás, Brazil, four thermal variables (temperature, black globe temperature and humidity indices, thermal radiation load and enthalpy, three physiological responses (rectal temperature, skin temperature and respiration frequency, and three productivity performance indexes (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion for broiler chickens were evaluated. The results indicate that the evaluated systems were not sufficient to promote thermal comfort conditions for the birds and in general, no significant statistical difference was noticed between the

  8. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high-quality senior dog diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K E; Hernot, D C; Fastinger, N D; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Bechtel, P J; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets contained 20% milt meal (MM), pink salmon hydrolysate (PSH) and white fish meal (WFM) added at the expense of poultry by-product meal. Concentrations of lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD21 cell-surface markers and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured. Gene expression of cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Major compositional differences were noted among fish substrates but apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients and immune indices were not affected by treatment. Fish protein substrates were found to be effective substitutes for poultry by-product meal, providing diets of high nutritive value for senior dogs.

  9. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, Alexander; Caro, D.

    2016-01-01

    ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle...... in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO2 eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication...

  10. The Impact of Credit on Poultry Farm Productivity in Oyo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that informal sources of credit are still preferred and more than half of the respondents are credit constrained. The statistically significant factors that affect farm productivity include value of feed, quantity of water, numbers and age of birds, training and the credit constraint condition of farmers. Credit constraint ...

  11. Productivity, botanical composition, and nutritive value of commercial pasture mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastures in the northeastern USA often are planted to mixtures of grasses and legumes. There is limited public sector information on the performance of commercial forage mixtures. We evaluated a range of commercial pasture mixtures to determine if the number of species in a mixture affected yield an...

  12. Lack of Heterogeneity in Bacteriocin Production Across a Selection of Commercial Probiotic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, J W; Guinane, C M; Ross, R P; Hill, C; Cotter, P D

    2017-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. Bacteriocin production has often been mooted as a desirable probiotic trait and, in specific cases, has been shown to promote probiotic survival within the gastrointestinal tract, contribute to the control of pathogens and even influence host gene expression in the gut. However, it is not clear what proportion of probiotic strains routinely found in commercial products produces bacteriocins, and additionally, it is not known which bacteriocins are produced most frequently. To address this, we conducted a culture-based assessment of the bacteriocinogenic ability of bacterial strains found in a variety of commercially available probiotic products. We detected eight bacteriocin-producing isolates from 16 tested products. Interestingly, in all cases, the isolates were Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the bacteriocin produced was identified as the narrow spectrum class II bacteriocin, lactacin B. The apparent absence of other bacteriocin-producing strains from across these products suggests a lack of heterogeneity in bacteriocin production within probiotic products and suggests that bacteriocin production is not being optimally harnessed as a probiotic trait.

  13. Potential use of molecular-typing methods for the identification and characterization of salmonella enterica serotypes isolated in the poultry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Baratto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is widespread in nature and can be found in all links of the poultry production chain. Due to its high impact on meat processing, techniques for the rapid detection and reproducible characterization of Salmonella serotypes in foods are needed. The present study investigated the potential of molecular profiling to identify and differentiate 15 Salmonella serotypes isolated from the poultry production chain, based on 5 primers by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR, amplification of rDNA internal spacer analysis (RISA, and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of 16S-23S rRNA internal spacer region (ISR cleaved with Alu I and Hha I restriction enzymes. Three isolates of each serotype were analyzed for the identification of similar and different profiles. Dendrograms were constructed from molecular profiles using the UPGMA method (unweighted pair-group method for the arithmetic averages and the software program WinBoot. The present study indicates the usefulness of RISA and ARDRA of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR for systematic, epidemiological, and diagnostic purposes. Since these techniques can be used for the differentiation of serotypes, they are highly promising for the characterization of Salmonella serotypes and intra-serotypes. Data indicate that these techniques may be used to produce more consistent, reliable, and reproducible results in the identification and epidemiological study (traceability of Salmonella in the poultry industry.

  14. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing a biochip following multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Infantis, Hadar, and Virchow in poultry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Chiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella-contaminated foods, especially poultry-derived foods (eggs, chicken meat, are the major source of salmonellosis. Not only in the European Union (EU, but also in the United States, Japan, and other countries, has salmonellosis been an issue of concern for food safety control agencies. In 2005, EU regulation 1003/2005 set a target for the control and reduction of five target Salmonella enterica serovars—S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Hadar, and S. Virchow—in breeding flocks. Thus, a simple biochip for the rapid detection of any of these five Salmonella serovars in poultry products may be required. The objectives of this study were to design S. Virchow-specific primers and to develop a biochip for the simultaneous identification of all or any of these five Salmonella serovars in poultry and poultry products. Experimentally, we designed novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for the specific detection of S. Virchow, S. Infantis, and S. Hadar. The specificity of all these primers and two known primer sets for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis was then confirmed under the same PCR conditions using 57 target strains and 112 nontarget Salmonella strains as well as 103 non-Salmonella strains. Following multiplex PCR, strains of any of these five Salmonella serovars could be detected by a chromogenic biochip deployed with DNA probes specific to these five Salmonella serovars. In comparison with the multiplex PCR methods, the biochip assay could improve the detection limit of each of the Salmonella serovars from N×103 cfu/mL to N×102 cfu/mL sample in either the pure culture or the chicken meat samples. With an 8-hour enrichment step, the detection limit could reach up to N×100 cfu/mL.

  16. Commercial production of the oil absorbent Sea Sweep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.; Mobeck, W.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A new absorbent has been developed for oil spills. It attracts oil and chemicals and floats on water indefinitely. It is mpm-leaching and can save land and beaches from environmental disasters and can be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner or recycled. The new absorbent is called {open_quotes}Sea Sweep{close_quotes}; extensive research has been done on it under an EPA Small Business Innovation Research grant, Phase I and Phase II. Sea Sweep has been tested for toxicity to the environment. Less than 2 mg/l total organic carbon was found in water in contact with oil saturated Sea Sweep after 30 minutes. No toxicity was measured to any of the marine or freshwater tested species at any test concentrations. Sea Sweep is made from {open_quotes}pin chips,{close_quotes} a waste wood product, using a patented thermolytic process in which the wood is heated to about 300{degrees}C. It is a coarse, free-flowing granular material absorbing from 2.6 to 6.6 g/g of oils and chemicals. While originally designed for marine oil spills, it is also very effective for oil and chemical spills on land or water. Sea Sweep has now reached the stage of limited commercialization. A small (5 tons/day) plant has been built in northern Colorado at a wood recycling plant and it has been operated since January 1993. The plant features an afterburner that destroys the blue haze resulting from pyrolysis of the sawdust so that production is environmentally acceptable. Sea Sweep is marketed in 5, 10 and 25 lb plastic bags and 500 lb drop bags. It is also sold in socks, booms pillows and bilge rats. The company will recycle non-toxic materials for the customer using methods developed under the SBIR grant. Sea Sweep has been features in a number of articles, on television, and in national and international trade shows. The international marketing of Sea Sweep is administered from the corporate offices in Denver. Domestic marketing is administered from the regional office in Chicago.

  17. Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov., Associated with Spoilage of Modified-Atmosphere-Packaged Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koort, Joanna; Murros, Anna; Coenye, Tom; Eerola, Susanna; Vandamme, Peter; Sukura, Antti; Björkroth, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    Unidentified lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates which had mainly been detected in spoiled, marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler meat products during two previous studies, were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties and the capability to produce biogenic amines. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. Unexpectedly for a meat-spoilage-associated LAB, the strains utilized glucose very weakly. According to the API 50 CHL test, arabinose and xylose were the only carbohydrates strongly fermented. None of the six strains tested for production of histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine were able to produce these main meat-associated biogenic amines in vitro. The polyphasic taxonomy approach showed that these strains represent a new Lactobacillus species. The six isolates sequenced for the 16S rRNA encoding genes shared the highest similarity (95.0 to 96.3%) with the sequence of the Lactobacillus durianis type strain. In the phylogenetic tree, these isolates formed a distinct cluster within the Lactobacillus reuteri group, which also includes L. durianis. Numerical analyses of HindIII-EcoRI ribotypes placed all isolates together in a cluster with seven subclusters well separated from the L. reuteri group reference strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization levels between Lactobacillus sp. nov. isolates varied from 67 to 96%, and low hybridization levels (3 to 15%) were obtained with the L. durianis type strain confirming that these isolates belong to the same species different from L. durianis. The name Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov. is proposed, with strain LMG 22743T (also known as DSM 15707T or AMKR18T) as the type strain. PMID:16085830

  18. Long-term spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock and poultry production in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcu, Recep; Ekinci, Kamil; Evrendilek, Fatih; Ertekin, Can

    2010-08-01

    This study quantified spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock and poultry production in Turkey between 1961 and 2007. CH4(enteric) (from enteric fermentation), CH4(manure) (from manure management), and N2O(AWM) (from animal waste management) emissions in Turkey were estimated at 1,164, 216, and 55 Gg in 1961 and decreased to 844, 187, and 39 Gg in 2007, contributing a share of roughly 2% to the global livestock-related CH4 emissions and %1.5 to the global N2O(AWM) emissions, respectively. Total CO2-eq emissions were estimated at 50.7 Tg in 1961 and declined from a maximum value of 60.7 Tg in 1982 to a minimum value of 34.5 Tg in 2003, with a mean emission rate of 48 Tg year(-1) due to a significant reduction in the number of ruminant livestock. The highest mean share of emissions belonged to West Black Sea (14% and 16%) for CH4(enteric) and CH4(manure) and to North East Anatolia (12% and %13) for N2O(AWM) and total CO2-eq emissions, respectively. The highest emission density was 1.7 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for CH4(enteric), 0.3 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for CH4(manure), and 0.07 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for the total CO2-eq emissions in the West and North East Anatolia regions and 0.09 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for N2O(AWM) in the East Marmara region. Temporal and spatial variations in CH4(enteric), CH4(manure), and N2O(AWM) emissions in Turkey were estimated using regression models and ordinary kriging at a 500-m resolution, respectively.

  19. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10 30 MeV for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.

    2008-07-01

    A survey of commercial cyclotrons for production of medical and industrial isotopes is presented. Compact isochronous cyclotrons which accelerate negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 10 30 MeV have been widely used over the last 25 years for production of medical isotopes and other applications. Different cyclotron models for the energy range 10 12 MeV with moderate beam intensity are used for production of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F isotopes widely applied in positron emission tomography. Commercial cyclotrons with high beam intensity are available on the market for production of most medical and industrial isotopes. In this work, the physical and technical parameters of different models are compared. Possibilities of improving performance and increasing intensity of H- beams up to 2 3 mA are discussed.

  20. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, Amélie; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-01-01

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments or various storage conditions are discussed. A list of the main pathogenic bacteria of concern for the consumer and those responsible for spoilage and waste of poultry meat is established. PMID:28841156

  1. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  2. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  3. POULTRY SCIENCE – BIOLOGICAL AND ZOOTECHNICAL PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Poultry Breeding – Biological and Zootechnical Principles presents up-to-date trends and knowledge on selection, breeding, nutrition and production technology in intensive exploitation of different types of poultry, i.e. hens, turkeys, geese and ducks. A special emphasis is put on presentation of poultry meat and egg quality indicators, as well as on modification of their nutritive composition for the purpose of production of functional food. In order to make advantage of the poultry genetic potential, it is necessary to understand anatomy and functioning of the animal organ system. With this respect, this handbook presents the poultry skeleton in detail, as it differs from skeleton of other vertebrates. Furthermore, the following organ systems: respiratory, circulatory and lymphatic, digestive, excretory, reproductive and endocrine, as well as sensory system, are elaborated in the handbook. Along with metabolic processes that all vertebrates have in common, additional attention has been given to specific metabolic adjustments of vertebrates that have the ability to fly, like poultry. This handbook also presents modern technology that is applied in poultry production. Modern poultry production is completely automated process that requires minimum physical engagement of zootechnicians. At the same time, it is also a very complex process that demands professional and scientific knowledge of breeders, as zootechnical conditions need to be adjusted to genetic potential of contemporary poultry breeds and hybrids, as well as to attain high standards of environment protection.

  4. A randomized, double-blinded crossover trial testing the benefit of two hydrolysed poultry-based commercial diets for dogs with spontaneous pruritic chicken allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizikova, Petra; Olivry, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Hydrolysed protein diets are used to diagnose and treat dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR). Little is known about what proportion of dogs hypersensitive to the native protein would react to its hydrolysed form. To determine the clinical allergenicity of hydrolysed poultry feather (RCU) and chicken liver diets (HZD) in dogs with chicken induced CAFR. In this randomized, double-blinded, crossover trial, ten dogs with chicken induced CAFR were selected after a positive oral challenge to chicken meat and a negative one to corn. Test diets were fed for 14 days separated by a 14 day wash-out period. Owners rated pruritus daily with a Visual Analog Scale (PVAS). The challenge was ended if a flare in pruritus occurred (i.e. PVAS ≥5/10). The median PVAS scores before feeding RCU and HZD were 0.9 and 1.7, respectively (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.46). Pruritus scores increased significantly after feeding HZD (Friedman's test, P dogs fed RCU, but four dogs fed HZD (40%), were withdrawn after a flare in pruritus developed (Fisher's test, P = 0.04). The maximal PVAS score was significantly higher after HZD (median: 4.7) compared to RCU (2.5) (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.01). One dog in each group was withdrawn due to diarrhoea. The hydrolysed poultry feather diet did not induce pruritus flares in dogs allergic to chicken in contrast to the hydrolysed chicken liver diet that led to pruritus flares in 40% of these dogs. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Non-stochastic sampling error in quantal analyses for Campylobacter species on poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Peter; Reed, Sue; Brewster, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Ly; He, Yiping

    2013-03-01

    Using primers and fluorescent probes specific for the most common food-borne Campylobacter species (Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), we developed a multiplex, most probable number (MPN) assay using quantitative PCR (qPCR) as the determinant for binomial detection: i.e., number of p positive pathogen growth responses out of n = 6 observations each of 4 mL (V) per dilution. Working with media washes of thrice frozen-thawed chicken pieces which had been spiked with known levels of C. jejuni and C. coli, we found that about 20% of the experiments had a significant amount of error in the form of either greater than 25% MPN calculation error (Δε) and/or a low apparent recovery rate (R less than 1 = MPN observed ÷ CFU spiked). Assuming such errors were exacerbated by an excessively small n, we examined computer-generated MPN enumeration data from the standpoint of stochastic sampling error (Δ) and found that such binomial-based assays behaved identically to Poisson-based methods (e.g., counting data) except that fewer technical replicates (n) appeared to be required for the same number of cells per test volume (μ). This result implies that the qPCR detection-based MPN protocol discussed herein should accurately enumerate a test population with a μ ≥ 1 using n = 6 observations per dilution. For our protocol, this equates to ≥ 8 cells per 400-500 g of sampled product. Based on this analysis, the error rate we saw in spiked experiments (where μ > 1) implied a non-stochastic source. In other experiments we present evidence that this source was, at least in part, related to the cell concentration step (i.e., centrifugation). We also demonstrate that the error rate lessened (from ~38% to ~13%) at lower Campylobacter levels (μ ≤ 40) as would most likely exist in nature. Using this protocol, we were able to quantify 14 to 1,226 MPN per 450 g of naturally contaminated chicken for skinless pieces and 11 to 244 MPN per 450 g for wings, breasts, legs, and

  6. Identification and assessment of potential vulnerabilities in the poultry meat production chain to dangerous agents and substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwägele, F.C.; Andrée, S.; Beraquet, N.; Castrillon, M.; Winkel, C.; Garforth, D.; Cnossen, H.J.; Lucas Luijckx, N.B.; Ayalew, G.

    2009-01-01

    The specific targeted European research project ΣChain (2006) addresses existing as well as potential vulnerabilities within food chains. One of the food chains within the focus of ΣChain is dealing with poultry meat. Fundamental for the assessment of potential vulnerabilities in the chain is basic

  7. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry. No...

  8. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  10. USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Zouari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microorganisms synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Microbial surfactants are not yet a sustainable alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants seeing their potentially high production charges. This study highlights the use of low-cost agro-industrial raw material for fermentative production of biosurfactants. The Box–Behnken Design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of the ratio butter milk /distilled water, poultry-transforming wastes and inoculum size for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by B.subtilis SPB1 in submerged fermentation.The best production yield was about 12.61 ± 0.7 g/L of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant. It can be obtained when using a ratio butter milk /distilled water of 1.5, poultry-transforming wastes of 23g/L and an inoculum size of 0.12. In comparison to the highest biosurfactant production yield reported for Bacillus subtilis SPB1, three fold increases were obtained.

  11. Measuring fearfulness of hens in commercial organic egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate agreement between flock-based fear tests used in welfare assessments of laying hens in commercial organic farms, three tests were applied in 27 flocks of layers. Tests were performed at 35 and 55 weeks of age and were based on the concepts of 'novel object', 'sudden sound' and two...

  12. EEG Spectral Dynamics of Video Commercials: Impact of the Narrative on the Branding Product Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2016-11-07

    Neuromarketing has become popular and received a lot of attention. The quality of video commercials and the product information they convey to consumers is a hotly debated topic among advertising agencies and product advertisers. This study explored the impact of advertising narrative and the frequency of branding product exposures on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. We performed electroencephalography (EEG) experiments on 30 subjects while they watched video commercials. The behavioral data indicated that commercials with a structured narrative and containing multiple exposures of the branding products had a positive impact on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. The EEG spectral dynamics showed that the narratives of video commercials resulted in higher theta power of the left frontal, bilateral occipital region, and higher gamma power of the limbic system. The narratives also induced significant cognitive integration-related beta and gamma power of the bilateral temporal regions and the parietal region. It is worth noting that the video commercials with a single exposure of the branding products would be indicators of attention. These new findings suggest that the presence of a narrative structure in video commercials has a critical impact on the preference for branding products.

  13. Effects of commercial enrichment products on fatty acid components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... (Fernández–Reiriz et al., 1993; Rodríguez et al., 1996,. 1997; Øie and Olsen, 1997; Pousão-Ferreira et ... Garcia, 2006; Garcia et al., 2008a,b,c; Naz, 2008;. Westelmajer, 2008; Kotani et al., 2009; Roo et ..... Fernández-Reiriz MJ, Labarta U, Ferreiro MJ (1993). Effects of commercial enrichment diets on the ...

  14. Bioinspired Surface Treatments for Improved Decontamination: Commercial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    with scientists in academia and industry was used to identify technologies that offered potentially useful characteristics. This report details...were identified through interaction with academic and industrial scientists familiar with the technologies and with the goals of this ongoing effort...produce the same changes to contact angle as the commercial coatings, it does increase the water contact angle and that for heptane. In fact , this

  15. Risk for interspecies transmission of zoonotic pathogens during poultry processing and pork production in Peru: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, A M; Kitayama, K; Diaz, D A; Garvich, M; Angulo, N; Cama, V A; Gilman, R H; Bayer, A M

    2018-03-30

    Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains. Thus, understanding practices that lead to interspecies interactions is crucial. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate poultry processing practices in formal and informal markets and the use of leftovers by swine farmers in three Peruvian cities: Lima (capital), Tumbes (coastal) and Tarapoto (jungle). We conducted 80 direct observations at formal and informal markets and interviewed 15 swine farmers. Processors slaughter and pluck chickens and vendors and/or processors eviscerate chickens. Food safety and hygiene practices were suboptimal or absent, although some heterogeneity was observed between cities and chicken vendors versus processors. Both vendors (76%) and processors (100%) sold the chicken viscera leftovers to swine farmers, representing the main source of chicken viscera for swine farms (53%). Swine farmers fed the chicken viscera to their swine. Chicken viscera cooking times varied widely and were insufficient in some cases. Non-abattoired poultry leads to the sale of poultry leftovers to small-scale swine farms, resulting in indirect but frequent interspecies contacts that can lead to interspecies transmission of bacterial pathogens or the reassortment of influenza A viruses. These interactions are exacerbated by suboptimal safety and hygiene conditions. People involved in these activities constitute an at-risk population who could play a central role in preventing the transmission of pathogens between species. Educational

  16. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.

  17. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in

  18. The effect of an acidic, copper sulfate-based commercial sanitizer on indicator, pathogenic, and spoilage bacteria associated with broiler chicken carcasses when applied at various intervention points during poultry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S M

    2008-07-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate 1) the effect of an acidic, copper sulfate-based commercial sanitizer on pathogenic, indicator, and spoilage bacteria in a model scalder system, 2) the effect of this sanitizer on total aerobic bacteria (APC) and Escherichia coli counts, and Salmonella prevalence on broiler chicken carcasses when applied during scalding or scalding and postpick dipping, and 3) the ability of sanitizer to extend the shelf-life of broiler chicken carcasses. Exposure of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Shewanella putrefaciens to the sanitizer in scalder water at 54 degrees C for 2 min resulted in complete elimination of these bacterial species. Exposure of E. coli to the treated scald water resulted in a 4.9 log(10) reduction. These data suggest that this sanitizer would be effective for use in scalders. When applied during scalding in a commercial processing plant, APC and E. coli counts were significantly (P sanitizer, APC were significantly P sanitizer, except for d 2 and 10. Averages on these days were higher for controls, but were not significantly different. Salmonella prevalence was not consistently impacted overall. For the shelf-life study, odor scores were significantly (P sanitizer suppressed spoilage bacteria with a 99.99% reduction at d 10 and a 99.9% reduction at d 12 of storage. This effect could result in an extension of the shelf life of the poultry carcasses by up to 4 d.

  19. Simulations at Czech poultry market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Rumánková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the possible scenarios of the development of the poultry market in the Czech Republic, in view of the trends in production, consumption and foreign trade. The individual scenarios are based upon the forecasts of selected factors that have a substantial impact on the poultry market and whose changes can be expected in the subsequent years with great likelihood. The article sets out and addresses various scenarios for the period of 2012–2014. The scenarios are based upon the partial equilibrium model of the poultry market, which has been derived on the basis of time series and panel data within the years 1995–2009. The conducted analysis clearly shows that changes in the prices of agricultural producers will have an effect on changes in the production of poultry meat, an increase in VAT through consumer prices will impact the rate of domestic consumption, as well as changes in disposable income. Similarly, a change in the exchange rate will have an effect on the amount of poultry imported into the Czech Republic.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fifteen illegal dyes in animal feeds and poultry products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongyuan; Hei, Wenjing; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2011-08-15

    With the increasing presence of illegal dyes, such as sudan reds and malachite green, in animal feeds and food products during the last few years, there is an urgent need of accurate quantitative determination methods for these illicit compounds. Here we established an accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 15 illegal dyes in animal feeds, meat, eggs and other food products using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with a simple procedure using acetonitrile and solid phase extraction cleaning up. The application of C(18) rapid column can achieve satisfactory separation of the 15 dyes within 16 min; and multiple reaction monitoring of positive ions ensure confirmative detection of these illegal dyes. With the developed method, a sample can be analyzed in less than 2h. Dyes spiked in feeds, poultry meat and eggs in the range of 0.1-5.0 mg kg(-1) were tested in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability and recovery. Recoveries for the compounds ranged from 60 to 140%. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSDs) were less than 15%. Limit of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 5.61 μg kg(-1) for different dyes. The developed UHPLC-MS/MS method could be used as a qualitative and quantitative technique for the simultaneous determination of illegal dyes in animal feeds and poultry products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation and selection of Bacillus species based on enzyme production, antimicrobial activity and biofilm synthesis as direct-fed microbials candidates for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Latorre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly-resistant endospores, production of antimicrobial compounds and synthesize different exogenous enzymes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and select Bacillus spp. from environmental and poultry sources as DFM candidates, considering their enzyme production profile, biofilm synthesis capacity and pathogen-inhibition activity. Thirty one Bacillus isolates were screened for in vitro relative enzyme activity of amylase, protease, lipase and phytase using a selective media for each enzyme, with 3/31 strains selected as superior enzyme producers. These three isolates were identified as B. subtilis (1/3, and B. amyloliquefaciens (2/3 based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. For evaluation of biofilm synthesis, the generation of an adherent crystal violet-stained ring was determined in polypropylene tubes, resulting in 11/31 strains showing a strong biofilm formation. Moreover, all Bacillus strains were evaluated for growth inhibition activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (26/31, Escherichia coli (28/31 and Clostridioides difficile (29/31. Additionally, in previous in vitro and in vivo studies, these selected Bacillus strains have shown to be resistant to different biochemical conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Results of the present study suggest that the selection and consumption of Bacillus-DFM, producing a variable set of enzymes and antimicrobial compounds may contribute to enhanced performance through improving nutrient digestibility

  2. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  3. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION VIA A COMMERCIALLY READY INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul K.T. Liu

    2004-07-21

    The porous stainless steel substrate commercially available from Pall offers great potential for large-scale membrane based high temperature gas separations. Our proposed project involves the deposition of the M&P carbon molecular sieve-based hydrogen membrane on AccuSep substrate as a membrane to reactor water-gas-shift reaction. However, the AccuSep substrate was originally designed for liquid phase applications . During the 1st half, this commercial substrate has been modified and improved with regard to its surface topography and end seals. The substrate is now suitable for the deposition of the CMS membrane for hydrogen separation according to the characterization we preformed. In addition, 40{angstrom} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane layers have been deposited on the improved AccuSep substrate successfully. The SEM, EDX and pore size distribution analysis indicate that the 40{angstrom} membrane is extremely thin, and defect free with a narrow pore size distribution around 40{angstrom} primarily. As the above results suggest, we have made significant progress in preparing a high quality nominal 40{angstrom} (actually 50{angstrom}) layer on the Pall substrate. During the 2nd half of Year 1, we will (1) continue this development work with a focus on eliminating the high pore size peak and (2) begin the CMS layer deposition on the 40{angstrom} deposited AccuSep.

  4. Potentials for Sustainable Commercial Biofuels Production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofuel production has since shifted from the sole practice of the West, EU and a few other developed countries to being accepted globally. Many more countries have continued to enact appropriate legislations or formulate policy instruments that serve as the regulatory framework for biofuels production within their ...

  5. Product diversification in South Africa's commercial timber plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results indicate that producing a product mix rather than a single product improves aggregated financial returns and lowers investment risk over multiple rotation periods. The optimum mixture depended on past timber price correlations for pulpwood and sawn timber in South Africa between 1980 and 2011. This ideal ...

  6. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds... eradicated and that replacement birds or poultry will not become infected with END. ...

  7. Prioritization of poultry farmers' needs in Edo State | Arowolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified and documented the needs of practicing Medium and Small Scale (MSS) poultry farmers domiciled in two Local Government Areas (LGA) of south southern Nigeria in the area of poultry management information as a veritable tool for enhanced productivity in the poultry industry. A multistage random ...

  8. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Swiatkiewicz, S; Dlugosz, Jakub; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein wit...

  9. POULTRY-RELATED MICROBIOME CHANGES FROM EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT TO FINAL PRODUCT: A SINGLE PASTURED-RAISED FLOCK FARM-TO-FORK ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: While conventionally grown poultry continues to dominate the U.S. poultry industry, there is an increasing demand for locally-grown, “all natural” alternatives. Unfortunately, limited research has been done on this type of poultry management practice, and thus many of these management e...

  10. Commercialization potential aspects of microalgae for biofuel production: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani S. Gendy

    2013-06-01

    This article discusses the importance of algae-based biofuels together with the different opinions regarding its future. Advantages and disadvantages of these types of biofuels are presented. Algal growth drives around the world with special emphasis to Egypt are outlined. The article includes a brief description of the concept of algal biorefineries. It also declares the five key strategies to help producers to reduce costs and accelerate the commercialization of algal biodiesel. The internal strengths and weaknesses, and external opportunities, and threats are manifested through the SWOT analysis for micro-algae. Strategies for enhancing algae based-fuels are outlined. New process innovations and the role of genetic engineering in meeting these strategies are briefly discussed. To improve the economics of algal biofuels the concept of employing algae for wastewater treatment is presented.

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  12. 76 FR 13667 - Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Formerly Known as Falcon Products, Inc., Shelby Williams, Howe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Furniture Group, Inc., Formerly Known as Falcon Products, Inc., Shelby Williams, Howe and Thonet, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions, Morristown, TN, and Commercial Furniture Group, Inc... Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Staffing Solutions, Morristown...

  13. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-08

    This FY 2015 report updates the results of an effort to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  14. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-01

    This FY 2014 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  15. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-04-30

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  16. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. Evaluation and Selection of Bacillus Species Based on Enzyme Production, Antimicrobial Activity, and Biofilm Synthesis as Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates for Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Wolfenden, Ross E.; Vicente, Jose L.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Menconi, Anita; Bielke, Lisa R.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly resistant endospores, produce antimicrobial compounds, and synthesize different exogenous enzymes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and select Bacillus spp. from environmental and poultry sources as DFM candidates, considering their enzyme production profile, biofilm synthesis capacity, and pathogen-inhibition activity. Thirty-one Bacillus isolates were screened for in vitro relative enzyme activity of amylase, protease, lipase, and phytase using a selective media for each enzyme, with 3/31 strains selected as superior enzyme producers. These three isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (1/3), and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (2/3), based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. For evaluation of biofilm synthesis, the generation of an adherent crystal violet-stained ring was determined in polypropylene tubes, resulting in 11/31 strains showing a strong biofilm formation. Moreover, all Bacillus strains were evaluated for growth inhibition activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (26/31), Escherichia coli (28/31), and Clostridioides difficile (29/31). Additionally, in previous in vitro and in vivo studies, these selected Bacillus strains have shown to be resistant to different biochemical conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Results of the present study suggest that the selection and consumption of Bacillus-DFM, producing a variable set of enzymes and antimicrobial compounds, may contribute to enhanced performance through improving nutrient digestibility

  18. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  19. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in commercial comfrey products (Symphytum sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, J M; Eppley, R M; Taylor, W C; Andrzejewski, D

    1994-05-01

    The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum sp.) and the widespread use of decoctions of this plant as a beverage (herbal tea) are of increasing concern. A method for the extraction and solid-phase concentration and capillary gas chromatographic determination of these alkaloids and their N-oxides in botanical materials has been developed and was applied to eleven comfrey-containing products purchased from retail health-food outlets in the Washington, DC, area during May-June 1989. Nine of the 11 products were found to contain measurable quantities of one or more of the alkaloids, in ranges from 0.1 to 400.0 ppm. Products containing comfrey leaf in combination with one or more other ingredients were found to contain the lowest alkaloid levels. Highest levels were found in bulk comfrey root, followed by bulk comfrey leaf. The species of the bulk material was verified by thin-layer chromatography and other means.

  20. In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neem-product (Mite-Stop) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Nina; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    The acaricidal activity of the neem product MiteStop was investigated for its potential use as a botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. This neem product is a special formulation of an extract of the seeds of the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The efficacy was tested under laboratory conditions as well as in poultry houses. Four different methods of application were used in a filter paper bioassay to evaluate contact and vapour phase toxicity tests. The neem product proved to be already active in very small doses. In order to investigate the efficacy under field conditions, a poultry house was sprayed twice within a 7-day period using 1:33 and 1:50 diluted MiteStop. Cardboard traps were used to assess the mite population before, during and after the treatment. The mite population could be reduced by 89%. In a second poultry house, the spraying of defined areas with a 1:30, 1:33 or 1:50 dilution of the acaricide proved to be highly efficacious against all mite stages. Three other field trials proved that MiteStop is highly active against the red poultry mite. The most efficient dilution is 1:33 with tap water and spraying two or three times at intervals of 7 days.

  1. Hydroponic food production: a definitive guidebook for the advanced home gardener and the commercial hydroponic grower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resh, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Hydroponic Food Production: A Definitive Guidebook for the Advanced Home Gardener and the Commercial Hydroponic Grower details advances that have taken place in this field since the publication of the previous edition in 2001...

  2. Characterization of engineered nanoparticles in commercially available spray disinfectant products advertised to contain colloidal silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the potential for human exposure to silver nanoparticles from spray disinfectants and dietary supplements, we characterized the silver-containing nanoparticles in 22 commercial products that advertised the use of silver or colloidal silver as the active ingredient. Characte...

  3. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2017-01-01

    ’s genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection...... of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed “robust” Hellevad chickens with two...... chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between...

  4. Commercialization of Agricultural Research Products –A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major outcome of the study is that research organizations must implement market plans for agricultural research products, services and technologies to ensure sustainable funding of new researches. Regular interaction with farmers and other stakeholders will also elicit the opinions and concerns of the beneficiaries as ...

  5. Commercial production of crops irrigated with gypsiferous mine water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology that could add value through agricultural production and utilise mine effluent. Crop response to irrigation with gypsiferous mine water, as well as the impact on soil and groundwater resources were investigated in a three-year field ...

  6. Commercial production of fish meal from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery

  7. Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the year 2000, the Balsam Association, a nongovernmental organization, approached members of the Health Dyes Project, Department of Human Ecology, University of Alberta, for assistance with small-scale indigo projects in El Salvador. This project will explore the feasibility of reintroducing indigo production in the ...

  8. Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Asociación Balsamo is working to develop an alternative agroindustrial model for indigo production in El Salvador that will enable smallholders to produce indigo as their main source of income. This project will allow a team of ...

  9. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine

  10. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  11. 7 CFR 70.76 - Charges for continuous poultry grading performed on a nonresident basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry...

  12. Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products; Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products. Pinturas homologadas en centrales nucleares. Productos comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcena, J.; Nunez, B.; Romero, M.; Baladiam, M.

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the supplier of paints that were qualified for use in nuclear applications as protective coatings have ceased to supply in Spain the paints that was used in areas or components with special requirements for nuclear power plants (NPPs). This lack of the common commercial products called for the search for and homologation of other products. A study was performed on the current status of the homologation of commercial products for NPPs and on the codes and standards governing them. The criteria to be met have been defined and the results of the tests performed on the selected paints have been compared against the established criteria so as to allow the homologation of the paints. (Author)

  13. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  14. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  15. Analyses of uranium in some phosphate commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Sohsah, M.; Mohammad, H.M.; Sadek, M.

    2005-01-01

    The raw materials used in manufacturing of phosphate fertilizer products were derived from rocks. Rocks contain a remarkable of natural radioactivity. Uranium and phosphorous were originally initiated at the same time of the initiated rocks. The purpose of this research is to investigate solubility of uranium phosphate species at the phosphate fertilizer samples, samples including; raw phosphate material, single super phosphates (SSP) granules and powdered, triple super phosphates (TSP) and phosphogypsum samples were obtained from Abu-Zabal factory in Egypt. Solubility of uranium phosphate species was estimated. It was found that, less than half of the uranium phosphate species are soluble in water. The soluble uranium may be enter into the food chains by plant. Therefore, restriction should be done in order to limit contamination of land and the public

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  17. effects of poultry species and housing types on the poultry wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS T. NWAKUNOBI

    ABSTRACT. Adequate information on the characteristics of wastes generated from poultry production particularly in ... system. The results of the analyses of variance (ANOVA) indicate that poultry species and housing ... S. E. Tyavtser, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture,.

  18. Effects of Poultry Species and Housing Types on the Poultry Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate information on the characteristics of wastes generated from poultry production particularly in the tropical region is lacking. This study investigated and characterized the wastes of different poultry species which included broiler, cockerel and layer with each under battery cage and or deep litter housing systems.

  19. 76 FR 22359 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Collection; Importation of Poultry Meat and Other Poultry Products From Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico AGENCY... poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on... poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico, contact Dr. Magde Elshafie, Staff Officer, NCIE, VS...

  20. Chemical characteristics of poultry slaughterhouse byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Okanović Đorđe; Ristić M.; Kormanjoš Š.; Filipović S.; Živković B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, nutritional components that are obtained during poultry slaughtering having significance with respect to processing into animal feeds were investigated. By-products obtained during poultry slaughtering are considered very valuable raw materials for production of highly valuable animal feeds and energetic feeds. Recognition of chemical and physical characteristics of the raw materials represents essential prerequisite for conduction of any technological process, for proper raw m...

  1. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  2. Studies of 90Sr presence in milk and commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, M.; Solecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present the studies of radiological level of some commercial dairy products in Mazovian, Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lublin regions. They were carried out for 27 commercial dairy products such as two specimens of lean cottage cheese, three specimens of cottage cheese containing a limited percentage of fat, three specimens of fat cottage cheese, three specimens of milk containing 3.2% of fat, three specimens of milk containing 2.0% of fat, two specimens of sour cream containing 12% of fat, three specimens of sour cream containing 18% of fat, one specimen of 30% whipping cream, two specimens of homogenized (strawberry and vanilla) cheese, three specimens of hard rennet cheese, one specimen of powdered milk, one specimen of goat milk. For the given commercial dairy products there were calculated effective doses (?Sv) obtained after consumption of 1 kg contaminated product for different age groups. (author)

  3. Water velocity in commercial RAS culture tanks for Atlantic salmon smolt production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimal flow domain in culture tanks is vital for fish growth and welfare. This paper presents empirical data on rotational velocity and water quality in circular and octagonal tanks at two large commercial smolt production sites, with an approximate production rate of 1000 and 1300 ton smolt ann...

  4. Population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance of the most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Paul, Narayan C; Sischo, Willium C; Crespo, Rocio; Guard, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the most predominant bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Due to the risk of human infection associated with poultry products and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella also poses a significant challenge to commercial poultry production. During the last decade (2002 to 2012), the 12 most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) were frequently and consistently isolated from poultry products in the United States. These MPPSTs and their percent prevalence in poultry products include Kentucky (4%), Enteritidis (2%) Heidelberg (2%), Typhimurium (2%), S. I 4,[5],12:i:- (0.31%), Montevideo (0.20%), Infantis (0.16%) Schwarzengrund (0.15%), Hadar (0.15%), Mbandaka (0.13%), Thompson (0.12%), and Senftenberg (0.04%). All MPPSTs except Kentucky are among the top 30 clinically significant serotypes that cause human illnesses in the United States. However with the exception of a few widely studied serotypes such as S. Enteritidis and Typhimurium, the ecology and epidemiology of the majority of MPPSTs still remain poorly investigated. Published data from the United States suggests that MPPSTs such as Heidelberg, Typhimurium, Kentucky, and Sentfenberg are more likely to be multi-drug resistant (MDR, ≥3 antimicobial classes) whereas Enteritidis, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Infantis, Thompson, and Mbandaka are generally pan-susceptible or display resistance to fewer antimicobials. In contrast, the majority of MPPSTs isolated globally have been reported to display MDR phenotype. There also appears to be an international spread of a few MDR serotypes including Kentucky, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Thomson, Sentfenberg, and Enteritidis, which may pose significant challenges to the public health. The current knowledge gaps on the ecology, epidemiology, and antimicrobial resistance of MPPSTs are discussed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. A study on the meat and bone meal or poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fishmeal in concentrated diets for Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Hu, Yangjiang; Yu, Yu

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fishmeal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). The experimental diets included 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MBM or PBM replacement of total fishmeal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric. The results showed that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among the treatments fed with 0% 60% MBM replacement of fishmeal, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decrease when fishmeal is replaced by 80% MBM. The result showed also that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all treatments fed with the diets with 0% 80% replacements of fishmeal with PBM.

  6. In vitro assay and morphological characterization of a new product based on diatomaceous earth for lesser mealworm control in poultry houses

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Luis Francisco Angeli; Martins, Claudecir Castilho; Nardelli, Margaret Seghetto; Alves, Victor Michelon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Diatomaceous earth (DE) is an inert powder obtained from milling the fossilized deposits of diatoms. Mainly composed of silica dioxide, DE is highly hygroscopic and is recommended for use in poultry houses as an evironmental conditioner, with a secondary action being the reduction of lesser mealworm populations Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). This study aimed to characterize and assess the insecticidal activity of a new environmental conditioner for poultry houses (Poultry Sec®, Ve...

  7. Human Contacts and Potential Pathways of Disease Introduction on Georgia Poultry Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Hofacre, C.L.; Smith, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    As highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to circulate in the world, poultry farm biosecurity and timely reporting of morbidity and mortality among commercial poultry farms in the United States are major concerns. To assess the vulnerability of poultry farms to the introduction...

  8. Comparison of BUT Big 6 commercial turkey production performance in Iran with the breed standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Haghighi Khoshkhoo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the management of commercial turkey production and finding existing problems in Iran, 15 commercial flocks of BUT Big6 breed (including 72000 commercial turkeys were selected randomly and monitored up to marketing age. In this study flock performances based on mean body weight and its coefficient of variation percentage, feed consumption, feed conversion rate, livability percentage and European Efficacy Factor were recorded in 15 flocks for each sex individually and statistically analyzed by SPSS program .The results showed that the mean body weight, livability percentage and European Efficacy Factor in all flocks were significantly lower than the breed's standards (P

  9. Identifying ingredients that delay outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes in natural, organic, and clean-label ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lindsey M; Glass, Kathleen A; Sindelar, Jeffrey J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify ingredients that inhibit Listeria monocytogenes in natural, organic, or clean-label ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. Fourteen ingredients were screened in uncured (no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added), traditional-cured (156 ppm of purified sodium nitrite), cultured (alternative cured, natural nitrate source, and Staphylococcus carnosus), or preconverted (alternative cured, natural nitrite source) turkey slurries. Slurries were cooked, cooled, inoculated to yield 3 log CFU/ml L. monocytogenes, stored at 4°C, and tested weekly for 4 weeks. Three antimicrobial ingredients, 1.5 % vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend, 2.5 % buffered vinegar, and 3.0 % cultured sugar-vinegar blend, were incorporated into alternative-cured ham and uncured roast beef and deli-style turkey breast. Controls included all three meat products without antimicrobial ingredients and a traditional-cured ham with 2.8 % sodium lactate-diacetate. Cooked, sliced products were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, vacuum packed, and stored at 4 or 7°C, for up to 12 weeks. For control products without antimicrobial agents stored at 4°C, a 2-log L. monocytogenes increase was observed at 2 weeks for ham and turkey and at 4 weeks for roast beef. Growth (>1-log increase) in the sodium lactate-diacetate was delayed until week 6. Compared with the control, the addition of either vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend or buffered vinegar delayed L. monocytogenes growth for an additional 2 weeks, while the addition of cultured sugar-vinegar blend delayed growth for an additional 4 weeks for both ham and turkey. The greatest L. monocytogenes delay was observed in roast beef containing any of the three antimicrobial ingredients, with no growth detected through 12 weeks at 4°C for all the treatments. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew substantially faster in products stored at 7°C than at 4°C. These data suggest that antimicrobial ingredients from a natural source

  10. Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors among Escherichia coli Isolated from Conventional and Free-Range Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological contamination in commercial poultry production has caused concerns for human health because of both the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and the increase in antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains that can cause treatment failure of human infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from chicken carcasses obtained from different farming systems (conventional and free-range poultry. A total of 156 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for 15 antimicrobials, and strains were confirmed as extended spectrum of β-lactamases- (ESBLs- producing E. coli by phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that strains from free-range poultry have fewer virulence factors than strains from conventional poultry. Strains from conventionally raised chickens had a higher frequency of antimicrobial resistance for all antibiotics tested and also exhibited genes encoding ESBL and AmpC, unlike free-range poultry isolates, which did not. Group 2 CTX-M and CIT were the most prevalent ESBL and AmpC genes, respectively. The farming systems of poultries can be related with the frequency of virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria.

  11. Hatchery Vaccination Against Poultry Viral Diseases: Potential Mechanisms and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Palomino-Tapia, Victor; Amarasinghe, Aruna; Ahmed-Hassan, Hanaa; De Silva Senapathi, Upasama; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch). Although the ability to mount immune response, especially the adaptive immune response, is not optimal around the hatch, it is possible that the efficacy of these vaccines depends partly on innate host responses elicited in response to replicating vaccine viruses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of hatchery vaccination in poultry and potential mechanisms of hatchery vaccine-mediated protective responses and limitations.

  12. 37 CFR 1.791 - Termination of interim extension granted prior to regulatory approval of a product for commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... receives permission for commercial marketing or use. If within that 60-day period the patent owner or its... extension granted prior to regulatory approval of a product for commercial marketing or use. 1.791 Section 1... approval of a product for commercial marketing or use. Any interim extension granted under 35 U.S.C. 156(d...

  13. Commercial Aquaponics Approaching the European Market: To Consumers’ Perceptions of Aquaponics Products in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Miličić, Vesna; Thorarinsdottir, Ragnheidur; Santos, Maria; Hančič, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The first commercial aquaponics companies are starting up in Europe. The main focus has been on solving technology issues and optimizing production. However, increasing attention is now being paid to certification and regulations linked to aquaponics, as well as the marketing of products and services. The paper presents the results of a study whose main aim was to estimate consumers’ knowledge about aquaponics and their acceptance of aquaponics products in different European regions. An on-li...

  14. How Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Has Affected World Poultry-Meat Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Fawzi A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus had a major negative impact on the global poultry industry. Initially, import demand for both uncooked and cooked poultry declined substantially, due to consumers’ fear of contracting avian influenza by eating poultry meat. Consumer fears adversely affected poultry consumption in many countries, leading to lower domestic prices, decreased production, and lower poultry meat exports. These reductions proved to be shor...

  15. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  16. Study of the process for accelerating ammonia generation from poultry residues aiming its hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), elementary analysis (CHN), thermogravimetry and GC/MS - gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  17. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  18. Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

    2011-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate nourishing environment. Male Cobb broilers (240) were assigned to four experimental groups being each experimental group set apart in rice straw-covered shed isolated with wire mesh. One-day-old broilers were reared in a coccidian-free environment with ad libitum supply of filtered water and freely available standard feed, from the 1st to the 35th day of life. The T1 group received standard feed (negative control); T2 was treated with standard feed supplemented with 66 ppm of salinomycin (positive control); groups T3 and T4 had standard feed supplemented with the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of E. alba aerial parts, which contains the coumestans WL and DWL (120 and 180 ppm, respectively). The chicken broilers were individually infected with 2 × 104 oocysts of Eimeria tenella when they were 14 days old and were monitored weekly to evaluate zootechnical parameters such as weight gain and food conversion ratio. Counting of coccidial oocyst in chicken feces was assessed from random samples, from the 21st to 28th days of life, which corresponded to 7-14 days after the infection. Five chickens selected at random from each experimental group were subsequently euthanized at 21, 28 or 35 days of life to determine the lesion score in the cecal region and to excise a cecum portion for histopathological evaluation. The group treated with coumestans from E. alba presented an average weight gain and food conversion ratio higher than the negative control group and similar to the mean value of the positive control group. Coumestan-treated groups showed a

  19. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Pathak; B.G. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  20. "Trust Me--I'll Deliver": Acquisition Approaches to Guarantee Commercial Companies Deliver Critical Space Products in Time of Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denker, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    .... However, over the last ten years, the US military has begun to rely on commercially available products to meet many of its requirements in a variety of sectors including the commercial space sector...

  1. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A technical analysis on the feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is presented. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is described. The candidate products are antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon. Production mass balances for antihemophelic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space versus ground operation. A conceptual description of a multiproduct processing system for space operation is discussed. Production requirements for epidermal growth factor of alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon are presented.

  2. Liquid dosage forms extemporaneously prepared from commercially available products - considering new evidence on stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alison; Glass, Beverley D

    2013-01-01

    Although the world's population is ageing and as a result of this an increasing number of patients are experiencing difficulty in swallowing, there remains a lack of commercially available oral liquids for both these older and paediatric patients. This presents a problem to health care professionals, especially the pharmacist in practice, who is often required to provide a solution for these patients by preparing oral liquids extemporaneously from commercially available products. Preparation of these oral liquids is challenging, both due to the lack of pharmacopoeial and stability-indicating formulae and the fact that their stability is not only determined by the active pharmaceutical ingredient, but also the ability of excipients from the commercial product to interact with each other and the active pharmaceutical ingredient. This increases the complexity of the stability considerations to be taken into account within these oral liquids, highlighting the number of parameters to be considered in the extemporaneous preparation of oral liquids. This paper presents new evidence on the stability of 42 oral liquids prepared from commercially available products, reported on in the literature since the previous review published in 2006. However, unlike the previous review where the stability concerns in 7.2% of the extemporaneously prepared oral liquids were mainly due to interaction between the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients in the commercial product, most of these stability considerations have been recognised and this has resulted in the authors proposing solutions to these problems prior to the extemporaneous preparation of the oral liquid. As such this paper also focuses on the increased level of research that has been undertaken to solve previous issues related to stability, especially in terms of the use of commercial products, which is common practice in the extemporaneous preparation of oral liquids.

  3. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits and applications for... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Mexico 8 § 93.218 Import...

  4. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamdar, S.N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile ( 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to o C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature

  5. Technological feasibility of preserving meat, poultry and fish products by using a combination of conventional additives, mild heat treatment and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierbicki, E.

    1981-01-01

    Radappertization is particularly applicable to precooked meat, poultry, fin fish, and shellfish, as well as to dry foods, animal feed, and spices. The resulting radappertized products are free from food spoilage microorganisms and organisms of public health significance, including the pathogens such as C. botulinum, salmonellae, trichinae, etc. The radappertized products can be stored without refrigeration for long periods (years), the limiting factor being the integrity of the primary packaging material. Irradiation sterilization of cured meats allows complete elimination or a drastic reduction of incoming nitrite to the levels needed only for characteristic colour and flavour of the items while providing protection against C. botulinum by irradiation. The irradiated-cured products with the low levels of added nitrite are free from residual nitrite and nitrosamines, including nitrosopyrrolidine in fried bacon. In recent co-operative research with the US Department of Agriculture, it was shown that irradiation also destroys pre-formed nitrosamines in bacon. The technology of the process was developed by the US National Food Irradiation Program and the US Army from 1953 to 1980. The US Army spearheaded the development of this new technology to the point where the food irradiation potentials have become meaningful within the broad scope of national and international interests. Therefore, it was highly appropriate that, effective 1 October 1980, the responsibility for the programme at this stage was transferred to the US Department of Agriculture which has been designated as the leading agency for the US Federal food and nutrition programmes

  6. Development of an agricultural biotechnology crop product: testing from discovery to commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalle, Laura S; Chen, Jingwen; Clapper, Gina; Hunst, Penny; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Zhong, Cathy X

    2012-10-17

    "Genetically modified" (GM) or "biotech" crops have been the most rapidly adopted agricultural technology in recent years. The development of a GM crop encompasses trait identification, gene isolation, plant cell transformation, plant regeneration, efficacy evaluation, commercial event identification, safety evaluation, and finally commercial authorization. This is a lengthy, complex, and resource-intensive process. Crops produced through biotechnology are the most highly studied food or food component consumed. Before commercialization, these products are shown to be as safe as conventional crops with respect to feed, food, and the environment. This paper describes this global process and the various analytical tests that must accompany the product during the course of development, throughout its market life, and beyond.

  7. The contribution of AECL CommercialProducts to nuclear medicine and radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL CommercialProducts has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application, and CommercialProducts dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the 'sterile male' technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. (auth)

  8. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  9. 75 FR 22031 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... lamp-and-ballast and fixture replacement as economic issues in the LCC analysis, which considers the... analyses conducted. Generally, the LCC of a high- efficiency lamp and ballast replacement is higher than... Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination...

  10. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  11. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc... Aspen Group Resources Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  12. Cost Effectiveness of Natural Regeneration for Sustaining Production Continuity in Commercial Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Clason

    2002-01-01

    Reforestation is a key to production continuity in commercial pine plantations. Although natural and artificial regeneration methods have been used successfully for pine seedling establishment, it is seedling growth during early stage of plantation development that affects the financial potential of a pine plantation. A study was initiated to determine the effect of...

  13. How Planting Density Affects Number and Yield of Potato Minitubers in a Commercial Glasshouse Production System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der A.J.H.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial potato minituber production systems aim at high tuber numbers per plant. This study investigated by which mechanisms planting density (25.0, 62.5 and 145.8 plants/m2) of in vitro derived plantlets affected minituber yield and minituber number per plantlet. Lowering planting density

  14. Effect of nematode infections on productivity of young and adult cattle on commercial dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this study relationships between levels of exposure to gastrointestinal and lung nematode infections and production were investigated on commercial dairy farms in the Netherlands. Little was known about these

    relationships, particularly with respect to second-year cattle and

  15. Adjusting Quality index Log Values to Represent Local and Regional Commercial Sawlog Product Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1969-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is not only to report the results of a comparative analysis as to how well the Q.I. method predicts log product values when compared to commercial sawmill log output values, but also to develop a methodology which will facilitate the comparison and provide the adjustments needed by the sawmill operator.

  16. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Impacts on Japan’s Import Demand for Cooked and Uncooked Poultry, Beef, Pork, and Other Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Fawzi A.; Hahn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    First developed meat import demand system, disaggegating poultry meat into two products, cooked poultry (safe)and uncooked poultry meat (less safe). The model includes, beef, pork, and other meats as well.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with isomer analysis in the commercial PFOS and PFOA products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Zhang, Yifeng; Yang, Liping; Chu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in consumer and industrial products for decades and are widely detected in the environment and humans all over the world. The information on the isomeric profiles of commercial products is important to identify the manufacturing origins of PFAAs in the environment. For the first time, the PFAA compositions and isomeric profiles of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were reported in three PFOS and five PFOA commercial products manufactured in China. The purity of the three PFOS products was 76.7-80.6%. The major impurity in the PFOS products is PFOA, which contributes more than 10%. Other impurities include perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluoroheptanoate acids (PFHpA). The percentage of linear PFOS (n-PFOS) in the three products was 66.2-71.9%, similar to that in the product manufactured by 3M (70.3%). The purity of the five PFOA products was relatively high (94.0-95.8%), and the major impurity was PFOS (2.06-3.09%). The percentage of n-PFOA in the five PFOA products was 76.4-77.9%, which was similar to that in the 3M PFOA (78%). Although it is widely accepted that telomerization is currently the predominant manufacturing method for PFOA, yielding an isomerically pure and linear product, the results in the present study suggest that electrochemical fluorination is still used by some manufacturers in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coccidiostats in unmedicated feedingstuffs for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radičević, T.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Nikolić, D.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Spirić, D.

    2017-09-01

    Coccidiostats are compounds that are widely used as feed additives to prevent and treat coccidiosis, a contagious disease affecting mainly poultry, and which is associated with warm and humid conditions, as can be found on poultry farms. In Serbia and in the EU, specific coccidiostats are authorized as poultry feed additives. A wide range of these products is available for prevention (as additives) and treatment of coccidiosis (as veterinary medicinal products). The aim of this study is to present findings of residues of coccidiostats in unmedicated feed for chickens for fattening and laying hens as possible causes for coccidiostat residues in liver and eggs. The reasons for these compounds occurring in animal tissues and primary products of animal origin could be an inappropriate withdrawal period after the last administration of medicated feed or cross-contamination of unmedicated feed during the production on the same production line as medicated feedingstuffs, because of inadequate cleaning procedures and/or hygiene practices.

  19. Farinha de vísceras de aves na alimentação de alevinos de lambari Poultry by-product meal in lambari fingerlings diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O lambari, Astyanax altiparanae, é uma espécie muito comum em rios nacionais, com grande potencial para a piscicultura nacional. Ele apresenta crescimento rápido e carne de excelente sabor, sendo muito apreciado com petisco e como isca viva para a pesca esportiva. A farinha de vísceras de aves é uma importante fonte protéica de origem animal. O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a inclusão de farinha de vísceras de aves (FV em rações para alevinos de lambari. Foram utilizados 125 alevinos, apresentando peso e comprimento inicial médio de 0,080±0,002g e 1,86±0,20cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários. As rações foram formuladas de forma a conter 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de FV na dieta. O arraçoamento foi realizado quatro vezes ao dia, na forma farelada e à vontade. O valores médios de peso final (1,47, 1,92, 2,02, 2,11 e 2,15g e comprimento final (4,40, 4,78, 4,92, 4,92 e 5,08cm dos alevinos de lambari apresentaram aumento linear (PThe lambari Astyanax altiparanae, is a very common species in the national rivers, with great potential for the national psyculture. It presents a fast growth and meat of eccellent flavor, being very appreciate like a delicacy and like an alive bait to sportive fishing. The poultry by-product meal is an important proteinic source from animal origin. The research was carried out with the objective to evaluate the poultry by-product meal inclusion (FV in rations for lambari fingerlings. 125 fingerlings presenting average weight and initial length of 0.080±0.002g and 1.86±0.20cm respectively were used, they were distributed in 25 aquariums. The rations were formulated in form to contain 0, 5, 10 15 and 20% of FV in the diet. The ration giving was carried through four times a day, in a braning form and at the will. The avarage values of final weight (1.47, 19.2, 2.02, 2.11 and 2.15 and final length of (4.40, 4.78, 4.92 and 5.08cm of the lambari fingerlings had presented linear

  20. The water footprint of poultry, pork and beef : A comparative study in different countries and production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for 92% of the freshwater footprint of humanity; almost one third relates to animal products. In a recent global study, Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012) [31] show that animal products have a large water footprint (WF) relative to crop products. We use the outcomes of that study to