Sample records for commercial hsa solutions

  1. Facile, sensitive and selective fluorescence turn-on detection of HSA/BSA in aqueous solution utilizing 2,4-dihydroxyl-3-iodo salicylaldehyde azine. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-tong; Xiang, Yu; Tong, Ai-jun


    A novel fluorescence turn-on detection method of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution is investigated using 2,4-dihydroxyl-3-iodo salicylaldehyde azine (DISA). Upon the addition of DISA to HSA/BSA solution, a fluorescence turn-on effect at 529 nm can be observed with a large stokes shift of approximately 129 nm based on hydrophobic binding-mode between protein and dye. Under the optimal condition, the linear ranges of fluorescence intensity for HSA and BSA are 0.1-30 microg mL(-1) with the relative correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.991 (n=10) and 0.3-50 microg mL(-1) with R(2)=0.997 (n=10); and the detection limits for HSA and BSA based on IUPAC (C(DL)=3S(b)/m) are 20 ng mL(-1) and 50 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Commercial Lighting Solutions, Webtool Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Carol C.; Meyer, Tracy A.


    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the beta version of the CLS webtool, which contains retail box lighting solutions. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed about which feedback should be addressed for the release of version 1.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in New York City in May 2009. Due to the volume of data (~500 comments) the methodology for addressing the peer review comments was central to the success of the ultimate goal of improving the tool. The comments were first imported into a master spreadsheet, and then grouped and organized in several layers. Solutions to each comment were then rated by importance and feasibility to determine the practicality of resolving the concerns of the commenter in the short-term or long-term. The rating system was used as an analytical tool, but the results were viewed thoughtfully to ensure that they were not the sole the factor in determining which comments were recommended for near-term resolution. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 1.0 as well as appendices containing the short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 1.0 are listed as

  3. Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.


    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  4. Use of commercially available oral rehydration solutions in Lima, Peru. (United States)

    Pantenburg, Birte; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ecker, Lucie; Ruiz, Joaquim


    Caregivers' practices concerning oral rehydration of young children during diarrheal illness were investigated in a periurban community of low socioeconomic level in Lima, Peru. Data of 330 caregivers of children aged 6-36 months were analyzed; 72.7% of all caregivers would give commercially available oral rehydration solutions (ORSs). However, only 58.6% of those caregivers with children that had experienced diarrhea during the previous week stated that they had used commercially available ORSs, a significantly lower percentage. The main reason for not using commercially available ORSs was that caregivers did not know about them. Of all recipes caregivers provided for homemade ORS, none contained the recommended concentrations of sugar and salt. Educating caregivers about availability, benefits, and use of commercially available ORSs as well as correct preparation of homemade ORS is urgently needed.

  5. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

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    Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and São Paulo. Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v, pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. RESULTS: When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v to 0.16% (m/v. One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. CONCLUSION: 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence.

  6. Preparation, characterisation and maintenance of drug efficacy of doxorubicin-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles. (United States)

    Dreis, S; Rothweiler, F; Michaelis, M; Cinatl, J; Kreuter, J; Langer, K


    Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles represent promising drug carrier systems. Binding of cytostatics to HSA nanoparticles may diminish their toxicity, optimise their body distribution and/or may overcome multidrug resistance. In the present study, doxorubicin-loaded HSA nanoparticle preparations were prepared. Doxorubicin was loaded to the HSA nanoparticles either by adsorption to the nanoparticles' surfaces or by incorporation into the particle matrix. Both loading strategies resulted in HSA nanoparticles of a size range between 150nm and 500nm with a loading efficiency of 70-95%. The influence on cell viability of the resulting nanoparticles was investigated in two different neuroblastoma cell lines. The anti-cancer effects of the drug-loaded nanoparticles were increased in comparison to doxorubicin solution. Based on these result a standard protocol for the preparation of doxorubicin-loaded HSA nanoparticles for further antitumoural studies was established.

  7. Effect of pullulan nanoparticle surface charges on HSA complexation and drug release behavior of HSA-bound nanoparticles.

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    Xiaojun Tao

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP compositions such as hydrophobicity and surface charge are vital to determine the presence and amount of human serum albumin (HSA binding. The HSA binding influences drug release, biocompatibility, biodistribution, and intercellular trafficking of nanoparticles (NPs. Here, we prepared 2 kinds of nanomaterials to investigate HSA binding and evaluated drug release of HSA-bound NPs. Polysaccharides (pullulan carboxyethylated to provide ionic derivatives were then conjugated to cholesterol groups to obtain cholesterol-modified carboxyethyl pullulan (CHCP. Cholesterol-modified pullulan (CHP conjugate was synthesized with a similar degree of substitution of cholesterol moiety to CHCP. CHCP formed self-aggregated NPs in aqueous solution with a spherical structure and zeta potential of -19.9 ± 0.23 mV, in contrast to -1.21 ± 0.12 mV of CHP NPs. NPs could quench albumin fluorescence intensity with maximum emission intensity gradually decreasing up to a plateau at 9 to 12 h. Binding constants were 1.12 × 10(5 M(-1 and 0.70 × 10(5 M(-1 to CHP and CHCP, respectively, as determined by Stern-Volmer analysis. The complexation between HSA and NPs was a gradual process driven by hydrophobic force and inhibited by NP surface charge and shell-core structure. HSA conformation was altered by NPs with reduction of α-helical content, depending on interaction time and particle surface charges. These NPs could represent a sustained release carrier for mitoxantrone in vitro, and the bound HSA assisted in enhancing sustained drug release.

  8. Interface potential sensing from adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on carbon nanotube (CNT) monitored by zero current potentiometry for HSA determination. (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yi; Song, Jun-Feng


    In this work, the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bare multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) was investigated by a new electrochemical method, termed as zero current potentiometry. For this, a MWNT strip was prepared by directly adhering MWNTs on the transparent adhesive tape surface. Moreover, when HSA adsorbed onto MWNT at the MWNT/solution interface, an interface potential Ψ yielded. The interface potential Ψ as the zero current potential Ezcp simply related to it was monitored by zero current potentiometry. The relationship between the zero current potential Ezcp, the HSA concentration and others was established in simple stoichiometric relation. Based on this, both the adsorption of HSA on MWNT and the HSA determination can be studied. For the HSA determination, the theoretic conclusion consisted with experimental results. The zero current potential Ezcp was proportional to the HSA concentration in the range of 2.8 × 10(-8) - 3.4 × 10(-7)M with the limit of detection 2 × 10(-8)M. The linear regression equation was Ezcp/V (vs, SCE) = (0.159 ± 0.01) + (0.358 ± 0.02) × 10(6)CHSA (µM). This determination was fast, high sensitive and good selective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical stability of a metformin solution from three commercial brands

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    Alemón Medina Radamés


    Full Text Available Pharmacological management of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemias in children and adolescents is required to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome (MS and type II diabetes mellitus (DM2. Material and method: we developed extemporaneous formulations from 500 mg-tablets from three generic brands, commercially available in Mexican drugstores: MedimartTM, Farmacias del AhorroTM and Primer NivelTM, dissolved in water sweetened with Splenda, which made them palatable and allowed customised dose adjustment. Solutions were stored at four environmental conditions: 25oC exposed to light, 25oC protected from light, 4oC and 40oC, and their physicochemical stability was assayed. The stability of the drug was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV and by measuring the pH of the stock solution. The mobile phase consisted of (KH2PO4 0.1 M, pH = 6.5, 4.6 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and acetonitrile (63:7:30 at 0.8 mL/min, column VARIAN Pursuit C8 150 × 3.9 mm tempered at 40oC, with detection at 236 nm. Results: Metformin from all trademarks was stable at all storage conditions for up to 30 days, retaining more than 90% of the initial amount of active drug, with a pH of 7.4 ± 0.3. Conclusion: Metformin extemporaneous formulations may be developed from either the innovator or generic brands, having the advantage of saving money and conserving the stability of its physicochemical properties. Keywords: Generic metformin, Innovator metformin, Extemporaneous formulation, Physicochemical stability, UPLC-UV.

  10. Human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and human serum albumin (HSA) co-adsorption onto the C18-silica gradient surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlady, V. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Ho, C.H.


    Co-adsorption kinetics of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and serum albumin (HSA) on hydrophilic/hydrophobic gradient silica surface were studied using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) and autoradiography. Two experimental systems were examined: (1) fluorescein-labeled LDL (FITC-LDL) adsorption from a FITC-LDL+HSA solution mixture onto the octadecyldimethylsilyl (C18)-silica gradient surface, and (2) the FITC-LDL adsorption onto the HSA pre-adsorbed on the C18-silica gradient surface. Experiments with fluorescein-labeled albumin (FITC-HSA) and unlabeled LDL have been performed in parallel. The adsorption kinetics of FITC-LDL onto the hydrophilic silica was found to be transport-limited and not affected by co-adsorption of HSA. A slower adsorption kinetics of lipoprotein onto the silica with pre-adsorbed HSA layer resulted from a slow appearance of LDL binding sites exposed by the process of HSA desorption. In the region of increasing surface density of C18 groups, the FITC-LDL adsorption rate fell below the transport-limited adsorption rate, except in the very early adsorption times. Pre-adsorption of HSA onto the C18-silica gradient region resulted in a significant decrease of both the FITC-LDL adsorption rate and adsorbed amount. The lowest FITC-LDL adsorption was found in the region of C18 self-assembled monolayer, where the pre-adsorbed HSA layer almost completely eliminated lipoprotein binding. (orig.)

  11. 76 FR 14101 - Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions; Morristown, TN; Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Chicago, IL; Amended..., applicable to workers of Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Staffing...

  12. Fluorescence of aqueous solutions of commercial humic products (United States)

    Gosteva, O. Yu.; Izosimov, A. A.; Patsaeva, S. V.; Yuzhakov, V. I.; Yakimenko, O. S.


    We have studied the spectral luminescence characteristics of aqueous solutions of humic products obtained from different raw material sources, and their behavior as the excitation wavelength increases from 270 nm to 355 nm. We have identified differences in the spectral properties of industrial humic products from coalified materials, lignin-containing organic waste, and humic products from plant raw material (peat, sapropel, vermicompost). We have shown that humic products from plant raw material have spectral properties closer to those for humic substances in natural water or soil than humic products from coalified materials.

  13. Characterization of the interactions of human serum albumin (HSA), gatifloxacin, and metronidazole using spectroscopic and electrochemical methods

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    Fu, Li, E-mail:; Liu, Xiu-fen; Zhou, Qiu-xiang; Zhang, Ji-xiang; Dong, Jing-ya; Wang, Jian-fang


    Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in blood plasma, is an important carrier for many drugs. Understanding HSA-drug interactions is critical in being able to interpret the distribution and acting mechanisms of these drugs, which is particularly important in the case of multi-drug therapy. In this study, we investigated the interactions between HSA and two commonly used antibiotics, gatifloxacin (GFLX) and metronidazole (MET), in Tris–HCl buffer solution (pH=7.4). The efficacy of the individual drugs (GFLX or MET) and the efficacy of a combination of GFLX and MET were measured using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. Our results demonstrated that GFLX and MET have a synergistic effect. Briefly, one drug decreased the binding stability with HSA of the other drug, thus increasing the concentration of free drug at the action sites. The interaction of drugs with HSA is a process of complex-formation static quenching. There is approximately one binding site between HSA and the drug (GFLX or MET). The binding distance, r, between the drug and HSA was determined on the basis of the theory of Forster-type non-radiative energy transfer. It was shown that the interaction between the two drugs increased the r-value. Using thermodynamic parameters, we found that the binding of drug-HSA interactions is mainly controlled by electrostatic force. Analysis of the synchronous fluorescence spectrum suggested that the interactions between the drugs have important effects on protein conformation. In conclusion, combining GFLX and MET enhances treatment efficacy. Our study provides a basis to understand the mechanism of the interaction of MET, GFLX and HSA in the human body. - Highlights: • The synergistic effects between MET and GFLX were founed. • The type of interaction between the drugs and HSA was identified.

  14. Binding and Irradition Study of the Porphyrin-Protein Complex TSPP-HSA (United States)

    Palos-Chavez, Jorge


    Porphyrins are a class of organic molecules that have found numerous applications in biological physics, such as, for example, photodynamic therapy in the treatment of malignant tumors and serving as fluorescent tags for proteins. In this study, we focus on the porphyryn TSPP and its role as a photoactive ligand to the protein HSA (Human Serum Albumin), capable of mediating conformational changes to the structure of HSA via irradiation. The effect of irradiation on the conformation and binding behavior of HSA in buffer solution at physiological pH will be deduced from a combination of spectroscopy tools including absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and fluorescence lifetime decay spectroscopy. Additionally, computational modeling will be employed to complement experimental data. This work was supported through the grant TWD MARC GM07717.

  15. Human serum albumin adsorption on TiO2 from single protein solutions and from plasma. (United States)

    Sousa, S R; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Saramago, B; Melo, L Viseu; Barbosa, M A


    In the present work, the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on commercially pure titanium with a titanium oxide layer formed in a H(2)O(2) solution (TiO(2) cp) and on TiO(2) sputtered on Si (TiO(2) sp) was analyzed. Adsorption isotherms, kinetic studies, and work of adhesion determinations were carried out. HSA exchangeability was also evaluated. Surface characterization was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and wettability studies. The two TiO(2) surfaces have very distinct roughnesses, the TiO(2) sp having a mean R(a) value 14 times smaller than the one of TiO(2) cp. XPS analysis revealed consistent peaks representative of TiO(2) on sputtered samples as well as on Ti cp substrate after 48 h of H(2)O(2) immersion. Nitrogen was observed as soon as protein was present, while sulfur, present in disulfide bonds in HSA, was observed for concentrations of protein higher than 0.30 mg/mL. The work of adhesion was determined from contact angle measurements. As expected from the surface free energy values, the work of adhesion of HSA solution is higher for the TiO(2) cp substrate, the more hydrophilic one, and lower for the TiO(2) sp substrate, the more hydrophobic one. The work of adhesion between plasma and the substrates assumed even higher values for the TiO(2) cp surface, indicating a greater interaction between the surface and the complex protein solutions. Adsorption studies by radiolabeling of albumin ((125)I-HSA) suggest that rapid HSA adsorption takes place on both surfaces, reaching a maximum value after approximately 60 min of incubation. For the higher HSA concentrations in solution, a multilayer coverage was observed on both substrates. After the adsorption step from single HSA solutions, the exchangeability of adsorbed HSA molecules by HSA in solution was evaluated. The HSA molecules adsorbed on TiO(2) sp seem to be more easily exchanged by HSA itself than those adsorbed on TiO(2) cp after 24 h. In

  16. Open Access Intellectual Property Systems: A Comparison to Commercial Solutions in Competitive Intelligence

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    Jan Cerny


    Full Text Available ICT/IS management plays an important role within the framework of innovation management, and one of the key elements of this role is the support of Competitive Intelligence in the context of innovation processes. The strategic information needs of innovation management are also directed towards different kinds of intellectual property (IP information entities and commercialization. The purpose of this paper is to define these entities and IP information systems as an important part of a company’s Competitive Intelligence Unit for competitor analysis and technology trends. The open access IP information systems will be analysed together with commercial solutions.. The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of open access IP systems compared to added value commercial solutions for competitive intelligence purposes for SMEs. The comparison will be carried out using examples of patent searches within a concrete dataset.

  17. SEM observations on stress corrosion cracking of commercially pure titanium in a topical fluoride solution. (United States)

    Könönen, M H; Lavonius, E T; Kivilahti, J K


    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether commercially pure titanium is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking/hydrogen embrittlement in a topical fluoride solution used in preventive dentistry. Thin electropolished titanium test specimens were previously cold-rolled or cold-rolled and annealed before testing. For the stress corrosion tests, the U-shaped specimens of both treatment types were stressed into a radius of curvature of 30 mm. Then, the bent part was placed in the fluoride solution at 37 degrees C for 1, 5, 10, and 20 d. The effects of the fluoride solution on cold-rolled and annealed titanium were studied using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, mechanically fractured surfaces of cold-rolled titanium specimens exposed and not exposed to the fluoride solution were examined by SEM. A qualitative evaluation of the surfaces was conducted. Narrow cracks were observed in cold-rolled specimens following exposure to the fluoride solution for 5 d. The cracks were associated with branching, a characteristic of stress corrosion cracking. The cold-rolled specimen exposed to the fluoride solution exhibited a brittle fracture. In contrast, the fracture mode of the unexposed specimen was ductile in nature. Topical fluoride solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of commercially pure titanium.

  18. Molecular Analysis of AFP and HSA Interactions with PTEN Protein. (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lin, Bo; Zhou, Peng; Li, Mengsen


    Human cytoplasmic alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been classified as a member of the albuminoid gene family. The protein sequence of AFP has significant homology to that of human serum albumin (HSA), but its biological characteristics are vastly different from HSA. The AFP functions as a regulator in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, but HSA plays a key role as a transport protein. To probe their molecular mechanisms, we have applied colocalization, coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP), and molecular docking approaches to analyze the differences between AFP and HSA. The data from colocalization and co-IP displayed a strong interaction between AFP and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), demonstrating that AFP did bind to PTEN, but HSA did not. The molecular docking study further showed that the AFP domains I and III could contact with PTEN. In silicon substitutions of AFP binding site residues at position 490M/K and 105L/R corresponding to residues K490 and R105 in HSA resulted in steric clashes with PTEN residues R150 and K46, respectively. These steric clashes may explain the reason why HSA cannot bind to PTEN. Ultimately, the experimental results and the molecular modeling data from the interactions of AFP and HSA with PTEN will help us to identify targets for designing drugs and vaccines against human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Comparison of Energy and Nutrient Contents of Commercial and Noncommercial Enteral Nutrition Solutions (United States)

    Jolfaie, Nahid Ramezani; Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirlohi, Maryam; Babashahi, Mina; Abbasi, Saeid; Adibi, Peiman; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila


    Background: Nutritional support plays a major role in the management of critically ill patients. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of enteral nutrition solutions (noncommercial vs. commercial) and the amount of energy and nutrients delivered and required in patients receiving these solutions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 270 enterally fed patients. Demographic and clinical data in addition to values of nutritional needs and intakes were collected. Moreover, enteral nutrition solutions were analyzed in a food laboratory. Results: There were 150 patients who fed noncommercial enteral nutrition solutions (NCENS) and 120 patients who fed commercial enteral nutrition solutions (CENSs). Although energy and nutrients contents in CENSs were more than in NCENSs, these differences regarding energy, protein, carbohydrates, phosphorus, and calcium were not statistically significant. The values of energy and macronutrients delivered in patients who fed CENSs were higher (P carbohydrate, and fat required in patients receiving CENSs were provided, but protein intake was less than the required amount. In patients who fed NCENSs, only the values of fat requirement and intake were not significantly different, but other nutrition delivered was less than required amounts (P nutritional needs of higher numbers of patients (P nutritional requirements of entirely fed patients. PMID:29142894

  20. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages. (United States)

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W


    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  1. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

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    Bart W. Hoogenboom


    Full Text Available Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  2. Evaluation of commercial skin prick test solutions for selected occupational allergens. (United States)

    van Kampen, V; de Blay, F; Folletti, I; Kobierski, P; Moscato, G; Olivieri, M; Quirce, S; Sastre, J; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Kotschy-Lang, N; Müsken, H; Mahler, V; Schliemann, S; Ochmann, U; Sültz, J; Worm, M; Sander, I; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T; Merget, R; Raulf-Heimsoth, M


    Skin prick testing (SPT) is an important step in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated occupational allergic diseases. The outcome of SPT is related to the quality of allergen extracts. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess different commercially available SPT solutions for selected occupational allergens. SPT was performed in 116 bakers, 47 farmers and 33 subjects exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL), all with work-related allergic symptoms. The SPT solutions from different manufacturers (n = 3-5) for wheat flour, rye flour, soy, cow hair/dander, storage mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Acarus siro) and NRL were analysed with respect to their protein and antigen contents. SPT was carried out in 16 allergy centres in six European countries using standardized procedures. Specific IgE values were used as the gold standard to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of SPT solutions. The optimal cut-point for each SPT solution was determined by Youden Index. Protein and antigen contents and patterns of the SPT solutions varied remarkably depending on the manufacturer. While SPT solutions for wheat flour and soy reached overall low sensitivities, sensitivities of other tested SPT solutions depended on the manufacturer. As a rule, solutions with higher protein and antigen content showed higher sensitivities and test efficiencies. There is a wide variability of SPT solutions for occupational allergens, and the sensitivity of several solutions is low. Thus, improvement and standardization of SPT solutions for occupational allergens is essential. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. “Jones-ing” for a Solution: Commercial Street Surveillance and Privacy Torts in Canada

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    Stuart Hargreaves


    Full Text Available While street surveillance technologies such as Google Street View are deployed with no discriminatory intent, there is selective scrutiny applied to the published imagery by the anonymous crowd. Disproportionately directed at women and members of ethnic minority groups, this scrutiny means the social risks of street surveillance are not equal. This paper considers the possibility of invasion of privacy actions in tort brought against the commercial service provider as a possible solution. Analysis suggests that Canadian law has evolved in a way such that it is exceedingly difficult to make a claim for “privacy” in tort when the plaintiff is located in public space. This evolution exists in order to ensure that innocuous behavior not be rendered actionable. Furthermore, conceptual reasons exist to suggest that actions in tort are unlikely to be the best solution to the problems posed by commercial street surveillance. While any individual case of embarrassment or nuisance matters, broader “macro-harms” that impact entire communities reflect perhaps the most serious problem associated with the selective scrutiny of street surveillance imagery. Yet, it seems difficult to justify attaching liability for those harms to the commercial providers. While limits need to be placed on the operation of these street surveillance programmes, it is unlikely that invasion of privacy actions are the most effective way to achieve that goal.

  4. Olive-oil nanocapsules stabilized by HSA: influence of processing variables on particle properties (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Galisteo-González, F.


    Liquid lipid nanocapsules (LLN) are considered to be promising drug carriers in the medical field. The size and the surface charge of these nanocarriers are of major importance, affecting their bioavailability and the in vivo behaviour after intravenous injection. This research provides a comprehensive study on the preparation of olive-oil nanocapsules stabilized with a human serum albumin shell (HSA). LLN were prepared by modified solvent-displacement method. Numerous experimental variables were examined in order to characterize their impact on LLN size, distribution, and electrophoretic mobility. Physicochemical parameters of LLN were controlled by adjusting the nanodroplet stabilizing shell of adsorbed protein molecules, which was affected by the oil:HSA ratio, pH, and ionic strength of aqueous medium. The stronger the repulsion between adsorbed HSA molecules, the smaller and more monodisperse the particles proved. Other process parameters, including the ethanol:acetone ratio, organic:aqueous phase ratio, speed of organic-phase injection, and stirring rate were examined to achieve optimum preparation conditions. LLN produced by our standardized formulation were in the range of 170-175 nm with low polydispersity index (olive-oil nanocapsules was achieved (90 %). Encapsulation of curcumin into LLN had a stabilizing effect with respect to drug photodecomposition compared to that of the free molecule in solution.

  5. Olive-oil nanocapsules stabilized by HSA: influence of processing variables on particle properties

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    Molina-Bolívar, J. A., E-mail: [University of Málaga, Department of Applied Physics II, Engineering School (Spain); Galisteo-González, F. [University of Granada, Department of Applied Physics (Spain)


    Liquid lipid nanocapsules (LLN) are considered to be promising drug carriers in the medical field. The size and the surface charge of these nanocarriers are of major importance, affecting their bioavailability and the in vivo behaviour after intravenous injection. This research provides a comprehensive study on the preparation of olive-oil nanocapsules stabilized with a human serum albumin shell (HSA). LLN were prepared by modified solvent-displacement method. Numerous experimental variables were examined in order to characterize their impact on LLN size, distribution, and electrophoretic mobility. Physicochemical parameters of LLN were controlled by adjusting the nanodroplet stabilizing shell of adsorbed protein molecules, which was affected by the oil:HSA ratio, pH, and ionic strength of aqueous medium. The stronger the repulsion between adsorbed HSA molecules, the smaller and more monodisperse the particles proved. Other process parameters, including the ethanol:acetone ratio, organic:aqueous phase ratio, speed of organic-phase injection, and stirring rate were examined to achieve optimum preparation conditions. LLN produced by our standardized formulation were in the range of 170–175 nm with low polydispersity index (<0.1). Long-term colloidal stability of samples was evaluated after 6 months of storage. Efficient incorporation of curcumin, a model for a water-insoluble drug, into olive-oil nanocapsules was achieved (90 %). Encapsulation of curcumin into LLN had a stabilizing effect with respect to drug photodecomposition compared to that of the free molecule in solution.

  6. Proteolysis of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus and Anchovy (Stolephorus commersonii by Commercial Enzymes in Saline Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Minh Le


    Full Text Available Fish sauce production is a very long process and there is a great interest in shortening it. Among the different strategies to speed up this process, the addition of external proteases could be a solution. This study focuses on the eff ect of two commercial enzymes (Protamex and Protex 51FP on the proteolysis of two fish species traditionally converted into fish sauce: sardine and anchovy, by comparison with classical autolysis. Hydrolysis reactions were conducted with fresh fish at a temperature of 30 °C and under different saline conditions (from 0 to 30 % NaCl. Hydrolysis degree and liquefaction of the raw material were used to follow the process. As expected, the proteolysis decreased with increasing amount of salt. Regarding the fi sh species, higher rate of liquefaction and higher hydrolysis degree were obtained with anchovy. Between the two proteases, Protex 51FP gave better results with both fi sh types. This study demonstrates that the addition of commercial proteases could be helpful for the liquefaction of fi sh and cleavage of peptide bonds that occur during fi sh sauce production and thus speed up the production process.

  7. Stabilization and immune response of HBsAg encapsulated within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres using HSA as a stabilizer. (United States)

    Xu, Wenjuan; He, Jintian; Wu, Guanghao; Xiong, Fangfang; Du, Huijuan; Wang, Gaizhen


    The aim of this study was to prepare poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using human serum albumin (HSA) as a stabilizer. Lyophilization and emulsification of HBsAg solution with dichloromethane caused a considerable loss of HBsAg antigenicity. Thus, the effects of HSA and trehalose on HBsAg recovery during lyophilization and emulsification were investigated. Adding HSA to HBsAg solutions significantly improved antigen recovery to >90% during lyophilization and emulsification. The effects of co-encapsulated HSA on the characteristics of the PLGA microspheres and stability of HBsAg released from the microspheres were also investigated. The in vitro release test showed that HBsAg was released from the PLGA microspheres continuously over seventy days. A large amount of released HBsAg was inactive without co-encapsulation of HSA. On the contrary, with HSA co-encapsulation, the released HBsAg retained approximately 90% of its antigenicity. The single injection of the HBsAg-HSA-loaded PLGA microspheres in rats resulted in higher anti-HBsAg IgG and Th1 cytokine levels than the single injection of the HBsAg-loaded microspheres or two injections of the conventional aluminum-adjuvanted HBsAg vaccine. Based on these findings, the HBsAg-HSA-loaded PLGA microspheres could be an effective carrier for HBsAg and form a promising depot system. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparative Study of Commercial Oxide Electrodes Performance in Electrochemical Degradation of Organics in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelegrino Rosângela L.


    Full Text Available In this paper the potentiality of two types of DSAâ commercial electrodes, for electrochemical treatment of effluents, is investigated. Oxide anodes, with nominal composition of 70TiO2/30RuO2 and 45IrO2/55Ta2O5, were used in a flow-cell reactor for the electrooxidation of phenol. Comparative results were presented as phenol concentration decay as a function of electrolysis time, as well as COD and TOC concentration reduction. The cell reactor was operated at current densities, ranging from 15 to 150 mA cm-2 and solution linear velocity was 0.24 m s-1. Results reported in this paper showed that phenol and quinones were degraded to a very low concentration, besides only a small portion of the organic carbon is reduced. Starting from 100 mg L-1, after five hours of electrolysis at 100 mA cm-2, concentrations reached 0.4 mg L-1 of phenol, 1 mg L-1 of hydroquinone, 7 mg L-1 of benzoquinone and TOC was reduced by 35%.

  9. Hsa-miR-21 and Hsa-miR-29 in Tissue as Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahu Wang


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gastric cancer (GC is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Endoscopic examination is the most used method to detect the GC nowadays, whereas this method is expensive and invasive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a group of recently discovered small non-protein-coding RNAs. They regulate the expression of hundreds of target genes; thereby control a wide range of tumorigenic processes. In this study, we selected two miRNAs, hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-29, as the targets to assess their diagnostic and prognostic value for GC. Methods: A total of 50 GC patients including 24 females and 26 males were recruited. Tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissue samples were collected from all these participants during the endoscopic examination. RNAs were extracted from these samples, then quantified via qRT-PCR and normalized with RNU43 as the internal control. Statistical analyses were conducted using the GraphPad Prism 5.0. Results: We discovered a higher expression of hsa-miR-21 and a relatively lower expression of hsa-miR-29hsa-miR-29 in the tumor tissue than in the adjacent non-tumor tissue. Moreover, both the two miRNAs showed moderate diagnostic performance (hsa-miR-21: AUC = 0.75, sensitivity = 0.70, specificity = 0.78; hsa-miR-29hsa-miR-29: AUC = 0.73, sensitivity = 0.70, specificity = 0.68. In the follow-up research, we found that higher tissue hsa-miR-21 level was related to a lower overall survival rate, whereas higher tissue hsa-miR-29hsa-miR-29 level was associated with the higher overall survival rate. These results indicated that both hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-29 had the potential to be the biomarkers for GC prognosis. Conclusion: In summary, we verified the diagnostic and prognostic value of tissue hsa-miR-21hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-29 in GC. Both of them can be potentially applied as novel and non-invasive biomarkers for GC.

  10. Universities innovation and technology commercialization challenges and solutions from the perspectives of Malaysian research universities (United States)

    Rasli, Amran; Kowang, Tan Owee


    The roles of universities in the context of a nation's shift towards sustainable competitive advantage have changed drastically recently. Universities are now expected to contribute to the creation of new knowledge-based industries, i.e. to support knowledge-based economic growth through the creation of industrially-relevant knowledge/innovation and their commercialization, and to attract global MNCs in new emerging industries; and foster entrepreneurial mindset to support the future knowledge economy where stable job opportunities are no longer guaranteed. As such, there is a need to inculcate the spirit of enterprise as compared to the past where high economic growth has provided graduates with good career prospects as salaried employees, particularly in MNC subsidiaries and the government. The shift requires a bigger role in supporting innovation and commercialization, i.e. to venture beyond its traditional function of teaching, research and publication by incorporating a technology commercialization role which will inevitably help the institution to improve its global ranking. However, there are many national and operational obstacles that impede the progression of research and development to commercialization and entrepreneurship. The main challenges include: (I) lack of connectivity between the industry and academia; (2) myopic perception of the market; (3) inability to evaluate viability from ideas to innovations and beyond; (4) lack of support for investment in new technologies, and (5) lack of positive culture among academic researchers. To overcome the aforementioned obstacles, priority in developing a complete commercialization ecosystem has become a national agenda for most emerging economies.

  11. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura


    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil. Results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the commercial hydroponic nutrient solution (i.e. solution containing water and essential nutrients) exhibited similar performance (i.e., water flux and reverse salt flux) to other inorganic draw solutions when treating synthetic wastewater. The use of hydroponic solution is highly advantageous since it provides all the required macro- (i.e., N, P and K) and micronutrients (i.e., Ca, Mg, S, Mn, B, Zn and Mo) in a single balanced solution and can therefore be used directly after dilution without the need to add any elements. After long-term operation (i.e. up to 75% water recovery), different physical cleaning methods were tested and results showed that hydraulic flushing can effectively restore up to 75% of the initial water flux while osmotic backwashing was able to restore the initial water flux by more than 95%; illustrating the low-fouling potential of the FDFO process. Pilot-scale studies demonstrated that the FDFO process is able to produce the required nutrient concentration and final water quality (i.e., pH and conductivity) suitable for hydroponic applications. Coupling FDFO with pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) in the later stages could help in saving operational costs (i.e., energy and membrane replacement costs). Finally, the test application of nutrient solution produced by the pilot FDFO process to hydroponic lettuce showed similar growth pattern as the control without any signs of nutrient deficiency.

  12. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wenjuan [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Zhang, Daoyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Pan, Xiangliang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K{sub a} (×10{sup 5}/M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K{sub b} (×10{sup 4}/M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb.

  13. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  14. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis


    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and HSA binding of two new N,O,O-donor Schiff-base ligands derived from dihydroxybenzaldehyde and tert-butylamine (United States)

    Khosravi, Iman; Hosseini, Farnaz; Khorshidifard, Mahsa; Sahihi, Mehdi; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri


    Two new o-hydroxy Schiff-bases compounds, L1 and L2, were derived from the 1:1 M condensation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde with tert-butylamine and were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structure of L2 was also determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. The crystal structure of L2 showed that the compound exists as a zwitterionic form in the solid state, with the H atom of the phenol group being transferred to the imine N atom. It adopts an E configuration about the central Cdbnd N double bond. Furthermore, binding of these Schiff base ligands to Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was investigated by fluorescence quenching, absorption spectroscopy, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods. The fluorescence emission of HSA was quenched by ligands. Also, suitable models were used to analyze the UV-vis absorption spectroscopy data for titration of HSA solution by various amounts of Schiff bases. The spectroscopic studies revealed that these Schiff bases formed 1:1 complex with HSA. Energy transfer mechanism of quenching was discussed and the values of 3.35 and 1.57 nm as the mean distances between the bound ligands and the HSA were calculated for L1 and L2, respectively. Molecular docking results indicated that the main active binding site for these Schiff bases ligands is in subdomain IB. Moreover, MD simulation results suggested that this Schiff base complex can interact with HSA, with a slight modification of its tertiary structure.

  16. Effects of co-overexpression of secretion helper factors on the secretion of a HSA fusion protein (IL2-HSA) in pichia pastoris. (United States)

    Guan, Bo; Chen, Fengxiang; Su, Shuai; Duan, Zuoying; Chen, Yun; Li, Huazhong; Jin, Jian


    Pichia pastoris is generally considered as an expression host for heterologous proteins with the coding gene under control of the alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. The secretion of heterologous proteins in P. pastoris can be potentially affected by many factors. Based on our previous results, the secretion levels of human albumin (HSA) fusion protein IL2-HSA were only around 500 mg/L or less in fermentor cultures, which decreased more than 50% compared with that of HSA (>1 g/L). In this study, we selected five potential secretion helper factors, in which Ero1, Pdi1 and Kar2 were involved in protein folding and Sec1 and Sly1 were involved in vesicle trafficking. We evaluated the possible effects of individual overexpression of these secretion helper factors on the secretion of IL2-HSA in P. pastoris. Constitutive overexpression of the five selected secretion factors did not have an obvious negative effect on cell growth of the IL2-HSA secreting strain. Individual co-overexpression of Ero1, Kar2, Pdi1, Sec1 and Sly1 improved the secretion level of IL2-HSA to ~2.3-, 1.9-, 2.2-, 2.5- and 1.9-fold that in the control strain respectively in shake flasks. We evaluated the changes in mRNA and protein levels of the intracellular IL2-HSA, as well as the secretion helper factor genes in the co-overexpressing strains. Our results indicated that manipulating the expression level of ER resident protein Pdi1, Ero1, Kar2 and SM protein Sec1 and Sly1 could improve the secretion level of IL2-HSA fusion protein in P. pastoris, which provided new candidates for combinatorial engineering in future study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. staff that take on that responsibility is usually the HSA. HSAs have ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an HSA and I am no longer eligible for refresher training in my job as an HSA. Should need arise for me to revert to my old job,. I would not be as competent as my colleagues who have been exposed to further training opportunities. GM: Your work in the community ..... concurrent HIV infection. Interventions to reduce this ...

  18. Adsorption of iron by using hybrid Akar Putra and commercialized chicken eggshells as bio-sorbents from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Nasir


    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in the environment could cause harmful effects both to human health and aquatic life. Numerous remediation methods had been developed to encounter with the contamination problem prior to degrade, decrease and to purify the contaminated water at minimal concentration as low as possible. Therefore, in current study, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells were conducted in batch experiment to testify the capabilities of bio-sorbent materials in iron (II ion removal from aqueous solution at optimized level of dosage and equilibrium contact time. The optimum condition for iron (II removal for commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells bio-sorbents reached at 0.30 g with optimum contact time of 50 minutes and 91.83% and 91.07% of removal percentage with 0.60 g at 40 minutes. The final concentration from both bio-sorbents is achieved below than drinking water guideline (0.30 mg/L, 0.1635 mg/L and 0.1785 mg/L, respectively. The isotherm adsorption results showed it fitted better in Langmuir Isotherm Model than in Freundlich Isotherm Model, however with weak bonding, which could not held onto the heavy metal ions in long time period. In brief, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells have considerable potential in removing heavy metal in aqueous solution. The selection of the bio-sorbent materials is more favorable as it reduces dependency towards chemical usage in water treatment which could have complied with drinking water guideline that can be obtained easily, abundance in amount, cheap and biodegradable.

  19. Elevated Circulating hsa-miR-106b, hsa-miR-26a, and hsa-miR-29b in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Tao


    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Although the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA genes has been identified in many diseases, little information exists concerning the miRNA expression profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS. Therefore, the specific expression of miRNAs in diabetes with D-IBS is identified in the study. Materials and Methods. 201 patients with IBS and 220 matched healthy controls were included in the study. Microarray technology and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR were taken to examine the miRNA expression profiles of T2DM patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS compared with patients with T2DM, patients with D-IBS, and control subjects. Results. We have found that 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed in T2DM with D-IBS, in which three representative miRNAs, hsa-miR-106b, hsa-miR-26a, and hsa-miR-29b, were found to be significantly elevated in T2DM with D-IBS by RT-PCR. Conclusions. Our study has indicated that hsa-miR-106b, hsa-miR-26a, and hsa-miR-29b were elevated in T2DM with D-IBS, which may be the potential biomarkers of T2DM with D-IBS. To obtain a better understanding of the biological functions of these miRNAs in T2DM with D-IBS, functional annotation analysis suggested that the MAPK pathway may be responsible for T2DM with D-IBS.

  20. Forest biomass supply logistics solution to feed a commercial scale biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T.; Jaeppinen, O.-J.; Karttunen, K. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland)), e-mail:


    Finnish forest companies aim to produce biodiesel based on the Fischer-Tropsch process from forest residues. This study presents method to evaluate biomass availability and supply costs to the selected biorefinery site. Forest-owners' willingness to sell, buyers' market share, and regional competition were taken into account when biomass availability was evaluated. Supply logistics was based either on direct truck transportation deliveries from forest or on railway / waterway transportation via regional terminals. The large biomass need of a biorefinery demanded both of these supply structures, since the procurement area was larger than the traditional supply area used for CHP plants in Finland. The average supply cost was EUR 15 / MWh for an annual supply of 2 TWh of forest biomass. Truck transportation of chips made from logging residues covered 70 % of the total volume, since direct forest chip deliveries from forest were the most competitive supply solution in terms of direct supply costs. The better supply security and lower vehicle capacity needs are issues that would favour also terminal logistics with other raw-material sources in practical operations. One finding was that the larger the biomass need, the less the variation in biomass availability and supply costs, since almost the whole country will serve as a potential supply area. Biomass import possibilities were not considered in this study. (orig.)

  1. Two Tightly Linked Genes at the hsa1 Locus Cause Both F1 and F2 Hybrid Sterility in Rice. (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Takashi, Tomonori; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori


    Molecular mechanisms of hybrid breakdown associated with sterility (F2 sterility) are poorly understood as compared with those of F1 hybrid sterility. Previously, we characterized three unlinked epistatic loci, hybrid sterility-a1 (hsa1), hsa2, and hsa3, responsible for the F2 sterility in a cross between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. In this study, we identified that the hsa1 locus contains two interacting genes, HSA1a and HSA1b, within a 30-kb region. HSA1a-j (japonica allele) encodes a highly conserved plant-specific domain of unknown function protein (DUF1618), whereas the indica allele (HSA1a-i(s)) has two deletion mutations that cause disruption of domain structure. The second gene, HSA1b-i(s), encodes an uncharacterized protein with some similarity to a nucleotide-binding protein. Homozygous introgression of indica HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) alleles into japonica showed female gamete abortion at an early mitotic stage. The fact that the recombinant haplotype HSA1a-j-HSA1b-i(s) caused semi-sterility in the heterozygous state with the HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) haplotype suggests that variation in the hsa1 locus is a possible cause of the wide-spectrum sterility barriers seen in F1 hybrids and successive generations in rice. We propose a simple genetic model to explain how a single causal mechanism can drive both F1 and F2 hybrid sterility. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 26 CFR 54.4980G-5 - HSA comparability rules and cafeteria plans and waiver of excise tax. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HSA comparability rules and cafeteria plans and... HSA comparability rules and cafeteria plans and waiver of excise tax. Q-1: If an employer makes contributions through a section 125 cafeteria plan to the HSA of each employee who is an eligible individual...

  3. Quantum Chemical Studies on Detail Mechanism of Nitrosylation of NAMI-A-HSA Adduct. (United States)

    Das, Dharitri; Mondal, Paritosh


    Hydrolysis of NAMI-A in NAMI-A-HSA (HSA = human serum albumin) and nitrosylation of hydrolyzed NAMI-A-HSA adduct have been studied in detail using density functional theory method. It has been observed that the chloride exchange reaction with water in the NAMI-A-HSA adduct follows an interchange dissociative mechanism passing through an unstable heptacoordinated activated complex. The computed free energy of activation (ΔG) and rate constant (k) for the hydrolysis process in aqueous medium are observed to be 24.85 kcal mol(-1) and 3.81 × 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. Nitrosylation of hydrolyzed NAMI-A-HSA adduct with nitric oxide is found to be thermodynamically more favorable with the incorporation of solvent effect and provides a detailed understanding related to the antimetastatic activity of the NAMI-A drug. This investigation shows that nitric oxide coordinates linearly to NAMI-A-HSA adduct leading to the reduction of ruthenium(III) to more active ruthenium(II), with the reduction potential of -2.32 V. Negative relative solvation and relative binding free energies suggest that the hydrolysis and nitrosylation reactions are found to be thermodynamically favorable and faster. Our computed results provide a detailed thermodynamics and kinetics which may be highly beneficial for understanding antimetastatic activity as well as the nitric oxide scavenging ability of NAMI-A.

  4. Baby Shampoo versus Commercial Anti-fogging Solution to Prevent Fogging during Nasal Endoscopy: A Randomized Double-Blinded, Matched-Pair, Equivalent Trial. (United States)

    Chainansamit, Seksun; Piromchai, Patorn; Anantpinijwatna, Intira; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak


    To compare the minimization of the fog condensation during nasal endoscopy between a commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo. This randomized double-blinded matched pair study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University during February 4, 2013 to March 14, 2013. The commercial anti-fogging solution (Ultrastop®) and baby shampoo solution (Johnson's® no more tear®) were compared. A computer generated randomization was performed to select the solution applying on the lens for nasal endoscopy of the right nasal cavity. The other solution was then used for the left one. Three passes of endoscopy were performed to examine the floor of the nose, the sphenoethmoidal recess and the middle meatus area which spent about 30 seconds for each time of endoscopy. The time to become foggy on the lens and the preferred solution assessed by the endoscopists were recorded. There were 71 eligible patients recruited in the study, 37 males (52.1%) and 34 females (47.9%). There was no fogging during a 30-second nasal endoscopy either by baby shampoo or commercial anti-fogging solution. However, 9.86% (95% C12.75-16.97) of endoscopists preferred commercial anti-fogging agent, 7.04% (95% CI 0.94-13.14) preferred baby shampoo and 83.10% (95% CI 74.16-92.03) had equal satisfaction. Both agents had no statistically significant difference for preventing foggy on the lens. Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during nasal endoscopy and comparable with the commercial anti-fogging agent.


    Joseph, K.S.; Hage, David S.


    Sulfonylurea drugs are often prescribed as a treatment for type II diabetes to help lower blood sugar levels by stimulating insulin secretion. These drugs are believed to primarily bind in blood to human serum albumin (HSA). This study used high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) to examine the binding of sulfonylureas to HSA. Frontal analysis with an immobilized HSA column was used to determine the association equilibrium constants (Ka) and number of binding sites on HSA for the sulfonylurea drugs acetohexamide and tolbutamide. The results from frontal analysis indicated HSA had a group of relatively high affinity binding regions and weaker binding sites for each drug, with average Ka values of 1.3 (± 0.2) × 105 M−1 and 3.5 (± 3.0) × 102 M−1 for acetohexamide and values of 8.7 (± 0.6) × 104 and 8.1 (± 1.7) × 103 M−1 for tolbutamide. Zonal elution and competition studies with site-specific probes were used to further examine the relatively high affinity interactions of these drugs by looking directly at the interactions that were occurring at Sudlow sites I and II of HSA (i.e., the major drug binding sites on this protein). It was found that acetohexamide was able to bind at both Sudlow sites I and II, with Ka values of 1.3 (± 0.1) × 105 and 4.3 (± 0.3) × 104 M−1, respectively, at 37°C. Tolbutamide also appeared to interact with both Sudlow sites I and II, with Ka values of 5.5 (± 0.2) × 104 and 5.3 (± 0.2) × 104 M−1, respectively. The results provide a more quantitative picture of how these drugs bind with HSA and illustrate how HPAC and related tools can be used to examine relatively complex drug-protein interactions. PMID:20435530

  6. SLE autoantibodies are well recognized by peroxynitrite-modified-HSA: Its implications in the pathogenesis of SLE. (United States)

    Arif, Zarina; Neelofar, Km; Tarannum, Akhlas; Arfat, Mir Yasir; Ahmad, Shafeeque; Zaman, Asif; Khan, Mohd Adnan; Badar, Asim; Islam, Shireen Naaz; Iqubal, Mohammad Arif


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder where the role of inflammatory processes in the etiopathogenesis is well documented. Despite extensive research, the trigger for initiation of the disease has not been identified. Peroxynitrite, a strong nitrating/oxidizing agent has been reported in SLE and other autoimmune diseases. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was exposed to peroxynitrite for 30min at 37°C. The structure of HSA was grossly perturbed when examined by various physico-chemical techniques. Peroxynitrite mediated nitration of HSA was confirmed by LCMS/MS. Furthermore, increase in hydrodynamic radius of peroxynitrite-modified-HSA suggests the attachment of nitro group(s). Aggregation in peroxynitrite-modified-HSA was evident in a TEM scan. Nitration, oxidation, cross linking, aggregation etc conferred immunogenicity on peroxynitrite-modified-HSA. High titre antibodies were elicited in rabbits immunized with peroxynitrite-modified-HSA. Induced antibodies were highly specific for peroxynitrite-modified-HSA but showed considerable binding with other nitrated molecules. Direct binding/inhibition ELISA carried out with autoantibodies in SLE sera showed preferential binding with peroxynitrite-modified-HSA. Anti-nDNA positive IgG from SLE sera showed preference for peroxynitrite-modified-HSA when subjected to immunoassay (direct binding and inhibition) and mobility shift assay. Our results reinforce the role of augmented inflammation in SLE progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical solution deposition of textured BaTiO{sub 3} buffer layers on cube textured Ni-tapes fabricated from commercially available nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, O; Gritzner, G [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University A 4040 Linz (Austria)], E-mail:


    Barium titanate buffer layers were successfully applied to cube textured Ni-tapes fabricated from commercially available nickel by a chemical solution deposition route. Barium acetate solutions in anhydrous acetic acid were mixed with bis(pentane-2,4-dionato)-titanium(IV)-oxide dissolved in methanol. A slight excess of acetic acid anhydride assured the anhydrous medium. The precursor solution was spin-coated to the Ni-substrate. Heat treatment at 1 000 deg. C under a reducing atmosphere (Ar + 6.5 vol-% H{sub 2}) resulted in dense c-axis oriented, a-b in-plane aligned buffer layers.

  8. Methylation-mediated silencing and tumour suppressive function of hsa-miR-124 in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    le Sage Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of microRNAs (miRNAs is subject to epigenetic silencing in cancer. Although epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an important feature of cervical cancer, little is known about epigenetic silencing of miRNAs. Since DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 occurs in various human cancers, we studied the frequency and functional effects of hsa-miR-124 methylation in cervical carcinogenesis. Results Quantitative MSP analysis of all 3 loci encoding the mature hsa-miR-124 (hsa-miR-124-1/-2/-3 showed methylation in cervical cancer cell lines SiHa, CaSki and HeLa as well as in late passages of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 or 18 immortalised keratinocytes. Treatment of SiHa cells with a demethylating agent reduced hsa-miR-124 methylation levels and induced hsa-miR-124 expression. In HPV-immortalised keratinocytes increased methylation levels were related to reduced hsa-miR-124 expression and higher mRNA expression of IGFBP7, a potential hsa-miR-124 target gene. Ectopic hsa-miR-124 expression in SiHa and CaSki cells decreased proliferation rates and migratory capacity. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 139 cervical tissue specimens showed an increasing methylation frequency from 0% in normal tissues up to 93% in cervical carcinomas. Increased methylation levels of hsa-miR-124-1 and hsa-miR-124-2 were significantly correlated with reduced hsa-miR-124 expression in cervical tissue specimens. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 43 cervical scrapes of high-risk HPV positive women was predictive of underlying high-grade lesions. Conclusions DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 is functionally involved in cervical carcinogenesis and may provide a valuable marker for improved detection of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions.

  9. Plasma levels of hsa-miR-152-3p are associated with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Roux, Maguelonne; Perret, Claire; Feigerlova, Eva; Mohand Oumoussa, Badreddine; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Proust, Carole; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Hadjadj, Samy


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs participating in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Their key role in modulating the susceptibility to human diseases is now widely recognized, in particular in the context of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify miRNAs associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A next-generation sequencing-based miRNA profiling was performed in a case-control study for DN in plasma samples of 23 T2D patients with DN (cases) and 23 T2D without (controls). The main associations were confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and tested for replication in an independent case-control collection of 100 T2D patients, 50 with DN and 50 without. From the 381 known mature miRNAs that were found highly expressed in the discovery samples, we observed and replicated an association between increased plasma levels of hsa-miR-152-3p and DN (P = 4.03 × 10-4 in the combined samples). Hsa-miR-152-3p plasma levels were further found to be positively correlated (P = 0.003) to plasma osmolarity, a surrogate marker for solute carrier net activity, whose regulation is controlled by several genes including SLC5A3, one of the predicted targets of hsa-miR-152-3p. We observed strong evidence for the association of hsa-miR-152-3p plasma levels and DN in patients with T2D, confirming an association previously observed in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  10. Equivalent Validity of Identification-Commitment-Inventory (HSA-ICI (Validez del Cuestionario de Identificación y Compromiso (HSA-ICI

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    Joan Guàrdia


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to demonstrate the validity of the Identification-Commitment-Inventory (HSA-ICI in two European samples (from Spain and Portugal. The ICI was proposed by Quijano and collaborators as part of the Human System Audit (HSA, a conceptual model and set of tools designed for evaluation and intervention in Human Resources Systems (HRS. The underlying factor structure of the instrument was tested with samples of Spanish (n = 625 and Portuguese (n = 520 employees - in combination and separately - working in the health care sector. Confirmatory factor analysis with a test of invariance across groups was conducted. The results show that the theoretical model fits the observed data of the general sample (χ2 = 2643.12, P = .046; RMSEA = .028; RMR = .041; GFI = .983; AGFI =. 977; CFI = .994, replicating the results of a previous study. When the samples were analysed separately, the measurement structure presented a better fit in the Spanish sample than in the Portuguese sample. The overall difference was not large - due to being influenced at the item level by some contextual aspects - but was just sufficient to obtain statistical significance (χ2Tucker-Lewis = 48.23; df = 1; P < .001. This work provides evidence supporting the use of the HSA-ICI. The implications of these results for future research are discussed.

  11. pH dependent domain dynamics of HSA controlled by protein based crowding agents (United States)

    Biswas, Saikat; Mukherjee, Sanjib K.; Lal, Harish; Karmakar, Sandip; Chowdhury, Pramit K.


    Here we have investigated the dynamics of domain I of human serum albumin (HSA) in presence of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as crowders. 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (BADAN) covalently attached to cysteine-34 of HSA was used as the solvation probe and changes in its solvation pattern in presence of the crowders were monitored as a function of pH. Lysozyme induced increased retardation of solvation while BSA brought about faster dynamics. Our observations reemphasize the importance of soft interactions even under conditions where repulsive charge-charge interactions dominate, thus reminding us of the enhanced level of complexity that the crowded milieu can possess.

  12. Preparation and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled folate conjugated human serum albumin magnetic cisplatin nanoparticles (188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA MNPs) in vivo. (United States)

    Tang, Qiu-Sha; Chen, Dao-Zhen; Xue, Wen-Qun; Xiang, Jing-Ying; Gong, Yong-Chi; Zhang, Li; Guo, Cai-Qin


    The purpose of this study was to develop intraperitoneal hyperthermic therapy based on magnetic fluid hyperthermia, nanoparticle-wrapped cisplatin chemotherapy, and magnetic particles of albumin. In addition, to combine the multiple-killing effects of hyperthermal targeting therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the albumin-nanoparticle surfaces were linked with radionuclide (188)Re-labeled folic acid ligand ((188)Re-folate-CDDP/HSA). Human serum albumin was labeled with (188)Re using the pre-tin method. Reaction time and optimal conditions of labeling were investigated. The particles were intravenously injected into mice, which were sacrificed at different time points. Radioactivity per gram of tissue of percent injected dose (% ID/g) was measured in vital organs. The biodistribution of (188)Re-folate-CDDP/HAS magnetic nanoparticles was assessed. Optimal conditions for (188)Re-labeled folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles were: 0.1 mL of sodium gluconate solution (0.3 mol/L), 0.1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid with dissolved stannous chloride (10 mg/mL), 0.04 mL of acetic acid buffer solution (pH 5, 0.2 mol/L), 30 mg of folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles, and (188)ReO(4) eluent (0.1 mL). The rate of (188)Re-folate-CDDP-HSA magnetic nanoparticle formation exceeded 90%, and radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. The overall labeling rate was 83% in calf serum at 37°C. The major uptake tissues were the liver, kidney, intestine, and tumor after the (188)Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles were injected into nude mice. Uptake of (188)Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles increased gradually after injection, peaked at 8 hours with a value of 8.83 ± 1.71, and slowly decreased over 24 hours in vivo. These results indicate that (188)Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles can be used in radionuclide-targeted cancer therapy. Surface-modified albumin nanoparticles with folic acid

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of nicotine in an aqueous solution using unconventional supported catalysts and commercial ZnO/TiO{sub 2} under ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Marcela Andrea Espina de, E-mail:; Silva, William Leonardo da; Bagnara, Mônica; Lansarin, Marla Azário; Zimnoch dos Santos, João Henrique


    Nicotine, a highly toxic alkaloid, has been detected in effluents, surface and groundwater and even bottled mineral water. The present work studied the photocatalytic degradation of nicotine in aqueous solution, under ultraviolet irradiation. The experiments were carried out using commercial (ZnO, TiO{sub 2}) and non-conventional catalysts, which were prepared from industrial and laboratory waste. Two experimental designs (CCD) were performed for both commercial catalysts, and initial nicotine concentration, catalyst concentration and initial solution pH effects were studied. Then, the synthesized catalysts were tested under the optimal conditions which were found through CCDs. Using commercial catalysts, about 98% of the alkaloid was degraded by ZnO, and 88% by TiO{sub 2}, in 1 h. Among the non-conventional catalysts, the highest photocatalytic degradation (44%) was achieved using the catalyst prepared from a petrochemical industry residue. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic degradation of nicotine was studied under UV irradiation. • Commercial catalysts ZnO and TiO{sub 2} were tested using two central composite designs. • Initial nicotine concentration, catalyst concentration and pH were evaluated. • Catalysts were prepared using chemical wastes and tested at the best conditions.

  14. Targeting of naproxen covalently linked to HSA to sinusoidal cell types of the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, BN; Lebbe, C; Wartna, E; Molema, G; Poelstra, K; Albrecht, C; Reichen, J; Meijer, DKF; Wisse, E; Knook, DL; Balabaud, C


    We have coupled the anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (Nap) covalently to human serum albumin (HSA) to deliver this drug selectively to non parenchymal cell types of the liver during endotoxin induced hepatic inflammation. Liver endothelial cells and Kupffer cells play an important role in the

  15. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Lack, Nathan; Lowe, Edward D; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D; Noble, Martin E M; Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M


    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 A resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors' knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors.

  16. Targeting of naproxen covalently linked to HSA to sinusoidal cell types of the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, B.N; Wartna, E.S; Lebbe, C; Albrecht, C.; Molema, Ingrid; Poelstra, Klaas; Reichen, J; Meijer, D.K F


    The kinetic behaviour of a naproxen human serum albumin conjugate (Nap(23)-HSA) was investigated in rats and in isolated perfused rat livers (IPRL), as compared to its active metabolite naproxen-lysine (Nap-lysine) and free naproxen. Through covalently linking the antiinflammatory drug naproxen to

  17. PEGylated human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and quantification of the PEGylation extent (United States)

    Fahrländer, E.; Schelhaas, S.; Jacobs, A. H.; Langer, K.


    Modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used method for the prolongation of plasma half-life of colloidal carrier systems such as nanoparticles prepared from human serum albumin (HSA). However, the quantification of the PEGylation extent is still challenging. Moreover, the influence of different PEG derivatives, which are commonly used for nanoparticle conjugation, has not been investigated so far. The objective of the present study is to develop a method for the quantification of PEG and to monitor the influence of diverse PEG reagents on the amount of PEG linked to the surface of HSA nanoparticles. A size exclusion chromatography method with refractive index detection was established which enabled the quantification of unreacted PEG in the supernatant. The achieved results were confirmed using a fluorescent PEG derivative, which was detected by photometry and fluorimetry. Additionally, PEGylated HSA nanoparticles were enzymatically digested and the linked amount of fluorescently active PEG was directly determined. All the analytical methods confirmed that under optimized PEGylation conditions a PEGylation efficiency of up to 0.5 mg PEG per mg nanoparticle could be achieved. Model calculations made a ‘brush’ conformation of the PEG chains on the particle surface very likely. By incubating the nanoparticles with fetal bovine serum the reduced adsorption of serum proteins on PEGylated HSA nanoparticles compared to non-PEGylated HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the positive effect of PEGylation on plasma half-life was demonstrated in an in vivo study in mice. Compared to unmodified nanoparticles the PEGylation led to a four times larger plasma half-life.

  18. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens. (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick


    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic and molecular docking studies of imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids with HSA as potential antimicrobial agents (United States)

    Trush, Maria M.; Semenyuta, Ivan V.; Vdovenko, Sergey I.; Rogalsky, Sergiy P.; Lobko, Evgeniya O.; Metelytsia, Larisa O.


    The interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and synthesized imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids (ILs), as good potential microbial growth inhibitors, was investigated by spectroscopic techniques combined with molecular docking analysis. All compounds were significant active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that the interaction of HSA with ILs generates considerable changes in protein secondary structure. The results of the molecular docking study showed that the studied ILs are able to firmly bind in the subdomain IIA of HSA with almost equal binding affinity (about -6.23 kcal/mol). Investigated HSA-ILs complex binds through hydrogen bonding or/and cation-π interactions. This study provides a better understanding of the binding of imidazolium and pyridinium based ILs to HSA and opens the way for their further biological and pharmaceutical investigations as candidates with antimicrobial properties.

  20. hsa-miR-125a-5p Enhances Invasion Ability in Non-Small Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

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    Enhua WANG


    Full Text Available Background and objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by partially binding complementary to target sites in mRNAs. Although some impaired miRNA regulations have been observed in many human cancers, the functions of miR-125a are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p in NSCLC cell lines and the relationship between hsa-miR-125a-5p and the invasion of lung cancer cells. Methods The expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p and the effectiveness for a given period time after being transfected sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide, which were 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 60 h and 72 h, were examined by realtime PCR. Meanwhile, we investigated the modification of invasive ability in A549 and NCI-H460 cells by transwell. Results Real-time PCR showed that hsa-miR-125a-5p was poorly-expressed in 6 lung cancer cell lines, especially in LH7, NCI-H460, SPC-A-1 and A549. The highest expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p occurred in the cells transfected with sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide 36 h. Furthermore, the invasive abilities of A549 and NCI-H46O were enhanced by up-regulating hsa-miR-125a-5p. Conclusion hsa-miR-125a-5p was poorly-expressed in lung cancer cells and it could enhance lung cancer cell invasion by up-regulating hsa-miR-125a-5p.

  1. Differences in efficacy of two commercial 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse solutions: a 4-day plaque re-growth study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arweiler, N.B.; Boehnke, N.; Sculean, A.; Hellwig, E.; Auschill, T.M.


    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this clinical cross-over study was to examine the antibacterial and plaque-inhibiting properties of two chlorhexidine solutions compared with a negative control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one volunteers refrained from all oral hygiene measures, but rinsed instead twice

  2. Clinical Description of Metastatic Cutaneous Hemangiosarcoma (HSA in a Greyhound Dog: Clinical Case Study

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    Romy Marie Weinborn Astudillo


    Full Text Available Hemangiosarcoma (HSA is a type of cancer that has different clinical presentations and therefore different effects, since, depending on each case, different treatment options will exist. While in the case of cutaneous HSA the first line of treatment is always surgical removal of the tumor, metastatic foci should be sought and then perform chemotherapy, despite them having a low metastatic potential. Moreover, the low survival that exists in this type of cancer is a factor that should be communicated to those responsible for the pets, so that, with all available information, they can make a free and informed choice about the treatment they want for their pet, considering the financial commitment, survival time and quality of life associated with chemotherapy. This article describes the clinical case of a female greyhound dog of eight years of age that was brought to consultation for a skin tumor on the right hind limb in the distal tibia. She was diagnosed with noninvasive cutaneous HSA through histopathology, reason why the owners chose not to do the chemotherapy; however, 10 months later she presented recurrent skin lesions and a popliteal lymph node corresponding to hemangiosarcoma and hemangioma respectively, and three weeks later the patient developed cardiac tamponade due to a cardiac mass with associated spill, which resulted in her euthanasia.

  3. Bioequivalence study of an extemporaneously prepared oral solution of amlodipine suitable for use in pediatric patients compared to commercial tablets. (United States)

    van der Vossen, Anna C; van der Velde, Iris; van den Meiracker, Anton H; van der Nagel, Bart C H; Koch, Birgit C P; Vulto, Arnold G; Hanff, Lidwien M


    Amlodipine, a long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, is frequently prescribed to pediatric patients. To date, no suitable pediatric formulation has been available. In this study, an amlodipine oral solution was developed and tested for bioequivalence to tablets in healthy adult volunteers. This study was designed as an open-label, single-dose, twosequence, two-period, crossover trial to assess the bioequivalence of a newly developed amlodipine besylate oral solution 0.5 mg/mL compared to Norvasc® 5 mg tablets. 13 adult subjects (mean [standard deviation] age of 23.2 [3.6] years, weight 71.5 [7.7] kg) were included and blood samples were collected for 72 hours. Amlodipine plasma levels were determined using a validated UPLC-MS/MS assay. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the formulations according to European Medicines Agency (EMA) bioequivalence guidelines. The 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference ratios of the geometric means for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-72) (88.24 - 104.37%) and C(max) (99.00 - 121.40%) were within the acceptance range of 80.00 - 125.00% for bioequivalence. Mean (SD) AUC(0-72) was 102.7 (26.8) (26.8) μg × h/L for the solution and 108.2 (30.6) μg × h/L for the tablet. Mean (SD) Cmax of the solution was 3.11(1.06) μg/L with a median (IQR) t(max) of 4.0 (2.6 - 7.5) hours. Mean (SD) C(max) of the tablet was 2.91 (0.84) μg/L with a median (IQR) tmax of 6.0 (4.0 - 14.0) hours. Intrasubject coefficients of variation were 10.2% (AUC(0-72)) and 12.4% (C(max)). The formulations are bioequivalent according to EMA guidelines. This warrants further study of our novel amlodipine oral solution in pediatric patients.

  4. Addressing Canada's Commercialization Crisis and Shortage of Venture Capital: Will the Federal Government’s Solution Work?

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    Stephen A. Hurwitz


    Full Text Available Lack of funding is a major challenge to innovation in Canada’s emerging technology industry. This article will focus on this supply-side challenge within the complex venture capital ecosystem and discuss: i the current shortage of venture capital available to commercialize Canada’s R&D; ii the causes and consequences of that venture capital shortage; iii how the federal government will address this shortage through its innovative 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan, which commits $400 million and seeks to raise at least another $800 million from outside investors; and iv how a separate decision in the federal 2013 budget to phase out federal tax credits for labour-sponsored venture capital funds could imperil the 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan.

  5. Molecular interaction of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) with human serum albumin (HSA): The spectroscopic, calorimetric and computational investigation (United States)

    Pragna Lakshmi, T.; Mondal, Moumita; Ramadas, Krishna; Natarajan, Sakthivel


    Drug molecule interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) affects the distribution and elimination of the drug. The compound, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) has been known for its antimicrobial, antiviral, antihelminthic and anticancer properties. However, its interaction with HSA is not yet reported. In this study, the interaction between HSA and DAPG was investigated through steady-state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence (TRF), circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). Fluorescence spectroscopy results showed the strong quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of HSA due to interaction with DAPG, through dynamic quenching mechanism. The compound bound to HSA with reversible and moderate affinity which explained its easy diffusion from circulatory system to target tissue. The thermodynamic parameters from fluorescence spectroscopic data clearly revealed the contribution of hydrophobic forces but, the role of hydrogen bonds was not negligible according to the ITC studies. The interaction was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Binding with DAPG reduced the helical content of protein suggesting the unfolding of HSA. Site marker fluorescence experiments revealed the change in binding constant of DAPG in the presence of site I (warfarin) but not site II marker (ibuprofen) which confirmed that the DAPG bound to site I. ITC experiments also supported this as site I marker could not bind to HSA-DAPG complex while site II marker was accommodated in the complex. In silico studies further showed the lowest binding affinity and more stability of DAPG in site I than in site II. Thus the data presented in this study confirms the binding of DAPG to the site I of HSA which may help in further understanding of pharmacokinetic properties of DAPG.

  6. Systematically investigations of conformation and thermodynamics of HSA adsorbed to different sizes of CdTe quantum dots. (United States)

    Xiao, Qi; Huang, Shan; Su, Wei; Li, Peiyuan; Ma, Jianqiang; Luo, Fenping; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yi


    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have attracted great attention in biological and biomedical fields. In particular, for any potential application, the interaction of QDs with some biomolecules is much important. Herein, the interactions between QDs with different sizes and human serum albumin (HSA) were systematically investigated by UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra under the physiological conditions. Four sizes of CdTe QDs with maximum emission of 520 nm (green QDs, GQDs), 568 nm (yellow QDs, YQDs), 620 nm (red QDs, RQDs) and 680 nm (crimson QDs, CQDs) were tested. The fluorescence spectra results indicated that QDs could quench the fluorescence intensity of HSA effectively with a size-dependent relationship. The binding of QDs and HSA is a result of the formation of QDs-HSA complex and the electrostatic interaction plays a major role in stabilizing the complex. The modified Stern-Volmer quenching constants K(a) at different temperatures and corresponding thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS were calculated. The conformational changes of HSA induced by QDs have been analyzed by CD spectra, and the results indicated that the biological activity of HSA was weakened in the present of QDs with bigger size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of cultivation of OsrHSA transgenic rice on functional diversity of microbial communities in the soil rhizosphere

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    Xiaobing Zhang


    Full Text Available With the widespread cultivation of transgenic crops, there is increasing concern about unintended effects of these crops on soil environmental quality. In this study, we used the Biolog method and ELISA to evaluate the possible effects of OsrHSA transgenic rice on soil microbial utilization of carbon substrates under field conditions. There were no significant differences in average well-color development (AWCD values, Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H, Simpson dominance indices (D and Shannon–Wiener evenness indices (E of microbial communities in rhizosphere soils at eight samplings between OsrHSA transgenic rice and its non-transgenic counterpart. The main carbon sources utilized by soil microbes were carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids and polymers. The types, capacities and patterns of carbon source utilization by microbial communities in rhizosphere soils were similar throughout the detection period. We detected no OsrHSA protein in the roots of OsrHSA transgenic rice. We concluded that OsrHSA transgenic rice and the rHSA protein it produced did not alter the functional diversity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.


    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  9. Solvent induced modifications to fiber nanostructure and morphology for 12HSA molecular gels (United States)

    Gao, Jie

    Molecular organogels are thermo reversible quasi-solid materials, which are formed by low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) undergoing supramolecular aggregation via non-covalent interactions, forming a three-dimensional fibrillar network. Numerous applications of molecular organogels are been investigated as edible oils, drug release matrices and personal care products. The chemistry of the organic phase (i.e., solvent) influences every level of structure in organogels. Different solvents induce LMOG to assemble into "crystal like" fibers, which have more than one crystal form, lamellar arrangement and domain size. Differences in these solid states are known to affect the macroscopic properties of the gel, including critical gelator concentration (CGC), melting point, melting enthalpy and opacity.12-hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) was examined in several classes of organic solvents with different function groups. These gels, sols or precipitates were analyzed using a series of techniques including: powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (pNMR) and microscopy. Specifically, certain solvents caused 12HSA to self-assemble into a triclinic parallel polymorphic form with subcell spacing of ~4.6, 3.9, and 3.8 A and an interdigitated unit cell with a lamellar arrangement (38~44 A). This polymorphic form corresponded to a less effective sphereultic supramolecular crystalline network, which immobilizes solvents at CGC greater than 1.5 wt %. The other group of solvents induce a hexagonal subcell spacing (i.e., unit sub cell spacing ~4.1 A) and are arranged in a multi lamellar fashion with a unit cell greater than the bimolecular length of 12HSA (~54 A).This polymorphic form corresponds to fibrillar aggregates with a CGC less than 1 wt %.

  10. Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices. (United States)

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Youn Cheol; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ju Hyeon


    A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third.

  11. The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model wine solution and red wine. (United States)

    González-Royo, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando


    Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of interactions between platinum-/ruthenium-based anticancer agents and human serum albumin: development of HSA carrier for metal-based drugs. (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Zhang, Yao; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong


    To date, many potent metal-based anticancer drugs have been developed and many drug delivery systems have been exploited to improve the targeting and decrease the side effects of anticancer drugs. Human serum albumin (HSA) binding contributes significantly to the discovery of new drug candidates because binding of drugs to HSA strongly influences their pharmacokinetic behaviour. Moreover, HSA is widely used in the clinical setting as a drug delivery system due to its potential for improving targeting while decreasing the side effects of drugs. This review not only provides a brief outline of the properties of HSA carriers but also provides an overview of the binding and anticancer characteristics of platinum-/ruthenium-based anticancer drugs to HSA that may guide the rational designing and development of metal-based drugs and HSA-based carriers for clinical applications.

  13. MicroRNA hsa-miR-134 is a circulating biomarker for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Simoni H Avansini

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is misdiagnosed in up to 25% of patients, leading to serious and long-lasting consequences. Recently, circulating microRNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers in a number of clinical scenarios. The purpose of this study was to identify and to validate circulating microRNAs that could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure plasma levels of three candidate microRNAs in two phases of study: an initial discovery phase with 14 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, 13 with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and 16 controls; and a validation cohort constituted of an independent cohort of 65 patients with MTLE and 83 controls. We found hsa-miR-134 downregulated in patients with MTLE (p = 0.018 but not in patients with FCD, when compared to controls. Furthermore, hsa-miR-134 expression could be used to discriminate MTLE patients with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.75. To further assess the robustness of hsa-miR-134 as a biomarker for MTLE, we studied an independent cohort of 65 patients with MTLE, 27 of whom MTLE patients were responsive to pharmacotherapy, and 38 patients were pharmacoresistant and 83 controls. We confirmed that hsa-miR-134 was significantly downregulated in the plasma of patients with MTLE when compared with controls (p < 0.001. In addition, hsa-miR-134 identified patients with MTLE regardless of their response to pharmacotherapy or the presence of MRI signs of hippocampal sclerosis. We revealed that decreased expression of hsa-miR-134 could be a potential non-invasive biomarker to support the diagnosis of patients with MTLE.

  14. Down Syndrome Cognitive Phenotypes Modeled in Mice Trisomic for All HSA 21 Homologues (United States)

    Belichenko, Pavel V.; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Becker, Ann; Wagner, Grant E.; Lysenko, Larisa V.; Yu, Y. Eugene; Mobley, William C.


    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy for chromosome 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. The genomic regions on human chromosome 21 (HSA21) are syntenically conserved with regions on mouse chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 (Mmu10, Mmu16, and Mmu17). Recently, we created a genetic model of DS which carries engineered duplications of all three mouse syntenic regions homologous to HSA21. This ‘triple trisomic’ or TTS model thus represents the most complete and accurate murine model currently available for experimental studies of genotype-phenotype relationships in DS. Here we extended our initial studies of TTS mice. Locomotor activity, stereotypic and repetitive behavior, anxiety, working memory, long-term memory, and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus were examined in the TTS and wild-type (WT) control mice. Changes in locomotor activity were most remarkable for a significant increase in ambulatory time and a reduction in average velocity of TTS mice. No changes were detected in repetitive and stereotypic behavior and in measures of anxiety. Working memory showed no changes when tested in Y-maze, but deficiency in a more challenging T-maze test was detected. Furthermore, long-term object recognition memory was significantly reduced in the TTS mice. These changes were accompanied by deficient long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus, which was restored to the WT levels following blockade of GABAA receptors with picrotoxin (100 μM). TTS mice thus demonstrated a number of phenotypes characteristic of DS and may serve as a new standard by which to evaluate and direct findings in other less complete models of DS. PMID:26230397

  15. Evaluation of the effects of aging in synthetic saliva solution of both commercial and silanized Nd–Fe–B magnets for dental application

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    Fabiano, F., E-mail: [Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy); Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina (Italy); Puliafito, V.; Calabrese, L.; Borsellino, C.; Bonaccorsi, L.M.; Giordano, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy); Fabiano, V. [Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina (Italy); Cordasco, G. [Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina (Italy)


    Neodymium–iron–boron magnets are able to ensure a magnetic flux with high maximum energy product also at miniaturized size. In the past, due to their marked corrosion in saliva they were unsuccessfully implemented in orthodontic systems. Thereby, we propose a multi-layered organic–inorganic coating able to supply anticorrosion resistance, wear resistance and durability to the whole assembly. We evaluated the influence on the magnetic force of commercial nickel plated and silanized Nd–Fe–B during aging time in synthetic Fusayama saliva. Two magnets based-micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to analyze the magnetic field generated which is linked to the magnetic force. Our key results underline that the proposed hybrid coating does not affect the magnetic force of Nd–Fe–B magnets, moreover, preventing corrosion degradation in aggressive solution. Thus the limiting aspects avoiding the use of Nd–Fe–B magnets for orthodontic and prosthodontic applications can be overcome by using silane agents as surface coating.


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    Marius Sebastian Secula


    Full Text Available The present paper approaches the study of the adsorption of an acid dye on a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC. Batch experiments were conducted to study the equilibrium isotherms and kinetics of Indigo Carmine on GAC. The kinetic data were analyzed using the Lagargren, Ho, Elovich, Weber-Morris and Bangham models in order to establish the most adequate model that describes this process, and to investigate the rate of IC adsorption. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Langmuir isotherm equilibrium model and Ho kinetic model fitted best the experimental data.The effects of temperature (25 – 45 °C, initial concentration of dye (7.5 – 150 mg•L−1, GAC dose (0.02 – 1 g•L-1, particle size (2 – 7 mm in diameter, solution pH (3 – 11 on GAC adsorption capacity were established. The adsorption process is found to be favored by a neutral pH, high values of temperature and small particle sizes. The highest adsorption capacity (133.8 mg•g-1 of the GAC is obtained at 45 °C. The removal efficiency increases with GAC dose at relatively low initial concentrations of dye. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (H, standard entropy (S and standard free energy (G were evaluated. The adsorption of Indigo Carmine onto GAC is an endothermic process.

  17. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

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    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang, E-mail:


    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  18. Investigating the antagonistic action between aspirin and tamoxifen with HSA: identification of binding sites in binary and ternary drug-protein systems by spectroscopic and molecular modeling approaches. (United States)

    Pourgonabadi, Sanaz; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshid Khan


    The combination of several drugs is often necessary, especially during long-term therapy. A competitive binding of the drugs can cause a decrease of the amount of drugs actually bound to the protein and increase the biologically active fraction of the drug. The aim of this study has been to analyze the interactions of tamoxifen (TMX) and aspirin (ASA) with human serum albumin (HSA) and to evaluate the mechanism of a simultaneous binding of TMX and ASA to the protein. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the drugs on the protein fluorescence and to define the binding and quenching properties of drug-HSA complexes. The binding sites for TMX and ASA were identified in ternary structures of HSA by means of spectrofluroscence. The analysis of the fluorescence quenching of HSA in binary and ternary systems pointed at TMX and ASA having an effect on the HSA-ASA and HSA-TMX complexes. Furthermore, the results of synchronous fluorescence, resonance light scattering and circular dichroism of the binary and ternary systems showed that the binding of TMX and ASA to HSA could induce conformational changes in HSA. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of TMX and ASA during binding to HSA should be taken into account in multi-drug therapy, as it induces the necessity of a monitoring therapy owing to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic effects. Competitive site marker experiments demonstrated that the binding site of ASA and TMX to HSA differed in the binary system as opposed to in its ternary counterpart. Finally, molecular modeling of the possible binding sites of TMX and ASA in binary and ternary systems to HSA confirmed the experimental results.

  19. Binding affinity of tea catechins for HSA: characterization by high-performance affinity chromatography with immobilized albumin column. (United States)

    Ishii, Takeshi; Minoda, Kanako; Bae, Min-Jung; Mori, Taiki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Ichikawa, Tatsuya; Aihara, Yoshiyuki; Furuta, Takumi; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Kan, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Tsutomu


    Catechins are the major polyphenols in green tea leaves. Recent studies have suggested that the catechins form complexes with HSA for transport in human blood, and their binding affinity for albumin is believed to modulate their bioavailability. In this study, the binding affinities of catechins and their analogs were evaluated and the relationship between the chemical structure of each catechin and its binding property were investigated. Comparing these catechins by HPLC analysis with the HSA column, we showed that galloylated catechins have higher binding affinities with HSA than non-galloylated catechins. In addition, pyrogallol-type catechins have a high affinity compared to catechol-type catechins. Furthermore, the binding affinity of the catechin with 2,3-trans structure was higher than those of the catechin with 2,3-cis structure. The importance of the hydroxyl group on the galloyl group and B-ring was confirmed using methylated catechins. These results indicate that the most important structural element contributing to HSA binding of tea catechins is the galloyl group, followed by the number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring and the galloyl group or the configuration at C-2. Our findings provide fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of tea catechins and its biological activity.

  20. Lack of association between Hsa-Mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer risk: meta-analysis findings. (United States)

    Jiang, Sheng-Gao; Chen, Lin; Tang, Jin-Hai; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zhong, Shan-Liang


    Epidemiologic findings concerning the association between the hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 A>G polymorphism and cancer risk have yielded mixed results. We aimed to investigate the association by performing a meta-analysis of all available studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies published up to November 2014, using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of any association. The Benjamini- Hochberg (BH) method was used to correct the p values for multiple comparisons. We included 39 studies, including 14,136 cases and 16,937 controls. The results of overall meta-analysis suggested a borderline association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility (AG+GG vs. AA: OR=1.15, 95% CI= 1.04-1.26, corrected p value=0.04). After removing studies not conforming to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), however, this association disappeared (AG+GG vs AA: OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.03-1.34, corrected p value=0.21). When stratified analysis by ethnicity, cancer type or HWE in controls, although some associations between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility were detected, these associations no longer existed after adjustment using BH method. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 A>G polymorphism is not associated with risk of cancer based on current evidence.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Bi2O3/HSA core-shell nanoparticles for X-ray imaging applications. (United States)

    Aviv, Hagit; Bartling, Soenke; Grinberg, Igor; Margel, Shlomo


    Bismuth oxide nanoparticles of 12.1 ± 3.0 nm diameter were prepared by thermal decomposition of bismuth acetate dissolved in ethylene glycol in the presence of an oxidizing agent. Functionalization and stabilization of the hydrophobic Bi(2)O(3) nanoparticles was accomplished by coating these core nanoparticles with human serum albumin (HSA), via a precipitation process. The formed Bi(2)O(3)/HSA core-shell nanoparticles were of 15.2 ± 3.5 nm diameter. Elemental analysis measurements indicated that the bismuth weight % of the Bi(2)O(3)/HSA core-shell nanoparticles is 72.9. The crystalline structure of these nanoparticles was examined by XRD. The radiopacity of these nanoparticles was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo by a CT scanner. In ovo and in vivo trials proved the safety of these Bi(2)O(3)/HSA core-shell nanoparticles. In the future, we plan to extend this study particularly for molecular imaging applications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Molecular interaction of ctDNA and HSA with sulfadiazine sodium by multispectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. (United States)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Liu, Guosheng; Li, Wei; Cui, Fengling


    Interactions of sulfadiazine sodium (SD-Na) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and human serum albumin (HSA) were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The fluorescence experiments showed that the processes were static quenching. The results of UV spectra and molecular modeling of the interaction between SD-Na and ctDNA indicated that the binding mode might be groove binding. In addition, the interaction of SD-Na with HSA under simulative physiological conditions was also investigated. The binding constants (K) and the number of binding sites (n) at different temperatures (292, 302, 312 K) were 5.23 × 10(3) L/mol, 2.18; 4.50 × 10(3) L/mol, 2.35; and 4.08 × 10(3) L/mol, 2.47, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated, the results suggesting that hydrophobic force played a very important role in SD-Na binding to HSA, which was in good agreement with the molecular modeling study. Moreover, the effect of SD-Na on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Crystalline products isolated from solutions with commercially available 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (dpp) as reactant: Detection of a dimerized form of dpp (United States)

    Grove, Hilde; Frøystein, Nils Åge; Sæthre, Leif J.; Sletten, Jorunn


    6, [Cu(dpp)(ox)(H 2O)]·2H 2O. In 6 the dpp ligand and oxalate are both chelating to copper in equatorial positions, and [Cu(dpp)(ox)(H 2O)] units are pair-wise connected through weak Cu⋯O (oxalate) interactions (semi-coordination). Geometry optimization through ab initio calculations gave results in good agreement with the experimental molecular geometries of dpp, dppH + and dppH22+, respectively. An energy minimum was found for the syn conformation of pyridyl rings in the monoprotonated species, conforming to the existence of the intramolecular N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond. The compounds containing dimerized dpp were minor products (of the order of 1% yield). To determine whether ddpp had been formed in the reaction mixtures, or had been present as a contaminant in the commercially available dpp, an NMR solution study was performed. Samples of dpp, 1, 3, 4 and ddpp (obtained by treating 3 with base) were investigated by 1H (all five compounds) and 13C NMR (the three former compounds) spectroscopy. The results are consistent with the presence of ddpp as a contaminant in commercially available dpp. The study also allowed us to identify the spectral changes involved in going from neutral dpp to the partial ( 4) and fully ( 1) protonated forms.

  4. MicroRNAs hsa-miR-99b, hsa-miR-330, hsa-miR-126 and hsa-miR-30c: Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Natural Killer (NK Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME.

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    Robert D Petty

    Full Text Available Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS/ME is a complex multisystem disease of unknown aetiology which causes debilitating symptoms in up to 1% of the global population. Although a large cohort of genes have been shown to exhibit altered expression in CFS/ME patients, it is currently unknown whether microRNA (miRNA molecules which regulate gene translation contribute to disease pathogenesis. We hypothesized that changes in microRNA expression in patient leukocytes contribute to CFS/ME pathology, and may therefore represent useful diagnostic biomarkers that can be detected in the peripheral blood of CFS/ME patients.miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from CFS/ME patients and healthy controls was analysed using the Ambion Bioarray V1. miRNA demonstrating differential expression were validated by qRT-PCR and then replicated in fractionated blood leukocyte subsets from an independent patient cohort. The CFS/ME associated miRNA identified by these experiments were then transfected into primary NK cells and gene expression analyses conducted to identify their gene targets.Microarray analysis identified differential expression of 34 miRNA, all of which were up-regulated. Four of the 34 miRNA had confirmed expression changes by qRT-PCR. Fractionating PBMC samples by cell type from an independent patient cohort identified changes in miRNA expression in NK-cells, B-cells and monocytes with the most significant abnormalities occurring in NK cells. Transfecting primary NK cells with hsa-miR-99b or hsa-miR-330-3p, resulted in gene expression changes consistent with NK cell activation but diminished cytotoxicity, suggesting that defective NK cell function contributes to CFS/ME pathology.This study demonstrates altered microRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CFS/ME patients, which are potential diagnostic biomarkers. The greatest degree of miRNA deregulation was identified in NK cells with targets consistent with

  5. MicroRNAs hsa-miR-99b, hsa-miR-330, hsa-miR-126 and hsa-miR-30c: Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Natural Killer (NK) Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). (United States)

    Petty, Robert D; McCarthy, Neil E; Le Dieu, Rifca; Kerr, Jonathan R


    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS/ME) is a complex multisystem disease of unknown aetiology which causes debilitating symptoms in up to 1% of the global population. Although a large cohort of genes have been shown to exhibit altered expression in CFS/ME patients, it is currently unknown whether microRNA (miRNA) molecules which regulate gene translation contribute to disease pathogenesis. We hypothesized that changes in microRNA expression in patient leukocytes contribute to CFS/ME pathology, and may therefore represent useful diagnostic biomarkers that can be detected in the peripheral blood of CFS/ME patients. miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from CFS/ME patients and healthy controls was analysed using the Ambion Bioarray V1. miRNA demonstrating differential expression were validated by qRT-PCR and then replicated in fractionated blood leukocyte subsets from an independent patient cohort. The CFS/ME associated miRNA identified by these experiments were then transfected into primary NK cells and gene expression analyses conducted to identify their gene targets. Microarray analysis identified differential expression of 34 miRNA, all of which were up-regulated. Four of the 34 miRNA had confirmed expression changes by qRT-PCR. Fractionating PBMC samples by cell type from an independent patient cohort identified changes in miRNA expression in NK-cells, B-cells and monocytes with the most significant abnormalities occurring in NK cells. Transfecting primary NK cells with hsa-miR-99b or hsa-miR-330-3p, resulted in gene expression changes consistent with NK cell activation but diminished cytotoxicity, suggesting that defective NK cell function contributes to CFS/ME pathology. This study demonstrates altered microRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CFS/ME patients, which are potential diagnostic biomarkers. The greatest degree of miRNA deregulation was identified in NK cells with targets consistent with cellular activation

  6. Toxicity of CdTe QDs with different sizes targeted to HSA investigated by two electrochemical methods. (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Qiang; Lai, Lu; Li, Dong-Wei; Li, Ran; Xiang, Chen; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Sun, Shao-Fa; Liu, Yi


    QDs have large scale application in many important areas with potential of unintentional exposure to the environment or organism during processing of a nanotechnology containing product's life cycle. In this paper, two classical electrochemical methods, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were applied to investigate the influence of particle sizes of CdTe QDs on their toxicity targeted to human serum albumin (HSA) under simulative physiological conditions. The results show that the toxicity of yellow emitting QDs (YQDs) on HSA is slightly stronger than that of the green-emitting (GQDs) and red-emitting QDs (RQDs). We also compared these two classical electrochemical methods with the traditional fluorescence spectroscopy through the above results. The electrochemical methods may be more accurate and comprehensive to investigate the toxicity of QDs at the biomacromolecular level under certain conditions, though fluorescence spectroscopy is simpler and more sensitive.

  7. Maturational timing does not predict HSA estimated adult bone geometry at the proximal femur. (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Kontulainen, Saija A; Cooper, David M L; Lanovaz, Joel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G


    Late maturational timing is documented to be detrimental to bone strength primarily at the distal radius. Studies at the proximal femur have focused on bone mass and the results remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the long term relationship between the onset of maturation and the development of estimated cross sectional area (CSA) and section modulus (Z) at the proximal femur. Two hundred and twenty six individuals (108 males and 118 females) from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were classified into maturity groups based on age of attainment of peak height velocity. CSA and Z were serially assessed at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT) and proximal shaft (S) sites using hip structural analysis (HSA). Multilevel models were constructed to examine the development of CSA and Z by maturity group. Cross sectional observations indicated that during adolescence, early maturing males had significantly greater CSA and Z than late maturing males at all sites of the proximal femur, while early maturing females had greater Z at the NN and S, and greater CSA at the NN, IT and S sites compared to late maturing females. When age, body size, body composition, physical activity and dietary intake were controlled no significant effects of maturational timing were found at the NN, IT or S regions (p>0.05) in either males or females. In this population of healthy individuals there appears to be no effect of the onset of maturation on estimated CSA and Z development at the proximal femur in both males and females. This may be a result of the proximal femur's loading environment. Future research is required to determine the role of loading on the relationship between maturational timing and bone structure and strength development at the proximal femur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Upregulation of miRNA hsa-miR-342-3p in experimental and idiopathic prion disease

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    Hunsmann Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in the brains of BSE-infected cynomolgus macaques as a model for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression by mRNA targeting. Among other functions they contribute to neuronal development and survival. Recently, the lack of miRNA processing has been shown to promote neurodegeneration and deregulation of several miRNAs has been reported to be associated with Scrapie in mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that miRNAs are also regulated in response to human prion disease. We have applied miRNA-microarrays to identify deregulated miRNA candidates in brains of BSE-infected macaques. Shock-frozen brain sections of six BSE-infected and five non-infected macaques were used to validate regulated miRNA candidates by two independent qRT-PCR-based methods. Our study revealed significant upregulation of hsa-miR-342-3p and hsa-miR-494 in the brains of BSE-infected macaques compared to non-infected animals. In a pilot study we could show that hsa-miR-342-3p was also upregulated in brain samples of human type 1 and type 2 sporadic CJD. With respect to the reported regulation of this miRNA in Scrapie-infected mice, we propose that upregulation of hsa-miR-342-3p may be a general phenomenon in late stage prion disease and might be used as a novel marker for animal and human TSEs.

  9. Rapid analysis of the interactions between drugs and human serum albumin (HSA) using high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC)


    Kim, Hee Seung; Wainer, Irving W.


    This study used a combination of zonal elution and frontal affinity chromatography on immobilized human serum albumin (HSA) high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) column to examine the association constants of various compounds that have been studied by equilibrium dialysis or ultra filtration. A standard plot was generated from retention factors of reference compounds using zonal elution chromatography against association constants of reference compounds using frontal affinity chrom...

  10. Unconditioned commercial embryo culture media contain a large variety of non-declared proteins: a comprehensive proteomics analysis. (United States)

    Dyrlund, Thomas F; Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Hindkjær, Johnny J; Kjems, Jørgen; Enghild, Jan J; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob


    Which non-declared proteins (proteins not listed on the composition list of the product data sheet) are present in unconditioned commercial embryo culture media? A total of 110 non-declared proteins were identified in unconditioned media and between 6 and 8 of these were quantifiable and therefore represent the majority of the total protein in the media samples. There are no data in the literature on what non-declared proteins are present in unconditioned (fresh media in which no embryos have been cultured) commercial embryo media. The following eight commercial embryo culture media were included in this study: G-1 PLUS and G-2 PLUS G5 Series from Vitrolife, Sydney IVF Cleavage Medium and Sydney IVF Blastocyst Medium from Cook Medical and EmbryoAssist, BlastAssist, Sequential Cleav and Sequential Blast from ORIGIO. Two batches were analyzed from each of the Sydney IVF media and one batch from each of the other media. All embryo culture media are supplemented by the manufacturers with purified human serum albumin (HSA 5 mg/ml). The purified HSA (HSA-solution from Vitrolife) and the recombinant human albumin supplement (G-MM from Vitrolife) were also analyzed. For protein quantification, media samples were in-solution digested with trypsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For in-depth protein identification, media were albumin depleted, dialyzed and concentrated before sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The gel was cut into 14 slices followed by in-gel trypsin digestion, and analysis by LC-MS/MS. Proteins were further investigated using gene ontology (GO) terms analysis. Using advanced mass spectrometry and high confidence criteria for accepting proteins (P media when the albumin is added. GO analysis showed that many of these proteins have roles in defence pathways, for example 18 were associated with the innate immune response and 17 with inflammatory responses. Eight proteins have been reported

  11. Clinical assessment of lymphoscintigraphy with intradermaly injection of [sup 99m]Tc-HSA in head and neck region

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    Nishikawa, Eiichi; Ariyoshi, Isao; Choji, Takashi; Nomura, Satoshi; Suga, Kazuyoshi; Utsumi, Hiromoto; Yamada, Norimasa; Nakanishi, Takashi (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Lymphoscintigraphy has been used for imaging of various lesions of lymphatic systems including metastases of malignant tumors, and is considered to be useful, although some limitations have been noted. We performed lymphoscintigraphy of the head and neck regions in normal subjects those with metastases of malignant tumors using [sup 99m]Tc-human serum albumin (HSA). The most prevalent number of normal lymph nodes chains was two, which was found in 79% of all normal lymphoscintigraphies. The most prevalent number of normal lymph nodes was between 1 and 5, which was found in 64.6% of all normal lymphoscintigraphies. Normal lymphoscintigraphs presented variable and pattern of distribution of lymph nodes. Because false negative rate was 56%, lymphoscintigraphy was considered to be unsuitable for the screening of lymph node metastases of malignant tumors. However, our findings suggested that lymphoscintigraphy is useful for the detection of lymphedema. We consider that lymphoscintigraphy may be better by improving the methods of injecting [sup 99m]Tc-HSA and by obtaining the image. In addition, we should reduce the particle size used because the 80 nm particle size of [sup 99m]Tc-HSA is much larger than the ideal 5 nm size for lymphoscintigraphy and is considered to impede particle motion. (author).

  12. Rapid analysis of the interactions between drugs and human serum albumin (HSA) using high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). (United States)

    Kim, Hee Seung; Wainer, Irving W


    This study used a combination of zonal elution and frontal affinity chromatography on immobilized human serum albumin (HSA) high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) column to examine the association constants of various compounds that have been studied by equilibrium dialysis or ultra filtration. A standard plot was generated from retention factors of reference compounds using zonal elution chromatography against association constants of reference compounds using frontal affinity chromatography. The linear relationship was established (r2=0.9993) between retention factors and association constants of reference compounds. This standard plot was later used for rapid determination of association constants of various drugs which show low to medium binding affinity to HSA. Association constants of those drugs from this study were compared to that of more generally used methods (i.e., equilibrium dialysis or ultra filtration) from literature and resulted in a relatively high correlation (r2=0.945) value. This combination of zonal elution and frontal affinity chromatography method for determining association constants showed several advantages against traditional methods. Depending on drugs of interest, an association constant of drug to HSA can be measured as fast as 1.5 min. Other notable advantages include an ease of automation and its ability to distinguish association constants of chiral compounds at the same time. The same approach could be used for studying interaction of other drugs and proteins and should further improve overall drug screening process.

  13. The adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on CO2 laser modified magnesia partially stabilised zirconia (MgO-PSZ). (United States)

    Hao, L; Lawrence, J


    Magnesia partially stabilised zirconia (MgO-PSZ), a bioinert ceramic, exhibits high mechanical strength, excellent corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility, but it does not naturally form a direct bond with bone resulting in a lack of osteointegration. The surface properties and structure of a biomaterial play an essential role in protein adsorption. As such, changes in the surface properties and structure of biomaterials may in turn alter their bioactivity. So, the fundamental reactions at the interface of biomaterials and tissue should influence their integration and bone-bonding properties. To this end, CO2 laser radiation was used to modify the surface roughness, crystal size, phase and surface energy of the MgO-PSZ. The basic mechanisms active in improving the surface energy were analysed and found to be the phase change and augmented surface area. The adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA), which is a non-cell adhesive protein, was compared on the untreated and CO2 laser modified MgO-PSZ. It was observed that the thickness of the adsorbed HSA decreased as the polar surface energy of the MgO-PSZ increased, indicating that HSA adsorbed more effectively on the hydrophobic MgO-PSZ surface than the hydrophilic surface. The current study provided important information regarding protein-biomaterial interactions and possible mechanisms behind the cell interaction and in vivo behaviour.

  14. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction (United States)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.


    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  15. Use of a commercially available nucleating agent to control the morphological development of solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sharenko, Alexander


    © the Partner Organisations 2014. The nucleating agent DMDBS is used to modulate the crystallization of solution-processed small molecule donor molecules in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ OPV) devices. This control over donor molecule crystallization leads to a reduction in optimized thermal annealing times as well as smaller donor molecule crystallites, and therefore more efficient devices, when using an excessive amount of solvent additive. We therefore demonstrate the use of nucleating agents as a powerful and versatile processing strategy for solution-processed, small molecule BHJ OPVs. This journal is

  16. Commercializing Patents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ted Sichelman


    .... Although more recent "prospect" theories properly recognize the importance of patent protection for commercializing inventions, they incorrectly conclude that strong, real property-like rights...

  17. Microarray profile of circular RNAs identifies hsa_circ_0014130 as a new circular RNA biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoyan; Zeng, Xiaoli; Ding, Ting; Guo, Lin; Li, Yulong; Ou, Songlei; Yuan, Hui


    Accumulating evidence has revealed that aberrant Circular RNAs (circRNAs) expression plays important roles in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. However, their role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. In this study, we first used circRNA microarrays to screen for tumour-specific circRNA candidates in between NSCLC (n = 3) and adjacent lung (n = 3) tissue. Among the circRNA expression profile, two circRNAs (hsa_circ_0014130 and hsa_circ_0016760) were selected for validation in ten pairs of NSCLC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Only hsa_circ_0014130 exhibited significantly overexpressed in NSCLC tissues (P < 0.001), which were further confirmed in another 36 matched tissue samples using qRT-PCR. Hsa_circ_0014130 expression significantly correlated with TNM stage (P = 0.001) and lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.004). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.878 (95% confidence interval = 0.804-0.951; P < 0.001), which showed good diagnostic potential. Bioinformatics platforms predicted that hsa_circ_0014130 might interact with five miRNAs and their corresponding mRNAs. Gene oncology analysis and pathway analysis revealed that hsa_circ_0014130 could participate in NSCLC development. In summary, our findings indicated that hsa_circ_0014130 could be used as a potential NSCLC biomarker and might be closely related to the carcinogenesis of NSCLC.

  18. Investigation of the mycobacterial enzyme HsaD as a potential novel target for anti-tubercular agents using a fragment-based drug design approach. (United States)

    Ryan, Ali; Polycarpou, Elena; Lack, Nathan A; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Sieg, Christian; Halman, Alice; Bhakta, Sanjib; Eleftheriadou, Olga; McHugh, Timothy D; Keany, Sebastian; Lowe, Edward D; Ballet, Romain; Abuhammad, Areej; Jacobs, William R; Ciulli, Alessio; Sim, Edith


    With the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, there is a need for new anti-tubercular drugs that work through novel mechanisms of action. The meta cleavage product hydrolase, HsaD, has been demonstrated to be critical for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and is encoded in an operon involved in cholesterol catabolism, which is identical in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. We generated a mutant strain of M. bovis BCG with a deletion of hsaD and tested its growth on cholesterol. Using a fragment based approach, over 1000 compounds were screened by a combination of differential scanning fluorimetry, NMR spectroscopy and enzymatic assay with pure recombinant HsaD to identify potential inhibitors. We used enzymological and structural studies to investigate derivatives of the inhibitors identified and to test their effects on growth of M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis. The hsaD deleted strain was unable to grow on cholesterol as sole carbon source but did grow on glucose. Of seven chemically distinct 'hits' from the library, two chemical classes of fragments were found to bind in the vicinity of the active site of HsaD by X-ray crystallography. The compounds also inhibited growth of M. tuberculosis on cholesterol. The most potent inhibitor of HsaD was also found to be the best inhibitor of mycobacterial growth on cholesterol-supplemented minimal medium. We propose that HsaD is a novel therapeutic target, which should be fully exploited in order to design and discover new anti-tubercular drugs. This article is part of a themed section on Drug Metabolism and Antibiotic Resistance in Micro-organisms. To view the other articles in this section visit © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Solution behaviour of Human Serum Albumin and GLP-1variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Pernille

    approach larger conformational changes in any part of the complex provides a limit to the method either from interface non-complementarity or a resulting shape which deviates from the SAXS data. 38 structures from Benchmark 4.0 of different difficulty levels were investigated using this approach...... and the ability of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to study proteins under diverse solution conditions. HSA is utilized in many ways in the pharmaceutical industry such as the formulations of other proteins and in particular for half-life extension of peptides, where the long half-life of up to 21 days of HSA...

  20. [Evaluation of left ventricular function using 99mTc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-human serum albumin (DTPA-HSA)]. (United States)

    Sumita, Y; Inoue, T; Oriuchi, N; Tomiyoshi, K; Sasaki, Y; Iizuka, T; Suzuki, T; Igarashi, H


    A newly developed blood pool agent 99mTc-DTPA-HSA (Japan Mediphysics, Inc.) was used for ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy. The radiopharmaceutical remained in the blood pool with disappearance half time of 420 min in a healthy subject. The gated blood pool study in the same subject clearly demonstrated contracting left ventricle and right ventricle both with planar and SPECT images. Three healthy volunteers and 14 patients were included in the study, in that gated blood pool images were successfully obtained. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) calculated by the analysis of LV volume curves correlated well with those obtained by echocardiography (US). In 11 patients with implanted pacemaker for complete atrioventricular block and sick sinus syndrome changes of LVEF were evaluated in relation to pacing rates. The mean LVEF at pacing rate of 60/min was 58.5%, which decreased to 54.4% at 100/min pacing rate. However, changes of LVEF in individual patient did not show same pattern. We conclude that 99mTc-DTPA-HSA is a convenient blood pool scanning agent which does not require time consuming labeling preparations. Stable labeling and slow blood clearance allows its use for repeat measurements of LVEF in different conditions in a patient such as with pacemaker.

  1. Synthesis, DNA/HSA Interaction Spectroscopic Studies and In Vitro Cytotoxicity of a New Mixed Ligand Cu(II) Complex. (United States)

    Gan, Qian; Fu, Xiabing; Chen, Weijiang; Xiong, Yahong; Fu, Yinlian; Chen, Shi; Le, Xueyi


    A new mixed ligand copper(II)-dipeptide complex with 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzothiazole (pbt), [Cu(Gly-L-leu)(pbt)(H2O)]·ClO4 (Gly-L-leu = Glycyl-L-leucine anion) was synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical means. The DNA binding and cleavage properties of the complex investigated by viscosity, agarose gel electrophoresis and multi-spectroscopic techniques (UV, circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence) showed that the complex was bound to CT-DNA through intercalation mode with moderate binding constant (K b = 3.132 × 10(4) M(-1)), and cleaved pBR322 DNA efficiently (~ 5 μM) in the presence of Vc, probably via an oxidative mechanism induced by •OH. Additionally, the interaction of the complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was explored by UV-visible, CD, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. The complex exhibits desired affinity to HSA through hydrophobic interaction. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the complex against three human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and A549) was evaluated by MTT assay, which showed that the complex had effective cytotoxicity and higher inhibition toward A549 cell lines with IC50 of 38.0 ± 3.2 μM.

  2. Health Savings Account Balances, Contributions, Distributions, and Other Vital Statistics, 2014: Estimates from the EBRI HSA Database. (United States)

    Fronsti, Paul


    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) maintains a wealth of data collected from various health savings account (HSA) providers. The EBRI HSA Database contains 2.9 million accounts with total assets of $5 billion as of Dec. 31, 2014. This Issue Brief is the second annual report drawing on cross-sectional data from the EBRI HSA Database. It examines account balances, individual and employer contributions, annual distributions, investment accounts, and account-owner demographics for 2014. Enrollment in HSA-eligible health plans is estimated to be about 17 million policyholders and their dependents, and it has also been estimated that there are 13.8 million accounts holding $24.2 billion in assets as of Dec. 31, 2014. Almost 4 in 5 HSAs have been opened since the beginning of 2011. The average HSA balance at the end of 2014 was $1,933, up from $1,408 at the beginning of the year. Average account balances increased with the age of the owner of the account. Account balances averaged $655 for owners under age 25 and $5,016 for owners ages 65 and older. About 6 percent of HSAs had an associated investment account. End-of-year 2014 balance averages were higher in accounts with investment assets. Thirty-seven percent of HSAs with investment assets ended 2014 with a balance of $10,000 or more, whereas only 4 percent of HSAs without investment assets had such a balance. Among HSAs with investment assets, accounts opened in 2014 ended the year with an average balance of $6,544; whereas those opened in 2005 had an average balance of $19,269 at the end of 2014. HSAs with either individual or employer contributions accounted for 70 percent of all accounts and 86 percent of the assets in 2014. Four percent of these accounts ended the year with a zero balance. On a yearly average, individuals who made contributions deposited $2,096 to their account. HSAs receiving employer contributions received $1,021 a year, on average. Four-fifths of HSAs with a contribution also had a

  3. A comparison of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of commercially pure titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and in distilled water: a fracture mechanics approach. (United States)

    Roach, Michael D; Williamson, R Scott; Thomas, Joseph A; Griggs, Jason A; Zardiackas, Lyle D


    From the results of laboratory investigations reported in the literature, it has been suggested that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms may contribute to early failures in titanium alloys that have elevated oxygen concentrations. However, the susceptibility of titanium alloys to SCC in physiological environments remains unclear. In this study, a fracture mechanics approach was used to examine the SCC susceptibility of CP titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and distilled de-ionized (DI) water, at 37°C. The study duration was 26 weeks, simulating the non-union declaration of a plated fracture. Four wedge loads were used corresponding to 86-95% of the alloy's ligament yield load. The longest cracks were measured to be 0.18 mm and 0.10 mm in Ringer's solution and DI water, respectively. SEM analysis revealed no evidence of extensive fluting and quasi-cleavage fracture features which, in literature reports, were attributed to SCC. We thus postulate that the Ringer's solution accelerated the wedge-loaded crack growth without producing the critical stresses needed to change the fracture mechanism. Regression analysis of the crack length results led to a significant best-fit relationship between crack growth velocity (independent variable) and test electrolyte, initial wedge load, and time of immersion of specimen in electrolyte (dependent variables). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of the impact of oxidative stress on the structure of human serum albumin (HSA) in terms of its binding properties (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.


    Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the course of cellular oxidative phosphorylation and by activated phagocytic cells during oxidative bursts, exceed the physiological buffering capacity and result in oxidative stress. ROS result in oxidation of serum albumin, which causes a number of structural changes in the spatial structure, may influence the binding and cause significant drug interactions, particularly in polytherapy. During the oxidation modification of amino acid residues, particularly cysteine and methionine may occur. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of oxidative stress on human serum albumin (HSA) structure and evaluate of possible alterations in the binding of the drug to oxidized human serum albumin (oHSA). HSA was oxidized by a chloramine-T (CT). CT reacts rapidly with sulfhydryl groups and at pH 7.4 the reaction was monitored by spectroscopic techniques. Modification of free thiol group in the Cys residue in HSA was quantitatively determined by the use of Ellman's reagent. Changes of albumin conformation were examined by comparison of modified (oHSA) and nonmodified human serum albumin (HSA) absorption spectra, emission spectra, red-edge shift (REES) and synchronous spectroscopy. Studies of absorption spectra indicated that changes in the value of absorbance associated with spectral changes in the region of 200-250 nm involve structural alterations in peptide backbone conformation. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy technique confirmed changes of position of tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues fluorescent band caused by CT. Moreover analysis of REES effect allowed to observe structural changes caused by CT in the region of the hydrophobic pocket containing the tryptophanyl residue. Effect of oxidative stress on binding of anti-rheumatic drugs, sulfasalazine (SSZ) and sulindac (SLD) in the high and low affinity binding sites was

  5. Unraveling the thermodynamics, binding mechanism and conformational changes of HSA with chromolyn sodium: Multispecroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking studies. (United States)

    Yasmeen, Shama; Riyazuddeen; Qais, Faizan Abul


    Cromolyn sodium is an anti-allergic drug effective for treatment in asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this project, interaction of chromolyn sodium (CS) with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by various techniques such as UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichorism (CD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) and molecular docking. The fluorescence quenching results revealed that there was static quenching mechanism in the interactions of CS with HSA. The binding constant (Kb), enthalpy change (ΔH°), entropy change (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) were calculated. The negative values of TΔS° and ΔH° obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, indicate that hydrogen bonding and van der Waal's forces played major role in the binding process and the reaction is exothermic in nature. The binding constant (Kb) was found to be in the order of 104M-1 which depicts a good binding affinity of CS towards HSA. The conformational changes in the HSA due to interaction of CS were investigated from CD and FT-IR spectroscopy. The binding site of CS in HSA was sub-domain IIA as evident from site probing experiment and molecular docking studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the interaction of C60 fullerene with human serum albumin in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Song [Vanderbilt University; Zhao, Xiongce [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Mo, Yiming [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL


    Concern about the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles, such as the prototypical nanomaterial C60 fullerene, continues to grow. While evidence continues to mount that C60 and its derivatives may pose health hazards, the specific molecular interactions of these particles with biological macromolecules require further investigation. To better understand the interaction of C60 with proteins, the protein human serum albumin (HSA) was studied in solution with C60 at C60:HSA molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 4:1. HSA is the major protein component of blood plasma and plays a role in a variety of functions, such as the maintenance of blood pH and pressure. The C60-HSA interaction was probed by a combination of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand C60-driven changes in the structure of HSA in solution. The CD spectroscopy demonstrates that the secondary structure of the protein decreases in -helical content in response to the presence of C60. Similarly, C60 produces subtle changes in the solution conformation of HSA, as evidenced by the SANS data and MD. The data do not indicate that C60 is causing a change in the oligomerization state of the protein. Taken together results demonstrate that C60 interacts with HSA, but it does not strongly perturb the structure of the protein by unfolding it or inducing aggregation, suggesting a mechanism for transporting C60 throughout the body to accumulate in various tissues.

  7. α-Mangostin Extraction from the Native Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and the Binding Mechanisms of α-Mangostin to HSA or TRF. (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lu, Xiaowang; Wang, Hongzheng; Brodelius, Peter E


    In order to obtain the biological active compound, α-mangostin, from the traditional native mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), an extraction method for industrial application was explored. A high yield of α-mangostin (5.2%) was obtained by extraction from dried mangosteen pericarps with subsequent purification on macroporous resin HPD-400. The chemical structure of α-mangostin was verified mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The purity of the obtained α-mangostin was 95.6% as determined by HPLC analysis. The binding of native α-mangostin to human serum albumin (HSA) or transferrin (TRF) was explored by combining spectral experiments with molecular modeling. The results showed that α-mangostin binds to HSA or TRF as static complexes but the binding affinities were different in different systems. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectra. The association constant of HSA or TRF binding to α-mangostin is 6.4832×105 L/mol and 1.4652×105 L/mol at 298 K and 7.8619×105 L/mol and 1.1582×105 L/mol at 310 K, respectively. The binding distance, the energy transfer efficiency between α-mangostin and HSA or TRF were also obtained by virtue of the Förster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The effect of α-mangostin on the HSA or TRF conformation was analyzed by synchronous spectrometry and fluorescence polarization studies. Molecular docking results reveal that the main interaction between α-mangostin and HSA is hydrophobic interactions, while the main interaction between α-mangostin and TRF is hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces. These results are consistent with spectral results.

  8. Comprehensive profile of differentially expressed circular RNAs reveals that hsa_circ_0000069 is upregulated and promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo J


    Full Text Available Jia-ni Guo,* Jin Li,* Chang-li Zhu,* Wan-ting Feng, Jing-xian Shao, Li Wan, Ming-de Huang, Jing-dong He Department of Medical Oncology, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Nowadays, despite great progress in cancer research, the detailed mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC are still poorly understood. Circular RNAs (circRNAs, a new star of the non-coding RNA network, have been identified as critical regulators in various cancers, including CRC. Methods and results: In this study, by using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, a novel dysregulated circRNA, hsa_circ_0000069, was found. The expression of hsa_circ_0000069 was measured in 30 paired CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high expression of hsa_circ_0000069 was observed in CRC tissues and correlated with patients’ age and tumor, node, metastasis (TNM stage (P<0.05. Furthermore, by using specifically designed siRNAs in CRC cells, a functional analysis was performed which revealed that hsa_circ_0000069 knockdown could notably inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induce G0/G1 phase arrest of cell cycle in vitro. Conclusion: This study’s findings are the first to demonstrate that hsa_circ_0000069, an important regulator in cancer progression, could be a promising target in the diagnosis and therapy in colorectal cancer. Keywords: circular RNA, colorectal cancer, regulation, hsa_circ_0000069

  9. Innovating to enhance clinical data management using non-commercial and open source solutions across a multi-center network supporting inpatient pediatric care and research in Kenya. (United States)

    Tuti, Timothy; Bitok, Michael; Paton, Chris; Makone, Boniface; Malla, Lucas; Muinga, Naomi; Gathara, David; English, Mike


    To share approaches and innovations adopted to deliver a relatively inexpensive clinical data management (CDM) framework within a low-income setting that aims to deliver quality pediatric data useful for supporting research, strengthening the information culture and informing improvement efforts in local clinical practice. The authors implemented a CDM framework to support a Clinical Information Network (CIN) using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap), a noncommercial software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools. It was used for collection of standardized data from case records of multiple hospitals' pediatric wards. R, an open-source statistical language, was used for data quality enhancement, analysis, and report generation for the hospitals. In the first year of CIN, the authors have developed innovative solutions to support the implementation of a secure, rapid pediatric data collection system spanning 14 hospital sites with stringent data quality checks. Data have been collated on over 37 000 admission episodes, with considerable improvement in clinical documentation of admissions observed. Using meta-programming techniques in R, coupled with branching logic, randomization, data lookup, and Application Programming Interface (API) features offered by REDCap, CDM tasks were configured and automated to ensure quality data was delivered for clinical improvement and research use. A low-cost clinically focused but geographically dispersed quality CDM (Clinical Data Management) in a long-term, multi-site, and real world context can be achieved and sustained and challenges can be overcome through thoughtful design and implementation of open-source tools for handling data and supporting research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  10. Transpacific Partnership (TPP Agreement. Is the commercial solution for political-military tension at the region? or Is an american strategy to diminish China influence in Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ramírez Zamudio


    several subjects, but they are members of one of the wealthiest regions in the world: Asia-Pacific and both of them attend the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC, which main goal is to establish a Free Trade Area for the 21 member economies by 2020. Unfortunately, Apec’s goal has been delayed by the lack of consensus among its members. Since 2011, the United States and other Apec Apec’s members have openly supported The Transpacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, which could be a brilliant strategy to boost the members’ economic growth through their commercial linkage in Asia-Pacific. However, the fact that China has not been invited by the U.S. to TPP poses the question of whether this strategy has intentions beyond its economic interests and seeks to diminish China’s economic political influence in Asia. If the American administration intends to exclude China from this ambitious economic integration, the Tpp’s potential will never be reached.

  11. Field efficacy and safety of fluralaner solution for administration in drinking water for the treatment of poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestations in commercial flocks in Europe. (United States)

    Thomas, Emmanuel; Chiquet, Mathieu; Sander, Björn; Zschiesche, Eva; Flochlay, Annie Sigognault


    Welfare concerns, production losses caused by Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), and widespread mite resistance to environmentally applied acaricides continue to drive an urgent need for new and effective control measures. Fluralaner is a novel systemic acaricide developed to address that need. A series of field studies was initiated to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fluralaner solution (10 mg/ml) administered in drinking water at a dose rate of 0.5 mg/kg on two occasions with a 7-day interval, for treatment of natural PRM infestations in chickens. Blinded, negative-controlled studies were completed in Europe across eight layer, two breeder, and two replacement chicken farms. At each farm, two similar flocks were housed in similar PRM-infested units (either rooms within a building, or separate buildings) varying from 550 to 100,000 birds per unit. One unit at each farm was allocated to fluralaner treatment, administered in drinking water on Days 0 and 7. One unit remained untreated. Mite traps were placed throughout each unit on Days -1, 0 or 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 or 14, then at weekly or two-weekly intervals, retrieved after 24 h and processed for mite counts. Efficacy at each farm was assessed by mean PRM count reductions from traps in treated units compared with those from control units. Production parameters and safety were also monitored. Efficacy was 95.3 to 99.8% on Day 3 and 97.8 to 100% on Day 9, thereafter remaining above 90% for 56 to 238 days after treatment initiation. Post-treatment improvement in egg-laying rate was greater by 0.9 to 12.6% in the treated group at 9 of the 10 layer or breeder farms. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Fluralaner administered at 0.5 mg/kg via drinking water twice, 7 days apart, was well tolerated and highly efficacious against the PRM in naturally infested chickens representing a range of production types and management systems. The results indicate that this novel treatment has

  12. The expression, induction and pharmacological activity of CYP1A2 are post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNA hsa-miR-132-5p. (United States)

    Chen, Yinting; Zeng, Linjuan; Wang, Yong; Tolleson, William H; Knox, Bridgett; Chen, Si; Ren, Zhen; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan; Qian, Feng; Huang, Kaihong; Liu, David; Tong, Weida; Yu, Dianke; Ning, Baitang


    Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is one of the most abundant and important drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver. However, little is known about the post-transcriptional regulation of CYP1A2, especially the mechanisms involving microRNAs (miRNAs). This study applied a systematic approach to investigate the post-transcriptional regulation of CYP1A2 by miRNAs. Candidate miRNAs targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CYP1A2 were screened in silico, resulting in the selection of sixty-two potential miRNAs for further analysis. The levels of two miRNAs, hsa-miR-132-5p and hsa-miR-221-5p, were inversely correlated with the expression of CYP1A2 mRNA transcripts in normal human liver tissue samples represented in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. The interactions between these miRNAs and cognate CYP1A2 mRNA sequences were evaluated using luciferase reporter gene studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, by which a direct interaction was confirmed involving hsa-miR-132-5p and a cognate binding site present in the CYP1A2 3'-UTR. Experiments by which hsa-miR-132-5p or random miRNA controls were introduced into HepG2, Huh-7 and HepaRG hepatic cell lines showed that only hsa-miR-132-5p suppressed the endogenous and lansoprazole-induced expression of CYP1A2, at biological activity, protein production, and mRNA transcript levels. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays showed that hsa-miR-132-5p attenuates CYP1A2-mediated, lansoprazole-enhanced, flutamide-induced hepatic cell toxicity. Results from multilayer experiments demonstrate that hsa-miR-132-5p suppresses the expression of CYP1A2 and that this suppression is able to decrease the extent of an adverse drug-drug interaction involving lansoprazole and flutamide. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. MicroRNA hsa-miR-370-3p suppresses the expression and induction of CYP2D6 by facilitating mRNA degradation (United States)

    Zeng, Linjuan; Chen, Yinting; Wang, Yong; Yu, Li-Rong; Knox, Bridgett; Chen, Jiwei; Shi, Tieliu; Chen, Si; Ren, Zhen; Guo, Lei; Wu, Yuanfeng; Liu, David; Huang, Kaihong; Tong, Weida; Yu, Dianke; Ning, Baitang


    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) participates in the metabolism of approximately 20–25% of prescribed drugs. Genetic polymorphisms influence the expression and/or activity of CYP2D6, and inter-individual differences in drug activation and elimination caused by CYP2D6 genetic variants were reported. However, little is known about the potential modulation of CYP2D6 expression by microRNAs (miRNAs). In the current study, by using in silico prediction of the stabilities of miRNA/mRNA complexes, we screened 38 miRNA candidates that may interact with the transcript of CYP2D6. An inverse correlation between the expression of miRNA hsa-miR-370-3p and the expression of CYP2D6 was observed in human liver tissue samples. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that hsa-miR-370-3p was able to directly bind to its cognate target within the coding region of the CYP2D6 transcript. The transfection of hsa-miR-370-3p mimics into the HepG2CYP2D6 cell line, a genetically modified cell line that overexpresses exogenous CYP2D6, was able to suppress the expression of CYP2D6 significantly at both mRNA and protein levels. The transfection of hsa-miR-370-3p mimics was also able to inhibit endogenous mRNA expression and/or protein production of CYP2D6 in HepaRG cells. Furthermore, in HepaRG, HepG2, and Huh7 cells, dexamethasone-induced expression of CYP2D6 was inhibited by hsa-miR-370-3p mimics. To investigate whether the miRNA mediated suppression is caused by inhibiting protein translation or promoting mRNA degradation, an actinomycin D assay was used to measure the stability of CYP2D6 transcripts. The results indicated that hsa-miR-370-3p mimics facilitated significantly the degradation of CYP2D6 mRNA. In addition, proteomics analyses of proteins isolated from the miRNA/mRNA/protein complex suggested that a group of multifunctional proteins facilitated the interaction between hsa-miR-370-3p and CYP2D6, thereby promoting mRNA degradation. PMID:28552654

  14. Downregulation of HMGA2 by the pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is dependent on hsa-let-7b expression in liver cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fazio, Pietro, E-mail: [Institute for Surgical Research, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Montalbano, Roberta [Institute for Surgical Research, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Neureiter, Daniel; Alinger, Beate [Institute of Pathology, Paracelsus Private Medical University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); Schmidt, Ansgar [Institute for Pathology, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Merkel, Anna Lena; Quint, Karl; Ocker, Matthias [Institute for Surgical Research, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)


    Inhibitors of protein deacetylases represent a novel therapeutic option for cancer diseases due to their effects on transcriptional regulation by interfering with histones acetylation and on several other cellular pathways. Recently, their ability to modulate several transcription factors and, interestingly, also co-factors, which actively participate in formation and modulation of transcription complexes was shown. We here investigate whether HMGA2 (High Mobility Group AT-2 hook), a nuclear non-histone transcriptional co-factor with known oncogenic properties, can be influenced by the novel pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in human hepatocellular carcinoma models. Panobinostat strongly downregulated HMGA2 in HepG2 and Hep3B cells; this effect was mediated by transcriptional upregulation and promotion of the maturation of the tumorsuppressor miRNA hsa-let-7b, which could inhibit HMGA2 expression via RNA interference pathways. siRNA knockdown of HMGA2 or transfection of hsa-let-7b mimicking oligonucleotides confirmed the role of HMGA2 in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. Co-incubation with panobinostat showed an additive effect on inhibition of cell proliferation using an impedance-based real-time cell analyzer. Treatment of HepG2 xenografts with panobinostat also led to a downregulation of HMGA2 in vivo. These findings show that pan-deacetylase inhibitors also modulate other signaling pathways and networks than histone modifications to influence cell fate. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Panobinostat for the treatment of liver cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Panobinostat meddles with miRNAs-dependent transcriptional and translational control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorsuppressor miRNA hsa-let-7b upregulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HMGA2 is downregulated via RNA interference pathways mediated by hsa-let-7b. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Panobinostat determines inhibition of

  15. Impact of commercial farming on household reproductive strategies in Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico. (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D; Ortega-Muñoz, Allan


    The purpose of this study was to determine if commercial agriculture can lead to changes in peasant reproductive strategies in migrant agriculturalists from Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico. The reproductive histories of 746 women from Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico were collected. The sample was first divided into women who had reproduced within or outside of Calakmul (RC and RO, respectively) and these were further subdivided into those who lived in households practicing subsistence agriculture and those who turned agriculture into a business (Household Subsistence Agricultural Strategy (HSA) and Household Commercial Agricultural Strategy (HCA), respectively). Age-specific fertility rate (ASFR) differences were compared between strategies and place of reproduction. Comparisons between interbirth interval and age at which desired fertility was reached were done with a Kaplan-Meier life table-based statistic. In both strategies, RC women increased ASFRs by reducing age at first birth, and HSA-RC women also reduced interbirth intervals. HCA women had lower ASFRs than HSA women. The latter had a natural fertility pattern while the former expressed a desire to stop reproducing at a younger age. HCA-RC women showed important fertility reductions after age 25 and HCA-RO women after age 30. Fertility reductions in households that practice commercial versus those that practice subsistence agriculture were significant. Also, a "frontier" effect was observed that increased fertility over all, but HCA households were not as influenced by it. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Study of protein-probe interaction and protective action of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate in urea-denatured HSA using charge transfer fluorescence probe methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid. (United States)

    Mahanta, Subrata; Singh, Rupashree Balia; Guchhait, Nikhil


    We have demonstrated that the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe Methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid (MDMANA) serves as an efficient reporter of the proteinous microenvironment of Human Serum Albumin (HSA). This work reports the binding phenomenon of MDMANA with HSA and spectral modulation thereupon. The extent of binding and free energy change for complexation reaction along with efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Trp-214 of HSA to MDMANA indicates strong binding between probe and protein. Fluorescence anisotropy, red edge excitation shift, acrylamide quenching and time resolved measurements corroborate the binding nature of the probe with protein and predicts that the probe molecule is located at the hydrophobic site of the protein HSA. Due to the strong binding ability of MDMANA with HSA, it is successfully utilized for the study of stabilizing action of anionic surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate to the unfolding and folding of protein with denaturant urea in concentration range 1M to 9M.

  17. Identification and characterization of polymorphisms at the HSA a1-acid glycoprotein (ORM* gene locus in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owczarek Catherine M.


    Full Text Available Human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP or orosomucoid (ORM is a major acute phase protein that is thought to play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis. Human AGP is the product of a cluster of at least two adjacent genes located on HSA chromosome 9. Using a range of restriction endonucleases we have investigated DNA variation at the locus encoding the AGP genes in a panel of healthy Caucasians. Polymorphisms were identified using BamHI, EcoRI, BglII, PvuII, HindIII, TaqI and MspI. Non-random associations were found between the BamHI, EcoRI, BglII RFLPs. The RFLPs detected with PvuII, TaqI and MspI were all located in exon 6 of both AGP genes. The duplication of an AGP gene was observed in 11% of the indiviuals studied and was in linkage disequilibrium with the TaqI RFLP. The identification and characterization of these polymorphisms will prove useful for other population and forensic studies.

  18. DIUx Commercial Solutions Opening: How to Guide (United States)


    execute OTs. Below are general guiding principles that DIUx adheres to when executing OTs via the CSO. These are not mandatory requirements, but emerging and - as yet - unsettled issue . DIUx is presently engaged with OGC to resolve these issues . Cost Sharing ​V 1.0 7 of 16...important, they are also brief - as speed is key, our evaluations are done in sentences and paragraphs, rather than pages and papers. Brevity, effective

  19. Post-processing application of chemical solutions for control of Listeria monocytogenes, cultured under different conditions, on commercial smoked sausage formulated with and without potassium lactate-sodium diacetate. (United States)

    Geornaras, Ifigenia; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N


    This study evaluated post-processing chemical solutions for their antilisterial effects on commercial smoked sausage formulated with or without 1.5% potassium lactate plus 0.05% sodium diacetate, and contaminated (approximately 3-4 log cfu/cm(2)) with 10-strain composite Listeria monocytogenes inocula prepared under various conditions. Inoculated samples were left untreated, or were immersed (2 min, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) in solutions of acetic acid (2.5%), lactic acid (2.5%), potassium benzoate (5%) or Nisaplin (0.5%, equivalent to 5000 IU/ml of nisin) alone, and in sequence (Nisaplin followed by acetic acid, lactic acid or potassium benzoate), before vacuum packaging and storage at 10 degrees C (48 days). Acetic acid, lactic acid or potassium benzoate applied alone reduced initial L. monocytogenes populations by 0.4-1.5 log cfu/cm(2), while treatments including Nisaplin caused reductions of 2.1-3.3 log cfu/cm(2). L. monocytogenes on untreated sausage formulated with antimicrobials had a lag phase duration of 10.2 days and maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) of 0.089 per day, compared to no lag phase and mu(max) of 0.300 per day for L. monocytogenes on untreated product that did not contain antimicrobials in the formulation. The immersion treatments inhibited growth of the pathogen for 4.9-14.8 days on sausage formulated without potassium lactate-sodium diacetate; however, in all cases significant (P meat processors in their efforts to select required regulatory alternatives for control of post-processing contamination in meat products.

  20. DNA and HSA interaction of Vanadium (IV), Copper (II), and Zinc (II) complexes derived from an asymmetric bidentate Schiff-base ligand: multi spectroscopic, viscosity measurements, molecular docking, and ONIOM studies. (United States)

    Dehkhodaei, Monireh; Sahihi, Mehdi; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi; Momenbeik, Fariborz


    The interaction of three complexes [Zn(II), Cu(II), and V(IV)] derived from an asymmetric bidentate Schiff-base ligand with DNA and HSA was studied using fluorescence quenching, UV-Vis spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, and computational methods [molecular docking and our Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital and molecular Mechanics (ONIOM)]. The obtained results revealed that the DNA and HSA affinities for binding of the synthesized compounds follow as V(IV) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) and Zn(II) > V(IV) > Cu(II), respectively. The distance between these compounds and HSA was obtained based on the Förster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer. Furthermore, computational molecular docking was carried out to investigate the DNA- and HSA-binding pose of the compounds. Molecular docking calculations showed that H-bond, hydrophobic, and π-cation interactions have dominant role in stability of the compound-HSA complexes. ONIOM method was utilized to investigate the HSA binding of the compounds more precisely in which molecular-mechanics method (UFF) and semi-empirical method (PM6) were selected for the low layer and the high layer, respectively. The results show that the structural parameters of the compounds changed along with binding, indicating the strong interaction between the compounds with HSA and DNA. Viscosity measurements as well as computational docking data suggest that all metal complexes interact with DNA, presumably by groove-binding mechanism.

  1. Synthesis and structure elucidation of a copper(II) Schiff-base complex: in vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and HSA binding studies. (United States)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Ahmad, Musheer; Afzal, Mohd; Zaki, Mehvash; Bharadwaj, Parimal K


    New copper(II) complex with Schiff base ligand 4-[(2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-benzoic acid (H₂L) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies which revealed that the complex 1 exist in a distorted octahedral environment. In vitro CT-DNA binding studies were performed by employing different biophysical technique which indicated that the 1 strongly binds to DNA in comparison to ligand via electrostatic binding mode. Complex 1 cleaves pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic pathway and recognizes minor groove of DNA double helix. The HSA binding results showed that ligand and complex 1 has ability to quench the fluorescence emission intensity of Trp 214 residue available in the subdomain IIA of HSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hsa_circ_0054633 in peripheral blood can be used as a diagnostic biomarker of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xuejie; Jian, Dongdong; Hao, Peiyuan; Rao, Lixin; Li, Muwei


    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the characteristic expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for pre-diabetes and T2DM. CircRNAs in the peripheral blood from six healthy individuals and six T2DM patients were collected for microarray analysis, and an independent cohort study consisting of 20 normal cases, 20 pre-diabetes patients and 20 T2DM patients was conducted to verify the five chosen circRNAs. We then tested hsa_circ_0054633 in a third cohort (control group, n = 60; pre-diabetes group, n = 63; and T2DM group, n = 64) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). In total, 489 circRNAs were discovered to be differentially expressed between the two groups, and of these, 78 were upregulated and 411 were downregulated in the T2DM group. Five circRNAs were then selected as candidate biomarkers and further verified in a second cohort. Hsa_circ_0054633 was found to have the largest area under the curve (AUC). The diagnostic capacity of hsa_circ_0054633 was tested in a third cohort. After introducing the risk factors of T2DM, the hsa_circ_0054633 AUCs for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and T2DM slightly increased from 0.751 (95% confidence interval [0.666-0.835], P 2-0.905], P diabetes and T2DM.

  3. Resonance light-scattering method for the determination of BSA and HSA with sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate or sodium lauryl sulfate. (United States)

    Liu, Rutao; Yang, Jinghe; Sun, Changxia; Wu, Xia; Li, Lei; Li, Zhengmin


    A new resonance light-scattering (RLS) assay of proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) is presented. In the medium of phosphoric acid (pH=2.6), the weak RLS of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) can be greatly enhanced by proteins, owing to interaction between the protein and the anionic surfactant and formation of an associate. The RLS intensity of the SDBS-protein system is stronger than that of the SLS-protein system under same experimental conditions. It is considered that the synergistic resonance caused by the absorption of both protein and SDBS could produce strong RLS, while absorption of protein only in the SLS system could cause relatively weak RLS. The enhanced intensity of RLS is proportional to the concentration of the protein. If SDBS is used as the probe the linear range is 7.5 x 10(-9)-1.5 x 10(-5) g mL(-1) for BSA and 1.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-5) g mL(-1) for HSA. The detection limits are 1.8 and 2.8 ng mL(-1), respectively. When SLS is used as the probe the linear range is 2.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-5) g mL(-1) and 2.5 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-5) g mL(-1) for BSA and HSA, respectively, and the detection limits are 12.8 and 21.6 ng mL(-1), respectively. The biological mimics samples are synthetic concoctions of BSA and HSA with some interferents. In these samples, the concentration of interferents is higher than the concentration normally existing in organisms. The samples were determined satisfactorily.

  4. A new ternary copper(II) complex derived from 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole and glycylglycine: synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and cleavage, antioxidation and HSA interaction. (United States)

    Fu, Xia-Bing; Lin, Zi-Hua; Liu, Hai-Feng; Le, Xue-Yi


    A new ternary copper(II)-dipeptide complex [Cu(glygly)(HPB)(Cl)]⋅2H2O (glygly=glycylglycine anion, HPB=2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole) has been synthesized and characterized. The DNA interaction of the complex was studied by spectroscopic methods, viscosity, and electrophoresis measurements. The antioxidant activity was also investigated using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay. Besides, the interaction of the complex with human serum albumin (HSA) in vitro was examined by multispectroscopic techniques. The complex partially intercalated to CT-DNA with a high binding constant (Kb=7.28×10(5) M(-1)), and cleaved pBR322 DNA efficiently via an oxidative mechanism in the presence of Vc, with the HO· and O2(-) as the active species, and the SOD as a promoter. Furthermore, the complex shows a considerable SOD-like activity with the IC50 value of 3.8386 μM. The complex exhibits desired binding affinity to HSA, in which hydrogen bond or vander Waals force played a major role. The alterations of HSA secondary structure induced by the complex were confirmed by UV-visible, CD, synchronous fluorescence and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new ternary copper(II) complex derived from 2-(2";-pyridyl)benzimidazole and glycylglycine: Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and cleavage, antioxidation and HSA interaction (United States)

    Fu, Xia-Bing; Lin, Zi-Hua; Liu, Hai-Feng; Le, Xue-Yi


    A new ternary copper(II)-dipeptide complex [Cu(glygly)(HPB)(Cl)]ṡ2H2O (glygly = glycylglycine anion, HPB = 2-(2";-pyridyl)benzimidazole) has been synthesized and characterized. The DNA interaction of the complex was studied by spectroscopic methods, viscosity, and electrophoresis measurements. The antioxidant activity was also investigated using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay. Besides, the interaction of the complex with human serum albumin (HSA) in vitro was examined by multispectroscopic techniques. The complex partially intercalated to CT-DNA with a high binding constant (Kb = 7.28 × 105 M-1), and cleaved pBR322 DNA efficiently via an oxidative mechanism in the presence of Vc, with the HO· and O2-rad as the active species, and the SOD as a promoter. Furthermore, the complex shows a considerable SOD-like activity with the IC50 value of 3.8386 μM. The complex exhibits desired binding affinity to HSA, in which hydrogen bond or vander Waals force played a major role. The alterations of HSA secondary structure induced by the complex were confirmed by UV-visible, CD, synchronous fluorescence and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy.

  6. Hsa-circRNA11783-2 in peripheral blood is correlated with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Li, Xuejie; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Jian, Dongdong; Li, Wentao; Tang, Haiyu; Li, Muwei


    The purpose of this study was to identify the expression characteristics of circular RNAs in the peripheral blood of coronary artery disease patients and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Circular RNA in the peripheral blood from 6 control individuals, 6 coronary artery disease patients, 6 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 6 coronary artery disease combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was collected for microarray analysis, and a further independent cohort consisting of 20 normal individuals, 20 type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects and 20 coronary artery disease subjects was used to verify the expression of five circular RNAs chosen for further analysis. The findings were then tested in a third cohort using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In total, 40 circular RNAs differentially expressed between the three experimental groups and the control group were identified by microarray analysis: 13 were upregulated in the experimental groups, while 27 were downregulated. Of the five circular RNAs chosen for further analysis, three were significantly downregulated in the experimental groups. The crude odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios of hsa-circRNA11783-2 showed significant differences in both the coronary artery disease group and type 2 diabetes mellitus group. We then verified hsa-circRNA11783-2 in the third cohort, and it remained closely related to both coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hsa-circRNA11783-2 is closely related to both coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Commercial applications (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  8. New cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of benzyl carbazate Schiff bases: Syntheses, crystal structures, in vitro DNA and HSA binding studies. (United States)

    Nithya, Palanivelu; Helena, Sannasi; Simpson, Jim; Ilanchelian, Malaichamy; Muthusankar, Aathi; Govindarajan, Subbiah


    In the present study, new Schiff base complexes with the composition [M(NCS)2(L1)2]·nH2O, where M=Co (n=0) (1) and Ni (n=2) (2); [M(NCS)2(L2)2], M=Co (3) and Ni (4) as well as [M(NCS)2(L3)2], M=Co (5) and Ni (6); (L1=benzyl 2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarboxylate, L2=benzyl 2-(butan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarboxylate and L3=benzyl 2-(pentan-3-ylidene)hydrazinecarboxylate) have been synthesized by a template method. The complexes were characterised by analytical methods, spectroscopic studies, thermal and X-ray diffraction techniques. The structures of all the complexes explore that the metal(II) cation has a trans-planar coordination environment, the monomeric units containing a six-coordinated metal center in octahedral geometry with N-bound isothiocyanate anions coordinated as terminal ligands. Furthermore, the binding of the two Schiff base ligands to the metal centers involves the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen in mutually trans configuration. The binding interactions of all the complexes with Calf thymus-deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated using absorption and emission spectral techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of these complexes reveal that they bind to CT-DNA through a partial intercalation mode and the binding constant values were calculated using the absorption and emission spectral data. The binding constant values (~10×10(6)moldm(-3)) indicate strong binding of metal complexes with CT-DNA. HSA binding interaction studies showed that the cobalt and nickel complexes can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through static quenching process. Also, molecular docking studies were supported out to apprehend the binding interactions of these complexes with DNA and HSA which offer new understandings into the experimental model observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy. (United States)

    Brahams, D


    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  10. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  11. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor.

  12. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies (United States)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil


    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  13. Determination of rate constants and equilibrium constants for solution-phase drug-protein interactions by ultrafast affinity extraction. (United States)

    Zheng, Xiwei; Li, Zhao; Podariu, Maria I; Hage, David S


    A method was created on the basis of ultrafast affinity extraction to determine both the dissociation rate constants and equilibrium constants for drug-protein interactions in solution. Human serum albumin (HSA), an important binding agent for many drugs in blood, was used as both a model soluble protein and as an immobilized binding agent in affinity microcolumns for the analysis of free drug fractions. Several drugs were examined that are known to bind to HSA. Various conditions to optimize in the use of ultrafast affinity extraction for equilibrium and kinetic studies were considered, and several approaches for these measurements were examined. The dissociation rate constants obtained for soluble HSA with each drug gave good agreement with previous rate constants reported for the same drugs or other solutes with comparable affinities for HSA. The equilibrium constants that were determined also showed good agreement with the literature. The results demonstrated that ultrafast affinity extraction could be used as a rapid approach to provide information on both the kinetics and thermodynamics of a drug-protein interaction in solution. This approach could be extended to other systems and should be valuable for high-throughput drug screening or biointeraction studies.

  14. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Commercial Refrigeration (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in commercial refrigeration. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  15. Ru/Fe bimetallic complexes: Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and study of their interactions with DNA/HSA and human topoisomerase IB. (United States)

    Takarada, Jessica E; Guedes, Adriana P M; Correa, Rodrigo S; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de P; Castelli, Silvia; Iacovelli, Federico; Deflon, Victor Marcelo; Batista, Alzir Azevedo; Desideri, Alessandro


    Three ruthenium/iron-based compounds, 1: [Ru(MIm)(bipy)(dppf)]PF 6 (MIm = 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole anion), 2: [RuCl(Im)(bipy)(dppf)]PF 6 (Im = imidazole), and 3: [Ru(tzdt)(bipy)(dppf)]PF 6 (tzdt = 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione anion) (dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphine)ferrocene and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine), were synthesized, and characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity, UV/Vis, IR, 1 H, 13 C and 31 P{1H} NMR spectroscopies, and by electrochemical technique. The complex 3 was also characterized by single-crystal X-ray. The three ruthenium(II) complexes show cytotoxicity against DU-145 (prostate carcinoma cells) and A549 (lung carcinoma cells) tumor cells. The free ligands do not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, such as evident by the IC 50 values higher than 200 μM. UV/Vis and viscosity experiments showed that the complexes interact weakly with the DNA molecule, via electrostatic forces. The interaction of the complexes 1-3 with the HSA is moderate, with K b values in range of 10 5 -10 7  M -1 , presenting a static mechanism of interaction stabilized by hydrophobic. Complexes 2 and 3 showed high affinity for the FA7 HSA site as evidenced by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking. Complexes 1-3 were tested as potential human Topoisomerase IB inhibitors by analysing the different steps of the enzyme catalytic cycle. The results indicate that all compounds efficiently inhibit the DNA relaxation and the cleavage reaction, in which the effect increases upon pre-incubation. Complexes 1 and 2 are also able to slow down the religation reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  17. Commercial users panel (United States)

    Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.


    The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

  18. On commercial media bias


    Germano, Fabrizio


    Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strongest ef...

  19. Fighting “zombie” health apps through K-Factor virality and other mobile gaming techniques – The application of commercial gaming techniques to create more effective mHealth solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorcha Moore


    By engaging certain commercial techniques of mobile apps, we can deliver more effective digital health programmes through the ability to identify our goals and methods of measurement. At present, the Knowsley app is still being developed, and using this approach and framework we are better able to identify goals, plan measurement of performance of the programme and continually improve via user feedback. With Health and Fitness apps representing just 2.9% of the Apple app store alone (sourced via Statista in September 2015 there is untapped potential to effect positive behaviour change for health at significant scale.

  20. Influence of microstructure in corrosion behavior of an Inconel 600 commercial alloy in 0.1 M sodium thiosulfate solution; Influencia de la microestructura en el comportamiento a la corrosion de una aleacion comercial Inconel 600 en solucion de Tiosulfato de sodio 0.1 M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, J.; Rodriguez, F.J.; Arganis, C. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The Inconel 600 is used in diverse components of BWR and PWR type reactors, where diverse cases of intergranular stress corrosion have been presented. It has been reported susceptibility to the corrosion of this alloy, in presence of thiosulfates, which come from the degradation of the ion exchange resins of water treatments that use the reactors. The objective of this work is to study the influence of metallurgical condition in the corrosion velocity of Inconel 600 commercial alloy, in a 0.1 M thiosulfates solution. (Author)

  1. Synthesis and crystal structure elucidation of new copper(II)-based chemotherapeutic agent coupled with 1,2-DACH and orthovanillin: Validated by in vitro DNA/HSA binding profile and pBR322 cleavage pathway. (United States)

    Zaki, Mehvash; Afzal, Mohd; Ahmad, Musheer; Tabassum, Sartaj


    New copper(II)-based complex (1) was synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The in vitro binding studies of complex 1 with CT DNA and HSA have been investigated by employing biophysical techniques to examine the binding propensity of 1 towards DNA and HSA. The results showed that 1 avidly binds to CT DNA via electrostatic mode along with the hydrogen bonding interaction of NH2 and CN groups of Schiff base ligand with the base pairs of DNA helix, leads to partial unwinding and destabilization of the DNA double helix. Moreover, the CD spectral studies revealed that complex 1 binds through groove binding interaction that stabilizes the right-handed B-form of DNA. Complex 1 showed an impressive photoinduced nuclease activity generating single-strand breaks in comparison with the DNA cleavage activity in presence of visible light. The mechanistic investigation revealed the efficiency of 1 to cleave DNA strands by involving the generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the time dependent DNA cleavage activity showed that there was gradual increase in the amount of NC DNA on increasing the photoexposure time. However, the interaction of 1 and HSA showed that the change of intrinsic fluorescence intensity of HSA was induced by the microenvironment of Trp residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation for the determination of biuret in water-soluble, urea-based commercial inorganic fertilizer materials, urea solutions, and sulfur-coated urea products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation of an extension of AOAC official methods 2003.14. (United States)

    Hojjatie, Michael M; Abrams, Dean


    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study for the LC determination of biuret in dry and liquid urea-based commercial fertilizers was conducted. A total of 23 samples were used: 11 commercial dry urea products, two urea ammonium nitrate products, eight liquid urea-based commercial fertilizers, and four sulfur-coated urea samples from different sources. In addition, one biuret standard from Aldrich and one sample from the Magruder check sample program were used as validation samples. The proposed method is an extension of AOAC Official Method 2003.14 and is based on dissolution of the test portion in the LC mobile phase and determination by HPLC. The system is linear over a concentration range of 1.00-4.50 mg/L biuret, with a correlation coefficient > or = 0.9999. The biuret was well- separated from urea in the commercial urea samples, and from other constituents in the commercial liquid fertilizer with no observed interferences. Recoveries were determined by spiking four of the validation materials with a known amount of biuret standard and measuring the biuret level according to the method. The averaged recovery was 97%. Method precision was determined by quadruplicate analyses of four of the liquid and six of the commercially available dry urea validation materials using three and four replicate analyses. For the liquid fertilizer analyses, the RSD ranged from 7.04 to 13.31%. For the dry urea analyses, the RSDs ranged from 5.68 to 14.34%. Instrument precision was evaluated at the test initiation by using seven injections of five biuret standard solutions. SD varied from 0.27 to 1.02%, with RSDs averaging 1.14%. The LOD was determined to be 0.009% biuret in material, while the LOQ was determined to be 0.031% biuret in material. In addition to the intralaboratory study, interlaboratory studies were performed by two other outside laboratories using this method. Over a concentration range of 0.2 to 0.9% biuret, the average SD was 0.11%, the average RSD was 21

  3. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...... definitions and interpretations of commercialization. We offer a process-oriented definition of commercialization that is theoretically founded in the capability-based view of the firm. We also outline an agenda for future theoretical development and empirical research on commercialization aimed at advancing...

  4. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA-HSA lymphoscintigraphy in lymphedema of the lower extremities. Diagnostic significance of dynamic study and muscular exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    The efficacy of lymphoscintigraphy was evaluated in 25 cases to clarify the diagnostic significance of dynamic study and muscular exercise in the diagnosis of lymphedema. {sup 99m}Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-human serum albumin (DTPA-HSA) was injected subcutaneously, and dynamic imaging was performed in 18 cases. Thirteen patients were asked to walk for 3 minutes. Qualitative evaluation of static images had sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 97%. Diagnostic criteria including qualitative evaluation of dynamic images were less specific (sensitivity 95%, specificity 76%). Interpretation of static images obtained at one hour after injection in the patients without muscular exercise had sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 67%, whereas sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 100% in the patients with muscular exercise. Lympho-scintigraphy was reliable in diagnosis of lymphedema. Dynamic study was limited usefulness because of some false-positive cases. Muscular exercise accelerated migration of the tracer in normal extremities, and improved positive predictive value. (author)

  5. Human microRNA hsa-miR-125a-5p interferes with expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (United States)

    Potenza, Nicoletta; Papa, Umberto; Mosca, Nicola; Zerbini, Francesca; Nobile, Valentina; Russo, Aniello


    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, playing a crucial role in cell differentiation and development. Recently, some reports have shown that a limited number of mammalian microRNAs are also involved in anti-viral defense. In this study, the analysis of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome by the computer program MiRanda led to the identification of seven sites that are potential targets for human liver microRNAs. These sites were found to be clustered in a 995-bp segment within the viral polymerase ORF and the overlapping surface antigen ORF, and conserved among the most common HBV subtypes. The HBV genomic targets were then subjected to a validation test based on cultured hepatic cells (HepG2, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) and luciferase reporter genes. In this test, one of the selected microRNAs, hsa-miR-125a-5p, was found to interact with the viral sequence and to suppress the reporter activity markedly. The microRNA was then shown to interfere with the viral translation, down-regulating the expression of the surface antigen. Overall, these results support the emerging concept that some mammalian microRNAs play a role in virus-host interaction. Furthermore, they provide the basis for the development of new strategies for anti-HBV intervention. PMID:21317190

  6. Commercialization of New Beam Applications (United States)

    McKeown, Joseph


    The commercialization of electron processing applications is driven by demonstrated technical advantages over current practice. Mature and reliable accelerator technology has permitted more consistent product quality and the development of new processes. However, the barriers to commercial adoption are often not amenable to solution within the laboratory alone. Aspects of the base accelerator technology, plant engineering, production, project management, financing, regulatory control, product throughput and plant operational efficiency all contribute to the business risk. Experiences in building three 10 MeV, 50 kW, IMPELA electron accelerators at approximately 8 M each and achieving cumulative operational availability greater than 98% in commercial environments have identified key parameters defining those aspects. The allowed ranges of these parameters to generate the 1.5 M annual revenue that is typically necessary to support outlays of this scale are presented. Such data have been used in proposals to displace expensive chemicals in the viscose industry, sterilize sewage sludge, detoxify chemically contaminated soils and build radiation service centers for a diversity of applications. The proposals face stiff competition from traditional chemical methods. Quantitative technical and business details of these activities are provided and an attempt is made to establish realistic expectations for the exploitation of electron beam technologies in emerging applications.

  7. Commercial applications of ferrofluids (United States)

    Raj, K.; Moskowitz, R.


    Ferrofluids have been in the commercial arena for over two decades. In this paper, the most advanced, successful commercial applications of ferrofluids are discussed. These applications center around the tribological characteristics of ferrofluids, e.g., sealing, damping and hydrodynamic bearings. Also, an account of some lesser known applications is presented.

  8. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam


    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how suc...

  9. Hemogasometria em cães com desidratação experimental tratados com soluções eletrolíticas comerciais administradas por via intravenosa Blood gas analysis in dogs with experimental dehidration treated with commercial electrolytes solutions by intravenous route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dantas Ribeiro Filho


    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram comparados os efeitos da administração intravenosa de três soluções eletrolíticas comerciais sobre o equilíbrio ácido-base em cães desidratados experimentalmente por restrição hídrica e poliúria. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em três grupos e tratados com três diferentes soluções eletrolíticas comerciais durante 12 horas: Ringer com lactato de sódio (RL, Ringer simples (RS e Glicofisiológico (GF. Entre os tratamentos testados, a fluidoterapia intravenosa com solução de Ringer com lactato de sódio (RL foi o tratamento que apresentou efeito alcalinizante, sinalizado por pequeno aumento nos valores do pH(a, cHCO3(aP, ctCO2(aP e cBase(a, podendo ser utilizada no tratamento de animais com acidose metabólica de intensidade discreta a moderada. As soluções Ringer simples (RS e glicofisiológica (GF determinaram discreta diminuição na concentração de base titulável do sangue arterial (cBase, demonstrando efeito acidificante, o que as tornam uma opção para tratar cães com alcalose metabólica.Three commercial intravenous electrolyte solutions were compared as for their effects on the blood acid-base status in dogs experimentally dehydrated by withholding water and inducing polyuria. Animals were randomly divided into three groups which were rehydrated with the following commercial electrolyte solutions during 12 hours: Lactate Ringer´s solution (RL, Ringer´s solution (RS and a normal saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride containing 5% dextrose (GF. The RL´s intravenous fluid therapy resulted in an alkalinizing effect demonstrated by a mild increase in arterial blood pH, ctCO2, bicarbonate (cHCO-3, and arterial blood base concentration (cBase and, thus, can be used in animals exhibiting mild to moderate metabolic acidosis. In contrast, the RS and GF therapies led to a mild decrease in the concentration of arterial blood tritiable base (cBase inducing an acidifying effect, which


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.


    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  11. Structure and thermodynamics of nonideal solutions of colloidal particles. Investigation of salt-free solutions of human serum albumin by using small-angle neutron scattering and Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, B.; Mortensen, K.


    Carlo simulation, to study salt-free solutions of human serum albumin (HSA) in the concentration range up to 0.26 g ml(-1). The model calculations of the theoretical SANS intensities are quite general, thus avoiding the approximation that the relative positions and orientations of the particles...... (several powers of ten) already at fairly low concentrations; the effects are comparable to, or even larger than, for instance hydrophobic or van der Waals interaction. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  12. Arginine and lysine reduce the high viscosity of serum albumin solutions for pharmaceutical injection. (United States)

    Inoue, Naoto; Takai, Eisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro


    Therapeutic protein solutions for subcutaneous injection must be very highly concentrated, which increases their viscosity through protein-protein interactions. However, maintaining a solution viscosity below 50 cP is important for the preparation and injection of therapeutic protein solutions. In this study, we examined the effect of various amino acids on the solution viscosity of very highly concentrated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) at a physiological pH. Among the amino acids tested, l-arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl) and l-lysine hydrochloride (LysHCl) (50-200 mM) successfully reduced the viscosity of both BSA and HSA solutions; guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), NaCl, and other sodium salts were equally as effective, indicating the electrostatic shielding effect of these additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that BSA is in its native state even in the presence of ArgHCl, LysHCl, and NaCl at high protein concentrations. These results indicate that weakened protein-protein interactions play a key role in reducing solution viscosity. ArgHCl and LysHCl, which are also non-toxic compounds, will be used as additives to reduce the solution viscosity of concentrated therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The integration of activities, the business processes as well as their optimization, bring the perspective of profitable growth and create significant and competitive advantages in any company. The adoption of some ERP integrated software solutions, from SMEs’ perspective, must be considered as a very important management decision in medium and long term. ERP solutions, along with the transparent and optimized management of all internal processes, also offer an intra and inter companies collaborative platform, which allows a rapid expansion of activities towards e- business and mobile-business environments. This material introduces ERP solutions for SMEs from commercial offer and open source perspective; the results of comparative analysis of the solutions on the specific market, can be an useful aid to the management of the companies, in making the decision to integrate business processes, using ERP as a support.

  14. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics. (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott M


    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  15. Commercial Landing System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  16. Commercial Manure Applicators (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  17. Regional hydrothermal commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This plan for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Region articulates the complete range of initiatives (federal, state, local, and industrial) required for the early commercialization of the regions geothermal resources. (MHR)

  18. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.



    Ana-Maria Florea; Constantin Giurca


    The contract is a legal instrument used to organize economic and social life. International trade agreement has certain features in order to ensure the international exchange of goods and services between the Contracting Parties. In terms of commercial contract, there is a foreign origin element, that gives the parties the right to determine the law to govern the contract. A fundamental aspect of commercial contract, in addition to that of determining the law applicable to judicial report est...

  20. Commodification and commercial surrogacy. (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J


    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  1. ERC commercialization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  2. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates, Biomedical Experiments (United States)


    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. A number of Liquids Mixing Apparatus (LMA) syringes like this one will be used in the experiments. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  3. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde


    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  4. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  5. Commercial Crew Medical Ops (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard


    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  6. Commercial applications of telemedicine (United States)

    Natiello, Thomas A.


    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  7. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  8. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.


    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  9. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.


    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  10. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.


    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  11. Commercialization of innovative technologies in agroecology: Problems and solutions


    Raushan Ramazanova


    Efficient use of natural resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is impossible without economic optimization and stabilization of agro ecosystems at the present stage of development of agriculture. Sustainable agricultural production is highly dependent on the rational use of land and soil fertility status, which are associated with the function of maintaining life of plant organisms. The ever-increasing burden on the environment highlights the organization management and protection of land i...

  12. 14 great solutions for the commercial construction market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Caulfield


    .... Corn stalks are reused to make construction materials. Ecovative Design applies its cradle-to-cradle process to produce 10,000 organic bricks used to build a three-tower structure in Long Island City, NY. 3...

  13. High Flux Commercial Illumination Solution with Intelligent Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camil Ghiu


    This report summarizes the work performed at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0003241 for developing a high efficiency LED-based luminaire. A novel light engine module (two versions: standard and super), power supply and luminaire mechanical parts were designed and tested. At steady-state, the luminaire luminous flux is 3156 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy 97.4 LPW and CRI (Ra) 88 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3507K. When the luminaire is fitted with the super version of the light engine the efficacy reaches 130 LPW. In addition, the luminaire is provided with an intelligent control network capable of additional energy savings. The technology developed during the course of this project has been incorporated into a family of products. Recently, the first product in the family has been launched.

  14. Viscosity Solution


    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel


    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  15. Swiss Commercial Drone Industry


    Arora, Siddhartha


    This publication is focused on the nascent industry of drones being used by professional users, more commonly known as commercial drones. While piloted aircraft have dominated the airspace as we know it for about a century, the use of unmanned aircraft by professionals is creating a conflict between two dominant stakeholders: the aerospace industry and the professional. This publication attempts to take a closer look at these two stakeholders and their desire to occupy a limited public resour...

  16. Commercializing solar architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.


    The seminar discussions on attitudinal, technical, and institutional issues and the suggestions related to information development, acquisition, and dissemination; education and training; demonstrations and design competitions; and other actions are documented. Information on SERI's overall mission and a paper titled, The Architectural Role of SERI, and a matrix of barriers and actions from this assessment, related to the commercialization profile for passive solar heating, are attached as appendices.

  17. Commercialization of Nanotechnology (United States)


    least a decade away. Currently there are a few cosmetic products incorporating nanoparticles on the market such as suntan Commercialization gene sequencing devices. A nanopore based technology appears to have the potential to sequence the entire human genetic makeup in less than...sectors is promising. While there are some niche applications where nanotechnology products have just penetrated the market, the major impact will be at

  18. Commercial saliva collections tools. (United States)

    Slowey, Paul D


    Saliva has been used as a specimen for diagnostics purposes for many years, but it has only been in the last 10 years that a number of new tools have been developed that promise to greatly increase the use of oral specimens for broad-based diagnosis and potentially screening applications. This article focuses on tools that are commercially viable or can play a role in whole saliva collection and future testing for critical diseases.


    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  20. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.


    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  1. Integrated multiphase solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiskoot, Mark A. [Jiskoot Autocontrol, Kent (United Kingdom)


    Everyone accepts that multiphase metering provides substantial cost advantages over conventional test separator methods. However the complexity of the flow regimes and process ensures that there is no single applicable technology currently available for all conditions. Numerous optimistic and ill-founded have been made for accuracy. Because of the commercial opportunities, the market is a technology minefield for the potential specifier and user! Jiskoot has introduced an Integarated approach to provision of Multiphase Solutions (IMS) and is the licensee of two distinctly different technologies. This paper outlines a few multiphase measurements problems and the IMS approach using the Mixmeter and Smartstar technologies. (author)

  2. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  3. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel


    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  4. Decommissioning of commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Kohei [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the case of nuclear reactors, the diversion is often difficult as they are highly purposive, the disassembling is not easy as they are robust, and attention is required to handle the equipment containing radioactive substances. Decommissioning is defined as all the measures taken from the state that facilities become unused to the state of becoming green field. In Japan, already 40 years have elapsed since the effort for nuclear power was begun, and in this paper, the present state and future subjects of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are summarized at the opportunity that the stop of commercial operation of Tokai Nuclear Power Station was decided recently. In the Tokai Nuclear Power Station, 166 MWe graphite-moderated, carbon dioxide-cooled reactor called improved Calder Hall type is installed, which started the operation in 1966. The circumstances of the decision to stop its operation are explained. The basic policy of the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations has been already published by the Advisory Committee for Energy. The state of the decommissioning in various foreign countries is reported. In Japan, the state of green field was realized in 1996 in the decommissioning of the JPDR in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute, and the decommissioning of the atomic powered ship ``Mutsu`` was completed. (K.I.)

  5. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C


    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  6. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel


    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  7. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  8. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona


    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  9. Commercializing Academic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric


    The knowledge produced by academic scientists has been identified as a potential key driver of technological progress. Recent policies in Europe aim at increasing commercially orientated activities in academe. Based on a sample of German scientists across all fields of science, we investigate...... the importance of academic patenting. Our findings suggest that academic involvement in patenting results in a citation premium, as academic patents appear to generate more forward citations. We also find that in the European context of changing research objectives and funding sources since the mid-1990s......, the “importance” of academic patents declines over time. We show that academic entrants have patents of lower “quality” than academic incumbents but they did not cause the decline, since the relative importance of patents involving academics with an existing patenting history declined over time as well. Moreover...

  10. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines. (United States)

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R


    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  11. Cinética da degradação da cor de solução hidrossolúvel comercial de urucum, submetida a tratamentos térmicos Kinetics of color degradation of water-soluble commercial annatto solutions under thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Pupo FERREIRA


    Full Text Available Soluções comerciais hidrossolúveis de urucum foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos de tempo/temperatura, a fim de se investigar a estabilidade da cor nestas condições. A cor foi medida em um espectrofotômetro COMCOR 1500 Plus no sistema Lab Hunter e os resultados são discutidos neste artigo, assim como as alterações de concentração do sal de norbixina e os parâmetros de cor L, a e b Hunter. Os resultados foram analisados quanto à ordem da reação e a dependência da temperatura pôde ser descrita pelo modelo de Arrhenius, com valores de energia de ativação entre 11 e 25 kcal/mol. As alterações de cor observadas foram o aumento de luminosidade do amarelo e diminuição do vermelho. As reações de degradação do sal de nobixina foram de 2a ordem e de 1a ordem para os outros parâmetros de cor.Commercial water-soluble annatto solutions were submitted to different time/temperature treatments to investigate the stability of the color in these conditions. The color was measured in a COMCOR 1500 Plus spectrophotometer in the Hunter Lab System and the results are discussed, as well as the changes in the norbixin salt concentration and L, a, b color parameters. Data were analised for order reaction and the temperature dependence being well explained by the Arrhenius model, with activation energy values between 11 and 25 kcal/mol. The changes in color showed increase on lightness and yellow color and decrease on red color. Norbixin salt degradation reaction follows the second order and for other color parameters, the first order.

  12. Whither Commercial Nanobiosensors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor


    The excitement surrounding the marriage of biosensors and nanotechnology is palpable even from a cursory examination of the scientific literature. Indeed, the word “nano” might be in danger of being overused and reduced to a cliché, although probably essential for publishing papers or securing research funding. The biosensor literature is littered with clever or catchy acronyms, birds being apparently favored (“CANARY”, “SPARROW”), quite apart from “electronic tongue,” “electronic nose,” and so on. Although biosensors have been around since glucose monitors were commercialized in the 1970s, the transition of laboratory research and innumerable research papers on biosensors into the world of commerce has lagged. There are several reasons for this phenomenon including the infamous “valley of death” afflicting entrepreneurs emerging from academic environment into the industrial world, where the rules for success can be radically different. In this context, musings on biosensors and especially nanobiosensors in an open access journal such as Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics is topical and appropriate especially since market surveys of biosensors are prohibitively expensive, sometimes running into thousands of dollars for a single copy. The contents and predictions of market share for biosensors in these reports also keep changing every time a report is published. Not only that, the market share projections for biosensors differs considerably amongst various reports. An editorial provides the opportunity to offer personal opinions and perhaps stimulate debate on a particular topic. In this sense, editorials are a departure from the rigor of a research paper. This editorial is no exception. With this preamble, it is worthwhile to stop and ponder the status of commercial biosensors and nanobiosensors.

  13. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. The commercial Atlas IIAR program (United States)

    Hauser, Robert L.


    The space launch industry is experiencing a tremendous transition from a government-dominated customer base to a commercial customer base. According to the Teal Group World Space Briefing, nearly 75 percent of satellites launched from 1997 to 2006 will be commercial satellites (Caceres 1997). Of these, the vast majority are commercial ventures in mobile communications, broadband multimedia services, or direct broadcast television satellites. With the majority of the demand for launch services coming from commercial satellite providers, the needs and demands of the commercial satellite community are taking an ever increasing role in the development and design of launch vehicle systems. The Atlas IIAR, the R indicating re-engined, specifically addresses the call from commercial users for increased performance to orbit with higher reliability and launch availability. Lockheed Martin's Atlas IIAR launch vehicle will play a significant and crucial role in the launch of commercial satellites over the next several years, helping to bring satellite services to millions of people worldwide.

  15. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates' Biomedical Experiments (United States)


    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Student Marnix Aklian and ITA's Mark Bem prepare biological samples for flight as part of ITA's hands-on student outreach program on STS-95. Similar activities are a part of the CIBX-2 payload. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  16. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W


    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  17. Application of text mining for customer evaluations in commercial banking (United States)

    Tan, Jing; Du, Xiaojiang; Hao, Pengpeng; Wang, Yanbo J.


    Nowadays customer attrition is increasingly serious in commercial banks. To combat this problem roundly, mining customer evaluation texts is as important as mining customer structured data. In order to extract hidden information from customer evaluations, Textual Feature Selection, Classification and Association Rule Mining are necessary techniques. This paper presents all three techniques by using Chinese Word Segmentation, C5.0 and Apriori, and a set of experiments were run based on a collection of real textual data that includes 823 customer evaluations taken from a Chinese commercial bank. Results, consequent solutions, some advice for the commercial bank are given in this paper.

  18. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, Shigeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GW{sub e}y if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  19. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of copper(II)-complex: In vitro DNA and HSA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage, cell imaging and cytotoxic studies. (United States)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Zaki, Mehvash; Ahmad, Musheer; Afzal, Mohd; Srivastav, Saurabh; Srikrishna, Saripella; Arjmand, Farukh


    New Cu(II) complex 1 of indole-3-propionic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline was synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In vitro DNA binding studies of 1 was performed by employing UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The binding affinity towards human serum albumin (HSA) was also investigated to understand the carrier role in body system, as the time dependent HPLC experiment of 1 revealed that bonded drug with protein releases slowly in presence of DNA. Complex 1 exhibited good anti-tumor activity (GI50 values <10 μg/ml), and to elucidate the mechanism of tumor inhibition, topoisomerase I enzymatic activity was carried out and further validated by cell imaging studies which clearly showed its nuclear localization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.


    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN


    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  2. Latency-Associated Viral Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Encoded by Human Cytomegalovirus Modulates Cellular IL-10 and CCL8 Secretion during Latent Infection through Changes in the Cellular MicroRNA hsa-miR-92a (United States)

    Poole, Emma; Avdic, Selmir; Hodkinson, Jemima; Jackson, Sarah; Wills, Mark; Slobedman, Barry


    ABSTRACT The UL111A gene of human cytomegalovirus encodes a viral homologue of the cellular immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (cIL-10), which, due to alternative splicing, results in expression of two isoforms designated LAcmvIL-10 (expressed during both lytic and latent infection) and cmvIL-10 (identified only during lytic infection). We have analyzed the functions of LAcmvIL-10 during latent infection of primary myeloid progenitor cells and found that LAcmvIL-10 is responsible, at least in part, for the known increase in secretion of cellular IL-10 and CCL8 in the secretomes of latently infected cells. This latency-associated increase in CCL8 expression results from a concomitant LAcmvIL-10-mediated suppression of the expression of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) hsa-miR-92a, which targets CCL8 directly. Taking the data together, we show that the previously observed downregulation of hsa-miR-92a and upregulation of CCL8 during HCMV latent infection of myeloid cells are intimately linked via the latency-associated expression of LAcmvIL-10. IMPORTANCE HCMV latency causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, yet HCMV is carried silently (latently) in 50 to 90% of the population. Understanding how HCMV maintains infection for the lifetime of an infected individual is critical for the treatment of immunocompromised individuals suffering with disease as a result of HCMV. In this study, we analyze one of the proteins that are expressed during the “latent” phase of HCMV, LAcmvIL-10, and find that the expression of the gene modulates the microenvironment of the infected cell, leading to evasion of the immune system. PMID:25253336

  3. Bio-affinity of copper(II) complexes with nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands: Synthesis, structural studies and in vitro DNA and HSA interaction of copper(II) complexes. (United States)

    Jain, Surbhi; Khan, Tanveer A; Patil, Yogesh P; Pagariya, Darshana; Kishore, Nand; Tapryal, Suman; Naik, Anil D; Naik, Sunil G


    Reported herein the binding affinity between Human Serum Albumin and the DNA binding and cleavage activity of three copper(II) complexes, [Cu(phen)(o-van)ClO 4 ] (1), [Cu(phen)(gly)]ClO 4 (2) and [Cu(L 1 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] (3) wherein 1 and 2 are synthesized with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and co-ligands (o-van: o-vanillin; gly: glycine) and 3 with a ligand 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine (H 1 L 1 ). Complex 2 crystallizes in monoclinic (P21/n) space group shows square pyramidal geometry. The complex 3 crystallizes in monoclinic (P21/a) space group. All the three complexes exhibit binding affinity towards the transport protein Human Serum albumin (HSA). Quantitative evaluation of the thermodynamics of interaction and the results obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that metal coordinated glycynate, o-vanillin and perchlorate groups have a major role to play in the binding process, the latter two being stronger in the binding of complex 1. The coordinated water in complex 3 also plays an important role in the binding, which makes binding of complex 3 with HSA stronger than that of complex 2. Experimental results indicate that the binding affinity of the complexes towards CT-DNA is in the order 1>3>2 implying that complex 1 binds stronger than complex 3 and 2.The DNA cleaving activity of all the three complexes was explored in the presence of reactive oxygen compound, H 2 O 2 . All the three complexes have primarily shown the DNA cleaving activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Latency-associated viral interleukin-10 (IL-10) encoded by human cytomegalovirus modulates cellular IL-10 and CCL8 Secretion during latent infection through changes in the cellular microRNA hsa-miR-92a. (United States)

    Poole, Emma; Avdic, Selmir; Hodkinson, Jemima; Jackson, Sarah; Wills, Mark; Slobedman, Barry; Sinclair, John


    The UL111A gene of human cytomegalovirus encodes a viral homologue of the cellular immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (cIL-10), which, due to alternative splicing, results in expression of two isoforms designated LAcmvIL-10 (expressed during both lytic and latent infection) and cmvIL-10 (identified only during lytic infection). We have analyzed the functions of LAcmvIL-10 during latent infection of primary myeloid progenitor cells and found that LAcmvIL-10 is responsible, at least in part, for the known increase in secretion of cellular IL-10 and CCL8 in the secretomes of latently infected cells. This latency-associated increase in CCL8 expression results from a concomitant LAcmvIL-10-mediated suppression of the expression of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) hsa-miR-92a, which targets CCL8 directly. Taking the data together, we show that the previously observed downregulation of hsa-miR-92a and upregulation of CCL8 during HCMV latent infection of myeloid cells are intimately linked via the latency-associated expression of LAcmvIL-10. HCMV latency causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, yet HCMV is carried silently (latently) in 50 to 90% of the population. Understanding how HCMV maintains infection for the lifetime of an infected individual is critical for the treatment of immunocompromised individuals suffering with disease as a result of HCMV. In this study, we analyze one of the proteins that are expressed during the "latent" phase of HCMV, LAcmvIL-10, and find that the expression of the gene modulates the microenvironment of the infected cell, leading to evasion of the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Poole et al.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan


    Full Text Available Commercial professionals have some obligations under the law, aimed both at defending public interests and the interests of third parties who enter into contracts with traders and commercial credit, and at defending the interests of professionals themselves, by creating an appropriate legal framework for the activities they perform. The main obligations of traders are the following: fulfilling Trade Register advertising formalities; exercising trade within the limits of legitimate competition; and the organization and bookkeeping of commercial companies. This paper aims at elaborating on the three listed obligations, mainly referring to commercial professionals, as they carry out professional activities that are centered on obtaining profit.

  6. Commercial Art I and Commercial Art II: An Instructional Guide. (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    A teacher's guide for two sequential one-year commercial art courses for high school students is presented. Commercial Art I contains three units: visual communication, product design, and environmental design. Students study visual communication by analyzing advertising techniques, practicing fundamental drawing and layout techniques, creating…

  7. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives (United States)

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  8. Optical characterization in annatto and commercial colorific. (United States)

    Dias, Vanessa M; Pilla, Viviane; Alves, Leandro P; Oliveira, Hueder P M; Munin, Egberto


    Nowadays, the synthetic dyes (as erythrosine, ponceau and tartrazina) and natural colourants (as annatto, paprika, curcuma and anthocyanin) are indispensable in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics applications. However, the use of natural colourant has been considered safer for human consumption then synthetic dye. For practical applications of the coloring, optical properties are important for the understanding of the characteristics of them. In this work, we presented the absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic characterizations of annatto extracts obtained from the seeds of the tropical shrub Bixa orellana L. solutions and commercial colourant. The measurements were performed in annatto extracts with acetone and chloroform in different concentrations range (3.5-52.5) μg/mL. The main carotenoids detected in annatto seeds is bixin. The numerical calculus of the absorbance spectra for cis- and trans-bixin conformation is presented. In addition, for commercial colourant, the measurements were performed for six different brands and five lots each one. Modifications in the shape of the colorific fluorescence spectra were observed and it can be an indicative of differences in the industrial methods applied for obtaining annatto pigments powders and/or the possibility of the presence of other impurities added in the commercial powders.

  9. Cost-estimating for commercial digital printing (United States)

    Keif, Malcolm G.


    The purpose of this study is to document current cost-estimating practices used in commercial digital printing. A research study was conducted to determine the use of cost-estimating in commercial digital printing companies. This study answers the questions: 1) What methods are currently being used to estimate digital printing? 2) What is the relationship between estimating and pricing digital printing? 3) To what extent, if at all, do digital printers use full-absorption, all-inclusive hourly rates for estimating? Three different digital printing models were identified: 1) Traditional print providers, who supplement their offset presswork with digital printing for short-run color and versioned commercial print; 2) "Low-touch" print providers, who leverage the power of the Internet to streamline business transactions with digital storefronts; 3) Marketing solutions providers, who see printing less as a discrete manufacturing process and more as a component of a complete marketing campaign. Each model approaches estimating differently. Understanding and predicting costs can be extremely beneficial. Establishing a reliable system to estimate those costs can be somewhat challenging though. Unquestionably, cost-estimating digital printing will increase in relevance in the years ahead, as margins tighten and cost knowledge becomes increasingly more critical.

  10. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...

  11. Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements. (United States)

    Heyer, Elfriede A.

    Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid expansion of vocabulary and…

  12. Analysis of Commercial Contract Training. (United States)

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    The report describes the Phase I findings of a two-phase study to determine the applications of commercial contract training to the Navy Training System. The objective of the study is to determine if commercial sources would be cost and training effective alternatives for current and peak Navy skill training requirements. The study was conducted…

  13. Ion release and surface oxide composition of AISI 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo, and Ti-6Al-4V alloys immersed in human serum albumin solutions. (United States)

    Karimi, Shima; Alfantazi, Akram M


    The long-term weight loss, ion release, and surface composition of 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were investigated in a simulated body environment. The samples were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions with various human serum albumin (HSA) concentrations for 8, 14, and 22 weeks. The specimens initially lost weight up to 14 weeks and then slightly gained weight. The analysis of the released ions was performed by induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results revealed that the precipitation of the dissolved Fe and Co could cause the weight gain of the 316L and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloys. The surface chemistry of the specimens was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analysis of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy showed that the interaction of Mo with HSA is different from Mo with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This was also observed for Na adsorption into the oxide layer of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the presence of HSA and BSA. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  15. Hybrid pharmacophore approach for bio-relevant di-imines based homobimetallic complexes incorporating functionalized dicarboxylates as co-ligands: Synthesis, spectral and structural activity dependent biological insights (in-vitro DNA and HSA binding, antioxidant and cytotoxicity). (United States)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Hanif, Summaiya; Alam, Md Fazle; Farhan, Mohd; Younus, Hina


    Synthesis of bio-efficient homobimetallic complexes, [Cu2(L1)2(dipic)](NO3)2.3H2O (1), [Zn2(L1)2(dipic)](NO3)2.4H2O (2), [Cu2(L2)2(oxa)](NO3)2.4H2O (3) and [Zn2(L2)2(oxa)] (NO3)2.5H2O (4) was carried out using Schiff bases [(N1E,N2E)-N1,N2-bis(5-chlorothiophen-2-ylmethylene)-4-chlorobenzene-1,2-diamine; L1] and [(N1E,N2E)-N1,N2-bis(5-chlorofuran-2-ylmethylene)-4-chlorobenzene-1,2-diamine; L2] as main ligands and dicarboxylate moieties of 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (H2-dipic) and oxalic acid (H2-oxa) as co-ligands, respectively in order to apprehend their structure activity relationships on the basis of pharmacophore hybrid approach. The stoichiometry, geometry, thermal stability, morphology and crystallite size of the compounds were inferred by analytical, spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR and Mass), thermal (TGA/DTA), SEM and XRD studies. In-vitro DNA and HSA binding profiles of complexes were analysed by different biophysical measurements. The absorption study divulged that the observed alterations in the physico-chemical properties of complexes upon binding with DNA connoted their intercalative binding mode while fluorescence quenching mechanism was quantified by using Stern Volmer constant (KSV); 1.73×104 (1), 1.47×104 (2), 5.65×103 (3) and 3.60×103M-1 (4) which discerned that hybrid pharmacophore active metal complexes (1 and 2) exhibited efficient quenching effect with Ct-DNA in comparison to complexes (3 and 4) due to greater planarity and extent of conjugation (π-π interactions). The intercalative binding mode of complexes is further supported by competitive displacement assay by using fluorogenic dyes (EtBr and Hoechst 33258). The results of HSA fluorescence study divulged static quenching of the complexes (1-4) with KSV values of 7.24×104 (1), 6.03×104 (2), 5.06×104 (3) and 2.85×104 (4) while Kb values; 1.16×105 (1), 2.01×104 (2), 5.84×103 (3) and 8.60×102 (4) suggested them potent avid binder of HSA. Additionally, comparative

  16. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.


    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  20. Allegheny County Commercial Vehicle Inspections (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset lists the locations and results of all commercial vehicle inspections performed by the Allegheny County Police Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  2. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H


    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  3. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia. (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni


    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  4. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Residential and Commercial Air Conditioning (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured residential and commercial air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  5. Commercially available blood-gas quality controls compared with tonometered blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leary, E T; Graham, G; Kenny, M A


    We compared three commercially supplied blood-gas quality control solutions ("contrIL," "G.A.S.," and "Quantra") and tonometered whole blood under research and service conditions in four hospital laboratories...

  6. Commercial books under Turkish commercial laws concerning accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batuhan Güvemli


    Full Text Available La modernización de las leyes comerciales de Turquía tiene una historia de 160 años (1850-2010. Los movimientos de occidentalización (Imperial Edicto de 1839 dentro del Imperio Otomano trajeron consigo la creación de la primera ley comercial, Kanunname-i Ticaret (1850 a 1926. Desde 1926 otras tres leyes comerciales fueron promulgadas. En este estudio, examinamos los libros de comercio dentro de esas cuatro leyes comerciales en el ámbito de la contabilidad. Nuestro objetivo es entender los efectos de los cambios de reglamentación comercial sobre la evolución de la cultura turca de contabilidad. Los resultados indican que debido a la ley islámica (Sharia, la aplicación de la ley comercial de 1850 no se había extendido. Las disposiciones legales que entraron en vigor con el establecimiento de la República en 1923 han hecho posible la promulgación de nuevas leyes comerciales. Así, el estudio también se ocupa del proyecto de ley de Derecho Mercantil de Turquía de 2005.The modernization of the Turkish commercial laws has a history of 160 years (1850-2010. The westernization movements (Imperial Edict of 1839 within the Ottoman Empire effected the establishment of the first commercial law, Kanunname-i Ticaret (1850-1926. Since 1926, three other commercial laws were enacted. In this study, we examine the commercial books within those four commercial laws under the scope of accounting. Our aim is to understand the effects of the commercial regulatory changes on the evolution of the Turkish accounting culture. Findings indicate that due to the Islamic law (Sharia, the application the commercial law of 1850 was not widespread. The legal regulations which were put into force with the establishment of the Republic in 1923 have made the enactment of new commercial laws possible. Thus, the study also addresses to the bill of Turkish Commercial Law dated 2005.

  7. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  8. Exploration of pH-dependent behavior of the anion receptor pocket of subdomain IIA of HSA: determination of effective pocket charge using the Debye-Hückel limiting law. (United States)

    Bolel, Priyanka; Datta, Shubhashis; Mahapatra, Niharendu; Halder, Mintu


    Protein-ligand electrostatic interaction can be looked upon as ion receptor-ligand interaction, and the binding cavity of protein can be either an anion or cation receptor depending on the charge of the guest. Here we focus on the exploration of pH-modulated binding of a number of anionic ligands, specific to the subdomain IIA cavity of HSA, such as carmoisine, tartrazine, cochineal red, and warfarin. The logarithm of the binding constant is found to vary linearly with the square-root of ionic strength, indicating applicability of the Debye-Hückel limiting law to protein-ligand electrostatic binding equilibrium, and concludes that the subdomain IIA cavity is an anion receptor. The present approach is very unique that one can calculate the effective charge of the protein-based anion receptor pocket, and the calculated charge has been found to vary between +1 and +3 depending on the pH and ligand itself. The study also indicates that in such cases of specific ligand binding the pocket charge rather than the overall or surface charge of the macromolecule seems to have a paramount role in determining the strength of interaction. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the Debye-Hückel interionic interaction model can be successfully applied to understand the protein-based receptor-ligand electrostatic interaction in general.

  9. Trials, tribulations, and pitfalls using commercial instruments for data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee,R.C.; Olsen, R. H.; Unger, K. L.


    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) uses many commercially available instruments - for example spectrum analyzers, oscilloscopes, digital volt meters, signal generators - as integral parts of instrumentation and control systems. Typically these systems are remotely controlled. Using commercial instruments has many benefits. Manufactures have the skill, knowledge, and experience to produce high quality products. The price performance ratio is hard to duplicate. There are also disadvantages. Proprietary interfaces, single platform drivers, and reliable operation provide challenges for implementation and unattended operation. Several of the systems used at RHIC will be described. Their issues and solutions will be presented.

  10. Properties of scintillator solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluornoy, J.M.


    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  11. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz


    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  12. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-1 (Federally Downloadable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  13. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-2 (Federally Viewable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  14. Publicly Available IKONOS-2 Commercial Imagery (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  15. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-3 (Federally Downloadable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  16. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-2 (Federally Downloadable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  17. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY QUICKBIRD-1 (Federally Downloadable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  18. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY QUICKBIRD-2 (Federally Viewable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  19. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IKONOS-2 (Federally Downloadable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  20. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY GEOEYE-1 (Federally Viewable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  1. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY GEOEYE-1 Authorized (Federally Downloadable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  2. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY WORLDVIEW-1 (Federally Viewable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  3. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IKONOS-2 (Federally Viewable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of the research subject to this paper is to find proper solutions for the increase of the volume and efficiency in the field of commercial mediation. Starting from practical remarks, after an analysis of the substance, a new concept is suggested to be included and put into operation, namely the special commercial mediation, and a plead is made for its use in the current activity of alternative dispute resolution. The first major objective of this paper is to demonstrate once again the need and utility of mediation in the commercial field, insisting though on its remarkable specific nature. The second objective is, starting from the outlined differences between the commercial mediation and the classical mediation, to define and to conceptualize the special commercial mediation, as a separate branch of mediation. The third objective of this paper is to draw the regime of the newly defined category of commercial mediation from a regulatory point of view, of the implementation structure and techniques as foreseen.

  5. Stability of aflatoxins in solution. (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A


    The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.

  6. Commercial sector can improve access. (United States)

    Finger, W R


    This article discusses the improved accessibility to family planning (FP) services made possible by expanding services among private physicians and through social marketing in developing countries. Encouraging private sector (PS) FP is a way to ease the caseload of public FP facilities and creating the potential for attracting more lower-income clients. Few developing countries have a "viable commercial market" for contraceptives. Commercial success depends upon a secure supply of FP supplies, well-trained providers, and consumer demand. Consumers want affordable, high-quality, and convenient services. Governments must ensure that regulations do not hamper PS programs. Public and private programs should not compete in ways that are counterproductive. The commercial sector includes private physicians, clinics, pharmacies, or hospitals without public subsidies. Public funding might be used to encourage PS distribution, especially condoms and messages about HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Messages may target specific audiences and promote an appealing logo and packaging. SOMARC in Turkey promotes a network of commercial health care facilities that offer high quality FP at affordable prices. The model includes provider training, quality of care monitoring, marketing, a hotline, posted prices, and prices set by consumer affordability surveys. This model is being tried in both Nepal and the Philippines. Commercial marketing has been successful in Latin America, North Africa, and the Middle East. Commercial expansion and survival is dependent upon the satisfaction of consumer preferences for convenience, greater access, better confidentiality, and quality. Examples from Zimbabwe and Romania are used to show strategies for training private providers. Private providers will become involved, for instance, by offering targeted training programs.

  7. Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology (United States)

    Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.


    The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  9. CERN Computing in Commercial Clouds (United States)

    Cordeiro, C.; Field, L.; Garrido Bear, B.; Giordano, D.; Jones, B.; Keeble, O.; Manzi, A.; Martelli, E.; McCance, G.; Moreno-García, D.; Traylen, S.


    By the end of 2016 more than 10 Million core-hours of computing resources have been delivered by several commercial cloud providers to the four LHC experiments to run their production workloads, from simulation to full chain processing. In this paper we describe the experience gained at CERN in procuring and exploiting commercial cloud resources for the computing needs of the LHC experiments. The mechanisms used for provisioning, monitoring, accounting, alarming and benchmarking will be discussed, as well as the involvement of the LHC collaborations in terms of managing the workflows of the experiments within a multicloud environment.

  10. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  11. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova


    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  12. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement (United States)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin


    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  13. The Battle over Commercialized Schools (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David


    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  14. Commercializing Intellectual Property in Universities


    Charbonneau, Olivier


    This presentation analyzes the Commercializing of intellectual Property in Universities. Patents and the quest for science imposes certain constraints based on how research projects are financed and the ownership of the results. Then, Copyright issues are explored, primarly open access, fair dealings as well as the Theses Canada program.

  15. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels


    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor...

  16. Conjunction Assessment for Commercial Satellite Constellations Using Commercial Radar Data Sources (United States)

    Nicolls, M.; Vittaldev, V.; Ceperley, D.; Creus-Costa, J.; Foster, C.; Griffith, N.; Lu, E.; Mason, J.; Park, I.; Rosner, C.; Stepan, L.

    For companies with multiple orbital assets, managing the risk of collision with other low-Earth orbit (LEO) Resident Space Objects (RSOs) can amount to a significant operational burden. LeoLabs and Planet investigate the impact of a workflow that integrates commercial Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data into conjunction assessments for large satellite constellations. Radar measurements from LeoLabs are validated against truth orbits provided by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) and to measurements from Planet’s on-board GPS instrumentation. The radar data is then used as input for orbit fits in order to form the basis of a conjunction assessment. To confirm the reliability of the orbit determination (OD), the generated ephemerides are validated against ILRS and GPS-derived orbits. In addition, a covariance realism assessment is performed in order to check for self-consistency by comparing the propagated orbit and the associated covariance against later measurements. Several cases are investigated to assess the benefits of integrating radar-derived products with Conjunction Data Messages (CDMs) received on Planet spacecraft. Conjunction assessment is refined using onboard GPS measurements from Planet satellites along with tracking measurements of the secondary RSO by LeoLabs. This study demonstrates that commercial data provided by LeoLabs is reliable, accurate, and timely, and that ephemeris generated from LeoLabs data provides solutions and insights which are consistent with those provided in CDMs. For the cases analyzed, the addition of commercial SSA data from LeoLabs has a positive impact on operations due to the additional information on the state of the secondary RSO which can lead to increased confidence in any maneuver-related decisions. Measurements from LeoLabs can also be used to improve conjunction assessment for commercial satellites that do not have any operator OD.

  17. Economic Governance to Expand Commercial Wetlands: Within- and Cross-Scale Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne T. de Blaeij


    Full Text Available Commercial wetlands are defined as wetlands directed by an entrepreneur with the intention of making a profit. The combination of ecosystem services that commercial wetlands can provide seems to be an attractive societal perspective. Nevertheless, these wetlands are not developed on a large scale in the Netherlands. This paper discusses different types of economic governance that could facilitate the development of new commercial wetlands and addresses challenges that have to be overcome. We conclude that developing governance solutions that address ecosystem services with different scales is crucial for the introduction of commercial wetlands. Also, distinct and autonomous property rights of entrepreneurs need to be addressed.

  18. Enhancing data from commercial space flights (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Sherman, Ariel; Paolini, Aaron; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric J.


    Video tracking of rocket launches inherently must be done from long range. Due to the high temperatures produced, cameras are often placed far from launch sites and their distance to the rocket increases as it is tracked through the flight. Consequently, the imagery collected is generally severely degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In this talk, we present our experience in enhancing commercial space flight videos. We will present the mission objectives, the unique challenges faced, and the solutions to overcome them.

  19. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.


    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  20. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L


    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  2. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan


    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  3. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  4. Reference commercial fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.


    Currently available conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants are for first generation plants using deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel, and are all functionally similar. This similarity has been used as a basis for defining an envelope of D-T fusion power plant characteristics which encompasses the characteristics of the available designs. A description of this envelope, including general process descriptions, proposed materials uses and a tabulation of numerical ranges of plant parameters is presented in this document.

  5. Should US Physicians Support the Decriminalization of Commercial Sex? (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F


    According to the World Health Organization, "commercial sex" is the exchange of money or goods for sexual services, and this term can be applied to both consensual and nonconsensual exchanges. Some nonconsensual exchanges qualify as human trafficking. Whether the form of commercial sex that is also known as prostitution should be decriminalized is being debated contentiously around the world, in part because the percentage of commercial sex exchanges that are consensual as opposed to nonconsensual, or trafficked, is unknown. This paper explores the question of decriminalization of commercial sex with reference to the bioethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and respect for autonomy. It concludes that though there is no perfect policy solution to the various ethical problems associated with commercial sex that can arise under either criminalized or decriminalized conditions, the Nordic model offers several potential advantages. This model criminalizes the buying of sex and third-party brokering of sex (i.e., pimping) but exempts sex sellers (i.e., prostitutes, sex workers) from criminal penalties. However, ongoing support for this type of policy should be contingent upon positive results over time. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Methanol to propylene. From development to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, S.; Rothaemel, M. [Air Liquide Forschung und Entwicklung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pohl, S.; Gorny, M. [Lurgie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions


    In the late 1990s the development of the so-called MTP {sup registered} (methanol-to-propylene) process, a Lurgi Technology (by Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions) started. This constitutes a novel route to a valuable product that would not rely on crude oil as feedstock (as conventional propylene production does), but instead utilizes coal or natural gas and potentially biomass. These alternative feedstocks are first converted to synthesis gas, cleaned, and then converted to methanol. The development of the methanol-to-propylene conversion was achieved in a close collaboration between R and D and engineering. Two pilot plants at the R and D center in Frankfurt and a demonstration plant in Norway have been used to demonstrate the yields, catalyst lifetime and product quality and to support the engineering team in plant design and scale-up. Especially the last item is important as it was clear from the very beginning that the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant would already be world-scale, actually one of the largest propylene producing plants in the world. This required a safe and diligent scale-up as the MTP {sup registered} reactors in the commercial plant receive about 7,000 times the feed of the demo unit and as much as 100,000 times the feed of the pilot plant. The catalyst used is a zeolite ZSM-5 that was developed by our long-term cooperation partner Sued-Chemie (now Clariant). At the end of 2010, the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant in Ningdong in the Chinese province of Ningxia was started up as part of a coal-to-chemicals complex owned by the Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group. In this complex the complete chain starting from coal through to the final polypropylene product is realized. The customer successful started the polymer-grade propylene production in April 2011 and then announced in May 2011 that he sold the first 1000 tons of polypropylene made with propylene coming from the MTP {sup registered} unit. Following this

  7. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann


    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  8. Solute coupled diffusion in osmotically driven membrane processes. (United States)

    Hancock, Nathan T; Cath, Tzahi Y


    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging water treatment technology with potential applications in desalination and wastewater reclamation. In FO, water is extracted from a feed solution using the high osmotic pressure of a hypertonic solution that flows on the opposite side of a semipermeable membrane; however, solutes diffuse simultaneously through the membrane in both directions and may jeopardize the process. In this study, we have comprehensively explored the effects of different operating conditions on the forward diffusion of solutes commonly found in brackish water and seawater, and reverse diffusion of common draw solution solutes. Results show that reverse transport of solutes through commercially available FO membranes range between 80 mg to nearly 3,000 mg per liter of water produced. Divalent feed solutes have low permeation rates (less than 1 mmol/m2-hr) while monovalent ions and uncharged solutes exhibit higher permeation. Findings have significant implications on the performance and sustainability of the FO process.

  9. NASA's telemedicine testbeds: Commercial benefit (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Whitten, Raymond


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and applying telemedicine to support space flight since the Agency's beginning. Telemetry of physiological parameters from spacecraft to ground controllers is critical to assess the health status of humans in extreme and remote environments. Requisite systems to support medical care and maintain readiness will evolve as mission duration and complexity increase. Developing appropriate protocols and procedures to support multinational, multicultural missions is a key objective of this activity. NASA has created an Agency-wide strategic plan that focuses on the development and integration of technology into the health care delivery systems for space flight to meet these challenges. In order to evaluate technology and systems that can enhance inflight medical care and medical education, NASA has established and conducted several testbeds. Additionally, in June of 1997, NASA established a Commercial Space Center (CSC) for Medical Informatics and Technology Applications at Yale University School of Medicine. These testbeds and the CSC foster the leveraging of technology and resources between government, academia and industry to enhance health care. This commercial endeavor will influence both the delivery of health care in space and on the ground. To date, NASA's activities in telemedicine have provided new ideas in the application of telecommunications and information systems to health care. NASA's Spacebridge to Russia, an Internet-based telemedicine testbed, is one example of how telemedicine and medical education can be conducted using the Internet and its associated tools. Other NASA activities, including the development of a portable telemedicine workstation, which has been demonstrated on the Crow Indian Reservation and in the Texas Prison System, show promise in serving as significant adjuncts to the delivery of health care. As NASA continues to meet the challenges of space flight, the

  10. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng


    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...... esters from DODs. The optimum conditions are 10% enzyme load (wt% of DODs), ethanol/DODs of 3.0:1.0 (mol/mol), water content 0.125% (based on the weight of total mixture), and reaction at 30 °C for 5 h. The results demonstrated that >95% sterols can be recovered as free form (>85% sterol esters were...

  11. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. (United States)


    ... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202 Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation. ... software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Johnson, Richard


    The topic of daylighting, particularly in commercial buildings, is discussed, including economic aspects, control of daylight, fenestration functions, data gathering, design tools and methods, and lighting controls.

  13. Guam Commercial Fisheries BioSampling (CFBS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Guam Commercial Fisheries Biosampling program, which collects length and weight frequency data for whole commercial catches, and samples 4-8 species for in-depth...

  14. Preventing Commercial Fishing Deaths in Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer M. Lincoln; George A. Conway


    ... (200/100 000/year in 1991–2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. Methods—Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska...

  15. Training Researchers To Commercialize Research Results. (United States)

    van der Sijde, P. C.; Cuyvers, R.


    A training course was designed to prepare researchers for research commercialization for researchers. It introduces concepts involved in the publishing of knowledge such as protection of intellectual property, spin-off companies, and working with commercial companies. (JOW)

  16. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising. ...

  17. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.


    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  18. Commercialization of solar space power (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary


    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  19. Considerations Regarding Designing and Administrating SOA Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Solutions like SOA, Cloud, SaaS, Iaas or PaaS are not only buzzwords, they became a business reality because they are relative cheap and easy to use. SOA and Cloud are tightly linked because most cloud solutions are being defined using SOA making them feasible from the business perspective, because it’s hard to move to cloud when you are using a tightly coupled architecture. Big companies such as Oracle, Microsoft, IBM or Amazon offer many commercial solutions providing software as a service, as well as hosted and managed alternatives to classical deployment. For firms that are building private clouds and for service providers that are building public clouds, diverse solutions are offered by the big players for platform as a service and infrastructure as a service.

  20. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang


    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  1. Commercialization basics for the photonics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David A


    Most entrepreneurs have expertise in one or more of the critical areas of commercialization, but may lack key elements necessary for success. Commercialization Basics for the Photonics Industry serves as a roadmap for the commercialization process, helping identify and address roadblocks on the path to commercialization. Evaluation techniques will help determine the strength of a business opportunity and guide its development toward the best chance of success.

  2. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  3. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children. (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  4. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section 272.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USE OF âWOODSY OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the recreational and commercial skiboat linefishery in the Transkei was conducted from March 1997 to April 1999. Effort by commercial skiboats was substantially higher than by recreational skiboats, and catch rates on commercial boats were much higher than rates on recreational boats. Catch rates in the ...

  6. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.


    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  7. Virale commercials: De consument als marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.


    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  8. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles of...

  9. Applied Integer Programming Modeling and Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Der-San; Dang, Yu


    An accessible treatment of the modeling and solution of integer programming problems, featuring modern applications and software In order to fully comprehend the algorithms associated with integer programming, it is important to understand not only how algorithms work, but also why they work. Applied Integer Programming features a unique emphasis on this point, focusing on problem modeling and solution using commercial software. Taking an application-oriented approach, this book addresses the art and science of mathematical modeling related to the mixed integer programming (MIP) framework and

  10. Superhydrophobic Effect on the Adsorption of Human Serum Albumin (United States)

    Leibner, Evan S.; Barnthip, Naris; Chen, Weinan; Baumrucker, Craig R.; Badding, John V.; Pishko, Michael; Vogler, Erwin A.


    Analytical protocol greatly influences measurement of human-serum albumin (HSA) adsorption to commercial expanded polytetrafluororethylene (ePTFE) exhibiting superhydrophobic wetting properties. Degassing of buffer solutions and evacuation of ePTFE adsorbent to remove trapped air immediately prior to contact with protein solutions are shown to be essential. Results obtained with ePTFE as a prototypical superhydrophobic test material suggest that vacuum degassing should be applied in the measurement of protein adsorption to any surface exhibiting superhydrophobicity. Solution depletion quantified using radiometry (I-125 labeled HSA) or electrophoresis yield different measures of adsorption, with nearly four-fold higher surface concentrations of unlabeled HSA measured by the electrophoresis method. This outcome is attributed to the influence of the radiolabel on HSA hydrophilicity which decreases radiolabeled-HSA affinity for a hydrophobic adsorbent in comparison to unlabeled HSA. These results indicate that radiometry underestimates the actual amount of protein adsorbed to a particular material. Removal of radiolabeled HSA adsorbed to ePTFE by 3X serial buffer rinses also shows that the remaining “bound fraction” was about 35% lower than the amount measured by radiometric depletion. This observation implies that measurement of protein bound after surface rinsing significantly underestimates the actual amount of protein concentrated by adsorption into the surface region of a protein-contacting material. PMID:19135420

  11. Microwave thawing of frozen parenteral solutions. (United States)

    Walter, C W; Pauly, J A; Ausman, R K; Kundsin, R B; Holmes, C J


    A commercially available microwave oven modified for use at medication stations throughout hospitals allows timely thawing of frozen parenteral solutions. The inherent problems of safety and uniform heating have been overcome, thus making possible the preparation, storage, and distribution of admixtures on a regional basis and ensuring the integrity of the product. Most parenteral medications are not degraded by microwave energy, and thawing by microwave energy permits timely administration and allows coordination of medication for a series of patients.

  12. Human Trafficking and Commercialization of Surrogacy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyali Chatterjee


    Full Text Available The Supreme Court of India, In Baby Manji Yamada versus Union of India & Anr. [2008] INSC 1656, popularly known as Manji Case, declared that Commercial Surrogacy is legal in India. As we know that, India is a developing country and here, most of the peoples are very poor and illiterate. Recently, human trafficking was increase with an uncontrollable rate in the entire world. In addition, making Commercialization of Surrogacy legal had already give birth to a new form of trafficking. Where, illiterate women from poor section is trafficked to run the reproductive industry of the Surrogacy. As we know that the traffickers, they used to trafficked girls/women for prostitution but now after the legalization of Commercial Surrogacy, they will trafficked girl/women for the reproductive industry as a raw material. The Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (ITPA, 1956 and Sections 366(A and 372 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 are the existing laws of India, which deals with human trafficking. However, none of these provisions contains any solution, to deal with this new serious issue of trafficking of women/girls for the purpose of Commercial Surrogacy in reproductive industries. These existing laws as well as the pending draft bill of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART Regulation Bill, 2010 needs an amendment to check this crime against women once again to protect the rights and health of the women.

  13. Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services (United States)

    Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg


    Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication-navigation services.

  14. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...... and argue why it is more severe in non-profit social marketing. c) We argue that CSM could create a new and unethical kind of social competition due to its inherent motivation to gain ownership of the social cause it addresses....... of CSM. In relation to the benchmark criteria, the second section focuses on 3 key ethical challenges in CSM. a) We describe the problem of paternalism and suggest that CSM can deal with it by anchoring social campaigns in the target groups’ world-view. b) We address the problem of power imbalances...

  15. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization (United States)


    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  16. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas


    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  17. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. Biomedical Experiments Payload (CIBX-2) (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis; Edmundson, Allen; Robinson, Keith (Technical Monitor)


    Experiments to find solutions for a range of biomedical issues are being hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. (ITA) Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. This research encompasses more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments and hands-on student experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Protein crystal growth experiments will address the structure of urokinase - a protein that has been identified as a key enzyme in the spread of brain, lung, colon, prostate and breast cancers. Crystals of Bence Jones, a protein associated with bone cancer, will also be grown. Understanding their structures may help scientists develop treatments. In a related area, the Microencapsulation of Drugs (MEPS) is an anti-cancer drug delivery system, based on a 10-year partnership with NASA's Johnson Space Center. On this mission, the co-encapsulation of antibodies and immune stimulants will be made in submicron microcapsules to target pulmonary and bacterial infections.

  18. Is Hartmann's the solution?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White S.A; Goldhill D.R


    As Hartmann's solution is commonly used by anaesthetists, we surveyed a group of Part III FRCA candidates to establish their knowledge of its constituents and the purpose and metabolism of the lactate in solution...

  19. Reconsidering Schwarzschild's original solution


    Antoci, S; Liebscher, D. -E.


    We analyse the Schwarzschild solution in the context of the historical development of its present use, and explain the invariant definition of a singular surface at the Schwarzschild's radius, that can be applied to the Kerr-Newman solution too.

  20. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary E. Barr; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Louis D. Schulte; Peter C. Stark; Rebecca M. Chamberlin; Kent D. Abney; Thomas E. Ricketts; Yvette E. Valdez; Richard A. Bartsch


    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material.

  1. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.


    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  2. Solar photocatalytic degradation of eight commercial dyes in TiO{sub 2} suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizhong Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry


    The photocatalytic degradation of eight commercial dyes with different structure and containing different substitute groups has been investigated using TiO{sub 2} as photocatalyst in aqueous solution under solar irradiation. Decolorization rate, TOC decrease and inorganic ion production of the dye solution were detected. The experimental results indicate that eight commercial dyes could be degradated efficiently at different levels. The comparison of chloride and sulfate ions production rate from the cleavage of substitute groups in different structure positions reveals the dye compounds degradation pattern and decomposition pathway. (author)

  3. Multicapillary mixer of solutions. (United States)

    Moskowitz, G W; Bowman, R L


    A mixer made from a bundle of glass tubules can mix two solutions within 30 microseconds, with a total-solution flow rate of 1.33 milliliters per second. One solution passes through the interstices of the bundle; the other moves through the lumens of the tubes.

  4. Development of a vinasse nutritive solution for hydroponics. (United States)

    dos Santos, José Darcy; Lopes da Silva, André Luís; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Scheidt, Gessiel Newton; Novak, Alessandra Cristine; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo


    Vinasse is a residue that originates from the distillation of fuel alcohol. However, it contains a relative amount of nutrients. The aim of this work was to develop a nutritive solution using vinasse and to compare it with a commercial solution for the cultivation of lettuce, watercress and rocket. Vinasse obtained from juice must was decanted and filtered, followed by chemical analyses of the nutrients. A nutritive solution composed of 10% vinasse supplemented with nutrients was in agreement with the results of the chemical analyses (a similar amount of Furlani's solution). Experiments were then performed in an NFT (Nutrient film technique) system. The treatments used the vinasse solution and a commercial solution constituted from a Yara Fertilizantes(®) product. The height of the aerial part and the number of leaves of the crops were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days. In most crops, the results were very similar. The vinasse solution promoted a larger number of leaves in lettuce and the highest aerial part in watercress. For the rocket, there were no significant differences between the two solutions. In conclusion, a nutritive solution was developed using vinasse, and this solution provided suitable growth, which was higher in some cases, for the crops studied herein. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Balancing commercial and public interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevick Mary


    Full Text Available Abstract A large number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis. A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.

  6. Balancing commercial and public interests. (United States)

    Furberg, Curt D; Hall, Mark A; Sevick, Mary Ann


    Alarge number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis.A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.

  7. Issues in fuel cell commercialization (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  8. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Atherton


    Full Text Available A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer membranes is investigated, and how the surface of the materials mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration is demonstrated allowing direct extraction of oxygen from oxygenated water. The coverage of the surface with the plastron air layer was measured using confocal microscopy. A zinc/oxygen cell is used to consume oxygen within containers constructed from the different membranes, and the oxygen consumed by the cell is compared to the change in oxygen concentration as measured by an oxygen probe. By comparing the membranes to an air-tight reference sample, it was found that the membranes facilitated oxygen transfer from the water into the container, with the most successful membrane showing a 1.90:1 ratio between the cell oxygen consumption and the change in concentration within the container.

  9. Solutions to Organizational Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    Organizations face all kinds of paradoxical problems. There exist various solutions to organizational paradoxes. We develop a typology that lists nine possible logical approaches to understanding the relationship between paradoxical opposites, out of which we identify five types of solutions...... to organizational paradox. Four of the five solutions are explicitly associated with four prominent philosophies. We show the relevance of the five solutions to the real world by applying our scheme to understand different solutions to the generic strategy paradox. Finally, we address the question whether...

  10. Preventing commercial fishing deaths in Alaska


    Lincoln, J M; Conway, G A


    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 in reducing the high occupational death rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. METHODS: Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska. Demographic data and data on risk factors and incidents were compiled and analysed for trend. RESULTS: During 1991-8, there was a s...

  11. Evaluation of Space Food for Commercial Astronauts


    Ahlstrom, Britt Karin


    As commercial aerospace companies advance toward manned spaceflight, they must overcome many hurdles – not only technical, but also human. One of the greatest human challenges they face is food. Throughout the history of human spaceflight, astronauts have primarily eaten food developed by government space agencies. Now, with manned commercial flights on the horizon, astronauts will be provided with an entirely new diet – one comprised of commercially available, ready-to-eat food. Yet will thi...

  12. Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca


    Full Text Available Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

  13. Determinants of commercial bank profitability in Mexico


    Chavarín, Rubén


    The aim of the present work is to identify the main determinants of profitability for commercial banks established in Mexico. A data base of 45 banks representing virtually the whole world of commercial banking in the period 2007-2013 was used. Dynamic models using Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond estimators with an error that follows an MA(1) process were employed along with static models having random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimator. Findings suggest that the profitability of commercial ba...

  14. Arsenic species in solutions for parenteral nutrition. (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Becker, Emilene; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Dessuy, Morgana


    In spite of its high toxicity, arsenic is a common contaminant in pharmaceuticals. This is stated by pharmacopoeias' monographs where it is not generically included with other heavy metals, but has its own specifications. Arsenic should not exceed 0.1 mg/L in most pharmaceutical products for IV administration. This limit, however, was established without taking into consideration the specific arsenic species which contribute to this amount. In this work, the presence of arsenite and arsenate species in solutions of amino acids, salts, vitamins, and lipids commercialized for IV administration was investigated. The measurements were done by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that all commercial formulations contain both arsenic species in some level; however, the total arsenic content exceeded the allowed limit in only a few samples. Calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate, heparin, and vitamin solutions were the most contaminated, presenting total arsenic concentration ranging from 62 to 249 microg/L. The most important finding, however, was the different ratios As(V)/As(III) among the formulations. Whereas practically only As(V) was found in ampoules containing water for injection and salt solutions (NaCl, KC1, phosphates), As(III) predominated in solutions of vitamins, gluconate, and glucose. As these are reducing substances, we investigated the possibility of their reaction with As(V) and its conversion into As(III). The heating of As(V) in the presence of gluconate, glucose, ascorbic acid, methionine, isoleucine, sodium chloride, and pure water, in autoclave for 15 minutes, showed that, whereas no As(III) was found in pure water and sodium chloride solution, approximately 50% of As(V) was converted into As(III) in the remainder of the solutions. The results showed that As(V), the main species in these formulations, may be converted into As(III), depending on the presence of reducing substances among the formulation constituents.

  15. Characterization of colloidal gas aphron suspensions generated from plant-based natural surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kommalapati, R.R.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Constant, W.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others


    Colloidal gas aphron (CGA) suspensions generated using commercial surfactants are found to have great potential in the remediation of contaminated soils and waste streams. A plant-based natural surfactant solution prepared from the fruit pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi was used in this study to generate CGA suspensions. The CGA suspensions generated from this surfactant solution have size distributions similar to those of commercial surfactants. The stability of the CGA suspensions generated with natural surfactant solutions was observed to be higher than those generated using synthetic surfactants. However, the quality or the gas fraction of the suspensions is lower for a natural surfactant solution than that for commercial surfactants. The crude solution of natural surfactant prepared using simple water extraction contains saponins, the essential surface-active agent, and many other extraneous natural organic compounds. Yet, the CGA suspensions prepared from the crude solution seem to be comparable to those generated using synthetic surfactants in size distribution and stability.

  16. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.


    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  17. Demand Side Management Performance Evaluation for Commercial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong


    Full Text Available Demand Side Management in power systems plays an important role in ensuring a reliable power supply and protecting the environment. Demand Side Management in the commercial sector is vital for sustainable development during China’s industrial restructuring. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making framework for evaluating Demand Side Management performance of commercial enterprises is proposed from a sustainability perspective. A fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is employed to determine the weights of the criteria and a fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution is applied to rank Demand Side Management performance. An evaluation index system is built, containing economic, social, environmental and technical criteria associated with 15 sub-criteria. Four groups of expert panels from government departments, research institutions, electricity utilities and commercial enterprises gave judgments on criteria weights and criteria performances for alternatives. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated through a case study in Beijing, in which Demand Side Management performances of four alternatives were ranked. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the hybrid framework is robust.

  18. Exploring multifunctional potential of commercial ferrofluids by magnetic particle hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakellari, Despoina, E-mail:; Mathioudaki, Stella; Kalpaxidou, Zoi; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Angelakeris, Makis


    In this work we examine a selection of commercially available magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as candidates for magnetic particle hyperthermia applications combining their primary modality with additional heat triggered actions. Contrary to lab-made magnetic nanoparticles, commercial ferrofluids may be rapidly pushed through the medical approval processes since their applicability has already been addressed successfully (i.e., formulation, reproducibility, toxicity and quality assurance) in conjunction with the strong companies′ drive in the fast delivery of the new therapy to the patient. Four samples are under study with variable hydrodynamic diameters from two companies (Micromod and Chemicell) consisting of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles. The tunable magnetic heating characteristics of the ferrofluids were correlated with particle, field and colloidal solution features. Our work revealed a size-dependent magnetic heating efficiency together with fast thermal response, features that are crucial for adequate thermal efficiency combined with minimum treatment duration and show the potential of such materials as multifunctional theranostic agents. - Highlights: • Commercial ferrofluids were examined as magnetic particle hyperthermia candidates. • Results show an enhanced heating efficiency. • Heating efficiency can be tuned by field amplitude and hydrodynamic size of NPs. • Coating material seems to be a key parameter for the optimum thermal response.

  19. Solution phase combinatorial chemistry. (United States)

    Merritt, A T


    Combinatorial chemistry and parallel array synthesis techniques are now used extensively in the drug discovery process. Although published literature has been dominated by solid phase chemistry approaches, the use of solution phase techniques has also been widely explored. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of choosing solution phase approaches in the various stages of drug discovery and optimisation, and assesses the practical issues related to these approaches. The uses of standard solution chemistry, the related liquid phase approach, and of supported materials to enhance solution phase chemistry are all illustrated by a comprehensive review of the published literature over the past three years.

  20. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land or...

  1. 36 CFR 331.19 - Commercial activities. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 331.19 Section 331.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.19 Commercial activities. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District...

  2. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation. (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria


    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed. c2002 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Religion and religious symbols in commercial communications


    Karasová, Jana


    Marketing and commercial communications. Forms of commercial communications. Legal regulations and ethics in an advertising focused on religious elements. Analysis of selected advertising campaigns with religous themes. Qualitative marketing research.Recommendation for the future work with themes of a religion and religious symbols.

  4. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System (United States)


    ... Warning, Alert, and Response Network (WARN) Act, Public Law 109-347, the Federal Communications Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection requirements associated with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Shpankovskaya


    Full Text Available The modern theoretical approaches to definition of essence of social activity of enterprises are analyzed. The directions of development of social activity of commercial banks are determined. The expedience of formulation of mission of commercial banks and general requirements it must meet to is grounded.

  6. prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Conclusion: Road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists are a frequent occurrence in this part of the country. There is need for public awareness campaigns on road safety education and health consequences of psychoactive substance use among commercial motorcyclists. It is further recommended that law ...

  7. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy (United States)


    ...-AD64 Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space goods or services. Anchor Tenancy means ``an arrangement in which the United States Government agrees to...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography. The...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are effective as of October 1, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  10. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising. (United States)


    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13...

  11. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Many experts believe that commercial organ transplants continue unabated despite international efforts to curb them. The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as seen in our institution. Materials and Methods: A ...

  12. Perspectives on the international commercial space infrastructure (United States)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Harr, Michael

    Commercial space activities are emerging as a potentially important segment of the economy in the Western World. However, the high entry costs and the high technological risks are significant impediments to private sector investment in major commercial space segments, such as transportation, microgravity materials processing, and remote sensing. Governments throughout the Western World have developed or are establishing commercial space policies and the infrastructure to minimize the financial, technical, and institutional risks to private industry in commercial space ventures. At the same time, the private sector is also trying to do its share to support the overall space commercialization efforts. These initiatives for the microgravity segment are described and compared for the United States, Western Europe, and Japan.

  13. Chemical treatment of commercial reverse osmosis membranes for use in FO (United States)

    Commercially available reverse osmosis (RO) membranes – SW30HR, BW30, and AG – were chemically treated for use in forward osmosis (FO). Nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, ethanol, and ethanol–acid–water ternary solutions were employed for the treatment. All three membra...

  14. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards (United States)


    ... right to operate a CMV in a State or who is disqualified to operate a commercial motor vehicle... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 384 and 385 RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  15. 48 CFR 227.7202-3 - Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation. (United States)


    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-3 Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation... computer software or commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202-3 Section 227.7202-3 Federal...

  16. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... conservation standards for commercial and industrial pumps published on February 1, 2013, is extended to May 2...

  17. Solute-solute interactions in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debashis; Murray, Ryan; Collins, Gary S., E-mail: [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Zacate, Matthew O. [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States)


    Experiments were carried out on highly ordered GdAl{sub 2} samples containing extremely dilute mole fractions of{sup 111}In/Cd probe-atom solutes (about 10{sup −11}), intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} having mole fractions of order 0-10{sup −2}, and doped with Ag solutes at mole fractions of order 10{sup −2}. Three types of defect interactions were investigated. (1) Quadrupole interactions caused by Ag-solute atoms neighboring{sup 111}In/Cd solute probe atoms were detected using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Three complexes of pairs of In-probes and Ag-solutes occupying neighboring positions on Gd- and Al-sublattices were identified by comparing site fractions in Gd-poor and Gd-rich GdAl{sub 2}(Ag) samples and from the symmetry of the quadrupole interactions. Interaction enthalpies between solute-atom pairs were determined from temperature dependences of observed site fractions. Repulsive interactions were observed for close-neighbor complexes In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Gd} and In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Al} pairs, whereas a slightly attractive interaction was observed for In{sub Al}+Ag{sub Al}. Interaction enthalpies were all small, in the range ±0.15 eV. (2) Quadrupole interactions caused by intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} neighboring In{sub Gd} probes were also detected and site fractions measured as a function of temperature, as in previous work on samples not doped with Ag-solutes [Temperature- and composition-driven changes in site occupation of solutes in Gd{sub 1+3x}Al{sub 2−3x}, Zacate and Collins (Phys. Rev. B69, 174202 (1))]. However, the effective binding enthalpy between In{sub Gd} probe and Al{sub Gd} antisite was found to change sign from -0.12 eV (attractive interaction) in undoped samples to + 0.24 eV (repulsive) in Ag-doped samples. This may be attributed to an attractive interaction between Al{sub Gd} antisite atoms and Ag-dopants that competes with the attractive interaction between In{sub Gd} and Al{sub Gd

  18. The procedural egalitarian solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud


    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  19. The Procedural Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud


    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  20. On Solutions of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Philip W


    Full Text Available Rotationally symmetric solutions are derived for some nonlinear equations of the form in the title in terms of elementary functions. Under suitable assumptions, the nonexistence of entire solutions is also proved for the inequality in the title as well as some radial upper bounds are obtained. These results are the consequence of an appropriate differential inequality.

  1. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution (United States)

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  2. Optimal load scheduling in commercial and residential microgrids (United States)

    Ganji Tanha, Mohammad Mahdi

    Residential and commercial electricity customers use more than two third of the total energy consumed in the United States, representing a significant resource of demand response. Price-based demand response, which is in response to changes in electricity prices, represents the adjustments in load through optimal load scheduling (OLS). In this study, an efficient model for OLS is developed for residential and commercial microgrids which include aggregated loads in single-units and communal loads. Single unit loads which include fixed, adjustable and shiftable loads are controllable by the unit occupants. Communal loads which include pool pumps, elevators and central heating/cooling systems are shared among the units. In order to optimally schedule residential and commercial loads, a community-based optimal load scheduling (CBOLS) is proposed in this thesis. The CBOLS schedule considers hourly market prices, occupants' comfort level, and microgrid operation constraints. The CBOLS' objective in residential and commercial microgrids is the constrained minimization of the total cost of supplying the aggregator load, defined as the microgrid load minus the microgrid generation. This problem is represented by a large-scale mixed-integer optimization for supplying single-unit and communal loads. The Lagrangian relaxation methodology is used to relax the linking communal load constraint and decompose the independent single-unit functions into subproblems which can be solved in parallel. The optimal solution is acceptable if the aggregator load limit and the duality gap are within the bounds. If any of the proposed criteria is not satisfied, the Lagrangian multiplier will be updated and a new optimal load schedule will be regenerated until both constraints are satisfied. The proposed method is applied to several case studies and the results are presented for the Galvin Center load on the 16th floor of the IIT Tower in Chicago.

  3. Oxidation of phosphine with quinone and quinoid redox polymers in alcohol solutions of copper (United States)

    Polimbetova, G. S.; Mukhitdinova, B. A.; Ergozhin, E. E.; Borangazieva, A. K.; Khakimbolatova, K. Kh.; Tasmagambet, A.; Dauletkulova, N. T.; Ibraimova, Zh. U.


    New quinoid redox polymers were obtained by chemical modification of commercial weakly basic anion exchangers with quinone and its derivatives. The redox properties of quinone and quinoid redoxites with respect to phosphine were studied in alcohol solutions of copper complexes.

  4. Is Hartmann's the solution? (United States)

    White, S A; Goldhill, D R


    As Hartmann's solution is commonly used by anaesthetists, we surveyed a group of Part III FRCA candidates to establish their knowledge of its constituents and the purpose and metabolism of the lactate in solution. Of the 82 candidates surveyed only three (4%) accurately recorded the electrolytes and their concentrations in Hartmann's solution. Lactate was stated to be a source of bicarbonate by 52 (63%) and a source of glucose by 17 (21%). The descriptions of lactate metabolism were largely imprecise, none was complete and 24 (29%) of candidates offered no explanation. The constituents of Hartmann's solution and their concentrations are designed to match those of plasma, reducing ion and fluid shifts postinfusion. The lactate in Hartmann's solution is metabolised by both oxidation and gluconeogenesis, predominantly in the liver, and bicarbonate is generated by both processes over 1-2 h.

  5. Laser Technology in Commercial Atomic Clocks (United States)

    Lutwak, R.


    Commercial atomic frequency standards (AFS) are deployed in diverse civilian, military, and aerospace applications, ranging from high-precision measurement and calibration to navigation, communications and, of course, timekeeping. Currently, commercially available AFS include magnetically-selected cesium beam frequency standards and hydrogen masers and lamp-pumped rubidium oscillators. Despite the revolution in atomic physics and laboratory-scale AFS brought about by the advent of the tunable laser in the early 1970s, commercial AFS invariably rely on more conventional atomic physics technology developed in the 1950s. The reason for this lack of advancement of commercial AFS technology is the relatively poor reliability and environmental sensitivity of narrow-linewidth single-mode laser sources at atomic resonance wavelengths. Over the past 8 years, Symmetricom, in collaboration with laser manufacturers, has developed specialized laser sources for commercial AFS applications. These laser devices, optimized for high spectral purity and long-term reliability, will enable a new generation of commercial AFS. This talk will briefly describe two laser-based atomic frequency standard development programs at Symmetricom. The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock, two orders of magnitude smaller and lower power than any commercial AFS, will enable atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applications. The Optically-Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard, under development for deployment onboard the GPS-III satellite constellation, will provide enhanced short-term stability and longer lifetime compared to magnetically-selected cesium beam AFS.

  6. Electronic cigarette solutions and resultant aerosol profiles. (United States)

    Herrington, Jason S; Myers, Colton


    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are growing in popularity exponentially. Despite their ever-growing acceptance, their aerosol has not been fully characterized. The current study focused on evaluating e-cigarette solutions and their resultant aerosol for potential differences. A simple sampling device was developed to draw e-cigarette aerosol into a multi-sorbent thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was then thermally extracted and analyzed via a gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. This novel application provided detectable levels of over one hundred fifteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a single 40mL puff. The aerosol profiles from four commercially available e-cigarettes were compared to their respective solution profiles with the same GC-MS method. Solution profiles produced upwards of sixty four unidentified and identified (some only tentatively) constituents and aerosol profiles produced upwards of eighty two compounds. Results demonstrated distinct analyte profiles between liquid and aerosol samples. Most notably, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and siloxanes were found in the aerosol profiles; however, these compounds were never present in the solutions. These results implicate the aerosolization process in the formation of compounds not found in solutions; have potential implications for human health; and stress the need for an emphasis on electronic cigarette aerosol testing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by Palmyra palm fruit seed carbon (PPFSC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) was investigated. The metal adsorption capacity has been studied as a function of contact time, pH and carbon dosage. The adsorption yields increased with the increasing of ...

  8. Process for electrospinning chitin fibers from chitinous biomass solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swatloski, Richard P.; Barber, Patrick S.; Opichka, Terrance; Bonner, Jonathan R.; Gurau, Gabriela; Griggs, Christopher Scott; Rogers, Robin D.


    Disclosed are methods for electrospinning chitinous biomass solution to form chitin fibers, using ionic liquids or other ion-containing liquids as solvent. Chitin fibers produced thereby and articles containing such chitin fibers are also disclosed. The chitin fiber thus obtained has very high surface area and improved strength over currently commercially available chitin materials.

  9. Preparation of polystyrene–clay nanocomposite by solution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymer–clay nanocomposites of commercial polystyrene (PS) and clay laponite were prepared via solution intercalation technique. Laponite was modified suitably with the well known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide by ion-exchange reaction to render laponite miscible with hydrophobic PS.

  10. Polymer-clay nanocomposites obtained by solution polymerization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polymer-clay nanocomposites were synthesized by solution polymerization method using advanced functionalized clay and vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride as monomer. First stage con- sisted in the silylation of a commercial organo-modified clay-Cl 20A using alkoxysilanes with different chain lengths.

  11. Aquaponics business in Europe: some legal obstacles and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Joly


    Full Text Available The authors gathered information on perceived impact of current legislation on entrepreneurial possibilities in developing commercial aquaponics in Europe. The paper highlights the detected obstacles, and the solutions developed to address the legislative issues. Three main issues outlined are: administration, environment, and safety.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this study rheological properties of aqueous solutions of mucin, albumin and mucin-albumin have been investigated in search for saliva substitutes. They were compared with commercially available saliva substitutes on the one hand and natural human saliva on the other hand. For the latter a few

  13. Biosorptive removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using Amaranthus hybridus L. stalk as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of Co (II) from aqueous solution. The experiment was carried out by batch method at 33°C. The influence of pH, contact time and initial metal ion ...

  14. Polymer-clay nanocomposites obtained by solution polymerization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polymer-clay nanocomposites were synthesized by solution polymerization method using advanced functionalized clay and vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride as monomer. First stage consisted in the silylation of a commercial organo-modified clay-Cl 20A using alkoxysilanes with different chain lengths.

  15. Multichannel Distribution Meter: A Veritable Solution in Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Power theft in partitioned commercial apartments, especially in the form of unpaid bills due to disputes, is a major challenge to revenue recovery in the power sector. This paper presents a multi-channel power distribution metering solution that serves to resolve disputes among users in partitioned apartments, and between ...

  16. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.


    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  17. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli


    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  18. Professional Hadoop solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lublinsky, Boris; Yakubovich, Alexey


    The go-to guidebook for deploying Big Data solutions with Hadoop Today's enterprise architects need to understand how the Hadoop frameworks and APIs fit together, and how they can be integrated to deliver real-world solutions. This book is a practical, detailed guide to building and implementing those solutions, with code-level instruction in the popular Wrox tradition. It covers storing data with HDFS and Hbase, processing data with MapReduce, and automating data processing with Oozie. Hadoop security, running Hadoop with Amazon Web Services, best practices, and automating Hadoop processes i

  19. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E


    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...

  20. Highly commercial farms in family farming in Poland


    Karwat-Woźniak, Bożena; Chmieliński, Paweł


    Highly commercial farms – overview. The distribution of highly commercial farms. Distribution of highly commercial farms according to social and demographic characteristics of farm managers. The distribution of highly commercial farms in size groups. Highly commercial farms in agricultural structures. Regional differences in the formation of the group of highly commercial Farms. Prospects of speeding up the development of highly commercial farms and strengthening their position in agriculture...

  1. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food. (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel


    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Steam Cookers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Steam Cookers that are effective as...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the actual operational risk disclosure in Romanian banks. Therefore we focus on the operational risk information that Romanian banks reveal and if they conform to the requirements of the National Bank of Romania. The study methodology consists in testing the annual financial reports for Romanian commercial banks. The analysis shows that the financial reports of Romanian banks are not in consonance with the requirements of the National Bank of Romania relating to operational risk revealer and also there are many discrepancies between Romanian banks relating to the format of the financial report, which presents the operational risk disclosures. Commercial banks in Romania have different approaches of showing the disclosures of operational risk. Accordingly, they do not disclose the same types of information. Our study advice Romanian commercial banks to increase prevailing operational risk disclosure proceedings. The contribution of this paper is to highlight the Romanian commercial approaches of the operational risk disclosures.

  4. Effects of Radiation on Commercial Power Devices (United States)

    Selva, Luis; Becker, Heidi; Chavez, Rosa; Scheick, Leif


    The effects of radiation on various commercial power devices are presented. The devices have proved to be very fragile to single event effects, with some of the devices actually succumbing to catastrophic SEE with protons.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Water Heaters (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Water Heaters that are effective as...

  6. Northeast Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Typically, commercial fishing businesses incur three major types of costs: fixed or annual costs; which are incurred annually irrespective of whether any fishing...

  7. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run....

  8. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run.  ...

  9. A conservation program for Alaska's commercial fisheries (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is the purpose of this report to show how the present programs of the Alaska Region of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries relate to problems of the various...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ice Machines (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers that are...

  11. Future trends in commercial and military systems (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  13. Missouri commercial vehicle operations : state business plan (United States)


    This business plan is intended to assist this state in improving its commercial vehicle operation regulation, guide the deployment and installation of intelligent transportation systems and to implement these systems in an efficient and cost effectiv...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  15. Notes on Commercialization of Biotechnology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy Jakobsen, Palle

    This book introduces aspects of commercialization of biomedical & biotech research including pharmaceutical drug and medical device development, innovation concepts, patent protection & commercialisation of research by securing investments in new companies and by licensing of the commersialisatio...

  16. Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Demonstrations (United States)

    Lindenmoyer, Allan


    U.S. space policy directs pursuit of commercial opportunities for providing transportation and other services low Earth orbit and beyond. COTS Project established to implement policy. COTS strategy: Phase 1) Assist industry with system development/demonstrations (COTS Demos); Phase 2) Procure commercial services for ISS logistics support. COTS Demonstrations competition completed in 10 months. Two industry partners selected for funded Space Act Agreements: 1) SpaceX & Rocketplane-Kistler; and 2) Unfunded Space Act Agreements in work with other competitors. COTS budget of $500 M thru 2010, with pay for performance milestone approach. Cargo flight demonstrations planned for 2008 and 2009: Crew flight demonstration options for 2011-2012. Commercial cargo transportation services potentially available as early as 2009-2010. Successful COTS partners may open new space markets and provide reliable, cost effective cargo and crew transportation services, a new era for commercial space.

  17. Commercial Fisheries Database Biological Sample (CFDBS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Age and length frequency data for finfish and invertebrate species collected during commercial fishing vessels. Samples are collected by fisheries reporting...

  18. Photonic Band Gap Devices for Commercial Applications (United States)


    involved in projects for PBG devices, biosensors , military imaging systems, and commercial holography. At the University of Delaware, Dr. Prather’s...AFOSR Contract # FA9550-04-C-0062 FINAL REPORT Photonic Bandgap Devices for Commercial Applications Optical Signal Bea 2 S litte \\ 111 111 With Power... biosensors 6.1 Company EM Photonics, Inc. is a small, high technology company that specializes in applications of micro and nano photonics technologies

  19. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft


    Daggett, D.


    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  20. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...

  1. The Conductivity of Solutions. (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff


    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  2. Aerogel commercialization pilot project. Final program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Aerogels are extremely light weight, high surface area, very insulative materials that offer many potential improvements to commercial products. Aerogels have been the subject of extensive research at Department of Energy Laboratories and have been considered one of the technology most ready for commercialization. However, commercialization of the technology had been difficult for the National Laboratories since end users were not interested in the high temperature and high pressure chemical processes involved in manufacturing the raw material. Whereas, Aerojet as a supplier of rocket fuels, specialty chemicals and materials had the manufacturing facilities and experience to commercially produce aerogel-type products. Hence the TRP provided a link between the technology source (National Laboratories), the manufacturing (Aerojet) and the potential end users (other TRP partners). The program successfully produced approximately 500 ft{sup 2} of organic aerogel but failed to make significant quantities of silica aerogel. It is significant that this production represents both the largest volume and biggest pieces of organic aerogel ever produced. Aerogels, available from this program, when tested in several prototype commercial products were expected to improve the products performance, but higher than expected projected production costs for large scale manufacture of aerogels has limited continued commercial interest from these partners. Aerogels do, however, offer potential as a specialty material for some high value technology and defense products.

  3. Sociological and ethical issues in transplant commercialism. (United States)

    Epstein, Miran


    'Global transplant commercialism' (practices and policies involving international trade in organs from living vendors, e.g., 'transplant tourism') is currently subjected to unprecedented criticism. In parallel, the debate around 'local transplant commercialism' (practices and policies that confine trade in organs from living vendors to national markets or economic unions) is heating up. In an attempt to assess the potential outcomes of these trends, this article reviews and discusses some sociological and ethical issues, ending with a proposal for a reinvigorated anticommercialist strategy. The current international campaign against global transplant commercialism is conducted by an ad hoc alliance between strange bedfellows, proponents of local transplant commercialism on the one hand and opponents of any transplant commercialism on the other. Disparities in the rigor of the respective ethical discourses, the expanding list of precedents of legitimized commerce in the human body, and the political economy of transplantation, all suggest that the former have the upper hand. Recent achievements in the struggle against international organ trafficking may not herald the abolition of transplant commercialism but rather presage its reconfiguration in deglobalized forms. In light of such a prospect, those who wish to prevent the pervasive commodification of the human body from entering the gates of transplant medicine should consider devising a new, perhaps more radical, strategy.

  4. Marketing Message Components in Commercial Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Romanova


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the marketing potential of commercial names involved in the clientoriented communication and, more precisely, on the mechanisms of semantic derivation proper to the formation of commercial names. The author argues that the semantic shifts in the meaning of the original word result from its use as a part of a commercial message, i.e. for the transmission of specific marketing information. One of the current trends in contemporary Russian commercial naming is related to the actualization of the marketing content components (MCCs ‘big’ and ‘small’ which communicate complementary information about the named object. The marketing content component ‘big’ communicates the idea of respectability, economic might, wide choice of goods. This idea is most commonly transmitted by the foreign language prefixes mega-, super-, hyper-, grand-, maxi-, macro-, big-. In commercial naming their meanings overlap, making them stereotypic means of advertising. The marketing content component ‘small’ often appears in the names of cosy cafés and restaurants, cheap shops and child care institutions. This marketing content component can be communicated by foreign language prefixes, e.g. mini-, micro-, nano-, but it is most often actualized by Russian diminutive suffixes. The analised MCCs are also transmitted by means of direct, metaphoric, metonymic and symbolic names in which it is also possible to distinguish stereotypic patterns of commercial naming.

  5. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen


    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  6. Womb Outsourcing: Commercial Surrogacy in India. (United States)

    Frankford, David M; Bennington, Linda K; Ryan, Jane Greene


    Infertility affects more than 7 million American couples. As traditional treatments fail and the costs of hiring a surrogate increase in the United States, transnational commercial surrogacy becomes a feasible alternative for many couples. Infertile couples may opt for this choice after reading enticing Internet advertisements of global medical tourism offering "special deals" on commercial surrogacy. This is particularly true in India where couples from the United States can purchase transnational surrogacy for less than one-half or even one-third of the costs in the United States, including the cost of travel. The majority of surrogate mothers in India come from impoverished, poorly educated rural areas of India. Commercial surrogacy offers the lure of earning the equivalent of 5 years of family income. This multidisciplinary review of the literature suggests that the issue of commercial surrogacy is complex and influenced by a number of factors including expensive infertility costs, ease of global travel, and the financial vulnerability of Indian commercial surrogate mothers and their families. Questions are being raised about decision making by the surrogate mother particularly as influenced by gender inequities, power differentials, and inadequate legal protection for the surrogate mother. More research is needed to understand commercial surrogacy, especially research inclusive of the viewpoints of the Indian mothers and their families involved in these transactions.

  7. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria


    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  8. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caliò


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  9. Piezoelectric energy harvesting solutions. (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria


    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  10. Commercialization of LARC (TradeMark) -SI Polyimide Technology (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.


    LARC(TradeMark)-SI, Langley Research Center- Soluble Imide, was developed in 1992, with the first patent issuing in 1997, and then subsequent patents issued in 1998 and 2000. Currently, this polymer has been successfully licensed by NASA, and has generated revenues, at the time of this reporting, in excess of $1.4 million. The success of this particular polymer has been due to many factors and many lessons learned to the point that the invention, while important, is the least significant part in the commercialization of this material. Commercial LARC(TradeMark)-SI is a polyimide composed of two molar equivalents of dianhydrides: 4,4 -oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA), and 3,3 ,4,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and 3,4 -oxydianiline (3,4 -ODA) as the diamine. The unique feature of this aromatic polyimide is that it remains soluble after solution imidization in high-boiling, polar aprotic solvents, even at solids contents of 50-percent by weight. However, once isolated and heated above its T(sub g) of 240 C, it becomes insoluble and exhibits high-temperature thermoplastic melt-flow behavior. With these unique structure property characteristics, it was thought this would be an advantage to have an aromatic polyimide that is both solution and melt processable in the imide form. This could potentially lead to lower cost production as it was not as equipment- or labor-intensive as other high-performance polyimide materials that either precipitate or are intractable. This unique combination of properties allowed patents with broad claim coverage and potential commercialization. After the U.S. Patent applications were filed, a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract was awarded to Imtec, Inc. to develop and supply the polyimide to NASA and the general public. Some examples of demonstration parts made with LARC(TradeMark)-SI ranged from aircraft wire and multilayer printed-circuit boards, to gears, composite panels, supported adhesive tape, composite


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru


    Full Text Available The globalization has led to a better integration of international markets of goods, services and capital markets, fact which leads to a significant increase of investments in those regions with low labor cost and with access to commercial routes. The development of international trade has imposed a continuous growth of the volumes of transported goods and the development of a transport system, able to stand against the new pressure exercised by cost, time and space. The solution to efficient transport is the intermodal transportation relying on state-of-the-art technological platforms, which integrates the advantages specific to each means of transportation: flexibility for road transportation, high capacity for railway, low costs for sea, and speed for air transportation. Romania’s integration in the pan-European transport system alongside with the EU’s enlargement towards the east will change Romania’s positioning into a central one. The integrated governmental program of improving the intermodal infrastructure will ensure fast railway, road and air connections. For the Danube harbors and for the sea ports, EU grants and allowances will be used thus increasing Romania’s importance in its capacity as one of Europe’s logistical hubs. The present paper intends to use benchmarking, the management and strategic marketing tool, in order to realize an evaluation of the Romanian heavy commercial vehicles market, within European context. Benchmarking encourages change in a complex and dynamic context where a permanent solution cannot be found. The different results stimulate the use of benchmarking as a solution to reduce gaps. MAN’s case study shows the dynamics of the players on the Romanian market for heavy commercial vehicles, when considering the strong growth of Romanian exported goods but with a modest internal demand, a limited but developing road infrastructure, and an unfavorable international economical context together with

  12. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E


    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  13. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Solutions for Supporting Viability Retention of Yersinia Pestis Cells (United States)


    swabs Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. R723140 13 Skim milk (filtered) Cloverland Farms Dairy (Baltimore, MD) – 14 Spent tryptic soy broth (sTSB) Thermo...9 5. Fate of Y. pestis A1122 cells sampled from surfaces and stored in half-strength skim milk ...11 7. Effect of AZTD on sustained viability of sampled Y. pestis in skim milk

  14. Can oral rehydration solution be safely flavored at home? (United States)

    Nijssen-Jordan, C


    To determine the concentration of sodium, potassium, glucose, and osmolality of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) which have been flavored with varying amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, apple juice, or orange juice. Descriptive. Alberta Children's Hospital Chemistry Laboratory. None. Addition of varying amounts of flavoring easily available in all households to commercially available unsweetened ORS. Concentrations of electrolytes, glucose, and osmolality. Addition of fruit juices or flavor powders to commercially produced ORS does alter the electrolyte content and osmolality. When limited amounts of flavoring or juice is added, the osmolality of the solution approaches iso-osmolality. Small amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, and apple or orange juice can be added to oral rehydration solutions without significantly altering electrolyte composition and osmolality.

  15. Measuring Torque and Temperature in a Rotating Shaft Using Commercial SAW Sensors (United States)

    Silva, Diogo; Pereira, António B.; Gégot, François


    Real-time monitoring of torque in a rotating shaft is not easy to implement with technologies such as optic fiber sensors or strain gages. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are wireless and passive and can be used to monitor strain in moving parts. Commercial solutions (sensors, antennas and interrogation unit) can easily be purchased from some companies; however, they are not customized and may not meet the specificity of the measurements. In order to evaluate the adequacy of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions, temperature and strain sensors fabricated by SENSeOR (Besançon, France) were mounted on a load cell. The sensors were calibrated using a thermal chamber and a universal testing machine. The load cell was then assembled together with a steel shaft that rotated at different speeds inside an oven. The commercial antennas were replaced with an RF (radio frequency) coupler and the sensors were interrogated with the commercial interrogation unit. The influence of rotation in the accuracy on the measurements, as well as the adequacy of the sensors structure, was evaluated. It can be concluded that SAW sensors can be used to measure temperature or torque in a rotating environment; however, some customization of the components is required in order to overcome the limitations posed by COTS sensing solutions. PMID:28671594

  16. Measuring Torque and Temperature in a Rotating Shaft Using Commercial SAW Sensors. (United States)

    Silva, Diogo; Mendes, Joana C; Pereira, António B; Gégot, François; Alves, Luís N


    Real-time monitoring of torque in a rotating shaft is not easy to implement with technologies such as optic fiber sensors or strain gages. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are wireless and passive and can be used to monitor strain in moving parts. Commercial solutions (sensors, antennas and interrogation unit) can easily be purchased from some companies; however, they are not customized and may not meet the specificity of the measurements. In order to evaluate the adequacy of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions, temperature and strain sensors fabricated by SENSeOR (Besançon, France) were mounted on a load cell. The sensors were calibrated using a thermal chamber and a universal testing machine. The load cell was then assembled together with a steel shaft that rotated at different speeds inside an oven. The commercial antennas were replaced with an RF (radio frequency) coupler and the sensors were interrogated with the commercial interrogation unit. The influence of rotation in the accuracy on the measurements, as well as the adequacy of the sensors structure, was evaluated. It can be concluded that SAW sensors can be used to measure temperature or torque in a rotating environment; however, some customization of the components is required in order to overcome the limitations posed by COTS sensing solutions.

  17. Impacts of the use of nonnative commercial bumble bees for pollinator supplementation in raspberry. (United States)

    Lye, G C; Jennings, S N; Osborne, J L; Goulson, D


    Evidence for pollinator declines has led to concern that inadequate pollination services may limit crop yields. The global trade in commercial bumble bee (Bombus spp.) colonies provides pollination services for both glasshouse and open-field crops. For example, in the United Kingdom, commercial colonies of nonnative subspecies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. imported from mainland Europe are widely used for the pollination of raspberries, Rubus idaeus L. The extent to which these commercial colonies supplement the services provided by wild pollinators has not been formally quantified and the impact of commercial bumble bees on native bees visiting the crop is unknown. Here, the impacts of allowing commercially available bumble bee colonies to forage on raspberry canes are assessed in terms of the yield of marketable fruit produced and the pollinator communities found foraging on raspberry flowers. No differences were found in the abundance, diversity, or composition of social bee species observed visiting raspberry flowers when commercial bumble bees were deployed compared with when they were absent. However, weight of marketable raspberries produced increased when commercial bees were present, indicating that wild pollinator services alone are inadequate for attaining maximum yields. The findings of the study suggests that proportional yield increases associated with deployment of commercial colonies may be small, but that nevertheless, investment in commercial colonies for raspberry pollination could produce very significant increases in net profit for the grower. Given potential environmental risks associated with the importation of nonnative bumble bees, the development of alternative solutions to the pollination deficit in raspberry crops in the United Kingdom may be beneficial.

  18. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)


    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  19. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses. (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil


    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P TV commercials.

  20. Particle-induced x-ray emission: Instrumentation, calibration, and application to contact lens solutions and fulvic acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, D.D.


    An expression was derived describing the profile of the proton beam at the PIXE target position. The expression was used to predict the profile for several experimental configurations. The profile was experimentally measured. The PIXE system was calibrated using solutions and commercial foils. Experimental data was adjusted for all absorbers and interferences, and a quadratic relationship was determined relating calibration factor and atomic number for each series of X-ray transitions. Calibration factors were determined for all elements above aluminum, for both a pinhole filter and a 14-mil mylar filter. A group of contact lens solutions was analyzed using PIXE, ICP, and ISE. A digestion method was developed for removal. of chloride ion. Cluster analysis was used to classify the data. A commercial humic acid was separated into three fractions. The fulvic acid was characterized, and separations of metal-fulvic acid complexes from metal ions in solution were attempted using ultrafiltration.

  1. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  2. Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector (United States)


    A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

  3. 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Goldthwaite, Carolyn Sarno [Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Boston, MA (United States). High Performance Buildings; Coffman, Eric [Montgomery County Dept. of General Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Energy and Sustainability


    Leadership by state and local governments is critical to unlock national energy efficiency opportunities and deliver the benefits of efficiency to all Americans. But related to building energy efficiency, what will it mean to be a public sector leader over the next several years? What are the energy efficiency solutions that cities, counties, and states are implementing today that will make their communities more affordable, livable, healthy, and economically competitive? The SEE Action Network 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings establishes a benchmark for state and local government leadership on improving the energy efficiency of buildings and seeks two-way collaboration among state, local, and federal officials. It defines a suite of innovative, yet practical policies and programs for policymakers to consider implementing by 2020, focusing on six important areas.

  4. Parallel Worlds of Public and Commercial Bioactive Chemistry Data (United States)


    The availability of structures and linked bioactivity data in databases is powerfully enabling for drug discovery and chemical biology. However, we now review some confounding issues with the divergent expansions of public and commercial sources of chemical structures. These are associated with not only expanding patent extraction but also increasingly large vendor collections amassed via different selection criteria between SciFinder from Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and major public sources such as PubChem, ChemSpider, UniChem, and others. These increasingly massive collections may include both real and virtual compounds, as well as so-called prophetic compounds from patents. We address a range of issues raised by the challenges faced resolving the NIH probe compounds. In addition we highlight the confounding of prior-art searching by virtual compounds that could impact the composition of matter patentability of a new medicinal chemistry lead. Finally, we propose some potential solutions. PMID:25415348

  5. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA


    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  6. Freshwater Commercial Bycatch: an Understated Conservation Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, Graham D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.


    Commercial fisheries bycatch in marine systems has been regarded as a global conservation concern by environmental groups, scientists, government, and the public for decades. Fortunately, some headway has been made to mitigate the negative impacts of bycatch in marine environments. In a survey of the literature, we found that despite freshwater commercial fisheries yields comprising 11% of the global commercial catch, bycatch research focusing on freshwater commercial fisheries represented only {approx}3% of the total bycatch literature. This paucity of research is particularly alarming given that freshwater animals and habitats are some of the world's most imperiled. The limited inland bycatch literature that does exist includes examples of population declines attributed to commercial bycatch (e.g., freshwater dolphins in the Yangtze River in China) and illustrates that in some systems bycatch can be substantial (e.g., lake trout bycatch in the Laurentian Great Lakes). Encouraging results from the marine realm can serve as models for bycatch research in freshwater, and lead to measurable gains in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We summarize existing work on inland bycatch in an effort to draw attention to this understated and understudied conservation problem.

  7. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  8. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment? (United States)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John


    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  9. Growth of microorganisms in total parenteral nutrition solutions without lipid. (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Kaneda, Shinya; Shimono, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Yoshifumi


    To identify the microorganisms that can grow rapidly in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions, we investigated the growth of the major causes of catheter-related blood stream infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans) in TPN solutions without lipid. Experiment 1: A commercial TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6) was used. A specific number of each test microorganism was added to each 10 mL of the TPN solution and incubated at room temperature. An aliquot of test solution was sampled and inoculated to SCD agar plates at 0, 24, and 48 hrs after the addition of the microorganisms. The number of microorganisms was counted as colony forming units. Experiment 2: The other 2 commercial TPN solutions without lipid (pH5.5) were supplemented with multivitamins. The pH values of the solutions were adjusted to about 6.0, 6.5, or 7.0 using 0.5 mol/L NaOH. The addition of microorganisms, incubation, and counting were performed in the same manner. Experiment 1: S. aureus, S. marcescens, and B. cereus did not increase in the TPN solution without lipid containing multivitamins (pH5.6), but C. albicans increased rapidly. Experiment 2: The 3 bacterial species did not increase even at pH6.0, but increased at pH6.5 and increased rapidly at pH7.0 in both TPN solutions. C. albicans increased similarly at any pH. These results suggest that bacterial species cannot grow in TPN solutions without lipid due to the acidity (pH5.6 or lower), but Candida species can grow regardless of the acidity.

  10. Overview of the recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kravtsov


    Full Text Available The subject. This informational article is devoted to the peculiarities of recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards according to different countries’ legislation and international legal regulation.The purpose of the article is to identify legal patterns of recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards in different countries.Methodology. The study is based on comparative law and formal law methods, analysis and synthesis.Results, scope of application. Enforcement of arbitral awards in foreign countries is ensured and guaranteed by multilateral conventions, bilateral treaties and national legislation. The New York Convention 1958 in a certain way limits the scope of legal protection of arbitral awards and leaves the procedure for recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards for consideration of the state court. The author analyses of differentiation of the recognition and enforcement regime of so-called "domestic" and "foreign" solutions of international commercial arbitration in terms of doctrinal approaches and practice of foreign countries. Special attention is given to the analysis of foreign arbitral awards of recognition and enforcement procedures is given to a denial of recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards and their reasons. In spite of the explicit grounds for refusal of recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in New York Convention 1958, some countries try to establish certain exceptions to the rule in the national legislation. Results may be applicable in improvement of international legal regulation.Conclusions. The courts of the countries – participants of the New York Convention 1958 cannot cancel the foreign arbitral award or revise it substantially. The refutation of this award is possible only in the court of the state in whose territory the relevant arbitral award was made, and such court is not formally bound by the rules of the

  11. Load balancing using DP management server for commercial MDP software (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Won-Tai; Jang, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung


    Mask data volume is dramatically increasing by using RET like OPC due to scaling design rule. This has become a burden to MDP and a barrier to TAT. Mask manufacturers have been making various efforts to solve this problem. Although Distribute processing (DP) is one of effective solutions, there remain some limitations: DP needs a lot of CPUs and software license copies, and its management is not efficient at all. Most of well-known mask data preparation (MDP) commercial software require different licenses to each format. Besides, they have no management function to deal with the entire distribute processing system, on account of which user's DP system is not in a fully dynamic state. Those who use commercial MDP software set up their DP system with CPUs fixed by the number of licenses. If user has only one license, this problem does not happen. However, most MDP users have more than one license. If a user wants the DP state which is fully dynamic, he must always consider both the number of licenses and that of available CPUs. This is reason why we have made a DP management server which allocate MDP software to CPUs. It can prevent the loss of CPU time and automate data flow. It's operation is not complicated; effect is powerful. In this paper, we will show advantages in using DP management server and different from other load balance tools.

  12. Open Search Environments: The Free Alternative to Commercial Search Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian O'Riordan


    Full Text Available Open search systems present a free and less restricted alternative to commercial search services. This paper explores the space of open search technology looking in particular at the issue of interoperability. A description of current protocols and formats for engineering open search applications is presented. The suitability of these technologies and issues around their adoption and operation are discussed. This open search approach is especially proving a fitting choice in applications involving the harvesting of resources and information integration. Principal among the technological solutions are OpenSearch and SRU. OpenSearch and SRU implement a federated model to enable existing and new search engines and search clients communicate. Applications and instances where Opensearch and SRU can be combined are presented. Other relevant technologies such as OpenURL, Apache Solr, and OAI-PMH are also discussed. The deployment of these freely licensed open standards in digital library applications is now a genuine alternative to commercial or proprietary systems.

  13. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  14. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  15. Financial analysis of commercial salmon fisheries: marine & inland fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... in commercial and recreational fisheries. To estimate the financial inputs required for the BCIOM analysis, Counterpoint designed and deployed a financial analysis model of the commercial salmon fishery in which the commercial fishery...

  16. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IRS-P6-AWIFS (Federally Downloadable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  17. COMMERCIAL IMAGERY IRS-P6-AWIFS (Federally Viewable) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Commercial Data Purchases (UCDP) imagery collection is an archive of commercial remote sensing imagery from several different commercial vendors. The UCDP...

  18. Deconstructing graphite: graphenide solutions. (United States)

    Pénicaud, Alain; Drummond, Carlos


    Growing interest in graphene over past few years has prompted researchers to find new routes for producing this material other than mechanical exfoliation or growth from silicon carbide. Chemical vapor deposition on metallic substrates now allows researchers to produce continuous graphene films over large areas. In parallel, researchers will need liquid, large scale, formulations of graphene to produce functional graphene materials that take advantage of graphene's mechanical, electrical, and barrier properties. In this Account, we describe methods for creating graphene solutions from graphite. Graphite provides a cheap source of carbon, but graphite is insoluble. With extensive sonication, it can be dispersed in organic solvents or water with adequate additives. Nevertheless, this process usually creates cracks and defects in the graphite. On the other hand, graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) provide a means to dissolve rather than disperse graphite. GICS can be obtained through the reaction of alkali metals with graphite. These compounds are a source of graphenide salts and also serve as an excellent electronic model of graphene due to the decoupling between graphene layers. The graphenide macroions, negatively charged graphene sheets, form supple two-dimensional polyelectrolytes that spontaneously dissolve in some organic solvents. The entropic gain from the dissolution of counterions and the increased degrees of freedom of graphene in solution drives this process. Notably, we can obtain graphenide solutions in easily processable solvents with low boiling points such as tetrahydrofuran or cyclopentylmethylether. We performed a statistical analysis of high resolution transmission electronic micrographs of graphene sheets deposited on grids from GICs solution to show that the dissolved material has been fully exfoliated. The thickness distribution peaks with single layers and includes a few double- or triple-layer objects. Light scattering analysis of the

  19. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian


    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  20. Calculus problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Abraham


    Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif

  1. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)] [and others


    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE`s Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE`s EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies.

  2. On the Ambiguity of Commercial Open Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Luca


    Full Text Available . Open source and commercial applications used to be two separate worlds. The former was the work of amateurs who had little interest in making a profit, while the latter was only profit oriented and was produced by big companies. Nowadays open source is a threat and an opportunity to serious businesses of all kinds, generating good profits while delivering low costs products to customers. The competition between commercial and open source software has impacted the industry and the society as a whole. But in the last years, the markets for commercial and open source software are converging rapidly and it is interesting to resume and discuss the implications of this new paradigm, taking into account arguments pro and against it.

  3. Challenges of Sustainable and Commercial Aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek


    Full Text Available The world is facing a number of serious problems of which population rise, climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity and food security are among the most important. Aquaponics, as a closed loop system consisting of hydroponics and aquaculture elements, could contribute to addressing these problems. However, there is a lack of quantitative research to support the development of economically feasible aquaponics systems. Although many studies have addressed some scientific aspects, there has been limited focus on commercial implementation. In this review paper, opportunities that have the potential to fill the gap between research and implementation of commercial aquaponic systems have been identified. The analysis shows that aquaponics is capable of being an important driver for the development of integrated food production systems. Arid regions suffering from water stress will particularly benefit from this technology being operated in a commercial environment.

  4. Commercializing Emerging Renewable Energy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Lehtovaara


    Full Text Available A broad scientific consensus exists that the global climate is changing. The Earth’s surface temperature could rise significantly over the next few decades, leading to us witnessing an entirely new and unknown planet. Improved energy efficiency, decreasing use of fossil fuels and wide diffusion of various renewable energy sources are among the focal measures to limit global warming to a sustainable level. The objective of this study is to analyse how renewable energy, such as wind power and bioenergy, could be efficiently commercialized. The evaluation is based on a case study and expert analyses exploiting lateral and parallel thinking methods, and group decision support systems tools. The results reveal that some of the generated ideas are ready for implementation to commercialize renewable energy, whereas others still require technical and commercial development and improvements before maturity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Zaraswati


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance

  6. Evaluation of Space Food for Commercial Astronauts (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Britt Karin

    As commercial aerospace companies advance toward manned spaceflight, they must overcome many hurdles - not only technical, but also human. One of the greatest human challenges they face is food. Throughout the history of human spaceflight, astronauts have primarily eaten food developed by government space agencies. Now, with manned commercial flights on the horizon, astronauts will be provided with an entirely new diet - one comprised of commercially available, ready-to-eat food. Yet will this diet keep astronauts nourished, satisfied with their diet, and both psychologically and physically healthy? The purpose of this parallel crossover design study was to evaluate (a) nutrient intake, (b) food satisfaction, (c) psychological health, and (d) physical health in commercial aerospace employees (N = 7) as they ate a diet of commercial, ready-to-eat food for four days, as compared to eating as normal for four days. Findings from this study showed that the ready-to-eat diet did not lead to any significant changes in caloric intake, psychological health, or physical health, aside from weight loss. It is not clear whether this weight loss was due to the loss of body fat, muscle, or water. When eating the ready-to-eat food, participants reported being slightly less satisfied with the variety, reported lower cravings for sweets, and reported the food was slightly less hedonically rewarding. In post-study interviews, participants reported they wanted to see more meats, fruits, vegetables, and desserts added to the ready-to-eat diet, so as to provide more meal-like structure. Overall, these findings show the diet could be used in commercial spaceflight after making simple changes. The diet could also be used by individuals in remote areas on Earth and to provide food assistance to individuals in disaster or emergency situations. Due to the increasing popularity of ready-to-eat food around the world, these findings also provide knowledge about the potential consequences of

  7. Effect of Solution Conditions on the Nanoscale Intermolecular Interactions Between Human Serum Albumin and Low Grafting Density Surfaces of Poly(ethylene oxide) (United States)

    Rixman, Monica; Macias, Celia; Dean, Delphine; Ortiz, Christine


    The first step in the biological rejection response to an implanted blood-contacting biomaterial is the non-covalent adsorption of proteins onto the surface, which triggers a cascade reaction ultimately resulting in thrombus formation. Using the technique of high resolution force spectroscopy, we have quantified the nonspecific intermolecular forces between fatty acid-complexed human serum albumin (HSA) covalently attached to a cantilever probe tip and individual end-grafted poly(ethylene oxide) mushrooms. In order to help elucidate the molecular origins of the constituent forces (e.g. steric, electrostatic, van der Waals), experiments were performed varying both the solution environmental conditions (e.g. ionic strength, removal of the bound fatty acids, and the addition of the antihydrophobic agent isopropanol), and the probe deflection rate.

  8. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment. (United States)


    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial...

  9. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.


    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  10. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD ™

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minot, Michael J.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; O׳Mahony, Aileen; Renaud, Joseph M.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.; Demarteau, Marcellinus W.; Wagner, Robert G.; McPhate, Jason B.; Helmut Siegmund, Oswald; Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry J.; Northrop, Richard; Wetstein, Matthew J.


    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm2) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD™). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD™ technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a “pathway toward commercialization”.

  11. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy (United States)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy


    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  12. Commercial Expert-System-Building Software Tools (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.


    Report evaluates commercially-available expert-system-building tools in terms of structures, representations of knowledge, inference mechanisms, interfaces with developers and end users, and capabilities of performing such functions as diagnosis and design. Software tools commercialized derivatives of artificial-intelligence systems developed by researchers at universities and research organizations. Reducing time to develop expert system by order of magnitude compared to that required with such traditional artificial development languages as LISP. Table lists 20 such tools, rating attributes as strong, fair, programmable by user, or having no capability in various criteria.

  13. Phenomenology of polymer solution dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillies, George D. J


    ... solutions, not dilute solutions or polymer melts. From centrifugation and solvent dynamics to viscosity and diffusion, experimental measurements and their quantitative representations are the core of the discussion...

  14. From competition to symbiosis : commercial context, commercial law, and their Importance for legal education


    Perales Viscasillas, María del Pilar; Ramos Muñoz, David


    The present work is written under the Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology (Spain) (DER2008-02244/JURI): Uniform International Commercial Law and its impact on European Contract Law: UNIDROIT Principles 2004 and International Commercial Arbitration under UNCITRAL. Head of the team: Prof. Pilar Perales Viscasillas.

  15. Aliteracy : causes and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Thijs Martinus Johannes


    The reading motivation of the majority of students declines in the upper half of primary school, which implies a risk for aliteracy: Students can read but, due to lack of practice, their skills remain underdeveloped (Chapter 2). In this thesis we have explored causes and solutions for this important

  16. School Solutions for Cyberbullying (United States)

    Sutton, Susan


    This article offers solutions and steps to prevent cyberbullying. Schools can improve their ability to handle cyberbullying by educating staff members, students, and parents and by implementing rules and procedures for how to handle possible incidents. Among the steps is to include a section about cyberbullying and expectations in the student…

  17. Antisocial Personalities, Antidemocractic Solutions. (United States)

    Schneiderman, Howard G.


    Provides critical analysis of David T. Lykken's article "Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime" (1996) and its correlation between unstable families and sociopathy and the use of parental licensing as a solution. Discusses reasons for the appeal of parental licensing as well as the issue of state control replacing social control. (GR)

  18. Cells and Hypotonic Solutions. (United States)

    Bery, Julia


    Describes a demonstration designed to help students better understand the response of plant and animal cells to hypotonic solutions. The demonstration uses a balloon inside a flexible, thin-walled cardboard box. Air going in corresponds to water entering by osmosis, and, like real cells, if stretched enough, the balloon will burst. (DH)

  19. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig


    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  20. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions. (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J


    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J. [and others


    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na{sup +}. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A&M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications.

  2. Characteristics of potential successful emerging commercial cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of potential successful emerging commercial cotton farmers. ... This paper describes a typology of sample households in terms of their farming ... The realistic description of the various socio-economic groupings can facilitate the design of the support system based on the needs and aspiration of such groups.

  3. Biochemical, Physical And Performance Evaluations Of Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 4 commercial rations and a control (CT) were fed to 5 replicated groups of the experimental birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) experiment. ... However, there were significant (P<0.05) differences between the analyzed and declared values of % CF in GF, TF, VF in broiler starters and TF and VF in ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    globalisation. International and national rules governing various aspects of commercial arbitration have contributed to the effectiveness of arbitration as an .... contract by interfering in the arbitration process and thus making the latter ..... 1998 Proclamation on Cooperative Societies requires the compulsory submission of ...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of commercial interferon preparations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiviral, antiproliferative and natural killer-cell. (NKC) stimulatory activities of four commercial the- rapeutic interferon preparations were assayed in our laboratory. The antiviral and antiproliferative activities of each preparation were relatively similar, but an unexpectedly high NKC stimulatory activity was foupd in one ...

  6. Evaluation of commercially available exterior digital VMDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, C.E.; Hoover, C.E.


    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of thirteen commercially available exterior digital video motion detection (VMD) systems. The systems were evaluated for use in a specific outdoor application. The report focuses primarily on the testing parameters, each system`s advertised features, and the nuisance alarm and detection test results.

  7. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss (United States)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.


    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  8. The keystroking ability of commercial pilots (United States)

    Williams, D. H.


    A sample of airline and commercial pilots was tested on a standard computer keyboard (QWERTY). They were found to have a useful level of proficiency in operation of this keyboard. Implications for the design of alphabetic keyboards for airborne use are discussed.

  9. Thermodynamic effects of commercially available ice boots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The limb of the equine athlete is subjected to all types of various stressors during exercise. To ensure the health of the horse and to prevent the possibility of lameness, it has been a common practice to apply cold therapy to the distal limb of the horse pre- and post-exercise. Commercially available boots are widely available ...

  10. The weight of economic and commercial diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); M. Yakop (Mina)


    textabstractThis paper investigates the impact of economic and commercial diplomacy on the geography of international trade. We replicate a recent study by Rose (2007) extending the analysis to include the year 2006 and 63 importing and exporting countries. Using a gravity model we are able to

  11. Preventing commercial fishing deaths in Alaska. (United States)

    Lincoln, J M; Conway, G A


    To evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 in reducing the high occupational death rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska. Demographic data and data on risk factors and incidents were compiled and analysed for trend. During 1991-8, there was a significant (p deaths in Alaska related to commercial fishing. Although drownings from fishermen falling overboard and events related to crab fishing vessels (often conducted far offshore and in winter) have continued to occur, marked progress (significant downward trend, p fishing industry have been successful. However, these events continue to occur, and place fishermen and rescue personnel at substantial risk. Additional strategies must be identified to reduce the frequency of vessels capsizing and sinking, to enable parallel improvements in the mortality among crab fishermen, and to prevent fishermen falling overboard and drownings associated with them.

  12. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunt, J.J.; Wulms, P.H.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Dankelman, J.; Van Dijk, C.N.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.


    Background: Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on

  13. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunt, J. J.; Wulms, P. H.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Dankelman, J.; van Dijk, C. N.; Tuijthof, G. J. M.


    Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these

  14. Instructional Simulation of a Commercial Banking System. (United States)

    Hester, Donald D.


    Describes an instructional simulation of a commercial banking system. Identifies the teaching of portfolio theory, market robustness, and the subtleties of institutional constraints and decision making under uncertainty as the project's goals. Discusses the results of applying the simulation in an environment of local and national markets and a…

  15. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, W.G. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lighthipe, R.W. [San Diego Gas & Electric, San Diego, CA (United States)


    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world`s first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  16. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Sep 7, 2016 ... from the Mars Center for Cocoa Science (MCCS) germplasm collection. Evaluation of a pilot scale production of plantlets from nine commercial cacao clones by somatic embryogenesis. Primary somatic embryogenesis procedures. Immature cacao flowers (approximately 900 in total), 6-8 mm in length, from ...

  17. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  18. Exploiting The New Commercial Space Race (United States)


    transportation industry to increase industry robustness and cost effectiveness, foster innovation-driven entrepreneurship and international...earlier disagreement. Musk called the certification, “an important step toward bringing competition to National Security Space launch” and, “we...the US Government has not completely embraced true commercial competition. However, now it is important to look forward and determine how the US

  19. Evaluation of commercially available lighting design software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, D.G.


    This report addresses the need for commercially available lighting design computer programs and evaluates several of these programs. Sandia National Laboratories uses these programs to provide lighting designs for exterior closed-circuit television camera intrusion detection assessment for high-security perimeters.

  20. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  1. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    based farmers are family size, land size, age, livestock holding and dependency ratio. The study recommends that policy ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of East Shewa and West Arsi .... the variables into its natural logarithm form.The model estimation resultwas ...

  2. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition. (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  3. Use of NGS in Commercial Broiler Production (United States)

    With the development and evolution of next generation sequencing technologies, these powerful tools can be applied to a variety of aspect of commercial broiler production, especially in respect to food safety issues. NGS technologies allow for a deeper understanding of the complex microbiota inhere...

  4. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting. (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  5. Capacity Building Counselling Strategies For Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The writers therefore, contend that capacity building strategies will speedily facilitate positive changes in the operations of commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria thereby promoting their behavioural currency and skill advancement. Capacity building intervention can be used to help them to take rational and informed decisions ...

  6. Thermodynamic effects of commercially available ice boots

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    Submitted: 02/08/2017. Accepted: 06/01/2018. Published: 18/01/2018. Thermodynamic effects of commercially available ice boots. Madison N. Quintanar*, Tess Pu'uwaionalani Millar and Matthew A. Burd. Department of Animal Science, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, USA ...

  7. Directing sustainable investments in commercial real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Braganca, L.; Pinheiro, M.; Jalali, S.; Mateus, R.; Amoeda, R.; Correia Guedes, M.


    This paper focuses on the facility costs, energy use and water consumption of commercial real estate. A framework consisting of four components is established in which the performances on these three aspects are analysed. By using the first, second and third part of the framework suggestions for

  8. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial clones of Theobroma cacao L. ... Overall, flower petals performed better than staminodes, and our best performing genotype yielded an average of 7-10 embryos produced in brown callus explants with embryogenic response during primary somatic ...

  9. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. Second Edition. (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. Included in the guide are 15 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications…

  10. Perception of Commercialization of Agricultural Extension Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public extension service delivery system has been unable to satisfactorily respond to the challenges of agricultural development, poverty eradication and rural transformation in Nigeria, resulting in continued calls for alternative systems, including commercialization of extension service. Because of their strategically ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    parties to a dispute resort to a third party (or parties) whose determination over the dispute is as binding as ... comparative analysis of national rules on commercial arbitration would reveal that the level of interaction ..... Ethiopian default rule on the number of arbitrators is two.66 The Ethiopian Civil. 60 See, e.g., Bezzawork, ...

  12. 76 FR 34192 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps (United States)


    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies program by Energetics Incorporated... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  13. Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles (United States)

    Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali

    Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.

  14. Visual impairment among commercial motorcyclists | Edema | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One point four percent (1.4%) had subnormal visual acuity, while 5.3% had refractive errors. Ocular pathologies were found in 11.5% of the eyes examined. Conclusion: Most commercial motorcyclists may pass the Federal Road Safety Corps. However Colour vision and visual field testing may give a more reliable result.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Dyl


    Full Text Available The article examines the problems of the modern enterprise as a network structure that meets the increasing processes of globalization and the rise of postmodern trends. The definition of the term «a network of commercial bank» and the main characteristics of such a definition are given.

  16. Effects of financing mechanisms in enhancing commercialization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and welfare of smallholder resource-poor farmers in the region. Most interventions focused on improving production and producers' incomes. While farmers have intensified production and are marketing their produce, little efforts have focused on development of local markets, which are vital in spurring commercialization.

  17. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising. (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    E-mail: LEVELS OF METALS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ETHIOPIAN BLACK. TEAS AND THEIR INFUSIONS. Daniel Woldegebriel Gebretsadik1 and Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi2*. 1Bahir Dar University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar,. Ethiopia.

  19. 77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1812 RIN 2700-AD64 Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy AGENCY... limited conditions, to issue Anchor Tenancy contracts. Anchor Tenancy means ``an arrangement in which the... inaccurate prohibition on anchor tenancy contracts. The prohibition is included in the NFS based on The Space...

  20. Le spot publicitaire radiophonique (Radio Commercials). (United States)

    Doray, Henri-Paul


    Analyzes the sound components of radio commercials, proposing some guidelines for the study of their functions. Particularly discusses the relationship between the linguistic and the paralinguistic elements of the message and the evocative function of sound effects and music. Finally, outlines a discourse typology based on their rhetorical…

  1. Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide. (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document contains a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary commercial art. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission criteria,…

  2. Design of large format commercial display holograms (United States)

    Perry, John F. W.


    Commercial display holography is approaching a critical stage where the ability to compete with other graphic media will dictate its future. Factors involved will be cost, technical quality and, in particular, design. The tenuous commercial success of display holography has relied heavily on its appeal to an audience with little or no previous experience in the medium. Well designed images were scarce, leading many commercial designers to avoid holography. As the public became more accustomed to holograms, the excitement dissipated, leaving a need for strong visual design if the medium is to survive in this marketplace. Drawing on the vast experience of TV, rock music and magazine advertising, competitive techniques such as video walls, mural duratrans, laser light shows and interactive videos attract a professional support structure far greater than does holography. This paper will address design principles developed at Holographics North for large format commercial holography. Examples will be drawn from a number of foreign and domestic corporate trade exhibitions. Recommendations will also be made on how to develop greater awareness of a holographic design.

  3. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.


    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila

  4. European Perspectives on International Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg Wilhelmsen, Louise


    of a uniform rule on the law applicable to the existence and validity of an arbitration agreement. This article examines these issues in order to find out whether they are only European or also inherent in the international regulation of international commercial arbitration. The article examines to which...

  5. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-two (56.4%) possessed a riding license and only about half of them (51.3%) wore helmets, 40.9% wore goggles and 7.8% had fire extinguishers. None of the respondents provided helmets for their passengers. This study highlighted certain characteristics of commercial motorcyclists that may promote ...

  6. Commercial real estate analysis and investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geltner, D.; Miller, N.; Clayton, J.; Eichholtz, P.M.A.


    The well-known and respected authorship team of Geltner and Miller bring you a new edition of what has become the undisputed and authoritative resource on commercial real estate investment. Streamlined and completely updated with expanded coverage of corporate and international real estate

  7. 40 CFR 799.2155 - Commercial hexane. (United States)


    ...,” for purposes of this section, is a product obtained from crude oil, natural gas liquids, or petroleum... (culture vessels, CO2 concentrations, temperature, and humidity) shall be used. The cell culture shall be directly dosed by pipetting liquid commercial hexane mixed with liquid DMSO into the culture medium. Cells...

  8. Recognition of Female Stereotypes in TV Commercials (United States)

    Lull, James T.; And Others


    Although college women were generally found to be more aware and critical of sex stereotyping than were college men, data indicated that viewers were not as sensitive to sex-role stereotypes in television commercials as advocates of feminism might hope. (KS)

  9. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Some Commercial Samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the physical properties and dissolution profiles of commercial samples of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets. Methods: Fifteen generic brands of artesunate and five generic brands of amodiaquine tablets were obtained from drug retail outlets in Oyo and Ogun States in southwestern Nigeria. The tablets ...

  10. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide. (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  11. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj


    The reversible absorption of CO2 into a chemical solvent is currently the leading CO2 capture technology. Available solvents are almost exclusively based on aqueous alkanolamine solutions, which entail both economic and environmental complications, making the commercialization of the technology...... difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  12. Stiff fluid spike solutions from Bianchi type V seed solutions (United States)

    Gregoris, D.; Lim, W. C.; Coley, A. A.


    In this paper we expand upon our previous work Coley et al (2016 Class. Quantum Grav. 33 215010) by using the entire family of Bianchi type V stiff fluid solutions as seed solutions of the Stephani transformation. Among the new exact solutions generated, we observe a number of important physical phenomena. The most interesting phenomenon is exact solutions with intersecting spikes. Other interesting phenomena are solutions with saddle states and a close-to-FL epoch.

  13. Preventing deaths in Alaska's commercial fishing industry. (United States)

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J M; Jorgensen, S A; Klatt, M L; Manwaring, J C


    The arctic and sub-arctic waters of Alaska provide a very hazardous work setting, with special hazards posed by great distances, seasonal darkness, cold waters, high winds, brief fishing seasons, and icing. Our intent is to reduce the remarkably high occupational fatality rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-1992) among Alaska's commercial fishing workers. Over 90% of these deaths have been due to drowning or drowning plus hypothermia, primarily associated with vessel capsizings and sinkings. Comprehensive surveillance for commercial fishing occupational fatalities was established during 1991 in Alaska. During 1990 through 1994, the U.S. Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 required the implementation of comprehensive prevention measures for all fishing vessels in offshore cold waters, including immersion suits and other personal flotation devices, survival craft (life rafts), emergency position-indicating radio beacons, and crew training in emergency response and first aid. Parallel to this, voluntary training efforts by nonprofit organizations have greatly increased. During 1990-1994, drowning was the leading cause of occupational death in Alaska. During this period, 117 fishers died, 101 of them from drowning or drowning/hypothermia. During 1991-1994, there was a substantial decrease in Alaskan commercial fishing-related deaths, from 34 in 1991 to 35 in 1992, 22 in 1993, and 10 in 1994. While man-overboard drownings and some other categories of deaths (falls, fires) have continued to occur, the most marked progress has been in vessel-related events. Specific measures tailored to prevent drowning in vessel capsizings and sinkings in Alaska's commercial fishing industry have been very successful so far. Additional efforts must be made to reduce the frequency of vessel events and to prevent man-overboard events and drownings associated with them.

  14. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.


    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ``document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.`` This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2`s commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2`s organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2`s strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed.

  15. Multi-spectral optical scanners for commercial earth observation missions (United States)

    Schröter, Karin; Engel, Wolfgang; Berndt, Klaus


    In recent years, a number of commercial Earth observation missions have been initiated with the aim to gather data in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. Some of these missions aim at medium resolution (5 to 10 m) multi-spectral imaging with the special background of daily revisiting. Typical applications aim at monitoring of farming area for growth control and harvest prediction, irrigation control, or disaster monitoring such as hail damage in farming, or flood survey. In order to arrive at profitable business plans for such missions, it is mandatory to establish the space segment, i.e. the spacecraft with their opto -electronic payloads, at minimum cost while guaranteeing maximum reliability for mission success. As multiple spacecraft are required for daily revisiting, the solutions are typically based on micro-satellites. This paper presents designs for multi-spectral opto-electric scanners for this type of missions. These designs are drive n by minimum mass and power budgets of microsatellites, and the need for minimum cost. As a consequence, it is mandatory to arrive at thermally robust, compact telescope designs. The paper gives a comparison between refractive, catadioptric, and TMA optics. For mirror designs, aluminium and Zerodur mirror technologies are briefly discussed. State-of-the art focal plane designs are presented. The paper also addresses the choice of detector technologies such as CCDs and CMOS Active Pixel Sensors. The electronics of the multi-spectral scanners represent the main design driver regarding power consumption, reliability, and (most often) cost. It can be subdivided into the detector drive electronics, analog and digital data processing chains, the data mass memory unit, formatting and down - linking units, payload control electronics, and local power supply. The paper gives overviews and trade-offs between data compression strategies and electronics solutions, mass memory unit designs, and data formatting approaches


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Avramenko


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents the results of measurements of refractometric properties (refractive index n, its temperature factor dn/dt and the ultraviolet spectral absorption in carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions (carbamide depending on solid residue mass fraction md = 0-50 % and on temperaturet = 10-70 °C.Method of Research. Laboratory methods ofliquid-phase medium refractometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were applied for the research. We carried out computational modeling of electronic states spectrum for the carbonic acid diamide molecule and theoretical calculation of the fundamental electronic absorption of the molecule in the ultraviolet wavelenght region.Main Results. We have established that the solution concentration md has a nonlinear character and may be represented by the quadratic polynomial with the error Δn= ± 0,0005. We have shown the refractive indexdependence on temperature n(t changes in linear fashion att = 10-70 °C.At that, the inclination of lines n(t increases at the increase of md; so, the temperature factor dn/dt may be approximated by the quadratic polynomial. Transmission spectra of solutions in the spectral region λ= 225-760 nm have no special features except for the sharp edge in the short-wavelength region; the fundamental electronic absorptionis responsible for it. We have established that dispersion dependences of the refraction index n(λ;md in aqueous solutions of carbamide at λ= 360-760 nm and at md = 0-50 % may be calculated with the satisfactory error without additional adjustable parameters from the ultraviolet absorption data in terms of the one-dimentional oscillator Lorentz model.PracticalRelevance. Representedmeasurements of carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions optical properties may be applied for the adjustment and calibration of commercial refractometers at processing lines of the AdBlue reagent manufacture for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR of motor transport

  17. Impurities that cause difficulty in stripping actinides from commercial tetraalkylcarbamoylmethylphosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahner, C. T.; Shoun, R. R.; McDowell, W. J.


    Dihexyl((diethylcarbamoyl)methyl)phosphonate (DHDECMP) in diethylbenzene extracts actinides well from 6 M nitric acid solution, but commercially available DHDECMP contains impurities which interfere with stripping the actinides from the organic extract. DHDECMP purified by molecular distillation does not contain these impurities, but the pot residue contains increased concentrations of them. Heating the purified DHDECMP causes the formation of products which interfere with stripping in the same way, suggesting that high temperatures employed in the manufacture of DHDECMP may produce the offending impurities. These impurities can be separated from the heat-decomposed material or the pot residues by dilution with a large volume of hexanes (causing part of the impurities to separate as a second liquid phase) followed by equilibration of the hexane solution with dilute alkali. After the treatment with hexane and dilute alkali, the DHDECMP is readily recovered and functions well in the actinide extraction process. Dibutyl((dibutylcarbamoyl)methyl)-phosphonate (DBDBCMP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)((diethylcarbamoyl)-methyl)phosphonate (DEHDECMP) are purified less effectively by these methods. Similar separation methods using diethylbenzene or CCl/sub 4/ as solvent do not remove impurities as completely as the hexane process. Impurities can also be removed from a benzene solution of the DHDECMP pot residue by passing it through a column packed with silica gel or diethylaminoethyl cellulose. These impurities have been separated into fractions for analytical examination by use of various solvents and by column chromatography. Hexyl hydrogen ((diethylcarbamoyl)methyl)-phosphonate has been identified tentatively as a principal objectionable impurity. Dihexyl phosphoric acid and possibly dihexylphosphonate have been identified in other fractions.

  18. From Goods to Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark; Raja, Jawwad


    Purpose – This paper aims to adopt service-dominant logic (SDL) to empirically explore network configurations resulting from the provision of goods, goods and services, and solutions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a single, in-depth, exploratory case study in a truck manufacturer...... different value propositions and the resulting network configurations are discussed. In so doing, evidence is provided of a more complex, tetradic network configuration for solutions, with varying degrees of interplay between actors in the flow of operand and operant resources to create value....... and its supply network. An abductive approach is adopted. In total, 54 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Findings – Three value propositions are clearly discernible within the truck provider. These range from a truck to a “solution”. These propositions have different supply network configurations...

  19. Earnest Rutherford, the solution

    CERN Multimedia


    If you did not make it to the Science & Society talk by John Campbell last week and are still wondering about the spelling of "Earnest", here is the solution: Two months after the birth of his fourth child on 30 August 1871 in Spring Grove, New Zealand, James Rutherford registered his son, who was recorded as "Earnest" in the Birth Register. Presumably the Registrar wrote the name down as it sounded and the father failed to notice the mistake when signing the Register.

  20. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers (United States)


    side it necessary and identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers High Modulus Fibers and Films Polybenzobisoxazoles Polybenzobisthiazoles 20...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent...Company, Summit, N.J. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................ .......................... .. 1 2. REMARKS ON DRY-JET WET SPUN FIBER