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Sample records for commercial lso petcamera

  1. Air atmosphere annealing effects on LSO:Ce crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ding, D.; Feng, H.; Ren, G.; Nikl, Martin; Qin, L.; Pan, S.; Yang, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 1272-1277 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : annealing * cerium * LSO * luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2010

  2. Characterisation of a LSO scintillation crystal for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elftmann, Robert; Grunau, Jan; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Martin, Cesar; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Inorganic scintillation crystals coupled with semiconductor detectors are often used in space applications as gamma ray detectors or high energy particle calorimeters. Currently BGO (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) is widely used for this purpose because of its high stopping power, the non hygroscopy and its ruggedness, which is favorable in space applications. Cerium doped LSO (Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) offers the same benefits with higher light output capabilites and a shorter decay time. In this work a cerium doped LSO scintillation crystal coupled with a photo diode is investigated. The light yield and resolution studies for two different radioactive sources, {sup 207}Bi and {sup 60}Co, are presented. To increase the light collection and consequently the energy resolution, scintillation crystals are wrapped in highly reflective material. The increase in light collection depending on the amount of layers for the LSO crystal along with investigations of quenching effects with alpha particles and the background spectrum, which arises from radioactive cerium isotopes, are also included in this work.

  3. Gamma ray spectroscopy and timing using LSO and PIN photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Melcher, C.L.; Manente, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The high density, high light output, and short decay time of LSO (lutetium orthosilicate, Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce) make it an attractive scintillator for gamma ray spectroscopy. The low cost, small size, high quantum efficiency, and ruggedness of silicon photodiodes make them attractive photodetectors for this same application, although their high noise (Compared to a photomultiplier tube) reduces their appeal. In this work the authors measure the gamma ray energy resolution, timing accuracy, and conversion factor from gamma energy to number of electron-hole pairs produced with a 3 x 3 x 22 mm 3 LSO scintillator crystal read out with a 3 x 3 mm 2 silicon PIN photodiode. When the detector is excited with 511 keV photons, a photopeak centered at 1,940 e - with 149 keV fwhm is observed and a timing signal with 35 ns fwhm jitter is produced. When the detector is excited with 1,275 keV photons, a photopeak centered at 4,910 e - with 149 keV fwhm is observed and a timing signal with 25 ns fwhm jitter is produced. While these performance measures are inferior to those obtained with photomultiplier tubes, they are acceptable for some applications

  4. Performance of a YSO/LSO detector block for use in a PET/SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlbom, M.; MacDonald, L.R.; Eriksson, L.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in using conventional SPECT scintillation cameras for PET imaging, however, the count rate performance is a limiting factor. The modular block detectors used in modem PET systems do not have this limitation. In this work, the performance of a detector block design which would have high resolution and high count rate capabilities in both detection modes is studied. The high light output of LSO (∼5-6 times BGO) would allow the construction of a detector block that would have similar intrinsic resolution characteristics at 140 keV as a conventional high resolution BGO block detector at 511 keV (∼4 mm FWHM). However, the intrinsic radioactivity of LSO prevents the use of this scintillator in single photon counting mode. YSO is a scintillator with higher light output than LSO but worse absorption characteristics than LSO. YSO and LSO could be combined in a phoswich detector block, where YSO is placed in a front layer and is used for low energy (SPECT) imaging and LSO in a second layer is used for PET imaging. Events in the two detector materials can be separated by pulse shape discrimination, since the decay times of the light in YSO and LSO are different (70 and 40 ns, respectively). Although the intrinsic resolution of the block detector with discrete elements is worse than for a NaI camera, this would not be a limiting factor. Simulations of a 20 cm diameter hot spot phantom imaged at different collimator distances using a high resolution collimator and scintillation camera system was compared to a block detector camera. No appreciable difference in resolution was seen in the reconstructed images between the two camera systems, including the ideal situation of zero distance between collimator and phantom

  5. Optimization of LSO/LuYAP phoswich detector for small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Chung, Yong Hyun; Devroede, Olivier; Krieguer, Magalie; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Tavernier, Stefaan

    2007-01-01

    LSO/LuYAP phoswich detectors for small animal PET were developed to measure the depth of interaction (DOI), and to improve the spatial resolution at the edge of the field of view (FOV). The aim of this study was to optimize the optical coupling conditions between the crystal and photomultiplier tube (PMT) to maximize the light-collection efficiency, and to develop a method for rejecting scatter events by applying an equal energy window in each crystal layer. The light yields of the phoswich detector were estimated by changing the refractive index of the optical coupling material using a DETECT simulation. The accuracy of the DOI measurement on the phoswich detector, using an optical coupling material with the optimal light yield, were evaluated experimentally and compared with the air condition. The energy window for the photopeak events cannot be applied properly because the light outputs of LSO and LuYAP are different. The LSO/LuYAP photopeaks need to be superposed in order to effectively discriminate the scattered events by applying an equal energy window. The photopeaks of the LSO and LuYAP can be superposed by inserting a reflecting material between the crystals. The optimal coverage ratio of the inserting material was derived from a DETECT simulation, and its performance was investigated. In the simulation result, optimal refractive index of the optical coupling material was 1.7. The average DOI measurement errors of the LSO/LuYAP were 0.6%/3.4% and 4.9%/41.4% in the phoswich detector with and without an optical coupling material, respectively. The photopeaks of the LSO and LuYAP were superposed by covering 75% of the contact surface between the crystals with white Teflon. The DOI measurement errors of the LSO/LuYAP were 0.2%/2.4%. In this study, the optimal condition of the optical coupling material inserted between the crystal and PMT was derived to improve the accuracy of DOI measurement, and a photopeak superposition method of the LSO and LuYAP was

  6. A prototype high-resolution animal positron tomograph with avalanche photodiode arrays and LSO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.J.; Rafecas, M.; Schwaiger, M.

    2001-01-01

    To fully utilize positron emission tomography (PET) as a non-invasive tool for tissue characterization, dedicated instrumentation is being developed which is specially suited for imaging mice and rats. Semiconductor detectors, such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs), may offer an alternative to photomultiplier tubes for the readout of scintillation crystals. Since the scintillation characteristics of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) are well matched to APDs, the combination of LSO and APDs seems favourable, and the goal of this study was to build a positron tomograph with LSO-APD modules to prove the feasibility of such an approach. A prototype PET scanner based on APD readout of small, individual LSO crystals was developed for tracer studies in mice and rats. The tomograph consists of two sectors (86 mm distance), each comprising three LSO-APD modules, which can be rotated for the acquisition of complete projections. In each module, small LSO crystals (3.7 x 3.7 x 12 mm 3 ) are individually coupled to one channel within matrices containing 2 x 8 square APDs (2.6 x 2.6 mm 2 sensitive area per channel). The list-mode data are reconstructed with a penalized weighted least squares algorithm which includes the spatially dependent line spread function of the tomograph. Basic performance parameters were measured with phantoms and first experiments with rats and mice were conducted to introduce this methodology for biomedical imaging. The reconstructed field of view covers 68 mm, which is 80% of the total detector diameter. Image resolution was shown to be 2.4 mm within the whole reconstructed field of view. Using a lower energy threshold of 450 keV, the system sensitivity was 350 Hz/MBq for a line source in air in the centre of the field of view. In a water-filled cylinder of 4.6 cm diameter, the scatter fraction at the centre of the field of view was 16% (450 keV threshold). The count rate was linear up to 700 coincidence counts per second. In vivo studies of anaesthetized

  7. Initial experience with a prototype dual-crystal (LSO/NaI) dual-head coincidence camera in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Urvi; Boellaard, Ronald; Comans, Emile F.I.; Raijmakers, Pieter G.H.M.; Pijpers, Rik J.; Teule, Gerrit J.J.; Lingen, Arthur van; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Miller, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo performance of a prototype dual-crystal [lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)/sodium iodide (NaI)] dual-head coincidence camera (DHC) for PET and SPET (LSO-PS), in comparison to BGO-PET with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in oncology. This follows earlier reports that LSO-PS has noise-equivalent counting (NEC) rates comparable to partial ring BGO-PET, i.e. clearly higher than standard NaI DHCs. Twenty-four randomly selected oncological patients referred for whole-body FDG-PET underwent BGO-PET followed by LSO-PS. Four nuclear medicine physicians were randomised to read a single scan modality, in terms of lesion intensity, location and likelihood of malignancy. BGO-PET was considered the gold standard. Forty-eight lesions were classified as positive with BGO-PET, of which LSO-PS identified 73% (95% CI 60-86%). There was good observer agreement for both modalities in terms of intensity, location and interpretation. Lesions were missed by LSO-PS in 13 patients in the chest (n=6), neck (n=3) and abdomen (n=4). The diameter of these lesions was estimated to be 0.5-1 cm. Initial results justify further evaluation of LSO-PS in specific clinical situations, especially if a role as an instrument of triage for PET is foreseen. (orig.)

  8. Investigating the impact of LSO on the count rate of wholebody PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.L.; Moisan, C.; Rogers, J.G.

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the impact of using detectors made of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) on the count rate performances of wholebody PET tomographs. To that end, we used a single computational model that predicts the prompt and random contributions to the total event rate in septaless PET tomographs. Dead time factors at all stages of a typical event acquisition stream are calculated from specified values of their respective processing clock cycle. We validated our approach by fitting the true, random and multiple count rates measured with the ECAT-953B and the EXACT HR PLUS scanners for a standard 20 x 20 cm cylindrical phantom. We then investigated the implications of using position encoding detectors made of LSO in the EXACT HR PLUS scanner geometry. The results in indicate that only replacing BGO by the faster LSO incurs no appreciable change in the maximum noise-equivalent-count (NEC) rate of the scanner. However, one could realistically increase the NEC by a factor 2.5 using a 4 nsec coincidence window width with the detector processing front-end operating on a 128 nsec clock cycle. Further reducing the coincidence window width to 600 psec and the front-end clock cycle to 64 nsec leads to an increase of the NEC by a factor 7.5. To sustain the operation of an HR Plus with these specifications, the saturation bandwidth of the data acquisition system would have to be increased to no more than 4.5 MHz. (authors)

  9. A LSO scintillator array for a PET detector module with depth of interaction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.S.; Moses, W.W.; Andreaco, M.S.; Petterson, O.

    2000-01-01

    We present construction methods and performance results for a production scintillator array of 64 optically isolated, 3 mm x 3 mm x 30 mm sized LSO crystals. This scintillator array has been developed for a PET detector module consisting of the 8x8 LSO array coupled on one end to a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) and on the opposite end to a 64 pixel array of silicon photodiodes (PD). The PMT provides an accurate timing pulse and initial energy discrimination, the PD identifies the crystal of interaction, the sum provides a total energy signal, and the PD/(PD+PMT) ratio determines the depth of interaction (DOI). Unlike the previous LSO array prototypes, we now glue Lumirror reflector material directly onto 4 sides of each crystal to obtain an easily manufactured, mechanically rugged array with our desired depth dependence. With 511 keV excitation, we obtain a total energy signal of 3600 electrons, pulse-height resolution of 25% fwhm, and 6-15 mm fwhm DOI resolution

  10. A count rate model for PET and its application to an LSO HR PLUS scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisan, C.; Rogers, J.G.; Douglas, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    We present a count rate model for PET. Considering a standard 20 x 20 cm phantom in the field-of-view of a cylindrical septaless tomograph, the model computes the acceptance to prompt and random events from simple geometric considerations. Dead time factors at all stages of a typical event acquisition architecture are calculated from specified processing clock cycles. Validations of the model's predictions against the measured performances of the ECAT-953B and the EXACT HR PLUS are presented. The model is then used to investigate the benefit of using detectors made of LSO in the EXACT HR PLUS scanner geometry. The results indicate that in replacing BGO by the faster LSO, one can count on an increase of the peak noise-equivalent-count rate by a factor 2.2. This gain will be achieved by using a 5 nsec coincidence window, buckets operating on 128 nsec clock cycle, and front-end data acquisition that can sustain a total rate of 2.9 MHz. (authors)

  11. A room temperature LSO/PIN photodiode PET detector module that measures depth of interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Melcher, C.L.; Manente, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    We present measurements of a 4 element PET detector module that uses a 2x2 array of 3 mm square PIN photodiodes to both measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and identify the crystal of interaction. Each photodiode is coupled to one end of a 3x3x25 mm LSO crystal, with the opposite ends of all 4 crystals attached to a single PMT that provides a timing signal and initial energy discrimination. Each LSO crystal is coated with a open-quotes lossyclose quotes reflector, so the ratio of light detected in the photodiode and PMT depends on the position of interaction in the crystal, and is used to determine this position on an event by event basis. This module is operated at +25 degrees C with a photodiode amplifier peaking time of 2 μs. When excited by a collimated beam of 511 keV photons at the photodiode end of the module (i.e. closest to the patient), the DOI resolution is 4 mm fwhm and the crystal of interaction is identified correctly 95% of the time. When excited at the opposite end of the module, the DOI resolution is 13 mm fwhm and the crystal of interaction is identified correctly 73% of the time. The channel to channel variations in performance are minimal

  12. High spatial resolution measurement of depth-of-interaction of a PET LSO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Kalinka, G.; Novak, D.; Sipos, A.; Vegh, J.; Molnar, J.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A new type of experimental technique to investigate the depth-of-interaction (DOI) dependence in small scintillator elements designed for high-resolution animal PET [1] has been introduced at our institute, recently. A lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystal (2x2x10 mm 3 ) was irradiated with a highly focused 2 MeV He + beam at the ATOMKI nuclear microprobe laboratory. Pulse height spectra from a photomultiplier (PMT) attached to one end of the LSO crystal were collected in list mode. Sequential scans of 1000x1000 μm 2 areas along the 10 mm long crystal were made to get high lateral resolution images of pulse height spectra at different distances from the window of the PMT. A mean pulse height algorithm was applied to each pixel to generate two dimensional intensity images and the corresponding spectra of 100 μmx1 mm areas. Representative pulse height spectra are shown in Fig. 1 for different distances between the position of irradiation and the PMT. The mean value of the pulse height spectrum describing the position of the full energy peak is a way to measure DOI effects. It is seen that the closer the DOI to the PMT-end of the crystal the higher the energy of the peak. The centre of the detected peak varies about 30 % along the lateral side of the crystal. This effect is due to the increasing number of reflections with associated loss of light when the distance between the DOI position and the light collecting PMT grows. Further these results, no difference in the light intensity was found depending on which position across (perpendicular to the length of) the crystal was irradiated with the microbeam. The obtained results of the overall DOI dependence confirm previous measurements on LSO crystals with similar geometry and wrapping but based on collimated gamma-ray irradiation. Since the present experimental setup allows obtaining data with several orders of magnitude better spatial resolution (from μm up to mm) than with

  13. A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douissard, P.A.; Martin, T.; Chevalier, V.; Rack, A. [European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); Cecilia, A.; Baumbach, T.; Rack, A. [Karlsruhe Inst Technol ANKA, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Couchaud, M. [CEA LETI, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Dupre, K. [FEE GmbH, D-55743 Idar Oberstein, (Germany); Kuhbacher, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat and Energie, D-14109 Berlin, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of high-resolution pixel detectors for hard X-rays is nowadays one of the major criteria which drives the feasibility of imaging experiments and in general the performance of an experimental station for synchrotron-based microtomography and radiography. Here the luminescent screen used for the indirect detection is focused on in order to increase the detective quantum efficiency a novel scintillator based on doped Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (LSO), epitaxially grown as thin film via the liquid phase epitaxy technique. It is shown that, by using adapted growth and doping parameters as well as a dedicated substrate, the scintillation behaviour of a LSO-based thin crystal together with the high stopping power of the material allows for high-performance indirect X-ray detection. In detail, the conversion efficiency, the radioluminescence spectra, the optical absorption spectra under UV/visible-light and the afterglow are investigated. A set-up to study the effect of the thin-film scintillator's temperature on its conversion efficiency is described as well it delivers knowledge which is important when working with higher photon flux densities and the corresponding high heat load on the material. Additionally, X-ray imaging systems based on different diffraction-limited visible-light optics and CCD cameras using among others LSO-based thin film are compared. Finally, the performance of the LSO thin film is illustrated by imaging a honey bee leg, demonstrating the value of efficient high-resolution computed tomography for life sciences. (authors)

  14. "Charlie,"development of a light-weight, virtual reality trainer for the LSO community: time to make the leap toward immersive VR

    OpenAIRE

    Greunke, Larry C.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Landing Signal Officers (LSOs) are the backbone of tailhook naval aviation. Currently, once a junior officer is selected from a squadron to become an LSO, that person typically will go through an entire workup cycle before going to the Initial Formal Ground Training (IFGT) course. This means that an LSO will undergo months of on-the-job training at sea and assume different roles needed to recover aircraft before that individual receive...

  15. Sub-100 ps coincidence time resolution for positron emission tomography with LSO:Ce codoped with Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) becomes a key parameter of 511keV gamma detection in time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). This is because additional information obtained through timing leads to a better noise suppression and therefore a better signal to noise ratio in the reconstructed image. In this paper we present the results of CTR measurements on two different SiPM technologies from FBK coupled to LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals. We compare the measurements performed at two separate test setups, i.e. at CERN and at FBK, showing that the obtained results agree within a few percent. We achieve a best CTR value of 85  ±  4 ps FWHM for 2  ×  2  ×  3 mm3 LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals, thus breaking the 100 ps barrier with scintillators similar to LSO:Ce or LYSO:Ce. We also demonstrate that a CTR of 140  ±  5 ps can be achieved for longer 2  ×  2  ×  20 mm3 crystals, which can readily be implemented in the current generation PET syst...

  16. Characterization of Ca co-doped LSO:Ce scintillators coupled to SiPM for PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Collazuol, G.M.; Marcatili, S.; Melcher, C.L.; Del Guerra, A.

    2011-01-01

    Scintillators suitable for PET applications must be characterized by a high efficiency for gamma-ray detection, determined by a high density and atomic number of the crystal; a fast light signal that allows to achieve a good time resolution and to cope with high counting rates; a high light yield for a good energy and time resolution; a good linearity of the light output as a function of the energy to preserve the intrinsic energy resolution of the scintillator. Recently developed LSO:Ce scintillators, co-doped with Ca, have been produced by the University of Tennessee group. They are characterized by the improved performance of most the above-mentioned characteristics. The crystals, initially tested with PMTs, showed a higher light output, faster light pulse, improved energy resolution and reduced afterglow, as compared to the standard LSO:Ce crystals. Even though the PMTs still represent the gold standard photodetectors, the recently available SiPMs are now valid candidate to replace PMTs in the next generation of PET scanners thanks to their compactness, high spatial resolution performances, low bias operating voltage and, most important for combined PET/MRI systems, insensitivity to static and RF fields. In this work we present the performance of Ca co-doped LSO:Ce samples coupled to SiPMs and PMTs. In particular we have assessed their performances by evaluating the energy and time resolution.

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary nodules: comparison of a prototype dual crystal (LSO/NAI) dual head coincidence camera and full ring positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, U.; Raijmakers, P.G.H.M.; Lingen, A. van; Comans, E.F.I.; Pijpers, R.; Teule, G.J.J.; Hoekstra, O.S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the concordance of a prototype dual head coincidence camera (LSO-PS) and full ring PET (BGO-PET) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules (PNs). Materials and methods: Patients referred for evaluation of ≤3 PNs (≤3 cm diameter) were prospectively studied on the same day with both BGO-PET and LSO-PS. Imaging was performed at 60 and 120 min after injection of 370 MBq FDG, respectively. Images were independently interpreted by four observers with each observer blinded to the other modality for the same patient. Lesions were scored in terms of relative intensity versus background. Non-attenuation corrected (nonAC) BGO-PET was used as the reference test. Results: Forty-seven patients with 54 PNs (mean diameter 1.7 cm, S.D. 0.7) were included. Twelve nodules were in the ≤1.0 cm - 27 in the 1.1-2.0 cm - and 15 in the 2.1-3.0 cm range. Interobserver agreement was similar for both FDG imaging modalities. Using a sensitive assessment strategy with LSO-PS (≥ faint intensity deemed positive), there was a 97% (38/39, 95%CI 87-100%) concordance with BGO-PET and one false positive case with LSO-PS. Conservative reading (moderate or intense intensity deemed positive) resulted in a 92% (36/39, 95%CI 80-97%) concordance with BGO-PET, without false positives. The only lesion missed by LSO-PS using both assessment strategies involved a nodule 1.5 cm diameter that demonstrated moderate increased FDG uptake on BGO-PET. Conclusion: Depending on the test positivity criteria, LSO-PS demonstrates a high concordance (92-97%) with nonAC BGO-PET for the characterization of pulmonary nodules

  18. Benefits of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Programmes in Music for KS2 (Primary) Teachers through the Example of the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) on Track Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria; Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2008 and August 2010 24 KS2 classroom teachers were involved in a two-year programme of continuing professional development (CPD), delivered by the LSO in partnership with Local Authority Music Services. The teachers indicated that they embarked on the CPD programme looking forward to opportunities to share good practice, gain…

  19. Charlie, Development of a Light-Weight, Virtual Reality Trainer for the LSO Community: Time to Make the Leap Toward Immersive VR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Monitor aircraft’s approach from the Start to the completion. The Backup LSO will normally be concerned with the aircraft’s lineup , but will provide... lineup deviations. 4. Interactions with Other Team Members A. Keep right hand in the air, acknowledging the status of the deck as foul B. Lower...during the case III pattern, the pilot will give a voice call reporting identification , how much fuel they have, and any emergency the pilot may have

  20. Efficiency of Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO) powder phosphor as X-ray to light converter under mammographic imaging conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Liaparinos, P.; Kalivas, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Toutountzis, A.; Efthimiou, N.; Loudos, G.; Sianoudis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Nomicos, C.D.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the light emission efficiency of Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce (LSO) powder scintillator under X-ray mammographic imaging conditions. Powder LSO scintillator has never been used in X-ray imaging. For the purposes of the present study, a 25 mg/cm 2 thick scintillating screen was prepared in our laboratory, by sedimentation of Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce powder. Absolute luminescence efficiency measurements were performed within the range of X-ray tube voltages (22-49 kVp) used in mammographic applications. Parameters related to X-ray detection, i.e. the energy absorption efficiency (EAE) and the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) were calculated. A theoretical model, describing radiation and light transfer, was employed to fit experimental data and to estimate values of the intrinsic conversion efficiency and the light attenuation coefficients of the screen. The spectral compatibility of the LSO powder scintillator to mammographic X-ray films and to various electronic optical detectors was determined by performing light emission spectrum measurements and by taking into account the spectral sensitivity of the optical detectors. Results in the voltage range used in mammography showed that Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce powder scintillator has approximately 10% higher values of QDE and 4.5% higher values of EAE than Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb

  1. cMiCE a high resolution animal PET using continuous LSO with a statistics based positioning scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Joung Jin Hun; Lewellen, T K

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Detector designs for small animal scanners are currently dominated by discrete crystal implementations. However, given the small crystal cross-sections required to obtain very high resolution, discrete designs are typically expensive, have low packing fraction, reduced light collection, and are labor intensive to build. To overcome these limitations we have investigated the feasibility of using a continuous miniature crystal element (cMiCE) detector module for high resolution small animal PET applications. Methods: The detector module consists of a single continuous slab of LSO, 25x25 mm sup 2 in exposed cross-section and 4 mm thick, coupled directly to a PS-PMT (Hamamatsu R5900-00-C12). The large area surfaces of the crystal were polished and painted with TiO sub 2 and the short surfaces were left unpolished and painted black. Further, a new statistics based positioning (SBP) algorithm has been implemented to address linearity and edge effect artifacts that are inherent with conventional Anger sty...

  2. Comparative study using Monte Carlo methods of the radiation detection efficiency of LSO, LuAP, GSO and YAP scintillators for use in positron emission imaging (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Valais, Ioannis; Cavouras, Dionisios; Louizi, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The radiation detection efficiency of four scintillators employed, or designed to be employed, in positron emission imaging (PET) was evaluated as a function of the crystal thickness by applying Monte Carlo Methods. The scintillators studied were the LuSiO 5 (LSO), LuAlO 3 (LuAP), Gd 2 SiO 5 (GSO) and the YAlO 3 (YAP). Crystal thicknesses ranged from 0 to 50 mm. The study was performed via a previously generated photon transport Monte Carlo code. All photon track and energy histories were recorded and the energy transferred or absorbed in the scintillator medium was calculated together with the energy redistributed and retransported as secondary characteristic fluorescence radiation. Various parameters were calculated e.g. the fraction of the incident photon energy absorbed, transmitted or redistributed as fluorescence radiation, the scatter to primary ratio, the photon and energy distribution within each scintillator block etc. As being most significant, the fraction of the incident photon energy absorbed was found to increase with increasing crystal thickness tending to form a plateau above the 30 mm thickness. For LSO, LuAP, GSO and YAP scintillators, respectively, this fraction had the value of 44.8, 36.9 and 45.7% at the 10 mm thickness and 96.4, 93.2 and 96.9% at the 50 mm thickness. Within the plateau area approximately (57-59)% (59-63)% (52-63)% and (58-61)% of this fraction was due to scattered and reabsorbed radiation for the LSO, GSO, YAP and LuAP scintillators, respectively. In all cases, a negligible fraction (<0.1%) of the absorbed energy was found to escape the crystal as fluorescence radiation

  3. cMiCE: a high resolution animal PET using continuous LSO with a statistics based positioning scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung Jinhun; Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Detector designs for small animal scanners are currently dominated by discrete crystal implementations. However, given the small crystal cross-sections required to obtain very high resolution, discrete designs are typically expensive, have low packing fraction, reduced light collection, and are labor intensive to build. To overcome these limitations we have investigated the feasibility of using a continuous miniature crystal element (cMiCE) detector module for high resolution small animal PET applications. Methods: The detector module consists of a single continuous slab of LSO, 25x25 mm 2 in exposed cross-section and 4 mm thick, coupled directly to a PS-PMT (Hamamatsu R5900-00-C12). The large area surfaces of the crystal were polished and painted with TiO 2 and the short surfaces were left unpolished and painted black. Further, a new statistics based positioning (SBP) algorithm has been implemented to address linearity and edge effect artifacts that are inherent with conventional Anger style positioning schemes. To characterize the light response function (LRF) of the detector, data were collected on a coarse grid using a highly collimated coincidence setup. The LRF was then estimated using cubic spline interpolation. Detector performance has been evaluated for both SBP and Anger based decoding using measured data and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: Using the SBP scheme, edge artifacts were successfully handled. Simulation results show that the useful field of view (UFOV) was extended to ∼22x22 mm 2 with an average point spread function of ∼0.5 mm full width of half maximum (FWHM PSF ). For the same detector with Anger decoding the UFOV of the detector was ∼16x16 mm 2 with an average FWHM PSP of ∼0.9 mm. Experimental results yielded similar differences between FOV and resolution performance. FWHM PSF for the SBP and Anger based method was 1.4 and 2.0 mm, uncorrected for source size, with a 1 mm diameter point source, respectively. Conclusion

  4. Statistical studies on the light output and energy resolution of small LSO single crystals with different surface treatments combined with various reflector materials

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrichs, U; Bussmann, N; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; Weber, S; Ziemons, K

    2002-01-01

    The optimization of light output and energy resolution of scintillators is of special interest for the development of high resolution and high sensitivity PET. The aim of this work is to obtain statistically reliable results concerning optimal surface treatment of scintillation crystals and the selection of reflector material. For this purpose, raw, mechanically polished and etched LSO crystals (size 2x2x10 mm sup 3) were combined with various reflector materials (Teflon tape, Teflon matrix, BaSO sub 4) and exposed to a sup 2 sup 2 Na source. In order to ensure the statistical reliability of the results, groups of 10 LSO crystals each were measured for all combinations of surface treatment and reflector material. Using no reflector material the light output increased up to 551+-35% by mechanical polishing the surface compared to 100+-5% for raw crystals. Etching the surface increased the light output to 441+-29%. The untreated crystals had an energy resolution of 24.6+-4.0%. By mechanical polishing the surfac...

  5. Phenology of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in Commercial Potato Fields in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Carroll, Amy; Dahan, Jennifer; Karasev, Alexander V; Thornton, Michael; Miller, Jeff; Nolte, Philip; Olsen, Nora; Price, William

    2017-12-08

    Zebra chip disease (ZC) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. ZC is associated with the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc; Hemiptera: Triozidae). First found in Idaho during 2011, ZC now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. To clarify the extent and severity of the threat of ZC in Idaho, we sampled potato psyllids in commercial potato fields across the state over four growing seasons (2012-2015). All life stages of psyllids were sampled using a combination of methods (yellow sticky traps, vacuum samples, and leaf samples), and adult psyllids were tested for the presence of Lso by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Abundance of potato psyllids initially increased gradually over each growing season, then exhibited a sharp late-season rise and a sharp decline as most fields were being harvested. Abundance of psyllids was higher at warmer, lower elevation sites, but infestation onset did not differ between growing regions. Fewer psyllids were collected in vacuum samples than in sticky trap samples. Nymphs and eggs were found only late season and during years with high abundance of adults. Overall incidence of Lso was similar among all years but one. The results presented here clarify our understanding of the seasonal phenology of potato psyllids and Lso in Idaho potato fields and will aid in developing integrated management strategies against this important pest of potato. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A positron emission tomograph based on LSO-APD modules with a sampling ADC read-out system for a students' advanced laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian R; Mann, Alexander B; Konorov, Igor; Delso, Gaspar; Paul, Stephan; Ziegler, Sibylle I

    2012-06-01

    A one-day laboratory course on positron emission tomography (PET) for the education of physics students and PhD students in medical physics has been set up. In the course, the physical background and the principles of a PET scanner are introduced. Course attendees set the system in operation, calibrate it using a (22)Na point source and reconstruct different source geometries filled with (18)F. The PET scanner features an individual channel read-out of 96 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD). The analog data of each APD are digitized by fast sampling analog to digital converters (SADC) and processed within field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to extract amplitudes and time stamps. All SADCs are continuously sampling with a precise rate of 80MHz, which is synchronous for the whole system. The data is transmitted via USB to a Linux PC, where further processing and the image reconstruction are performed. The course attendees get an insight into detector techniques, modern read-out electronics, data acquisition and PET image reconstruction. In addition, a short introduction to some common software applications used in particle and high energy physics is part of the course. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. A positron emission tomograph based on LSO-APD modules with a sampling ADC read-out system for a students' advanced laboratory course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Florian R.; Mann, Alexander B.; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan; Delso, Gaspar; Ziegler, Sibylle I.

    2012-01-01

    A one-day laboratory course on positron emission tomography (PET) for the education of physics students and PhD students in medical physics has been set up. In the course, the physical background and the principles of a PET scanner are introduced. Course attendees set the system in operation, calibrate it using a 22 Na point source and reconstruct different source geometries filled with 18 F. The PET scanner features an individual channel read-out of 96 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD). The analog data of each APD are digitized by fast sampling analog to digital converters (SADC) and processed within field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to extract amplitudes and time stamps. All SADCs are continuously sampling with a precise rate of 80 MHz, which is synchronous for the whole system. The data is transmitted via USB to a Linux PC, where further processing and the image reconstruction are performed. The course attendees get an insight into detector techniques, modern read-out electronics, data acquisition and PET image reconstruction. In addition, a short introduction to some common software applications used in particle and high energy physics is part of the course. (orig.)

  8. A positron emission tomograph based on LSO-APD modules with a sampling ADC read-out system for a students' advanced laboratory course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Florian R.; Mann, Alexander B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department E18; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department E18; Delso, Gaspar; Ziegler, Sibylle I. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2012-07-01

    A one-day laboratory course on positron emission tomography (PET) for the education of physics students and PhD students in medical physics has been set up. In the course, the physical background and the principles of a PET scanner are introduced. Course attendees set the system in operation, calibrate it using a {sup 22}Na point source and reconstruct different source geometries filled with {sup 18}F. The PET scanner features an individual channel read-out of 96 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD). The analog data of each APD are digitized by fast sampling analog to digital converters (SADC) and processed within field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to extract amplitudes and time stamps. All SADCs are continuously sampling with a precise rate of 80 MHz, which is synchronous for the whole system. The data is transmitted via USB to a Linux PC, where further processing and the image reconstruction are performed. The course attendees get an insight into detector techniques, modern read-out electronics, data acquisition and PET image reconstruction. In addition, a short introduction to some common software applications used in particle and high energy physics is part of the course. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, Jose M.; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando; Sanchez, Filomeno; Mora, Francisco J.; Benlloch, Jose M.; Sebastia, Angel

    2009-01-01

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  10. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Jose M. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jmonfer@aaa.upv.es; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, Filomeno [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Mora, Francisco J. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Benlloch, Jose M. [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Sebastia, Angel [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  11. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  12. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  13. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  14. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  15. Commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the near term (one-to-five-year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered in this assessment. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low-radiation-dose thyroid scan. The word could in the preceding sentence is underlined because an alternative source of enriched stable isotopes does exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States

  16. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  17. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  18. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  19. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  20. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  1. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  2. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...

  3. Towards commercial aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Harry W.; Knaus, Ulrich; Appelbaum, Samuel; Goddek, Simon; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Vermeulen, Tycho; Haїssam Jijakli, M.; Kotzen, Benz

    2018-01-01

    Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a

  4. NASA commercial programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  5. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  6. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  7. Commodification and commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J

    1992-01-01

    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  8. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  9. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  10. Commercial Conspiracy Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eFurnham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs.The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed.

  11. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  12. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  13. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  14. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  15. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  16. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  17. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  18. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  19. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  20. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  1. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  2. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  3. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  6. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  7. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  8. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  9. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  10. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  11. The commercialization of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  12. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  13. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  14. The commercialization of SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, Megan M.; Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of sterile insects for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs have been supplied by government facilities, although the private sector often participates in the field programs and sometimes provides substantial funding. As the demand for SIT has grown, government production facilities have sold sterile insects to other governments to use in their own programs. However, most of the production facilities are not organized as commercial ventures and have not been accounting for capital or possibly other fixed costs on top of the direct (variable) costs such as diet and transport. The biological nature of the product influences the best methods for figuring operational costs. Furthermore, unlike other liabilities and losses, a business cannot recover quickly from the unlikely but serious event of a lost breeding colony through an insurance claim, even if such insurance could be obtained. (author)

  15. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  16. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  17. Commercialism - the growth prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to ensure good business proposals for the future British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is making a number of international initiatives. Likely markets for expansion include the United States, Japan and Western Europe, to whom the company can offer activities such as oxide fuel reprocessing, uranium hexafluoride conversion, fabrication of oxide and mixed oxide fuels, uranium enrichment and the safe transport of nuclear materials. The creation of International Nuclear Fuels Limited will expand overseas business and ensure security of fuel supply for the international nuclear industry. Working jointly with AEA Technology, BNFL will seek to market their combined decommissioning experience on the international market. The author concludes the BNFL is in a strong position to supply an increasing world-wide need for nuclear waste management and increased commercial awareness within the company will ensure a good section of the market is secured. U.K

  18. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Commercialization of DOE isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the business structure and operations of MAC Isotopes (MACI) L.L.C., a newly created business resulting from the commercialization of a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). MACI began its commercial operations on October 1, 1996, and is the first U.S. commercial isotope production business to result from the commercialization of DOE facilities or programs. The commercialization was the culmination of an -2-yr competitive procurement process by the DOE and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). MACI was selected from this competitive process as the commercial business of choice on the basis of providing the best value to the DOE/LMITCO and having the greatest potential for commercial success

  20. Commercializing medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  1. ETHICS AND COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  2. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs

  3. Is radurisation commercially feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 an international expert committee, convened by the three organisations sponsoring the International Food Irradiation Project, viz the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, declared all radurised foods irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) as unconditionally safe and nutritionally adequate (ie wholesome) for humans. However, the application of this new food-processing technique on a full commercial scale will undoubtedly be determined by factors such as the efficacy of the process in comparison with existing techniques, cost of operation, and finally, acceptance by the food handler and consumer. Studies in various countries, including South Africa, during the past decade have demonstrated that radiation in most cases in combination with pre-irradiation heat treatment or post irradiation cold storage, could play an important role in improving the quality of fresh produce by extension of shelf life (sometimes dramatic), by hygienisation (eg the elimination of harmful pathogens or a reduction of potentially harmful chemical residues) and lastly by improved quarantine control. Cost and energy-comsumption analyses indicate that radurisation is an energy-saving process in comparison with both heating and cooling and, even though the process is capital intensive, that substantial cost benefits can accrue when large quantities of certain foodstuffs are processed. Consumer acceptance trials, both locally and abroad, have shown that if the consumer is properly informed, he can be convinced of the advantages which radurised foods could offer. A National Steering Committee was recently consituted. This committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and co-ordinates all aspects of the test marketing of radurised food on a national level

  4. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  6. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  7. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  8. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  9. Evaluatie van de RIVM/LSO-organisatie voor kernongevallenbestrijding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruppers MJM; Tax RB; Uijt de Haag PAM; de Vries LJ

    1993-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986 and its consequences were reason for the Dutch government to evaluate and improve the facilities and the preparedness for nuclear emergency management in the Netherlands. The results of the evaluation have been elaborated in

  10. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  11. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  15. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  17. Les entreprises commerciales (Commercial Enterprises).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace

    1979-01-01

    Examines the legal concept of "corporate body" in French and English law, as well as that of the "company," the "corporation," and the "society"; and discusses the manifestations of a dual legal heritage in commercial enterprises in Quebec. (AM)

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  19. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...

  20. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  1. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  2. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  3. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  4. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... used in connection with any business. (b) The use of government roads within park areas by commercial...

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  6. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  7. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  8. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  9. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  10. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  11. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial..., SDDC will require all commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or Transportation Workers Identification Credential (TWIC). This requirement will...

  12. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  13. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor

  14. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  15. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Won

    2011-01-01

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  16. Commercial IEC portable neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sved, J.

    1997-01-01

    The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion grade plasma devices are being developed as a commercial industrial product by Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA), Center Trauen, which has an exclusive license from the University of Illinois (UI) to manufacture the commercial implementation of the Miley et al. IEC inventions. DASA is funding the UI Fusion Studies Laboratory basic IEC research and the intellectual property protection process. The association of the DASA Space Infrastructure division with an apparently unrelated technology has arisen from the perception that IEC technology may benefit from certain aerospace technologies and eventually create a market for space infrastructure services. In addition, DASA Center Trauen has a number of environmental technology businesses

  17. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  18. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger bond...

  19. The 14 Faces of Commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas

    The ultimate purpose of new product development is commercialization of the results. That is, creating returns for the investment. The authors investigate to what degree research published in Journal of Product Innovation Management has contributed to further our understanding of the concept...

  20. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  1. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...

  2. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  3. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  4. Strategy development marketing commercial enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Shatalov D. S.; Hamidova O. M.

    2016-01-01

    in the scientific article the necessity of development and implementation of marketing strategies in the activity of any commercial enterprise, we give a meaningful description of the concept of «marketing strategy» and develop requirements for the selection strategy of trade enterprise.

  5. Commercialization of technology in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud Mohamad; Razali Hamzah

    2005-01-01

    Full text:The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), was officially established in 1972 (PUSPATI as it was known then) and has progressed leaps and bounds to become one of the country's leading research organization particularly in the field of nuclear science and technology. Primarily set up as a full fledge research and development entity with one of the initial aims was looking into the possibility of embarking in the generation of power via the use of nuclear technology as an alternative source of energy for the nation. MINTs role has somewhat changed in tandem with her stage of development and national priorities. In line with the Government's policy on sustainability and self-reliance and a drive to commercialize R and D findings, the R and D institutions are expected to be self sufficiency at 30% of institutional operating budget. MINT has embarked on the commercialization program since in 1987 even before the the policy was instituted. Unlike other corporate R and D institutions and universities which do have some liberty and flexibility in the management of the organizations, MINT as a full fledge government R and D institute faces a number of challenges in the commercialization exercise. The paper describes the technologies developed at MINT, our product and services, and challenges and limitations in commercializing our R and D endeavors. (Author)

  6. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  7. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  8. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  9. Flaws in Commercial Reading Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Jerome

    Three flaws found in commercial reading materials, such as workbooks and kits, are discussed in this paper, and examples of the flaws are taken from specific materials. The first problem noted is that illustrations frequently provide the information that the learner is supposed to supply through phonetic or structural analysis; the illustrations…

  10. Commercial Art: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial art vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  11. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but...

  12. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish and...

  13. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... charge, royalty charge, or payment in kind which is reasonably related to the commercial value has been...

  14. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has been...

  15. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It is...

  16. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  17. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  18. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 3rd Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009....

  19. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  20. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  1. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  2. Starfire: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Kokoszenski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic objective of the STARFIRE Project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor. The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE

  3. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  4. Competition and Commercial Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Andrea; Sobbrio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on commercial media bias (i.e., advertisers influence over media accuracy) and then introduces a simple model to summarize the main elements of the theoretical literature. The analysis provides three main policy insights for media regulators: i) Media regulators should target their monitoring efforts towards news contents upon which advertisers are likely to share similar preferences; ii) In advertising industries characterized by high correlation in ...

  5. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  6. Recommender Systems in Commercial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial recommender systems are deployed by marketing teams to increase revenue and/or personalize user experience. Marketers evaluate recommender systems not on its algorithms but on how well the vendor‘s expertise and interfaces will support achieving business goals. Driven by a business model that pays based on recommendation success, vendors guide clients through continuous optimization of recommendations. While recommender technology is mature, the solutions and market are still young...

  7. Performance properties of commercial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Mader, C.L.; Goldstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aquarium test is a proven means of obtaining nonidial performance property data for commercial blasting agents. Optical data on the detonation velocity, shock wave in water, and expansion rate of the pipe enclosing the detonation products (in combination with the equilibrium thermodynamic chemistry code BKW) give the C-J state and degree of chemical reaction at the detonation front, as well as information on additional chemical reaction that occurs as the detonation products expand. Specific explosive systems that are studied are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture (ANFO), aluminized ANFO, flaked trinitrotoluene (TNT), and several other commercial products in 10-cm diam and 20-cm-diam pipes of Plexiglas and clay. Experimental shock-pressure data are obtained with lithium niobate transducers placed in the water surrounding the explosive charge. These data show that the addition of approx.100-..mu..m aluminum particles to ANFO significantly increases the initial peak shock pressure delivered to the surrounding medium. Peak shock pressures in the water, calculated from the shock-wave orientation, are also useful in comparing performance properties of various commercial explosives. 20 references, 17 figures, 2 tables.

  8. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  9. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  10. Prospects for commercial fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of issues associated with whether or not, and when, fusion will become commercial. One of the largest factors is cost of development. Development is being delayed by the need to work with other countries to share these costs. Other aspects have to do with the capital costs of the reactors themselves. The ITER reactor may cost 6-7 billion dollars, which is a sizeable investment for a test reactor. The safety and environmental aspects of fusion are other factors which have delayed commercialization. Public acceptance of this form of nuclear power and the licensing and regulatory procedures must be resolved before electric utilities are willing to invest heavily in fusion. The Department of Energy has developed a plan as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, wherein a first demonstration power plant will be operating around the year 2025. Much of the ongoing effort is directed toward reducing the size and cost of Tokamak reactors. While Tokamaks are not the only game in town, it is the primary thrust of the world effort and it is the technology which is expected to lead into the first generation of commercial fusion reactors

  11. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  12. Commercialization of a DOE Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Barry A.

    2008-01-01

    On April 1, 1998, Materials and Chemistry Laboratory, Inc. (MCLinc) began business as an employee-owned, commercial, applied research laboratory offering services to both government and commercial clients. The laboratory had previously been a support laboratory to DoE's gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge (K-25). When uranium enrichment was halted at the site, the laboratory was expanded to as an environmental demonstration center and served from 1992 until 1997 as a DOE Environmental User Facility. In 1997, after the laboratory was declared surplus, it was made available to the employee group who operated the laboratory for DOE as a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. This paper describes briefly the process of establishing the business. Attributes that contributed to the success of MCLinc are described. Some attention is given to lessons learned and to changes that could facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. Lessons learnt: as with any business venture, operation over time has revealed that some actions taken by the laboratory founders have contributed to its successful operation while others were not so successful. Observations are offered in hopes that lessons learned may suggest actions that will facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. First, the decision to vest significant ownership of the business in the core group of professionals operating the business is key to its success. Employee-owners of the laboratory have consistently provided a high level of service to its customers while conducting business in a cost-efficient manner. Secondly, an early decision to provide business support services in-house rather than purchasing them from support contractors on site have proven cost-effective. Laboratory employees do multiple tasks and perform overhead tasks in addition to their chargeable technical responsibilities. Thirdly, assessment of technical capabilities in view of market needs and a decision to offer these

  13. 77 FR 30919 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., and 385 [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... published a final rule titled ``Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit... additional drivers, primarily those transporting certain tanks temporarily attached to the commercial motor...

  14. The Commercial Challenges Of Pacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1984-08-01

    The increasing use of digital imaging techniques create a need for improved methods of digital processing, communication and archiving. However, the commercial opportunity is dependent on the resolution of a number of issues. These issues include proof that digital processes are more cost effective than present techniques, implementation of information system support in the imaging activity, implementation of industry standards, conversion of analog images to digital formats, definition of clinical needs, the implications of the purchase decision and technology requirements. In spite of these obstacles, a market is emerging, served by new and existing companies, that may become a $500 million market (U.S.) by 1990 for equipment and supplies.

  15. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  16. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  17. Research achievements and commercial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO, in partnership with Australian and overseas organisations, continues to make significant contributions to selected fields of research and development. Major revenue for ANSTO is generated through sales of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical, industrial, environmental and research purposes and through neutron irradiation services. Further, ANSTO is actively trying to generate maximum value from its knowledge and know-how through protection and exploitation of its intellectual property. Strategic alliances have been developed to further the commercial utilisation of ANSTO know-how in, for example, delivery systems for tumour treatments, commercial waste remediation and applications of plasma implantation. The 2000-2001 financial year saw the establishment of an ANSTO business unit called Sulfide Solutions targeted at better management of environmental issues arising from mining operations. Overall, ANSTO's capacity to generate value from the application of its knowledge and know-how is being increasingly acknowledged, the organisation attaining credibility as an international leader in the application of nuclear science and technology in targeted areas

  18. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  19. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  20. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  1. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  2. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor

  3. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising. ...

  4. Guam Commercial Fisheries BioSampling (CFBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Guam Commercial Fisheries Biosampling program, which collects length and weight frequency data for whole commercial catches, and samples 4-8 species for in-depth...

  5. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  6. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

  7. Program Incubation and Commercialization Best Practices Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Shannon

    2018-04-06

    As a reminder, the primary task of the 4C Program is to increase the commercialization rate of cleantech companies in California. Commercialization, broadly defined, is the innovation continuum of developing and introducing a new product or service into the market. For measurability, the 4C Program defines commercialization as encompassing a startup’s: (a) preparation, (b) incubation, (c) commercial-scale pilot / demonstration, and (d) first customer.

  8. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound...

  9. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any...

  10. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DoD has updated its Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on...

  11. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  12. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  13. 76 FR 43218 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    .... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy... efficient product designs for commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period closed on July 13, 2011... commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period is extended to September 16, 2011. DATES: The comment...

  14. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 [PS Docket No. 07-287; FCC 08-164] Commercial... with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report and Order (``CMAS Second..., for a period of three years, the information collection requirements relating to the Commercial Mobile...

  15. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace. ...

  16. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1812 RIN 2700-AD64 Commercial... consistent with NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space goods or services. Anchor...

  17. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  18. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the characteristics of commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city, Edo State. A total of 252 commercial motorcyclists were involved in the study. A cluster sampling method ...

  19. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  20. Advanced commercial Tokamak optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, R.H.; Berwald, D.H.; Gordon, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Our recent studies have concentrated on developing optimal high beta (bean-shaped plasma) commercial tokamak configurations using TRW's Tokamak Reactor Systems Code (TRSC) with special emphasis on lower net electric power reactors that are more easily deployable. A wide range of issues were investigated in the search for the most economic configuration: fusion power, reactor size, wall load, magnet type, inboard blanket and shield thickness, plasma aspect ratio, and operational β value. The costs and configurations of both steady-state and pulsed reactors were also investigated. Optimal small and large reactor concepts were developed and compared by studying the cost of electricity from single units and from multiplexed units. Multiplexed units appear to have advantages because they share some plant equipment and have lower initial capital investment as compared to larger single units

  1. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  2. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. C.; Bentley, R. D.; Horwood, N. A.; Hunter, R.; Iles, R. H.; Jones, J. B. L.; Powell, D.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen's financial and commercial challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, W. W.

    1997-01-01

    The experiences of Proton Energy Systems Inc., in commercializing PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) technology were explored as an example of what is involved in bringing new technology to market. The venture capital market as distinct from major capital markets was described. The article pointed out the generally high risk nature of, and the low interest by venture capitalists in hydrogen projects, and the high cost of such capital in terms of ownership and control. Some of the reasons for the difficulties in finding venture capital were outlined (one of them is that hydrogen has generated a lot more 'hype' than heat). The strategies used by Proton Energy Systems to find an investor for their particular project were described

  4. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  5. EPRI instruments reach commercial market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has developed instruments capable of verifying time responses of power plant pressure sensors and temperature sensors. A patent is pending on the pressure-sensor device, and the temperature-sensor device is already commercially available. The devices, EPRI's first hardware products to be marketed, are the result of research to find technological solutions to the problems of knowing the time period when temperature and pressure changes occur in light water reactors. The hydraulic pressure-sensor device is a portable unit that can conveniently test equipment in place. Utilities can obtain detailed information from EPRI's project report to construct their own. The loop current step response (LCSR), measuring resistance temperature, is also a compact system suitable for in-plant testing

  6. Radon investigations - Soil and commercial projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The liability issues of radon exposure have prompted potential purchasers of vacant land for commercial/industrial development, and commercial landlords, renting large commercial buildings, to determine the radon gas levels at such sites. This paper deals with both pre-construction sites subject to freezing conditions and to large commercial structures. A correlation of radon gas levels within a commercial building and a sister pre-construction site confirms the validity of using activated charcoal canisters as a cost effective means to combating radon in large structures

  7. 78 FR 17875 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB59 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's.... The 2011 final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit...

  8. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... effective on July 8, 2011. That final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial...

  9. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's..., 2011, that will be effective on July 8, 2011. This final rule amends the commercial driver's license... to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). Since the final rule was published, FMCSA identified...

  10. DSM Pocket Guidebook: Commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    It has been estimated that if electricity were used more efficiently with commercially available end-use technologies, 24%endash 44% of the nation's current demand for electricity could be eliminated. Almost all major electric utilities in the west are investigating such demand-side management (9DSM) opportunities. In some service territories, for example, improved efficiency could soon produce as much power as that from new coal-fired plants and produce it at a lower cost. Even utilities that currently have excess capacity are finding that DSM offers an opportunity to build efficient end-use stock to help them meet their future load shape objectives. Utility DSM programs typically consist of several measures designed to modify the utility's load shape (for example, innovative rate structures, direct utility control of loads, promotion of energy-efficient technologies, and customer education). The coordinated implementation of such measures requires planning, analysis of options, engineering, marketing, monitoring, and other coordination activities (Figure P1). This guidebook addresses one facet of an overall DSM program: selectrion of end-use technologies within the electrical utilities

  11. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  12. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  13. Problems of intangible assets commercialization accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Legenchyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of intangible assets in conditions of global economy postindustrialization is grounded. The problems of intangible assets accounting are singled out. The basic tasks of the intangible assets accounting commercialization process are determined. The difference between the commercialization of intellectual property and intangible assets is considered. The basic approaches to understanding the essence of the intangible assets commercialization are singled out and grounded. The basic forms and methods of intangible assets commercialization researched by the author are analyzed. The order of accounting reflection of licensee royalties is considered. The factors of influence on the accounting process of intangible assets commercialization are determined. The necessity of solving the problem of accounting of lease payments for computer program by providing access to SaaS environment is grounded. The prospects of further studies of intangible assets accounting commercialization are determined.

  14. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Profitability in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...

  15. Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

  16. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1987-02-01

    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  17. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial...

  18. Creep in commercially pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabarro, F.R.N.

    2006-01-01

    The creep of commercially pure polycrystalline metals under constant stress has four stages: a virtually instantaneous extension, decelerating Andrade β creep, almost steady-state Andrade κ creep, and an acceleration towards failure. Little is known about the first stage, and the fourth stage has been extensively reviewed elsewhere. The limited experimental evidence on the physical mechanism of the second stage is reviewed and a critical discussion is given of various theories of this stage. The dependence of strain rate on stress in the third, steady-state, period seems to fall into two regimes, a power law with an exponent of about 4-5, and a rather closely exponential law. The limits of the parameters within which a simple theory of the exponential dependence can be expected to be valid are discussed, and found to be compatible with experiments. Theories of the power-law dependence are discussed, and, appear to be unconvincing. The theoretical models do not relate closely to the metallographic and other physical observations. In view of the weakness of theory, experiments which may indicate the physical processes dominant in steady-state creep are reviewed. It is usually not clear whether they pertain to the power-law or the exponential regime. While the theories all assume that most of the deformation occurs homogeneously within the grains, most experimental observations point strongly to a large deformation at or close to the grain boundaries. However, a detailed study of dislocation processes in a single grain of polycrystalline foil strained in the electron microscope shows that most of the observed strain can be accounted for by the motion of single dislocations through the subgrain structure. There is no clear reconciliation of these two sets of observations. Grain-boundary sliding cannot occur without intragranular deformation. One or other process may dominate the overall deformation; the geometrically dominant process may not be the rate

  19. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  20. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  1. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  2. The commercial home enterprise: Labour with love

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Candice; McIntosh, Alison; Lewis, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Within the wider context of critical discourse, this paper examines the personal experiences of commercial home hosts in New Zealand, focusing on issues of copreneurship and work-life balance. When the home has a commercial domain, the impact of hosting on a host’s life can be immense; hence the commercial home provides a unique context in which to examine the issue of work-life balance. This paper presents the findings of a study of 12 commercial home hosts conducted to explore the strategie...

  3. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  4. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  5. Gene transformation potential of commercial canola ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of efficient transformation methods in commercial varieties. In this research transformation potential of 8 commercial cultivars; Licord, SLM046, RGS003, Zarfam, Okapi, Sarigol, Modena and Opera adapted to different regions of Iran was studied using cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain AGL0 ...

  6. Edible TV: Your Child and Food Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B., Comp.; Engle, Pamela C., Comp.

    This document reports on the impact of television food commercials on children under 12, focusing specifically on how commercials influence children's food preferences and concepts, how they affect children's knowledge of nutrition, and how they contribute to obesity. Part I is a compilation of short excerpts from relevant testimony before the…

  7. The UK commercial demonstration fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor design was presented to the seminar on 'European Commercial Fast Reactor Programme, London 1987. The design is discussed under the topic headings:- primary circuit, intermediate heat exchangers and pumps, fuel and core, refuelling, steam generators, and nuclear island layout. (U.K.)

  8. 77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... FY 1993 Authorization Act, 15 U.S.C. 5806 was added to the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA...; and (6) Private capital is at risk in the venture. The purpose of this final rule is to reconcile the... in the commercial space sector. During the comment period, NASA recognized a need to clarify the rule...

  9. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  10. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  11. Addendum waarde commerciële radiovergunningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Kerste, M.; Akker, I.; Prins, J.

    2011-01-01

    Op 18 mei 2010 stuurde de Minister van Economische Zaken het SEO-rapport Waarde commerciële radiovergunningen naar de Tweede Kamer. Dat rapport doet verslag van een onderzoek naar de waarde van de commerciële radiovergunningen. Het vormde de grondslag voor het financieel instrument in de

  12. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  13. TV Commercials as Achievement Scripts for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, F. L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Women who viewed four current, sex-stereotyped commercials emphasized homemaking over other achievement concerns in imagining their lives 10 years hence. Women who saw same commercials with sex roles reversed put significantly greater emphasis on their own achievement aspirations. Their more equal weighting of home and career matched men's. (CMG)

  14. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  15. The Rise and Demise of Commercial Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Commercial geography, originally taught in 18th-century trading schools, reached its zenith in the mid-1920s because it was stimulated by the development of the British Empire, noted for its commercial applications, and popularized through information disseminated by geographical societies. Demise factors include America's isolationist attitudes,…

  16. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief of...

  17. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  18. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as .... Commercial kidney transplants: Trends and outcomes. (22,2%), diabète post-greffe dans sept (15 .... (42.2%) with UTI as the commonest infection, which is in keeping with the known fact that UTI.

  19. Progress commercializing solar-electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III

    1996-01-01

    The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed

  20. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  1. NASA's commercial research plans and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ray J.

    One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.

  2. Sponsored Schools and Commercialized Classrooms: Schoolhouse Commercializing Trends in the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex

    This report analyzes commercializing trends in America's schools and classrooms, using data from database searches in seven categories of schoolhouse commercialism in the period 1990-97. The number of citations relating to commercializing activities can provide only a rough approximation of the scope and development of the phenomenon. The number…

  3. Commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.; Frank, T.G.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes the fundamentals of inertial-confinement fusion, some laser-fusion reactor (LFR) concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation. In addition, other commercial energy-related applications, such as the production of fissionable fuels, of synthetic hydrocarbon-based fuels, and of process heat for a variety of uses, as well as the environmental and safety aspects of fusion energy, are discussed. Finally, the requirements for commercialization of laser fusion technologies are described

  4. Commercial application of fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetti, P.A.; Bruce, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The potential for general application of Fault Tree Analysis to commercial products appears attractive based not only on the successful extension from the aerospace safety technology to the nuclear reactor reliability and availability technology, but also because combinatorial hazards are common to commercial operations and therefore lend themselves readily to evaluation by Fault Tree Analysis. It appears reasonable to conclude that the technique has application within the commercial industrial community where the occurrence of a specified consequence or final event would be of sufficient concern to management to justify such a rigorous analysis as an aid to decision making. (U.S.)

  5. R and M practices in commercial aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    During 1982-83, Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA) and American Management Systems (AMS) conducted an extensive review of design and operations practices in the commercial air transport industry focused on reliability and maintenance for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The genesis of this review was a discussion of the technical and environmental similarities of the commercial air transport and commercial nuclear power communities and the potential opportunities for experience transfer from air transport to nuclear power. This paper focuses on those similarities believed to be of particular interest to the nuclear power community

  6. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD ampersand C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE's EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies

  7. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  8. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  9. The commercial evolution of the Titan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakowitz, Steven

    1988-07-01

    The present status evaluation of proprietary efforts to turn the once exclusively government-requirements-oriented Titan launch vehicle into a successful commercial competitor is divided into three phases. The first phase notes recent changes in U.S. space transportation policy and the Titan configurations evaluated for commercial feasibility. The second phase is a development history for the current vehicle's marketing organization and the right-to-use agreement for a launch site. Phase three projects the prospective marketing climate for a commercial Titan vehicle and its planned improvements.

  10. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...

  11. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  12. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  13. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...... of the plasma samples, which was PAI-1 depleted. The laboratories involved in the testing reported for this sample a mean value of 6.1 IU/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved...... in the production of data from each of the commercial kits tested. A considerable variation of PAI activity results reported from the laboratories testing the same commercial kits was observed. The range of reported results could in individual samples exceed the median value indicating an interlaboratory variation...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ice Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers that are...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  16. Redefining commercial vehicle permitting and credentialing violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze enforcement and adjudication of common commercial vehicle tax, credentialing, and safety offenses. This study examined violations of the International Fuel Tax Agreement and the Kentucky Intrastate Tax, Kent...

  17. Commercial truck parking and other safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Commercial truck parking is a safety issue, since trucks are involved in approximately 10% of all fatal accidents on interstates and : parkways in Kentucky. Drivers experience schedule demands and long hours on the road, yet they cannot easily determ...

  18. Commercial Concession: Issues of Conceptual Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomonov E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theoretical issues of correlation of terms used to refer to the agreement of commercial concession, as well as related issues arising from legal practice and theory of civil law

  19. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  20. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  1. A Commercial Architecture for Satellite Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Didier, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    .... This study focuses on the concept of the U.S. government purchasing proven and successful commercial satellites with minimal non-recurring engineering costs to help augment current national systems...

  2. Defining Commercial Space's Place in the Battlespace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeMello, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    ... (to include ALLIED FORCE, ENDURING FREEDOM and IRAQI FREEDOM), the U.S. has needed to extend beyond the capabilities of dedicated DoD and national space assets, relying on the commercial space sector to provide...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  4. Future trends in commercial and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  5. Notes on Commercialization of Biotechnology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy Jakobsen, Palle

    This book introduces aspects of commercialization of biomedical & biotech research including pharmaceutical drug and medical device development, innovation concepts, patent protection & commercialisation of research by securing investments in new companies and by licensing of the commersialisatio...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Steam Cookers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Steam Cookers that are effective as...

  7. Denying Access to Commercial Communications Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Washington, Tania

    1999-01-01

    .... Commercial systems such as Orion, Panamsat, Iridium and Globalstar will provide the U.S. military and its potential adversaries with a relatively inexpensive and highly effective means to increase the command, control and communications (C3...

  8. Missouri commercial vehicle operations : state business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    This business plan is intended to assist this state in improving its commercial vehicle operation regulation, guide the deployment and installation of intelligent transportation systems and to implement these systems in an efficient and cost effectiv...

  9. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run....

  10. Guide to commercially available wind machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-03

    Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) commercially available in the United States are described. The terms used to describe these wind systems are defined and their significance discussed. Lists of manufacturers and distributors, subsystem components and suppliers, and references are provided.

  11. Psychological Strategies in Managing Television Commercial Efficacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    familiar versus novel), and information source (credible versus non-credible) as psychological strategies of managing television commercial efficacy. Subject's total score on recall of advert information, attitude to an advert, and intention to buy an ...

  12. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. አኀፅሮተ- ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of ..... the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, July.

  13. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  14. Northeast Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Typically, commercial fishing businesses incur three major types of costs: fixed or annual costs; which are incurred annually irrespective of whether any fishing...

  15. Commercial Fisheries Database Biological Sample (CFDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Age and length frequency data for finfish and invertebrate species collected during commercial fishing vessels. Samples are collected by fisheries reporting...

  16. Professionalism and Commercialism on Cosmetic Surgeons' Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  17. Industrial Property in the Commercialization of Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanchuk, G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the investigations on creation of industrial property rights, the reasons which constrained their development and their role in the commercialization of innovation are presented.

  18. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... Among those elements susceptible to these vulnerabilities are the operations of commercial air carriers that are essential to the military's ability to wage war and project power wherever needed in the world...

  19. Commercial refrigeration - An overview of current status

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Babiloni, Adrián; Navarro Esbri, Joaquin; BARRAGÁN CERVERA, ÁNGEL; Moles, Francisco; Peris, Bernardo; Verdú Martín, Gumersindo Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Commercial Refrigeration comprises food freezing and conservation in retail stores and supermarkets, so, it is one of the most relevant energy consumption sectors, and its relevance is increasing. This paper reviews the most recent developments in commercial refrigeration available in literature and presents a good amount of results provided these systems, covering some advantages and disadvantages in systems and working fluids. Latest researches are focused on energy savings to reduce CO2 in...

  20. Technical and commercial aspects of MHTGR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northup, T.E.; Simon, W.A.; Wistrom, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is under development by industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Passive safety and design simplicity make the MHTGR an attractive option for future nuclear power generation, but deployment faces many challenges. Economic competitiveness, public acceptance, licensing approval and first-of-a-kind (FOAK) development funding represent some of the prerequisites to commercialization. Successful commercialization hinges on a prototype and a subsequent Lead Plant Project. (author)

  1. Automatic control of commercial computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvov, B.A.; Artem'ev, A.N.; Maevskij, A.G.; Demkiv, A.A.; Kirillov, B.F.; Belyaev, A.D.; Artem'ev, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The way of automatic control of commercial computer programs is presented. The developed connection of the EXAFS spectrometer automatic system (which is managed by PC for DOS) is taken with the commercial program for the CCD detector control (which is managed by PC for Windows). The described complex system is used for the automation of intermediate amplitude spectra processing in EXAFS spectrum measurements at Kurchatov SR source

  2. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor beslechting van internationale handelsgeschillen in de Engelse taal, waarbij de belangen van snelheid, efficiëntie en goede financierbaarheid centraal staan. Dit artikel verkent de positieve aspecten van ...

  3. KWU's modular approach to HTR commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frewer, H.; Weisbrodt, I.

    1983-01-01

    As a way of avoiding the uncertainties, delays and unacceptable commercial risks which have plagued advanced reactor projects in Germany, KWU is advocating a modular approach to commercialization of the high-temperature reactor (HTR), using small size standard reactor units. KWU has received a contract for the study of a co-generation plant based on this modular system. Features of the KWU modular HTR, process heat, gasification, costs and future development are discussed. (UK)

  4. Commercial Titan program - Status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensselaer, F. L.; Browne, E. M.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, which is attempting to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  5. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  6. The commercialization of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, P.

    1997-01-01

    A successful NGV industry depends upon the skilled use of prime geographic and economic drivers. But a vital ingredient to a sustained and profitable industry is the pioneering example of the gas suppliers and the combined commercial skills of fleet operators equipment suppliers and government. The use of natural gas for vehicles must be long-term commercially viable both for the vehicles whole life cost and the refuelling stations capital investment. (au)

  7. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios The WEA Project Team May 2012 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2012-SR-020 CERT® Division, Software ...Homeland Security under Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0003 with Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally...DISTRIBUTES IT “AS IS.” References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer, or otherwise

  8. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savelyeva Irina Petrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.

  9. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations

  10. Exploiting The New Commercial Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    provided launches for the EELV on a sole-source basis. Recently the landscape of the commercial space launch industry is being changed by a new group of...commercial space launch industry is being changed by a new group of entrepreneurs motivated by broader interests other than only launching satellites...James Cameron-backed Planetary Resources which seeks to mine asteroids for precious metals  Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic which started selling

  11. Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

  12. Sociological and ethical issues in transplant commercialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Miran

    2009-04-01

    'Global transplant commercialism' (practices and policies involving international trade in organs from living vendors, e.g., 'transplant tourism') is currently subjected to unprecedented criticism. In parallel, the debate around 'local transplant commercialism' (practices and policies that confine trade in organs from living vendors to national markets or economic unions) is heating up. In an attempt to assess the potential outcomes of these trends, this article reviews and discusses some sociological and ethical issues, ending with a proposal for a reinvigorated anticommercialist strategy. The current international campaign against global transplant commercialism is conducted by an ad hoc alliance between strange bedfellows, proponents of local transplant commercialism on the one hand and opponents of any transplant commercialism on the other. Disparities in the rigor of the respective ethical discourses, the expanding list of precedents of legitimized commerce in the human body, and the political economy of transplantation, all suggest that the former have the upper hand. Recent achievements in the struggle against international organ trafficking may not herald the abolition of transplant commercialism but rather presage its reconfiguration in deglobalized forms. In light of such a prospect, those who wish to prevent the pervasive commodification of the human body from entering the gates of transplant medicine should consider devising a new, perhaps more radical, strategy.

  13. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  14. Womb Outsourcing: Commercial Surrogacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankford, David M; Bennington, Linda K; Ryan, Jane Greene

    2015-01-01

    Infertility affects more than 7 million American couples. As traditional treatments fail and the costs of hiring a surrogate increase in the United States, transnational commercial surrogacy becomes a feasible alternative for many couples. Infertile couples may opt for this choice after reading enticing Internet advertisements of global medical tourism offering "special deals" on commercial surrogacy. This is particularly true in India where couples from the United States can purchase transnational surrogacy for less than one-half or even one-third of the costs in the United States, including the cost of travel. The majority of surrogate mothers in India come from impoverished, poorly educated rural areas of India. Commercial surrogacy offers the lure of earning the equivalent of 5 years of family income. This multidisciplinary review of the literature suggests that the issue of commercial surrogacy is complex and influenced by a number of factors including expensive infertility costs, ease of global travel, and the financial vulnerability of Indian commercial surrogate mothers and their families. Questions are being raised about decision making by the surrogate mother particularly as influenced by gender inequities, power differentials, and inadequate legal protection for the surrogate mother. More research is needed to understand commercial surrogacy, especially research inclusive of the viewpoints of the Indian mothers and their families involved in these transactions.

  15. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  16. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-04-24

    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P < 0.05). Neural estimation of happiness results revealed a significant difference between the high-ranked and the low-ranked commercials in happiness index (P < 0.01). The order of rankings based on happiness and

  17. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gases. Manufacturer of a commercial packaged boiler means any person who manufactures, produces... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial...

  18. 48 CFR 12.213 - Other commercial practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other commercial practices... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.213 Other commercial practices. It is a common practice in the commercial marketplace for both...

  19. Commercial off-the-shelf software dedication process based on the commercial grade survey of supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Chon, S. W.; Lee, G. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial Off-The-Shelf(COTS) software dedication process can apply to a combination of methods like the hardware commercial grade item dedication process. In general, these methods are : methods 1(special test and inspection), method 2(commercial grade survey of supplier), method 3(source verification), and method 4(acceptance supplier/item performance record). In this paper, the suggested procedure-oriented dedication process on the basis of method 2 for COTS software is consistent with EPRI/TR-106439 and NUREG/CR-6421 requirements. Additional tailoring policy based on code and standards related to COTS software may be also founded in the suggested commercial software dedication process. Suggested commercial software dedication process has been developed for a commercial I and C software dedication who performs COTS qualification according to the dedication procedure

  20. Judicial Reform and Commercial Justice : The Experience of Tanzania's Commercial Court

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, David Louis

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers in developing and transition economies recognize the important role played by judiciaries in creating an institutional environment conducive to robust private sector activity. In the case of Tanzania, the government, with the support of local business groups, international investors, and the donor community, created a specialized court dedicated to considering and resolving commercial and financial cases. The Commercial Division of the High Court of Tanzania (the "Commercial Cour...

  1. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-01-17

    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  2. Uncovering Indicators of Commercial Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Delaney, Kathleen R; Julion, Wrenetha; Breitenstein, Susan

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that annually 100,000 to 300,000 youth are at risk for sex trafficking; a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or any such act where the person induced to perform such an act is younger than 18 years of age. Increasingly, such transactions are occurring online via Internet-based sites that serve the commercial sex industry. Commercial sex transactions involving trafficking are illegal; thus, Internet discussions between those involved must be veiled. Even so, transactions around sex trafficking do occur. Within these transactions are innuendos that provide one avenue for detecting potential activity. The purpose of this study is to identify linguistic indicators of potential commercial sexual exploitation within the online comments of men posted on an Internet site. Six hundred sixty-six posts from five Midwest cities and 363 unique members were analyzed via content analysis. Three main indicators were found: the presence of youth or desire for youthfulness, presence of pimps, and awareness of vulnerability. These findings begin a much-needed dialogue on uncovering online risks of commercial sexual exploitation and support the need for further research on Internet indicators of sex trafficking.

  3. Chemical surveillance of commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1988-01-01

    After BN-600 (USSR) and SUPERPHENIX (France) were started succesfully, the international development of LMFBRs is standing at the doorstep of commercial use. For commercial use of LMFBRs cost reductions for construction and operation are highly desirable and necessary. Several nations developing breeder reactors have joined in a common effort in order to reach this aim by standardization and harmonization. On the base of more than 20 years of operation experience of experimental reactors (EBR-II, FFTF, RAPSODIE, DFR, BR-5/BR-10, BOR-60, JOYO, KNK-II) and demonstration plants (PHENIX, PFR, BN-350), possibilities for standardization in chemical surveillance of commercial breeder reactors without any loss of availability, reliability and reactor safety will be discussed in the following chapters. Loop-type reactors will be considered as well as pool-type reactors, although all commercial plants under consideration so far (SUPERPHENIX II, BN-800, BN-1600, CFBR, SNR-2, EFR) include pool-type reactors only. Table 1 gives a comparison of the Na inventories of test reactors, prototype plants and commercial LMFBRs

  4. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

    1996-03-01

    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  5. Altitude exposures during commercial flight: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Kregenow, David A; Mahoney, Anne M; Kirtland, Steven H; Horan, Kathleen L; Holm, James R; Gerbino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia during commercial air travel has the potential to cause or worsen hypoxemia in individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary compromise. Knowledge of cabin altitude pressures aboard contemporary flights is essential to counseling patients accurately about flying safety. The objective of the study was to measure peak cabin altitudes during U.S. domestic commercial flights on a variety of aircraft. A handheld mountaineering altimeter was carried by the investigators in the plane cabin during commercial air travel and peak cabin altitude measured. The values were then compared between aircraft models, aircraft classes, and distances flown. The average peak cabin altitude on 207 flights aboard 17 different aircraft was 6341 +/- 1813 ft (1933 m +/- 553 m), significantly higher than when measured in a similar fashion in 1988. Peak cabin altitude was significantly higher for flights longer than 750 mi (7085 +/- 801 ft) compared to shorter flights (5160 +/- 2290 ft/1573 +/- 698 m). Cabin altitude increased linearly with flight distance for flights up to 750 mi in length, but was independent of flight distance for flights exceeding 750 mi. Peak cabin altitude was less than 5000 ft (1524 m) in 70% of flights shorter than 500 mi. Peak cabin altitudes greater than 8000 ft (2438 m) were measured on approximately 10% of the total flights. Peak cabin altitude on commercial aircraft flights has risen over time. Cabin altitude is lower with flights of shorter distance. Physicians should take these factors into account when determining an individual's need for supplemental oxygen during commercial air travel.

  6. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  7. Radiometric analysis of Chinese commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.; Lingqing, W.; Xiaodan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of granites as building and ornamental materials, measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activities in commercial granites have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer with a matrix-inversion-based spectral stripping technique. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in Chinese commercial granite range from 14.5 to 204.7 Bq x kg -1 , 16.7 to 186.7 Bq x kg -1 and 185.7 to 1745.6 Bq x kg -1 , respectively. The mean values of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in red and pink commercial granites are all higher than those in black and gray commercial ones. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), the external hazard index (H ex ), the internal hazard index (H in ) and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) were also calculated and compared to the international recommended values. Six types of red commercial granites (CBR, MLR, QXR, PBR, JXR, LQR, YDR and TSR) of China do not satisfy the universal standards. (author)

  8. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  9. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  10. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  11. 75 FR 70347 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Regulations, notice is hereby given that the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) has... matters concerning the U.S. commercial space transportation industry. The [[Page 70348

  12. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  13. 76 FR 78329 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation...: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section... given of a teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  14. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a...), notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  15. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Open Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on...

  16. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  17. On the Ambiguity of Commercial Open Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . Open source and commercial applications used to be two separate worlds. The former was the work of amateurs who had little interest in making a profit, while the latter was only profit oriented and was produced by big companies. Nowadays open source is a threat and an opportunity to serious businesses of all kinds, generating good profits while delivering low costs products to customers. The competition between commercial and open source software has impacted the industry and the society as a whole. But in the last years, the markets for commercial and open source software are converging rapidly and it is interesting to resume and discuss the implications of this new paradigm, taking into account arguments pro and against it.

  18. Electric vehicles: Technology assessment and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabot, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article traces the history of commercialization efforts relative to electric vehicles, assesses the state-of-the-art of electric vehicle technology and identifies the industrial firms that are investing heavily in this field. The main design problems affecting the commercialization of these vehicles (e.g., battery weight, autonomy, operating safety and toxicity) are pointed out. Comparisons of commercialization prospects are made with those for hydrogen fuelled vehicles. With regard to investments in research programs, it is argued that, in addition to car manufacturers and oil companies, the usual active participants in the transport sector, new participants are needed to give added support to the development of electric vehicles, namely, electric utilities and battery manufacturers

  19. Thermal Environment evaluation in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    as commercial kitchens? There is therefore a need to study the indoor environment in commercial kitchens and to establish standardized methods and procedures for setting criteria that have to be met for the design and operation of kitchens. The present paper introduces a data collection protocol based......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence the thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are expressed in international standards such as ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN7730. But are these standardised methods applicable for such environments...

  20. Challenges of Sustainable and Commercial Aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a number of serious problems of which population rise, climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity and food security are among the most important. Aquaponics, as a closed loop system consisting of hydroponics and aquaculture elements, could contribute to addressing these problems. However, there is a lack of quantitative research to support the development of economically feasible aquaponics systems. Although many studies have addressed some scientific aspects, there has been limited focus on commercial implementation. In this review paper, opportunities that have the potential to fill the gap between research and implementation of commercial aquaponic systems have been identified. The analysis shows that aquaponics is capable of being an important driver for the development of integrated food production systems. Arid regions suffering from water stress will particularly benefit from this technology being operated in a commercial environment.

  1. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  2. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  3. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  4. Beryllium Measurement In Commercially Available Wet Wipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant(trademark) Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  5. Commercialization of the polyethylene macroencapsulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Hellstrom, G.W.; Vance, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    With support from the US Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology (DOE OST) and assistance from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) is commercializing the polyethylene macroencapsulation process. Envirocare, currently the only commercially licensed mixed waste disposal facility in the US, will initially demonstrate the process by treating and disposing up to 227,000 kg (500,000 lbs) of radioactively contaminated lead. This waste, considered mixed due to both radioactive and hazardous constituents, is currently being stored at various sites throughout the DOE complex. Following this initial work for DOE, the process will be available for the treatment of other applicable wastes. Throughout commercialization of this process, BNL has provided Envirocare with technical support for engineering and permitting

  6. Deployment of commercial energy efficiency cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This research concerned the promotion of energy-efficient wood stoves in commercial and institutional kitchens in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda through technology transfer and training of local commercial stove producers. The key objective of the project was to introduce proven designs of energy-efficient wood stoves to producers in the target countries and train them in the manufacture and marketing of these stoves. The improved designs save 50% of the fuel used by the traditional stoves - a major saving where 10-15% of the kitchen budget is spent on fuel. They also remove smoke more effectively, protect cooks from heat and burns, and are easier to keep clean. The project went well although results have varied from one country to the other. In conclusion, the technology transfer of commercial stove designs can take place between neighbouring countries by a process of training, study visits, prototype development, market surveys and producer support.(author)

  7. Modular Platform for Commercial Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    , and not on putting the robots on the commercial market. At the time when this research project was started in May 2010, the amount of successful commercial applications based on mobile robots was very limited. The most known applications were vacuum cleaners, lawn mowers, and few examples of specialized transport...... by the individual groups and perhaps a few close industrial partners. This research project addresses the problem of increasing the potential for more commercial applications based on mobile wheeled robots. Therefore the main focus is not on inventing new ground-breaking robotics technology, but instead...... period, a signicant research community was created around one specific robot control framework called ROS. From the very beginning,this research project acknowledged the value of such a community, and put a significant eort into in uencing the ROS framework to become usable also for industry...

  8. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE`s Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE`s EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies.

  9. Russian naval bases due commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Tecnogrid Group, New York, has signed a joint venture with the Russian Navy for commercial development of a wide range of sea dn land based assets owned by the former Soviet Navy. This paper reports that among other things, the venture aims for projects that will allow greater volumes of oil exports by revamping several naval bases. Tecnogrid's partner in the joint venture is AO Navicon, A Russian stock holding company that is the commercial arm of the Navy. Navicon has the sole right to commercially develop and deploy the Navy's assets. The Navy can no longer depend on the state for support, and Adm. Ig. Malhonin. With that in mind, the Navy is looking to become the leading force in moving toward a free market economy. Mahonin is Russia's second ranking naval official

  10. Digital/Commercial (In)visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2017-01-01

    an argument demonstrating specifically how digital and commercial logics characterize the aesthetic, circulatory, and infrastructuring practices re-producing the regime of (in)visibility. It shows that digital/commercial logics are at the heart of the combinatorial marketing of multiple, contradictory images......This article explores one aspect of digital politics, the politics of videos and more spe- cifically of DAESH recruitment videos. It proposes a practice theoretical approach to the politics of DAESH recruitment videos focused on the re-production of regimes of (in)visibility. The article develops...... on the internet. The theoretical and political cost of overlooking these digital and commercial characteristics of DAESH visibility practices are high. It perpetuates misconceptions of how the videos work and what their politics are and it reinforces the digital Orientalism/Occidentalism in which...

  11. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  12. Natural radionuclide distribution in Brazilian commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Soares, T.; Santos, A.M.A.; Aguiar, J.G.; Frasca, M.H.B.O.; Brage, J.A.P.; Uzeda, D.; Mangia, L.; Facure, A.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The dimension stones sector in Brazil produces several varieties of granites, marbles, slates and basalts. More than half of this production corresponds to around 200 different commercial types of granites with specific names, geographical and geological origins and mineral compositions. The well-known natural radioactivity present in rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite, can be used to determine their general petrologic features. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. In this paper, it is applied to correlate the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Amounts of thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations have been reported in several Brazilian commercial granite samples

  13. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Zaraswati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance

  14. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  16. Malaysia commercial energy flow: status and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    With further growth of Malaysia economy, future development of the energy sector in Malaysia is vital to ensure targeted growth. Commercial Energy continues to play a major role in ensuring a balanced energy mix for power generation due to a potential increase in energy demand from various sectors, especially the industrial sector. This paper presents the status and structure of Malaysia Commercial Energy Flow, which gives an overview of the flow of all types of energy sources from primary energy supply to final energy use, and also the potential for nuclear power in electricity generation in Malaysia. (Author)

  17. NCAP projection displays: key issues for commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akira; Jones, Philip J.

    1992-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in a new polymer nematic dispersion technology, often called as NCAP, PDLC, PNLC, LCPC, etc., since projection displays using this technology have been shown to produce much brighter display images than projectors using conventional twisted nematic (TN) lightvalves. For commercializing projection displays based on this polymer nematic dispersion technology, the new materials must not only meet various electro- optic requirements, e.g., operational voltage, `off-state'' scattering angle, voltage holding ratio and hysteresis, but must also be stable over the lifetime of the product. This paper reports recent progress in the development of NCAP based projection displays and discusses some of the key commercialization issues.

  18. Green energy and large commercial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capage, Adam

    2000-01-01

    The difficulties faced in selling green energy to large commercial users are reviewed in this article. Four steps are identified in helping energy service suppliers (ESP) focus on opportunities for maximising revenue, namely, targeting the best prospects, identifying the right contact person, appealing to the primary contact, and helping contacts to make the sale internally. Companies with environmentally conscious customers and well defined environmental policies and led by those that promote environmental stewardship are recognised as commercial customers most likely to sign a deal for green energy

  19. Sources of capabilities, integration and technology commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahra, Shaker A.; Nielsen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, companies have increased their use of internal and external sources in pursuit of a competitive advantage through the effective and timely commercialization of new technology. Grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, this study examines the effect of a company's use...... of internal and external sources on multiple dimensions of successful technology commercialization (TC). The study also explores the moderating role of formal vs. informal integration mechanisms on these relationships. Applying a longitudinal design and data from 119 companies, the results show that internal...

  20. Penetrating the markets: biomass and commercial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, J.

    1999-01-01

    Although biomass accounts for a significant proportion of renewable energy in Europe, its market penetration could be increased if certain barriers can be surmounted. Some of those barriers are identified and suggestions made as to how they may be overcome through improved 'distribution' in various sectors. To integrate biomass into the electricity distribution system, the commercial distribution of liquid biofuels, and in the commercial distribution of biomass in the heat sector, certain rewards and penalties could be introduced and these are discussed. The low temperature heat market is seen as very important for the further development of bioenergy in Europe. (UK)

  1. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  2. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  3. Research on Memetic Phenomena in Commercial Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2015-01-01

    Meme plays an important role in the development of advertisement as a unit of culture.Its replication and transmission provide an effective means for creating advertisements and a new way for us to analyze advertising language.Two ways including memetic genotype and memetic phenotype for memes to be replicated and transmitted in the advertising language are analyzed.Then,how to successfully create commercial advertisements is explored.Finally,it is concluded that the concise,familiar,popular and original memes can contribute to successful commercial advertisements.

  4. Early high-Tc commercial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors have already begun to generate the first stirrings of commercial activity. Companies that supply instruments and chemicals to researchers have enjoyed increased business. At least one company has begun to supply educational materials. Venture capital firms have invested about $15 million in startups to capitalize on developments in high-field applications, superconducting electronics, and magnetic shielding. Consulting firms are gathering and selling market research information. And the federal government is studying the question of how to cooperate with American companies to commercialize the research taking place in the national laboratories. This article discusses these issues

  5. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  6. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Петровна Савельева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-4

  7. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    .... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  8. THE ROLE OF ETHIOPIAN COURTS IN COMMERCIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    comments which enriched the initial version of the work. 1 See, e.g. ... comparative analysis of national rules on commercial arbitration would reveal that the level of .... Moreover, Ethiopia is yet to join the 1958 New York Convention on the.

  9. The Legitimation of Commercial Surrogacy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushina, A. D.; Kersha, Yu. D.; Larkina, T. Yu.; Provorova, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    Commodification is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon in the modern world. A vivid example of the commodification of unique objects is commercial surrogacy services, which transform the status of motherhood from being a "woman's social vocation" into a service whose end product is a human life that is valued in monetary terms.…

  10. European Perspectives on International Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg Wilhelmsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of a uniform rule on the law applicable to the existence and validity of an arbitration agreement. This article examines these issues in order to find out whether they are only European or also inherent in the international regulation of international commercial arbitration. The article examines to which...

  11. Progress in gamma processing of commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the global outlook for gamma radiation processing of commercial products is discussed. Canada's contribution to the development of the industry is presented. New developments in the applications of the process and its marketing are discussed. (U.K.)

  12. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunt, J.J.; Wulms, P.H.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Dankelman, J.; Van Dijk, C.N.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on

  13. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, W.G. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lighthipe, R.W. [San Diego Gas & Electric, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world`s first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of commercial interferon preparations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiviral, antiproliferative and natural killer-cell. (NKC) stimulatory activities of four commercial the- ... activity; (ii) inhibition ofcell proliferation; and (iii) stimulation of natural killer-cells (NKCs). ..... on serial dilution and then dropped substantially when a specific dilution was reached. It was thus possible to define a 'titre' as.

  15. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Commercial real estate analysis and investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geltner, D.; Miller, N.; Clayton, J.; Eichholtz, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The well-known and respected authorship team of Geltner and Miller bring you a new edition of what has become the undisputed and authoritative resource on commercial real estate investment. Streamlined and completely updated with expanded coverage of corporate and international real estate

  17. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, W.G.; Lighthipe, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas ampersand Electric (SDG ampersand E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world's first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States

  18. Major commercial products from micro- and macroalgae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffiths, M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and microalgae are used in a variety of commercial products with many more in development. This chapter outlines the major products, species used, methods of production, extraction, and processing as well as market sizes and trends. Foods...

  19. causes and consequences of commercial motorcycle accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Accident associated with the use of motorcycle for commercial transportation in Makurdi metropolis was ... deaths, over speeding accounted for 27 percent of accidents and deaths respectively, .... 10. 7. 5. (a). (b). Possession of wing mirror and Crash helmet. Yes. No. 12 .... reduce the risk of serious head and brain injuries.

  20. Advanced LWR technology for commercial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) are now being deployed and commercialized around the world. In Japan, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is building the world's first ALWRs, two 1300 MWe Advanced BWRs (ABWRs). In the United States, the Department of Energy, utilities and suppliers are undertaking a cooperative program called First of a Kind Engineering (FOAKE). The purpose of FOAKE is to perform the detailed engineering of ALWRs to that they will be commercially available to U.S. utilities in the mid-1990s. The U.S. industry is in the second year of its strategic plan to have an ALWR in commercial operation by the year 2000. Elsewhere, the Taiwan Power Company has issued a Request for Proposal for two ALWRs so be built at its Lungmen site, with commercial operation of the first unit to be in the year 2000. Korea is formulating plans for an ALWR and other countries, such as Indonesia and Mexico, are looking into the feasibility of building ALWRs

  1. Directing sustainable investments in commercial real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, A.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Braganca, L.; Pinheiro, M.; Jalali, S.; Mateus, R.; Amoeda, R.; Guedes, Correia M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the facility costs, energy use and water consumption of commercial real estate. A framework consisting of four components is established in which the performances on these three aspects are analysed. By using the first, second and third part of the framework suggestions for

  2. Maintenance considerations of the STARFIRE commercial tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trachsel, C.A.; Zahn, H.S.; Field, R.E.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the maintenance approach, the commercial tokamak design features that enhance maintenance and preliminary repair time and required mean-time-between-failures for major subsystems. Reactor hall building and maintenance equipment requirements including hot cells, coil rewinding, and cranes are discussed

  3. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  4. The Liberating Power of Commercial Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of commercial marketing on personal autonomy. Several philosophers argue that marketing conflicts with ideals of autonomy or, at best, is neutral to these ideals. After qualifying our concept of marketing and introducing the distinctions between (i...

  5. Challenges in Commercial Buildings | Buildings | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    systems Assessing the energy and economic impacts of various technologies, giving priority to those that standardized language for commercial building energy audit data that can be used by software developers to exchange data between audit tools, and can be required by building owners and audit program managers to

  6. Commercial lending in different corporate governance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with corporate governance, or more accurately, about one of its many aspects. This thesis is about banks that finance firms and it is about the commercial loans that enterprises use to finance investments. It is not about shareholders, managerial remuneration or about the

  7. Understanding properties of commercial OSB products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqun Wang; Hongmei Gu; Trairat Neimsuwan

    2004-01-01

    Oriented strandboard (OSB) has gained increased market acceptance as a construction material in almost all geographical areas of Canada and United States. With its growing market, more and more research has been focused on the product’s manufacturing and performance. Commercial OSB products in U.S. and Canada are produced from different manufacturers with different...

  8. Shaping-lathe headrig now commercially available

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1975-01-01

    On September 12, 1975, twenty-five sawmillers from throughout North America watched as a new headrig produced cants of various shapes and a usable residue of flakes from logs of irregular contour. The demonstration at the Stetson-Ross plant in Seattle, Washington, was the unveiling of the commercial model of a design introduced by the Southern Forest Experiment Station...

  9. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  10. DIUx Commercial Solutions Opening: How to Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    technology development; today, that trend has shifted: commercial investment now propels the preponderance of ground -breaking technology development...contracts. This is normally accomplished through a job order cost accounting system, whereby the books and records segregate direct costs by agreement...or figure (s) to depict the essence of the proposed solution is strongly encouraged. 5) Multiple solution briefs addressing different topic areas

  11. Instructional Simulation of a Commercial Banking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Donald D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an instructional simulation of a commercial banking system. Identifies the teaching of portfolio theory, market robustness, and the subtleties of institutional constraints and decision making under uncertainty as the project's goals. Discusses the results of applying the simulation in an environment of local and national markets and a…

  12. Optimal timing of TV commercials: symmetrical model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 195 (2002), s. 1-27 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : TV commercials * behavior * TV viewer Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  13. Legal forms of the commercial organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedov I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article discusses the various forms of commercial companies. The paper focuses on the process of incorporation of the limited liability company. The author describes contradictions of the new companies incorporation process at the present stage of market relations development in Russia.

  14. Chemical analysis of reactor and commercial columbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The methods cover the chemical analysis of reactor and commercial columbium having chemical compositions within specified limits. The following analytical procedures are discussed along with apparatus, reagents, photometric practice, safety precautions, sampling, and rounding calculated values: nitrogen, by distillation (photometric) method; molybdenum and tungsten by the dithiol (photometric) method; iron by the 1,10-phenanthroline (photometric) method

  15. Commercial Influences on the Pursuit of Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Leemon B.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the effects of commercialization on education with particular focus on corporatization of academic research. This trend results from a business model of education, which I identify as profit-based inquiry. I contrast profit-based inquiry with Nicholas Maxwell's conception of wisdom-based inquiry and conclude that the business…

  16. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  17. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  18. 77 FR 59339 - Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 Acquisition of Commercial Items CFR Correction 212.504 [Corrected] In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 2 (Parts 201--299), revised as of October 1, 2011, on page 73, in section 212.504, paragraph (a) is...

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali

    Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.

  20. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Some Commercial Samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the physical properties and dissolution profiles of commercial samples of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets. Methods: Fifteen generic brands of artesunate and five generic brands of amodiaquine tablets were obtained from drug retail outlets in Oyo and Ogun States in southwestern Nigeria. The tablets ...

  1. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  2. Infection among Commercial Sex Workers in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of HHV8 seropositivity was conducted among commercial sex workers in Jos aimed at determining the prevalence in relation to history of STD, duration of prostitution, age and number of sexual partners per day. Antibodies to HHV8 were detected by enzyme linked - immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Advanced ...

  3. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  4. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  5. Radiation damage in commercial optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Franceschini, F.A.; Serra, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results obtained by exposure of commercial optical fibers to 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, are reported. The possibility of utilizing these fibers as far as a total dose of 6000 rad in the light spectrum is shown. It is also shown that it is possible to obtain total recovery of irradiated fibers by annealing at 500 0 C. (author)

  6. California Commercial End-Use Survey - CEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficiency in Existing Buildings Energy Efficiency Program Contacts Financing Opportunities Home Energy Rebates and Incentives Energy Efficiency Financing Energy Innovations Small Grant (EISG) EPIC Funding commercial building type categories. Download the CEUS Project Final Report. Publication # CEC-400-2006-005

  7. ESSENCE OF ACTIVE OPERATIONS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Irina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Constant changes in the economic situation in the country and in the world give rise to new problems in asset management of commercial banks. This, in turn, requires the timely development and introduction of new and improved mechanisms for active operations of banking institutions. Only the implementation of such adequate mechanisms will allow, on the one hand, to satisfy the needs of consumers of banking services, and on the other – for banking institutions, to obtain the necessary level of profit for the acceptable risk to them. Purpose. Substantiation of theoretical foundations of organization and management of assets of banking institutions and determination of perspective directions of development of active operations in commercial banks. Results. The article provides a list of operations carried out by commercial banks of Ukraine. The essence of the concept of active operations of a banking institution as an important element of its activity for profit is considered. Possible variants of classification of active operations are analyzed, depending on the criterion underlying (risk level, liquidity and term of putting. The definition of a bank loan and its basic principles are given. The purposes and advantages of investment activity of banking institutions are specified, the classification of such activity is carried out. Proposed directions of development of active operations of banking institutions through the use of intermediary operations and unconventional banking services are offered. Conclusions. Currently, banking institutions carry out a large number of different banking operations. Mobilized by carrying out passive operations cash funds of the banking institution are placed through active operations in different directions. The basis of active operations of a commercial bank is its credit and investment operations. A commercial bank’s profits in the future are dependent on their effective conduct. The conduct of

  8. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ''document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.'' This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2's commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2's organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2's strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed

  9. 12 CFR 615.5030 - Borrowings from commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowings from commercial banks. 615.5030... commercial banks. (a) Each System bank board, by resolution, shall authorize all commercial bank borrowings by that System bank. (b) The Financial Assistance Corporation may borrow from commercial banks with...

  10. Introducing Commercial Finance into the Water Sector in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This guidance note provides an introduction to the role of commercial finance in the water and sanitation sector. Its aim is to help readers (development specialists) explore applications in their own countries. The note focuses primarily on commercial bank loans, and throughout the document the term commercial finance refers to commercial loans from domestic banks. However, much of the gu...

  11. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial operator...

  12. 47 CFR 20.9 - Commercial mobile radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial mobile radio service. 20.9 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.9 Commercial mobile radio service. (a) The following mobile services shall be treated as common carriage services and regulated as commercial mobile radio services...

  13. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such a...

  14. 76 FR 63913 - Commercial Building Workforce Job/Task Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... were developed for the following six job classifications: Commercial Building Energy Auditor.... Workshops were held for each of the following job classifications: Commercial Building Energy Auditor... field (e.g., commercial building energy auditor, commercial building energy modeler, commissioning/retro...

  15. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine.

  16. MEDIATION CLAUSE IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS (THE ADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION CLAUSE IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Florinel Augustin Ignat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It often happens that the end of the contracts to be existing commercial relationships and a new contract has already intuitu personae character. But not always the case, that those who enter into legal commercial forcing consideration to the benefits and under commercial contracts, know the dealer or individual that established commercial relations. These traders resort to contractual conditions which states precisely the extent of the obligations assumed by each party, setting rules, deadlines, penalties and even ways of interpretation of contracts. Contracting Parties, namely traders aware that the law is the contract parties by special caluze invest ( to settle disputes concerning the interpretation or punishment for failure and even termination obligations tribunalule arbitration courts or the territorial and material .

  17. Public Good or Commercial Opportunity: Case Studies in Remote Sensing Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Shaida; Cordes, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Government is once again attempting to commercialize the Landsat program and is asking the private sector to develop a next generation mid-resolution remote sensing system that will provide continuity with the thirty-year data archive of Landsat data. Much of the case for commercializing the Landsat program rests on the apparently successful commercialization of high-resolution remote sensing activities coupled with the belief that conditions have changed since the failed attempt to commercialize Landsat in the 1980s. This paper analyzes the economic, political and technical conditions that prevailed in the 1980s as well as conditions that might account for the apparent success of the emerging high-resolution remote sensing industry today. Lessons are gleaned for the future of the Landsat program.

  18. Photovoltaic technologies for commercial power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  19. Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

  20. Scenario for commercialization of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Sato, Morihiko

    1989-01-01

    To realize the commercialization of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essential to reduce construction costs to the same level as those for the current light water reactors. For this target to be attained, a highly important factor is to reduce to the lowest-levels possible the quantities of materials and volume of the buildings required for the primary and secondary sodium loops of the FBR. In this direction, an innovative compact FBR plant concept which holds promise for commercialization has been developed by introducing the pooltype reactor concept with the shortest possible secondary sodium loops, realized by coupling electromagnetic pumps with the steam generators. In comparison with the French Super Phenix reactor, for example, the construction of this 1,300-MWe FBR plant could be achieved with half the material quantities and plant volume required by the former type. (author)

  1. Activities dedicated to FCPP commercialization at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Ozono, Jiro; Sato, Nobuaki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The present line-up of fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) at Toshiba consists of 11MW FCPP for pressurized operation, 1000kW on-site FCPP and 200kW on-site FCPP. In these, an 11MW FCPP installed at Goi Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is providing valuable experience through more than 20,000 cumulative hours of operation. Also, a 1000kW on-site FCPP, which Toshiba manufactured under the joint program of NEDO and PAFC Technology Research Association, has cumulative operation of 7,500 hours. Toshiba, however, believes that the 200kW on-site FCPP is the leader in the commercialization of phosphoric acid FCPP. This paper therefore presents the development status of 200kW power plants and our strategic considerations for full commercialization of PC25 type 200kW FCPP.

  2. Organophilization and characterization of commercial bentonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, B.B. da; Lima, J.C.C.; Alves, A.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite clay is a plastic changes resulting from volcanic ash, consisting mostly of montmorillonite. The state of Paraiba is a major source of bentonite clay from Brazil, where the main oil fields are located in Boa Vista and represents the largest national production of raw and beneficiated bentonite. Aimed at the commercial value of this type of clay and its high applicability in the polls, this article aims to make a comparison between two kinds of clay, a national (Brasgel) and other imported (Cloisite) from organophilization of two commercial bentonite, ionic surfactant with Praepagem WB, and characterize them by XRD, FTIR and TG / DTG. We observe that despite getting inferior properties, the clay presents national values very similar to those presented by imported clay. (author)

  3. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  4. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  5. Commercialization of the modular modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartells, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Modular Modeling System (MMS) was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to provide an efficient, economical, and user-friendly computer code for use in the analysis of the dynamic performance of nuclear and fossil power plants. The MMS has been under development since 1978 and is now ready for general release to the industry. To most effectively transfer the MSS technology on a worldwide basis, EPRI has licensed the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) to act as the MMS code coordinator and commercial licensing agent. B and W is responsible for promoting the use of MMS and assisting users in the effective utilization of this new analysis tool. The history behind the commercialization of the MMS and the mechanism by which the MMS technology will be effectively transferred to provide for a self-sustaining and technically current analysis tool are outlined

  6. Sensory differentiation of commercially produced spaghetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestorić Mladenka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the performance of trained and untrained panel in evaluating the texture of nine commercially produced wheat spaghetti. Several sensory methods were applied in order to investigate the performance of different panel groups. In order to avoid the loss of information obtained by non-parametric methods, data were scaled according to contingency tables. This analysis showed that significant differences existed between the two panels for the given products. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that the used panels cannot be a good alternative to each other in providing sensory texture profiling of commercial spaghetti, except in the case when the properties of spaghetti were evaluated using the control sample.

  7. Decentralised energy supply in 2020 - Commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimaier, M.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive article summarises the commercial aspects of a study made by the German Association of Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies VDE on the topic of decentralised energy supply in the year 2020. In a previous article, the technical aspects were examined. This article looks at the findings in connection with commercial aspects of the production of power in decentralised facilities including those using renewable sources of energy. The potential of these forms of electricity generation for the year 2020 is looked at both from the political and economical points of view. The general conditions prevailing for the implementation of decentralised power production in Germany such as the Renewable Energy Law and legislation on combined heat and power generation are discussed. The influence of electricity tariffs and competition in the market is examined, as are various scenarios and concepts for the supply of both power and heating energy. Ways of providing a sustainable energy supply without having to subsidise particular concepts are discussed

  8. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  9. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  10. Evaluation of the commercial FBR introduction date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Merrill, E.T.

    1981-09-01

    This report examines one criterion for introducing a commercial FBR: economic competitiveness with a Light Water Reactor (LWR). For this analysis, the commercial FBR is assumed to be the fifth-of-a kind replicate which represents an economically mature plant. This FBR is deemed economically competitive when its life-cycle energy cost is less than or equal to that of an LWR. Results of this analysis are used in a comparative analysis of alternative FBR development stategies. The strategies evaluated in these studies assume both 1000- and 1457-MWe FBRs. Since the capital costs per kilowatt, and therefore the energy costs, for these two FBR sizes are different, they will become economically competitive at different times. The probability density function for the 1457-MW(e) FBR has an expected value date or weighted average date of 2030, compared with 2033 for the probability density function for the 1000-MW(e) FBR

  11. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  12. Examination of Some Commercial Sorptive Organobentonites

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNAL, Müşerref

    2014-01-01

    For controlling organophilic partition nanophase (OPN) formation in some commercial sorptive organobentonites (OBs), 4 sample were selected randomly and examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), element analysis (EA), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption (N2-AD) techniques. Since the d(001) values of the OB samples are between 1.94 and 3.36 nm, the pseudotrilayer or paraff...

  13. Microplastics in commercial bivalves from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiana; Yang, Dongqi; Li, Lan; Jabeen, Khalida; Shi, Huahong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated microplastic pollution in 9 commercial bivalves from a fishery market in China. Multiple types of microplastics, including fibers, fragments and pellets, occurred in the tissue of all bivalves. The number of total microplastics varied from 2.1 to 10.5 items/g and from 4.3 to 57.2 items/individual for bivalves. Scapharca subcrenata contained on average 10.5 items/g and exhibited the highest levels of microplastics by weight. Fibers were the most common microplastics and consisted of more than half of the total microplastics in each of the 8 species. In Alectryonella plicatula, pellets accounted for 60% of the total microplastics. The most common size class was less than 250 μm and accounted for 33–84% of the total microplastics calculated by species. Our results suggest that microplastic pollution was widespread and exhibited a relatively high level in commercial bivalves from China. More intensive investigations on microplastics should be conducted in seafood. - Highlights: • Fiber, fragment and pellet microplastics were found in 9 bivalves. • The abundance of microplastics was 2.1–10.5 items/g. • Fibers were the most common microplastics. • The most common size class of microplastics was less than 250 μm. • Microplastic pollution was widespread and serious in commercial bivalves. - Fiber, fragment and pellet microplastics in the range of 2.1–10.5 items/g were observed in 9 species of commercially popular bivalves from China.

  14. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driving Safety Website

    OpenAIRE

    Tidwell, Scott; Trimble, Tammy; Blanco, Myra

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the CMV Driving Safety website (http://cmvdrivingsafety.org/), which was created by the National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence (NSTSCE) as an outreach effort to assist commercial motor vehicle (CMV) fleets and drivers, driver trainers, CMV training schools, and insurance companies. The website contains 15 unique pages and provides six downloadable training modules on driver distraction, driver health, hours of service, driver drowsiness and fatigue,...

  15. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  16. Dandruff: The most commercially exploited skin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discuss in detail about the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of dandruff including the etio-pathology. The article also discusses in detail about various treatment methods available for dandruff. The status of dandruff being amphibious - a disease/disorder, and relatively less medical intervention is sought after for the treatment, dandruff is the most commercially exploited skin and scalp disorder/disease by personal care industries.

  17. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billerbeck, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  18. Hopes for commercial use of MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is the study of the motion of fluids and gases in magnetic fields. After 25 years of theoretical and experimental work, it seems commercially promising for a new type of power station, where heat would be converted directly into electricity by generators without moving parts. Nuclear reactors would be well suited as the heat sources. At an Agency symposium in Warsaw in July it was felt that international cooperation is essential to develop the technique for industrial use. (author)

  19. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  20. The commercial prospects for tidal stream power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The prospects for obtaining energy from tidal currents were examined in 1993 when it was concluded that, although the UK resource is large, the unit cost of energy would be relatively high. Interest has continued, however, and in December 2000 the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU), on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), commissioned Binnie Black and Veatch (BBV) to re-examine these prospects from a commercial point of view. (author)

  1. Strawberry radurisation on a commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Venhage, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An international breakthrough was made at Pelindaba in 1981 when laboratory experiments were adjusted to accomodate commercial quantities of strawberries. Theory and practise of the radurisation of strawberries become compatible and led to the successful marketing of 1,6 million punnets of radurised strawberries during the period 1981 to 1984. Several benefits are derived from this technology, making the marketing and distribution of radurised strawberries an accepted and on-going process

  2. Marketing demand management in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has a marketing strategy for designing and implementing demand side management (DSM) programs, which marks a turnaround from previous years when marketing efforts were concentrated on selling electricity. Starting in the 1980s, marketing activities consisted, in effect, of coordinating relations between the customer, the market, and the utility. To achieve a better understanding of the needs of customers, the nature of the energy market, and the utilization of energy, the utility conducted research on the decision-making process associated with consumer choices of energy systems. To develop relations with its clientele in the commercial sector, the utility published an information bulletin and prepared an energy guide. Along with this initiative, the number of energy advisers to the commercial sector was increased in Ontario Hydro's regional offices. To improve understanding of each segment of the commercial market, the utility contacted organizations representing each segment as well as broader based organizations with the objective of creating opportunities to address this market, for example at conferences. Because of this philosophy of satisfying and understanding customer needs, Ontario Hydro has been in the process of commercializing demand-side management. Its high-efficiency lighting program is a good example in this regard. From a strategy which focused on a simple reduction in lighting in the 1970s, the utility has turned toward promoting efficient high-quality lighting which better responds to industry needs, to the point where industry itself has begun to promote the program. Such a strategy benefits industry, customers, and Ontario Hydro's demand-side management programs

  3. Laboratory evaluation of commercial interferon preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoub, B.D.; Lyons, S.F.; Crespi, M.; Chiu, M.-N.; Lomnitzer, R.

    1983-01-01

    The antiviral, antiproliferative and natural killer-cell (NKC) stimulatory activities of four commercial therapeutic interferon preparations were assayed in a laboratory. The antiviral and antiproliferative activities of each preparation were relatively similar, but an unexpectedly high NKC stimulatory activity was found in one of them. In-house determination of antiviral activity and evaluation of the antiproliferative and NKC stimulation potential of interferon preparations are essential before rational clinical trials of this agent are carried out

  4. Liquidity of Czech and Slovak commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Vodová

    2012-01-01

    As liquidity problems of some banks during global financial crisis re-emphasized, liquidity is very important for functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. The aim of this paper is therefore to evaluate comprehensively the liquidity positions of Czech and Slovak commercial banks via different liquidity ratios in the period of 2001–2010 and to find out whether the strategy for liquidity management differs by the size of the bank. We used unconsolidated balance sheet data over th...

  5. Quality Parameters for Commercial Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ioana Muresan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly has become a high-value commercial product and the standardization of this product is required to guarantee its quality on the market. The objective of the research activity was to pursue the chemical composition of commercial samples of Royal Jelly in Romania in order to propose standardization for this product. The physico-chemical composition of commercial Royal Jelly samples was analysed by determining quality parameters like: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA and mineral elements. Carbohydrates analysis showed values between 3.4 % and 5.87 % for fructose, 4.12 % and 7.05 % for glucose, while for sucrose the values ranged between 0.95 % and 2.56 % (determined by HPLC-RI. The lipids content ranged between 1.85 % and 6.32 % (determined by the Soxhlet method. The protein values extended from 13.10 % (RJ2 to 17.04 % (RJ10 (the total protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. The values for the major fatty acid in Royal Jelly, 10-HDA, ranged between 1.35 % (RJ8 and 2.03 % (RJ10 (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of minerals varied between 3188.70 mg/kg and 4023.39 mg/kg (the concentration of minerals was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Potassium, followed by magnesium, sodium and calcium, occurs in the highest concentrations. The commercial Royal Jelly samples analysed presented variable physico-chemical characteristics that correspond with the values given by international quality standard proposals for Royal Jelly.

  6. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  7. Increase of the density of commercial graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, H.; Meyerstein, D.

    1977-12-01

    The increase of the density of commercial graphite of the type ATJ by polymerization of an impregnated monomer, followed by pyrolysis, is described. The monomer which was either styrene or acrylonitrile, was irradiated by a 60 Co source and pyrolized in a standard vacuum system. The irradiation dose for the polymerization of the monomer was determined. Suggestions for the establishment of the optimum conditions are offered

  8. Technology for commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The scope of this report is limited to technology for management of past-fission wastes produced in the commercial nuclear power light water reactor fuel cycle. Management of spent fuel (as a waste), high-level and other transuranic wastes, and gaseous wastes are characterized. Non-transuranic wastes are described, but management of these wastes, except for gaseous wastes, is excluded from the scope of this report. Volume 1 contains the summary and the bases and background information

  9. Commercial and Industrial Cyber Espionage in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar Argaman; Gabi Siboni

    2014-01-01

    Cyberspace is especially suited to the theft of business information and to espionage. The accessibility of information, along with the ability to remain anonymous and cover one’s tracks, allows various entities to engage in the theft of valuable information, an act that can cause major damage. Israel, rich in advanced technology and a leader in innovation-based industries that rely on unique intellectual property, is a prime target for cyber theft and commercial cyber attacks. This article e...

  10. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  11. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunt, JJ; Wulms, PH; Kerkhoffs, GM; Dankelman, J; van Dijk, CN; Tuijthof, GJM

    2014-01-01

    Background Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these simulators can actually improve clinical performance on live patients. Therefore, the aim of this review is to determine the availability of different types of simulators and the evidence of their validation, to offer insight regarding which simulators are suitable to use in the clinical setting as a training modality. Summary Four hundred and thirty-three commercially available simulators were found, from which 405 (94%) were physical models. One hundred and thirty validation studies evaluated 35 (8%) commercially available medical simulators for levels of validity ranging from face to predictive validity. Solely simulators that are used for surgical skills training were validated for the highest validity level (predictive validity). Twenty-four (37%) simulators that give objective feedback had been validated. Studies that tested more powerful levels of validity (concurrent and predictive validity) were methodologically stronger than studies that tested more elementary levels of validity (face, content, and construct validity). Conclusion Ninety-three point five percent of the commercially available simulators are not known to be tested for validity. Although the importance of (a high level of) validation depends on the difficulty level of skills training and possible consequences when skills are insufficient, it is advisable for medical professionals, trainees, medical educators, and companies who manufacture medical simulators to critically judge the available medical simulators for proper validation. This way adequate, safe, and affordable medical psychomotor skills training can be achieved. PMID:25342926

  12. Superconducting poloidal coils for STARFIRE commercial reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Evans, K. Jr.; Turner, L.R.; Huang, Y.C.; Prater, R.; Alcorn, J.

    1979-01-01

    STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth commercial tokamak power plant. A preliminary design study on its superconducting poloidal coil system is presented. Key features of the design studies are: the elimination of the ohmic heating coil; the trade-off studies of the equilibrium field coil locations; and the development of a conceptual design for the superconducting equilibrium field coils. Described are the 100 kA cryostable conductor design, the coil structure, and evaluation of the coil forces

  13. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  14. Commercial radioactive waste disposal: marriage or divorce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the state (South Carolina) is doing a good job in regulating the South Carolina disposal facility of Chemo-Nuclear Inc., and that there is no need for the NRC to reassert Federal control. The efforts in developing a low-level site in New Mexico are described. The NRC Task Force report on Federal/state regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds is discussed

  15. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to market...

  16. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Succinic Acid: Technology Development and Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Succinic acid is a precursor of many important, large-volume industrial chemicals and consumer products. It was once common knowledge that many ruminant microorganisms accumulated succinic acid under anaerobic conditions. However, it was not until the discovery of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens at the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI, which was capable of producing succinic acid up to about 50 g/L under optimum conditions, that the commercial feasibility of producing the compound by biological processes was realized. Other microbial strains capable of producing succinic acid to high final concentrations subsequently were isolated and engineered, followed by development of fermentation processes for their uses. Processes for recovery and purification of succinic acid from fermentation broths were simultaneously established along with new applications of succinic acid, e.g., production of biodegradable deicing compounds and solvents. Several technologies for the fermentation-based production of succinic acid and the subsequent conversion to useful products are currently commercialized. This review gives a summary of the development of microbial strains, their fermentation, and the importance of the down-stream recovery and purification efforts to suit various applications in the context of their current commercialization status for biologically derived succinic acid.

  18. Commercialization of higher education: characteristics and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klyov

    2014-04-01

    Much attention is given to the variety of approaches to the study of higher education. Today, sociological discourses used to analyze modern innovation in the education sphere, such as multiculturalism, diversification, confessionalization, regionalization, cosmopolitan atmosphere in the modern world, including the global information technology to the higher education. In the course of innovation and modernization of higher education, commercialization becomes significantly prevalent a phenomenon and a social process of educational institutions, which requires considerable research. The review of the US and European models of higher education makes it possible to understand the essence of appearance in the literature of such concepts as «academic capitalism», «university of market­type» and «entrepreneurial University», analyze relation to the appearance of private education and income and define the priority of commercialization. Indisputably, with both positive and negative, as a result of the reform of higher education appeared the peculiar environment of business education, which requires the existence of new rules of interaction, status­role relationships, values and norms . In some extent, commercialization is a transformation of knowledge into a commodity (speaking in the context of consumer society; however, it is the growing influence of market relations on the purpose and objectives of higher education, the growth of the importance of knowledge as a resource for economic development that focuses on  the concept of an economy based on knowledge.

  19. Commercial Banks Performance 2008–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Vidzbelytė

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A country’s image, economic development process and GDP growth is significantly influenced by its banking sector performance. Banking’s success largely depends on public confidence. Only a small part of the banking services customers understand the indicators and ratios which are used to assess bank’s activities. Therefore, there is a need to analyze banks performance results in Lithuania. The paper presents a principal component analysis model applied on banks performance ratios in Lithuania. The main purpose of this article is to analyze basic indicators used in banks performance evaluation by principal component method. The obtained results represent the main components with the highest influence on Lithuanian commercial banks performance results in 2008–2012 year period. The main findings of the study indicate that commercial banks in Lithuania have been affected by different factors during 2008–2012 periods. It has been noted that Scandinavian capital commercial banks‘ performance results have been influenced by similar factors, have had similar structure of the factors, which has been more stable in comparison with small and/or Lithuanian capital banks. Conclusions and recommendations help banks’ board to improve their competitiveness and financial results, thus it also helps them to make appropriate decisions. It is also useful for an academic community to understand the structure of main components in banking sector.

  20. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied

  1. Building the Commercial Education Professional Competency Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Araya-Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete description of the Commercial Education Professional Competency Profile that resulted from the curricular diagnosis of the Licenciatura en Educación Comercial , at the Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.  The methodological strategy used relies on the principles of research on education. Upon expert validation, written questionnaires were applied to first-year students, students of the licenciatura, practicing professionals and employers. The objective was to describe a particular education situation. Data was analyzed according to two categories: intentions/principles and scope/development. The findings resulted in the characteristics of the Commercial Education professionals, i.e. characteristics related to the discipline, characteristics related to the administrative management of teaching, specific and general characteristics of education and pedagogy, and characteristics associated to human development. Based on those criteria, on the curricular requirements of the information sources and on the curricular perspectives of the Academic Unit, ideas were put into practice to build the competency profile. The ideas proposed comprise the curricular fundamentals of the educational project on which the profile is set out, which include the subject of the study program, the global competency or training goal, the generic competencies as cross-cutting approaches, as well as the –pedagogical and disciplinary− specific competencies. The specific competencies of the discipline are focused on four competency areas: document production, organizational support, technological resources and information management. (1 Translator’s Note: One-year post-Bachelor study program in Commercial Education.

  2. Commercializing ALURTRONs electron beam irradiation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Shari Jahar; Sarada Idris; Naurah Mohd Isa; Muhamad Zahidee Taat

    2010-01-01

    ALURTRON has been the nation's sole electron irradiation service provider for research sectors. The main irradiation is done by utilising the EPS 3000 Cockcroft-Walton type 3.0 MeV, 90 k Watts electron beam machine (EBM). With more than 15 years experience in the operation and maintenance of the EPS, the challenge is now to commercialize the service at a larger and profitable scale. Medical products sterilization at commercial level has been ruled out since the energy is insufficient to penetrate dense and non-homogenous items. Recently, the demand for irradiation of wire and heat shrinkable tubes is showing bigger commercial potential. Therefore, prudent planning considerations need to be taken to ensure profitable return to the agency. Calculations were made to estimate ALURTRON service capacity, based on the existing EBM and its auxiliary systems. Details of the calculation including all the variables are presented. Results indicated that Alurtron should be able to process a minimum of 1000 km of small wires per month, running at 150 m/ min, working in two shifts, 5 days a week. The projected revenue is dependent on the charges imposed on the basis of total length delivered. (author)

  3. Advances in commercial ICF technology since 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the march toward commercial ICF fusion reactors has been uneven in the past few years. Considerable advances have been made in the area of light ion beam fusion through the development of rep ratable drivers (i.e., HERMES-III technology) and diodes (i.e., applied B configuration with renewable Li surfaces). Significant progress in the development of lasers to compress targets has also been made through the KrF Aurura program. The possibility of lowering the cost of glass in the advanced solid state lasers has been given serious consideration. The development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique to improve the uniformity of the laser beam has allowed physicists and engineers to once again contemplate the use of symmetric illumination. This would reduce the driver energy required to achieve high gains but it also introduces difficulty in the reactor design. Relatively little progress in commercial heavy ion beam drivers has been made over the past few years aside from an indepth study (HIFSA) of the desirable operating regimes to be pursued. Other areas where little progress has been made are conceptual reactor studies, target declassification and specific experimental programs to address commercial ICF reactor technology needs

  4. Cost-estimating for commercial digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keif, Malcolm G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current cost-estimating practices used in commercial digital printing. A research study was conducted to determine the use of cost-estimating in commercial digital printing companies. This study answers the questions: 1) What methods are currently being used to estimate digital printing? 2) What is the relationship between estimating and pricing digital printing? 3) To what extent, if at all, do digital printers use full-absorption, all-inclusive hourly rates for estimating? Three different digital printing models were identified: 1) Traditional print providers, who supplement their offset presswork with digital printing for short-run color and versioned commercial print; 2) "Low-touch" print providers, who leverage the power of the Internet to streamline business transactions with digital storefronts; 3) Marketing solutions providers, who see printing less as a discrete manufacturing process and more as a component of a complete marketing campaign. Each model approaches estimating differently. Understanding and predicting costs can be extremely beneficial. Establishing a reliable system to estimate those costs can be somewhat challenging though. Unquestionably, cost-estimating digital printing will increase in relevance in the years ahead, as margins tighten and cost knowledge becomes increasingly more critical.

  5. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  6. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  7. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed

  8. Computer modeling of commercial refrigerated warehouse facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoulin, C.V.; Jacobs, P.C.; Tory, S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of computer models to simulate the energy performance of large commercial refrigeration systems typically found in food processing facilities is an area of engineering practice that has seen little development to date. Current techniques employed in predicting energy consumption by such systems have focused on temperature bin methods of analysis. Existing simulation tools such as DOE2 are designed to model commercial buildings and grocery store refrigeration systems. The HVAC and Refrigeration system performance models in these simulations tools model equipment common to commercial buildings and groceries, and respond to energy-efficiency measures likely to be applied to these building types. The applicability of traditional building energy simulation tools to model refrigerated warehouse performance and analyze energy-saving options is limited. The paper will present the results of modeling work undertaken to evaluate energy savings resulting from incentives offered by a California utility to its Refrigerated Warehouse Program participants. The TRNSYS general-purpose transient simulation model was used to predict facility performance and estimate program savings. Custom TRNSYS components were developed to address modeling issues specific to refrigerated warehouse systems, including warehouse loading door infiltration calculations, an evaporator model, single-state and multi-stage compressor models, evaporative condenser models, and defrost energy requirements. The main focus of the paper will be on the modeling approach. The results from the computer simulations, along with overall program impact evaluation results, will also be presented

  9. Commercial Decommissioning at DOE's Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiboth, C.; Sandlin, N.; Schubert, A.; Hansen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Due in large part to the number of nuclear facilities that make up the DOE complex, DOE-EM work has historically been paperwork intensive and driven by extensive regulations. Requirements for non-nuclear facilities are often grouped with those of nuclear facilities, driving up costs. Kaiser-Hill was interested in applying a commercial model to demolition of these facilities and wanted to apply necessary and sufficient standards to the work activities, but avoid applying unnecessary requirements. Faced with demolishing hundreds of uncontaminated or non-radiologically contaminated facilities, Kaiser-Hill has developed a subcontracting strategy to drastically reduce the cost of demolishing these facilities at Rocky Flats. Aiming to tailor the demolition approach of such facilities to more closely follow commercial practices, Kaiser-Hill recently released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the demolition of the site's former central administration facility. The RFP significantly reduced requirements for compliance with specific DOE directives. Instead, the RFP required subcontractors to comply with health and safety requirements commonly found in the demolition of similar facilities in a commercial setting. This resulted in a number of bids from companies who have normally not bid on DOE work previously and at a reduced cost over previous approaches. This paper will discuss the details of this subcontracting strategy

  10. Haphazard commercialization: a potential threat to sustainable commercial development in metropolitan cities? The case of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, O.; Hameed, R.

    2005-01-01

    The demand of urban space for commercial development due to unprecedented population growth has surpassed the planned supply delivered by planning agencies in metropolitan cities of Pakistan. As a corollary to that, conversion of residential land use into various types of commercial activities has sprung up particularly along major roads of planned residential areas and arterial roads of cities. These conversions have proceeded, both with and without official consent, largely in a haphazard manner without following a coherent strategy. This has resulted in acute parking problems, reduction in traffic capacity of roads and resultant increase in congestion, energy use, air and noise pollution, and burden on utility services. Permitting conversion of land use in a haphazard manner seems not only a departure from planning principles but also jeopardizing the spatial structure of cities causing serious environmental repercussions. This paper presents evidence to the above observations through a detailed study of the environmental impact of commercial development in Lahore. The study is based on detailed land use, socio-economic, traffic, and parking surveys in carefully selected sample of three major housing schemes variously located in Lahore. The paper argues that weak development control, out-dated master plan, and inappropriate commercialization policies of the Government have lead to unsustainable pattern of commercial development even in planned residential areas. The findings of the study call for formulation of environmentally friendly commercialization policy. This will also involve redefining basic land use allocation standards and improvements in the design considerations so as to promote sustainable development of commercial areas in metropolitan cities. (author)

  11. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  12. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989

  13. Environmental development plan. LWR commercial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and managerial requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health and safety (EH and S) aspects of the Commercial Waste Management Program (CWM). Environment is defined in its broadest sense to include environmental, health (occupational and public), safety, socioeconomic, legal and institutional aspects. This plan addresses certain present and potential Federal responsibilities for the storage, treatment, transfer and disposal of radioactive waste materials produced by the nuclear power industry. The handling and disposal of LWR spent fuel and processed high-level waste (in the event reprocessing occurs) are included in this plan. Defense waste management activities, which are addressed in detail in a separate EDP, are considered only to the extent that such activities are common to the commercial waste management program. This EDP addresses three principal elements associated with the disposal of radioactive waste materials from the commercial nuclear power industry, namely Terminal Isolation Research and Development, Spent Fuel Storage and Waste Treatment Technology. The major specific concerns and requirements addressed are assurance that (1) radioactivity will be contained during waste transport, interim storage or while the waste is considered as retrievable from a repository facility, (2) the interim storage facilities will adequately isolate the radioactive material from the biosphere, (3) the terminal isolation facility will isolate the wastes from the biosphere over a time period allowing the radioactivity to decay to innocuous levels, (4) the terminal isolation mode for the waste will abbreviate the need for surveillance and institutional control by future generations, and (5) the public will accept the basic waste management strategy and geographical sites when needed

  14. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  15. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc.) With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving). Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines. PMID:15841264

  16. Commercial Optics for Space Surveillance and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Kopit, E.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    Since the first days of the space program, there have been both amateur and government satellite watchers. Large, expensive government systems with custom optics are still the most capable, but with modern sensors and high speed computers, amateur trackers are easily pushing the limits of what government systems achieved only a decade ago. A very recent trend in the space world is the emergence of commercial space operations centers. Once the exclusive purview of governments, corporations are now providing orbital environment awareness services to the operators of commercial satellites. The requirement for synoptic satellite observations has led to corporations developing world-wide observing networks. A problem facing both amateur and corporate observers is the limited availability of suitable optical systems. Most observing efforts rely on long focus (f/8 or greater) optical systems with focal reducers, and a somewhat limited field of view. Often, the cameras in use are not ideally matched to the optical system. While there are a few exceptions, the choices are not many. Celestron recently introduced the C-11 RASA optical system, with an 11-inch aperture and an f/2.2 focal ratio. This optical system is designed for dedicated imaging and is ideally suited for both wide-field astronomy and the detection and tracking of satellites. The larger C-14 RASA, to be introduced later this year, was specifically designed for wide-field imaging with large commercial CCDs. It offers greater sensitivity and a wider field of view than the smaller C-11 RASA and should prove to be the instrument of choice for both amateur and corporate satellite observers. We present data from satellite observations with a production model C-11 RASA and estimated performance for the new C-14 RASA.

  17. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  18. Technology Transfer and Commercialization Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelle R. Blacker

    2008-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) multi-program national laboratory that conducts research and development in all DOE mission areas. Like all other federal laboratories, INL has a statutory, technology transfer mission to make its capabilities and technologies available to all federal agencies, to state and local governments, and to universities and industry. To fulfill this mission, INL encourages its scientific, engineering, and technical staff to disclose new inventions and creations to ensure the resulting intellectual property is captured, protected, and made available to others who might benefit from it. As part of the mission, intellectual property is licensed to industrial partners for commercialization, creating jobs and delivering the benefits of federally funded technology to consumers. In other cases, unique capabilities are made available to other federal agencies or to regional small businesses to solve specific technical challenges. In other interactions, INL employees work cooperatively with researchers and other technical staff of our partners to further develop emerging technologies. This report is a catalog of selected INL technology transfer and commercialization transactions during this past year. The size and diversity of INL technical resources, coupled with the large number of relationships with other organizations, virtually ensures that a report of this nature will fail to capture all interactions. Recognizing this limitation, this report focuses on transactions that are specifically authorized by technology transfer legislation (and corresponding contractual provisions) or involve the transfer of legal rights to technology to other parties. This report was compiled from primary records, which were readily available to the INL’s Office of Technology Transfer & Commercialization. The accomplishments cataloged in the report, however, reflect the achievements and creativity of the highly skilled researchers

  19. Transition of Japanese commercial space: What has been lost from the commercial space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujioka Tatsuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the types of two commercial spaces in modern Japan, shopping mall and “traditional” shopping district called Shotengai, from the viewpoint of commercial space as the third space in the city. Particularly in the discourse of commercial spaces in Japan, "shopping district" has been portrayed tied to nostalgia. Therefore, the transition of commercial space is always accompanied by a discourse of the" Lost." However, there is no unified opinion about what's been lost in the process of this transition in fact. In this paper, we extract the social category by considering focus on discourse for both places. As a specific object I use to target the research papers and journal articles in Japan. Because these documents are discussed by distinct main thesis and based on specific data, I adopt these materials. After extraction of social category, through the comparison of the two discourses, I reveal what kind of nature is the "Lost" at the commercial spaces as the third place in the city. I also discuss how this change is related the changes in Japanese social relationship and community.

  20. Characterization of commercial MOSFETS electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, M. A.; Simancas, F.; Guirado, D.; Banqueri, J.; Vilches, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been commercial dosimetry devices based on transistors Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOSFET) having a number of advantages over traditional systems for dosimetry in medical applications. These include the portability of the sensor element and a reading process quick and relatively simple dose, linearity, and so on. The use of electron beams is important in modern radiotherapy include its use in intra-operative radiotherapy (RIO). This paper presents an initial characterization of different business models MOSFET, not specific for radiation detection, to demonstrate their potential as sensors for electron beam dosimetry. (Author)

  1. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stunt JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available JJ Stunt,1 PH Wulms,2 GM Kerkhoffs,1 J Dankelman,2 CN van Dijk,1 GJM Tuijthof1,2 1Orthopedic Research Center Amsterdam, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Materials and Maritime Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands Background: Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these simulators can actually improve clinical performance on live patients. Therefore, the aim of this review is to determine the availability of different types of simulators and the evidence of their validation, to offer insight regarding which simulators are suitable to use in the clinical setting as a training modality. Summary: Four hundred and thirty-three commercially available simulators were found, from which 405 (94% were physical models. One hundred and thirty validation studies evaluated 35 (8% commercially available medical simulators for levels of validity ranging from face to predictive validity. Solely simulators that are used for surgical skills training were validated for the highest validity level (predictive validity. Twenty-four (37% simulators that give objective feedback had been validated. Studies that tested more powerful levels of validity (concurrent and predictive validity were methodologically stronger than studies that tested more elementary levels of validity (face, content, and construct validity. Conclusion: Ninety-three point five percent of the commercially available simulators are not known to be tested for validity. Although the importance of (a high level of validation depends on the difficulty level of skills training and possible consequences when skills are

  2. The commercial role for centrifuge enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readle, P.H.; Wilcox, P.

    1987-01-01

    The enrichment market is extremely competitive and capacity greatly exceeds demand. BNFL [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.] is in a unique position in having commercial experience of the two enrichment technologies currently used industrially: diffusion, and centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition, BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme. The paper describes the enrichment market, briefly discusses the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment and concludes that the gas centrifuge will be best able to respond to market needs for at least the remainder of the century. (author)

  3. Commercial strategy for a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes, Luis Augusto

    1997-01-01

    Coming years will not be easy for the world oil market. Colombia knows this and is preparing to face a surplus of light crude when large volumes of Cusiana production are available for export, particularly in 1998 and 1999. Ecopetrol considers this out look will give rise to a very competitive setting for Cusiana crude. It advises committing this crude as of now with an important refining group for whom petroleum is essential for their refinery diet. On the foreign scene, Ecopetrol's commercial policy is to sell petroleum by-products, as well as import shortfalls in motor fuel. Domestic policy is directed at making the natural gas market a reality

  4. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  5. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise

  6. Residential/commercial market for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M M

    1979-08-01

    The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.

  7. Perovskite Solar Cells—Towards Commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Luis K.; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhu, Kai; Huang, Wei; Qi, Yabing

    2017-01-01

    The Symposium ES1, Perovskite Solar Cells - Towards Commercialization, held at the 2017 Materials Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona (April 17-21, 2017) received ~200 abstracts. The 23 invited talks and 72 contributed oral presentations as well as 3 poster presentation sessions were organized into 13 principal themes according to the contents of the received abstracts. This Energy Focus article provides a concise summary of the opinions from the scientists and engineers who participated in this symposium regarding the recent progresses, challenges, and future directions for perovskite solar cells as well as other optoelectronic devices.

  8. Prospective needs for decommissioning commercial nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Yasui, M.; Laraia, M.

    1992-01-01

    The answers to the questions: How many reactors will face the end of their operating lifetime over the next few decades? To what extent are the issues of decommissioning urgent? The answers will lead us to those issues that should be tackled now in order to complete smoothly the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The prospective needs for decommissioning of nuclear power plants are illustrated from the viewpoint of reactor age, and some of the issues to be tackled, in particular by governments, in this century are discussed, to prepare for the future decommissioning activities. (author) 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Licensing operators for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The human element in the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is of utmost importance. Not only must the operators be technically competent in the execution of numerous complicated tasks, they must be capable of working together as a team to diagnose dynamic plant conditions to ensure that their plants are operated safely. The significance of human interaction skills and crew communications has been demonstrated most vividly in TMI and Chernobyl. It follows that the NRC must retain its high standards for licensing operators. This paper discusses activities and initiatives being employed by the NRC to enhance the reliability of its licensing examinations, and to build a highly qualified examiner work force

  10. Commercial cinema: a medium for development communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, J; Smith, S

    1985-01-01

    Worldview International Foundation, an international voluntary organization whose activities focus on practical participation in the information process, established a media center in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 1982 in an effort to use the film media to disseminate development messages. Initially, WIF worked with the Ministry of Education (MOE) to promote literacy. Using the social marketing approach to promote a development theme, the producers were able to plug into a commercially successful network that assured them of reaching a large, attentive audience for a very low cost. An estimated 8 million Bangladeshis have seen this literacy film in cinema halls, mobile film projection vans, and on television. Project evaluation showed that 95% of the surveyed audience enjoyed the film and understood the intended message. The film was so popular that it was submitted as the Bangladesh entry at an international film festival in Moscow. WIF's next project was the production of another film, this time for the Social Marketing Project -- an Agency for International Development (AID) funded family planning cimmunication project. This time a family planning theme was the social development message. The script was developed from research conducted by Manoff International, Inc., an American social marketing agency who worked closely with MRCB, a Bangladeshi market research agency. They identified the target audiences and the constraints against using contraceptive methods in Bangladesh. Then messages were designed to address these issues. A love story entitled "Together" was developed. The social message revolves around a newlywed couple; both are hesitant to immediately start a family, but neither feels comfortable discussing his/her feelings on the subject with the other because of strong cultural taboos against such a delay. As the story develops, the barriers are surmounted, and this "model couple" begins to discuss the issue -- using singing and dancing to express their

  11. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  12. Decommissioning project of commercial nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karigome, S.

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning project of commercial nuclear power plant in Japan was outlined. It is expected that the land, after the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants, will serve as sites for new plants. Steps will be taken to reduce the amount of wastes generated and to recycle/reuse them. Wastes with a radioactivity concentration below the 'clearance level' need not be dealt with as radioactive material, and may be handled in the same way as conventional wastes. The Tokai-1 power station, a 166 MWe carbon dioxide cooled reactor which closed down in 1998, is being decommissioned and the first ten years as 'safe storage' to allow radioactivity to decay. Non-reactor grade components such as turbines were already removed, heat exchanger dismantling started and the reactor will be dismantled, the buildings demolished and the site left ready for reuse. All radioactive wastes will be classified as low-level wastes in three categories and will be buried under the ground. The total cost will be 88.5 billion yen -34.7 billion for dismantling and 53.8 billion for waste treatment including the graphite moderator. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Outpatient provider concentration and commercial colonoscopy prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozen, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the magnitude of various contributors to outpatient commercial colonoscopy prices, including market- and provider-level factors, especially market share. We used adjudicated fee-for-service facility claims from a large commercial insurer for colonoscopies occurring in hospital outpatient department or ambulatory surgery center from October 2005 to December 2012. Claims were matched to provider- and market-level data. Linear fixed effects regressions of negotiated colonoscopy price were run on provider, system, and market characteristics. Markets were defined as counties. There were 178,433 claims from 169 providers (104 systems). The mean system market share was 76% (SD = 0.34) and the mean real (deflated) price was US$1363 (SD = 374), ranging from US$169 to US$2748. For every percentage point increase in a system or individual facility's bed share, relative price increased by 2 to 4 percentage points; this result was stable across a number of specifications. Market population and price were also consistently positively related, though this relation was small in magnitude. No other factor explained price as strongly as market share. Price variation for colonoscopy was driven primarily by market share, of particular concern as the number of mergers increases in wake of the recession and the Affordable Care Act. Whether variation is justified by better quality care requires further research to determine whether quality is subsumed in prices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Analysis of commercial and public bioactivity databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkainen, Pekka; Franke, Lutz

    2012-02-27

    Activity data for small molecules are invaluable in chemoinformatics. Various bioactivity databases exist containing detailed information of target proteins and quantitative binding data for small molecules extracted from journals and patents. In the current work, we have merged several public and commercial bioactivity databases into one bioactivity metabase. The molecular presentation, target information, and activity data of the vendor databases were standardized. The main motivation of the work was to create a single relational database which allows fast and simple data retrieval by in-house scientists. Second, we wanted to know the amount of overlap between databases by commercial and public vendors to see whether the former contain data complementing the latter. Third, we quantified the degree of inconsistency between data sources by comparing data points derived from the same scientific article cited by more than one vendor. We found that each data source contains unique data which is due to different scientific articles cited by the vendors. When comparing data derived from the same article we found that inconsistencies between the vendors are common. In conclusion, using databases of different vendors is still useful since the data overlap is not complete. It should be noted that this can be partially explained by the inconsistencies and errors in the source data.

  15. Microplastics in commercial bivalves from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiana; Yang, Dongqi; Li, Lan; Jabeen, Khalida; Shi, Huahong

    2015-12-01

    We investigated microplastic pollution in 9 commercial bivalves from a fishery market in China. Multiple types of microplastics, including fibers, fragments and pellets, occurred in the tissue of all bivalves. The number of total microplastics varied from 2.1 to 10.5 items/g and from 4.3 to 57.2 items/individual for bivalves. Scapharca subcrenata contained on average 10.5 items/g and exhibited the highest levels of microplastics by weight. Fibers were the most common microplastics and consisted of more than half of the total microplastics in each of the 8 species. In Alectryonella plicatula, pellets accounted for 60% of the total microplastics. The most common size class was less than 250 μm and accounted for 33-84% of the total microplastics calculated by species. Our results suggest that microplastic pollution was widespread and exhibited a relatively high level in commercial bivalves from China. More intensive investigations on microplastics should be conducted in seafood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  17. COMMERCIAL BABY PORRIDGES IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of the most important product among additional food for infants — baby porridges. It includes historical data on usage of various cereal crops in human nutrition. A special significance of porridges in culture of food and traditions of Russian population is highlighted. The authors give information about nutritional value and chemical composition of different cereals — buckwheat, rice, pearl-barley, millet, oats etc. A special attention is given to differences in concentrations of nutrients and micronutrients manufactured by different ways from the same kind of cereal. The necessity to feed infants with commercial baby porridges is based in the article. There are also represented characteristics of various commercial porridges for nutrition of infants: hypoallergenic, glutenfree and containing gluten, enriched with pre- and probiotics. The article also contains data on nutritional value of milk and milk-free porridges. The authors raised a discussion on possibility and standards of usage of different additional components, such as sugar, maltodextrin, honey, vanillin, vegetable oils in production of infant porridges. The selection of certain type of porridges as additional food for healthy and infants with different diseases and digestive disorders is based.

  18. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  19. Food-poisoning and commercial air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, R; Edwards, P J; Kelly, M J; Millar, B C; Rooney, P J; Moore, J E

    2007-09-01

    With the introduction of budget airlines and greater competitiveness amongst all airlines, air travel has now become an extremely popular form of travel, presenting its own unique set of risks from food poisoning. Foodborne illness associated with air travel is quite uncommon in the modern era. However, when it occurs, it may have serious implications for passengers and when crew are affected, has the potential to threaten safety. Quality, safe, in-flight catering relies on high standards of food preparation and storage; this applies at the airport kitchens (or at subcontractors' facilities), on the aircraft and in the transportation vehicles which carry the food from the ground source to the aircraft. This is especially challenging in certain countries. Several foodborne outbreaks have been recorded by the airline industry as a result of a number of different failures of these systems. These have provided an opportunity to learn from past mistakes and current practice has, therefore, reached such a standard so as to minimise risk of failures of this kind. This review examines: (i) the origin of food safety in modern commercial aviation; (ii) outbreaks which have occurred previously relating to aviation travel; (iii) the microbiological quality of food and water on board commercial aircraft; and (iv) how Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points may be employed to maintain food safety in aviation travel.

  20. The commercial implications of the EELV program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    There have been several studies over the past 15 years intended to define and develop a space launch system that would meet future needs of the United States Government (USG). While these past studies (Advanced Launch System, National Launch System, Spacelifter, etc) yielded valuable data, none were carried to fruition. Overriding issues included high development cost, changing requirements, and uncertainty in the mission model, as well lack of a clear direction for where this nation should be headed. In 1995, the Air Force embarked on the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program as a way of defining and developing the next-generation expendable launch system. This time groundrules for this effort were clearly defined-the program relied on the use of evolving a system rather than developing a high-technology solution to reduce development cost, and the commercial market was factored in as a way of reducing cost to the USG. The EELV program is nearing the engineering manufacturing development (EMD) phase by mid-1998 with first flight planned for early 2001. This paper describes the planned Lockheed Martin EELV program and its ability to utilize the commercial market to benefit the USG in its need to develop the next-generation expendable launch vehicle.

  1. Crystalline silicotitanates -- novel commercial cesium ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na + . The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. These CST properties made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia and UOP, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), developed CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by Sandia and Texas A ampersand M consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications such as batch waste processing. Data are also presented confirming the excellent stability of the commercial CSTs over a broad pH range and the high radiation stability of the exchangers. In addition, data are provided that demonstrate the high physical strength and attrition resistance of IONSIV reg-sign IE-911, critical properties for column ion exchange applications

  2. Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10 15 parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. 76 FR 82031 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Risk Management Working Group Teleconference...

  4. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  5. 78 FR 14401 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  6. 77 FR 35102 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  7. Examining the social media in marketing success of the commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the social media in marketing success of the commercial companies. ... media, reality analysis and social media's direct impact on the marketing of commercial companies. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Military Dependence on Commercial Satellite Communications Systems - Strength or Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hook, Jack

    1999-01-01

    The military's growing dependence on commercial satellite communications systems will become a strength or vulnerability based on how well the right balance is achieved between commercial and military systems...

  9. NREL Analysis Identifies Where Commercial Customers Might Benefit from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Energy Storage | NREL | News | NREL NREL Analysis Identifies Where Commercial Customers Customers Might Benefit from Battery Energy Storage August 24, 2017 After upfront costs, batteries may reduce operating costs for customers paying demand charges Commercial electricity customers who are

  10. A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in South Africa. ... Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or ... This paper investigates the performance of South Africa's commercial banking sector for the period 2005- 2009.

  11. The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Network program, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and : Networks (CVISN) program supports that safety : mission by providing grant funds to States for: : Improving safety and productivity of motor : carriers, commercial motor vehicles : (CMVs), and thei...

  12. Transit-oriented development & commercial gentrification : exploring the linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As central cities in California continue their renaissance, commercial gentrification is often identified by residents as a concern. For many, commercial gentrification means the intrusion of new businesses that force out a favorite food shop or a lo...

  13. Commercial Space Port Planning in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.; Looke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Legislature is providing funding to support research and planning activities aimed at creating a commercial spaceport in the state. These monies have been allocated to regional Spaceport Development Corporations that have been established in three countries containing candidate site locations: Willacy County (in South Texas); Brazoria County (East Texas); and Pecos County (West Texas). This program is being sponsored and coordinated by the Texas Aerospace Commission (TAC). The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) at the University of Houston is providing research, planning and design support to TAC and is a member of each of the three regional development teams. Planning must carefully consider special support requirements and operational characteristics of all prospective launch systems along with geographic, infrastructure and environmental factors at each site. Two of the candidate sites are in coastal areas; a priority for certain launch service providers; whereas the third inland site is more attractive to others. Candidate launch systems include winged horizontal takeoff air-launch vehicles, vertical multi-stage reusable launch vehicles, and expendable sub-orbital surrounding rockets. Important research and planning activities include environmental impact assessments, analyses of overflight hazards, investigations of economic impacts and business plan development. The results of these activities will guide master plan development for each site, including: a physical plan (site layout, infrastructure improvements and facility construction); and a strategic plan (user agreements, licenses, finance sources and participants). Commercial spaceport development demands compliance with stringent FAA regulations established by the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) which exceed minimum standards allowed for U.S. Government spaceport facilities. Key among these requirements are 15,000 ft. radius on-site clear zones

  14. How commercial and non-commercial swine producers move pigs in Scotland: a detailed descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-06-25

    The impact of non-commercial producers on disease spread via livestock movement is related to their level of interaction with other commercial actors within the industry. Although understanding these relationships is crucial in order to identify likely routes of disease incursion and transmission prior to disease detection, there has been little research in this area due to the difficulties of capturing movements of small producers with sufficient resolution. Here, we used the Scottish Livestock Electronic Identification and Traceability (ScotEID) database to describe the movement patterns of different pig production systems which may affect the risk of disease spread within the swine industry. In particular, we focused on the role of small pig producers. Between January 2012 and May 2013, 23,169 batches of pigs were recorded moving animals between 2382 known unique premises. Although the majority of movements (61%) were to a slaughterhouse, the non-commercial and the commercial sectors of the Scottish swine industry coexist, with on- and off-movement of animals occurring relatively frequently. For instance, 13% and 4% of non-slaughter movements from professional producers were sent to a non-assured commercial producer or to a small producer, respectively; whereas 43% and 22% of movements from non-assured commercial farms were sent to a professional or a small producer, respectively. We further identified differences between producer types in several animal movement characteristics which are known to increase the risk of disease spread. Particularly, the distance travelled and the use of haulage were found to be significantly different between producers. These results showed that commercial producers are not isolated from the non-commercial sector of the Scottish swine industry and may frequently interact, either directly or indirectly. The observed patterns in the frequency of movements, the type of producers involved, the distance travelled and the use of haulage

  15. Production of smectite organophylic clays from three commercial sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela Diaz, Francisco R.; Souza Santos, Persio de

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory cationic exchange procedures using Brazilian's commercial quaternary ammonium salt and three samples of commercial sodium bentonites (two Brazilian's and one from Wyoming (US) are described. Swelling values in some liquid organic media are shown for the organophilic clays and for a Brazilian's commercial organophilic clay. Organophilic clays with larger swelling values than the commercial organophilic clay in kerosene, Varsol, toluene and soya bean oil were obtained. (author)

  16. An analysis of military use of commercial satellite communications

    OpenAIRE

    Forest, Benjamin D.

    2008-01-01

    commercial SATCOM, evaluates current predictions for military use of commercial SATCOM, and describes measures of effectiveness that can be used to evaluate the various SATCOM options. In culmination, this thesis defines what constitutes an appropriate balance of military and commercial SATCOM usage using cost, technical, and policy compliance measures of effectiveness. The measures of effectiveness lead to a recommendation of a more deliberate, less ad hoc use of commercial SATCOM for the va...

  17. Seeing through the Glitz: Commercial Literacy for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Kathryn Oliver

    Television advertising aimed at children is explored, including its regulation, techniques, and research on its effects. Particular attention is given to sexual stereotypes in commercials, including an analysis of certain commercials. A commercial literacy unit is presented for use with fourth graders. The history of advertising targeted at…

  18. A Study on the Revitalizing of technology commercialization in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. I.; Jang, S. K.; Hong, G. P.; Lee, E. S.

    2009-02-01

    The TEC training program should be implemented for researches who want to commercialize their own technologies. To build creative organization culture is essential for technology commercialization. Collaboration strategy is related to analyze how KAERI is catching up their technological capabilities in nuclear technology, and what the success factors of KAERI in technology commercialization are.

  19. 27 CFR 70.65 - Use of commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of commercial banks... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Receipt of Payment § 70.65 Use of commercial banks. For provisions relating to the use of commercial banks and electronic fund transfer of taxpayment to the Treasury Account...

  20. 12 CFR 34.24 - Nonfederally chartered commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfederally chartered commercial banks. 34.24... LENDING AND APPRAISALS Adjustable-Rate Mortgages § 34.24 Nonfederally chartered commercial banks. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 3803(a), a State chartered commercial bank may make ARM loans in accordance with the...

  1. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Interpretations § 535.440 Commercially reasonable interest rates. (a) For purposes of §§ 535.212 and 535.213, what... transferred as, or as part of, the interest at “commercially reasonable rates” required to be transferred... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercially reasonable interest...

  2. 41 CFR 101-29.213 - Commercial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial product. 101... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 29-FEDERAL PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.213 Commercial product. A commercial product is any item, component, or...

  3. 41 CFR 101-29.214 - Commercial-type product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial-type product... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 29-FEDERAL PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.214 Commercial-type product. A commercial-type product is defined as: (a...

  4. Commercial Diplomats as corporate entrepreneurs: an institutional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles and activities of commercial diplomats in explaining the effectiveness of commercial diplomacy and international business support.

  5. 77 FR 62248 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0936] Commercial Fishing Safety.... SUMMARY: The Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to safety in the commercial fishing industry. This meeting will be open to the...

  6. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... APHIS-2006-0168] RIN 0579-AC49 Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the commercial transportation of equines to slaughter to add a definition of equine for slaughter... of equines in commercial transportation to slaughter are met. DATES: Effective Date: October 7, 2011...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2832 - U.S. Commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Commercial. 51.2832 Section 51.2832 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing.... Commercial. U.S. Commercial consists of onions which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements...

  8. 36 CFR 264.3 - Licensing for commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing for commercial use... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Official Forest Service Insignia § 264.3 Licensing for commercial use. (a) Each commercial license granted for the use of the insignia or likeness thereof shall contain the following terms...

  9. 48 CFR 53.212 - Acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of commercial... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.212 Acquisition of commercial items. SF 1449 (Rev. 3/2005), Solicitation/Contract/Order for Commercial Items. SF 1449 is prescribed for use in...

  10. 78 FR 44958 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0625] Commercial Fishing Safety.... SUMMARY: The Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to safety in the commercial fishing industry. This meeting will be open to the...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2278 - U.S. Commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Commercial. 51.2278 Section 51.2278 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Grades § 51.2278 U.S. Commercial. “U.S. Commercial...

  12. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore. ...

  13. 75 FR 71717 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Commercial Invoice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Activities: Commercial Invoice AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Commercial Invoice. This is a.... Title: Commercial Invoice. OMB Number: 1651-0090. Form Number: None. Abstract: The collection of the...

  14. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331, Washington, DC 20591, telephone.... Nield, Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation. [FR Doc. 2011-8534 Filed 4-8-11; 8...

  15. 76 FR 8372 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-0070] Commercial Fishing Safety... Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Portsmouth, Virginia to discuss various issues relating to safety in the commercial fishing industry. This meeting will be open to the public...

  16. 48 CFR 52.212-2 - Evaluation-Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation-Commercial....212-2 Evaluation—Commercial Items. As prescribed in 12.301(c), the Contracting Officer may insert a provision substantially as follows: Evaluation—Commercial Items (JAN 1999) (a) The Government will award a...

  17. 48 CFR 46.202-1 - Contracts for commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts for commercial... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-1 Contracts for commercial items. When acquiring commercial items (see part 12), the Government shall rely on contractors' existing...

  18. 48 CFR 46.709 - Warranties of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranties of commercial... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.709 Warranties of commercial items. The contracting officer should take advantage of commercial warranties, including extended warranties, where appropriate...

  19. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-28480] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current regulations. FMCSA reviewed NAAA's application for... demonstrate alternatives its members would employ to ensure that their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers...

  20. 75 FR 57480 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Commercial Invoice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Activities: Commercial Invoice AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Commercial Invoice. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the...: Title: Commercial Invoice. OMB Number: 1651-0090. Form Number: None. Abstract: The collection of the...