Sample records for commercial fetal calf

  1. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  2. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.


    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  3. commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 11, 2013 ... 2Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Harran University, Şanlıurfa, Turkey. ... received wider acceptability on the industrial scale due to ..... Optimization of. Medium Composition for Production of Recombinant Calf Chymosin from Kluyveromyces lactis in Submerged Fermentation.

  4. Fetal calf serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum


    Fujiwara, M.; Tsukada, R.; Tsujinaga, Y.; Takagi, M


    The effects of fish serum on cell growth and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) production in an adhesion culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells DR1000L4N were investigated and compared with those of fetal calf serum (FCS). Although fish serum did not stimulate the initial adhesion of CHO cells to culture dishes, it prompted cell growth after cell adhesion with FCS for 24 h. The cell density in the fish serum medium reached 75% that in the FCS medium. Fish ...

  5. Effects of resin or charcoal treatment on fetal bovine serum and bovine calf serum. (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin; West, Clint; Norton-Wenzel, Carol S; Rej, Robert; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J; Rej, Robert


    Charcoal- or resin-stripping of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or bovine calf serum (BCS) intended for supplementation of cell culture media is widely practiced to remove a variety of endogenous compounds, including steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. The possibility that stripping removes other biologically relevant factors from serum may not be appreciated. In this report, standardized clinical laboratory testing methods were used to assess the effects of resin- and charcoal-stripping on content in FBS and BCS of more than 25 analytes in the sera. In addition to hormones, the serum constituents affected by stripping are certain vitamins, electrolytes, enzyme activities, and metabolites.

  6. Production of a cloned calf from a fetal fibroblast cell line

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    Mello M.R.B.


    Full Text Available The present study examined the in vitro and in vivo development of bovine nuclear-transferred embryos. A bovine fetal fibroblast culture was established and used as nucleus donor. Slaughterhouse oocytes were matured in vitro for 18 h before enucleation. Enucleated oocytes were fused with fetal fibroblasts with an electric stimulus and treated with cytochalasin D and cycloheximide for 1 h followed by cycloheximide alone for 4 h. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7-9 days and those which developed to blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows. Of 191 enucleated oocytes, 83 (43.5% were successfully fused and 24 (28.9% developed to blastocysts. Eighteen freshly cloned blastocysts were transferred to 14 recipients, 5 (27.8% of which were pregnant on day 35 and 3 (16.7% on day 90. Of the three cows that reached the third trimester, one recipient died of hydrallantois 2 months before term, one aborted fetus was recovered at 8 months of gestation, and one delivered by cesarian section a healthy cloned calf. Today, the cloned calf is 15 months old and presents normal body development (378 kg and sexual behavior (libido and semen characteristics.

  7. Effects of fetal calf serum on cGMP pathway and oocyte lipid metabolism in vitro. (United States)

    Schwarz, Kátia R L; Botigelli, Ramon Cesar; Del Collado, Maite; Cavallari de Castro, Fernanda; Fernandes, Hugo; Paschoal, Daniela M; Leal, Cláudia Lima Verde


    Intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotides, such as cGMP, are involved in the regulation of adipocyte lipolysis. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) express enzymes that both synthesise (guanylate cyclase) and degrade (phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5A) cGMP. Because serum interferes with lipid metabolism, its effects on the cGMP pathway and lipid content in bovine COCs were examined. COCs were matured in medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS; 2% or 10%) or 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA; control). At both 2% and 10%, FCS decreased cGMP levels in COCs compared with BSA (0.64 and 1.04 vs 9.46 fmol per COC respectively; P0.05). In addition, lipid content was higher in embryos from oocytes matured with FCS than BSA (fluorescence intensity 31.12 vs 22.31 respectively; Pbovine COCs and that this pathway is affected by FCS.

  8. Fetal calf serum enhances in vitro production of Bos taurus indicus embryos. (United States)

    Leivas, F G; Brum, D S; Fialho, S S; Saliba, W P; Alvim, M T T; Bernardi, M L; Rubin, M I B; Silva, C A M


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Cumulus oocyte-complexes (COCs, n = 2 449) recovered by ovum pick-up from Bos taurus indicus donors were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Sperm selected by Percoll gradient was used for in vitro fertilization (insemination = Day 0). In Experiment 1 (n = 1 745 COCs), zygotes were cultured in vitro in Synthetic Oviduct Fluid + 4 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), or BSA + 2% FCS (BSA+FCS). In Experiment 2 (n = 704 COCs), the COCs were cultured in SOF + BSA, BSA + 2% FCS, or BSA + 2% FCS on D4 (BSA + FCSD4). In Experiment 1, blastocyst yield (51%) and Quality I blastocysts (41%) at Day 7 were higher (P bovine embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fetal calf serum-primed dendritic cells induce a strong anti-fetal calf serum immune response and diabetes protection in the non-obese diabetic mouse. (United States)

    Kadri, N; Potiron, N; Ouary, M; Jegou, D; Gouin, E; Bach, J M; Lieubeau, B


    In recent years, several investigators have shown that transfer of dendritic cells (DC) prevents diabetes development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Accumulating evidences showing that DC cultured in medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS) can induce a dominant unspecific immune response in tumor models after i.v. injection prompted us to investigate if the protecting effect of DC on diabetes development in NOD mice might be supported by the induction of an anti-FCS immune response in recipient mice. Five-week-old NOD mice were injected i.v. with FCS-cultured bone marrow-derived DC or PBS as control. Levels of anti-FCS and anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies were measured in the serum of recipient mice. Anti-FCS cellular immune responses were also analysed after a single DC injection using in vitro proliferation of splenocytes either in RPMI supplemented with FCS, AIMV-BSA or RPMI containing autologous mouse serum or BSA as a read out. DC injection prevented diabetes development in NOD mice and high titers of anti-FCS and anti-BSA antibodies were detected in serum of all DC-injected mice. Besides, splenocytes isolated from DC-injected mice proliferated vigorously in the presence of bovine proteins in contrast to splenocytes isolated from control mice but removing bovine proteins abrogated the high level of proliferation of those splenocytes suggesting that lymphocytes have been primed against bovine proteins in vivo after DC injection. All together, our data show that DC transfer induced cellular and humoral anti-FCS immune responses in recipient NOD mice suggesting that the protective effect of DC relies on their unspecific immunostimulatory effects.


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    Jakub Suchánek


    Full Text Available Aims: Authors studied potential side effects of fetal calf serum (FCS in cultivation media on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC during long term cultivation. Methods: Two lines of DPSC obtained healthy donors (male 22 years, female 23 years were used. Both lines were cultivated under standard cultivation conditions in four different media containing 10% or 2% FCS and substituted with growth factors. During long term cultivation proliferation ability, karyotype and phenotype of DPSC were measured. Results: Both lines of DPSC cultivated in a media containing 2% FCS and ITS supplement showed the highest number of population doublings. On the other hand the proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in a media with 2% FCS without ITS supplement was slowest. Proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in 10% FCS media with or without FGF-2 was comparable. DPSC cultivated in a media with 10% FCS showed a significantly higher amount of chromosomal aberrations. These chromosomal aberrations do not seem to be clonal but surprisingly we found large amounts of tetraploid cells in the 9th passage in both media containing 10% FCS. Conclusions: Our study proved that cultivation of DPSC in media containing higher concentration of FCS has critical side effects on cell chromosomal stability.

  11. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone. (United States)

    Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Isaacs, John T


    Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and castrated human males. Dextran-coated charcoal stripped FCS (i.e., DC-FCS) is often used instead of FCS to minimize the level of androgen provided in 10% serum supplemented media. Therefore, total and free testosterone levels in 10%DC-FCS containing media were likewise determined. Total testosterone, free testosterone, and total dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were determined on RPMI-1640 media supplemented with either 10%FCS or 10%DC-FCS by ELISA assays before and after exposure to LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture. The growth and PSA secretion by these cells was also determined. Ten percentage FCS supplemented media contains a castrate level of testosterone. However, even with this castrate starting level of testosterone, LNCaP cells concentrate and metabolize the testosterone to produce a physiologic (i.e., 10 nM) level of intracellular DHT which optimally stimulates the growth of these cells in vitro. The present studies document that prostate cancer cells auto-regulate their androgen metabolism so that an optimal level of DHT for growth is maintained during both up and down fluctuations in the supply of testosterone. These results have significant implications for whether exogenous androgen should be added to the 10%FCS supplemented media to grow prostate cancer cells from intact versus castrated patients. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Hydroxyapatite and demineralized calf fetal growth plate effects on bone healing in rabbit model. (United States)

    Bigham-Sadegh, Amin; Karimi, Iraj; Shadkhast, Mohamad; Mahdavi, Mohamad-Hosein


    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and their composite are promising biomaterials, specifically in the orthopedic and dental fields, as their chemical composition is similar to that of bone. Due to the need for safer bone graft applications, these bone graft substitutes are gradually gaining increased acceptability. To stimulate the process of bone healing, several methods have been used previously, including ultrasound, electrical stimulation, exposure to electromagnetic fields, bone grafts, interporous hydroxyapatite (as a bone graft substitute) and bone growth factors. The following study was designed to evaluate the effects of the concurrent usage of hydroxyapatite with demineralized calf fetal growth plate (DCFGP) on the bone healing process. Fifteen female New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. A mid-radius bone defect was created and in the first group (n = 5) was filled with hydroxyapatite, in the second group (n = 5) with hydroxyapatite and DCFGP, and finally in the third group (n = 5) with DCFGP alone. Radiological and histopathological evaluations were performed blindly and the results scored and analyzed statistically. There was a significant difference for bone formation and remodeling at the 8th post-operative week radiographic assessment (P hydroxyapatite-DCFGP group was superior to other groups. On the contrary, macroscopical and histopathological evaluation did not revealed significant differences between the three groups Given the contrasting results of the radiographic assessment and the macro-/microscopic analysis of the healing response, further studies are needed before considering DCFGP-HA as a feasible alternative to HA alone, especially considering the potential hazards and costs of animal-derived biomaterials. Not applicable.

  13. Chondrocyte Morphology in Stiff and Soft Agarose Gels and the Influence of Fetal Calf Serum. (United States)

    Karim, Asima; Hall, Andrew C


    Changes to chondrocyte volume/morphology may have deleterious effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism potentially leading to cartilage deterioration and osteoarthritis (OA). The factors controlling chondrocyte properties are poorly understood, however, pericellular matrix (PCM) weakening may be involved. We have studied the density, volume, morphology, and clustering of cultured bovine articular chondrocytes within stiff (2% w/v) and soft (0.2% w/v) three-dimensional agarose gels. Gels with encapsulated chondrocytes were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM; fetal calf serum (FCS) 1-10%;380 mOsm) for up to 7 days. Chondrocytes were fluorescently labeled after 1, 3, and 7 days with 5-chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) or 1,5-bis{[2-(di-methylamino)ethyl]amino}-4,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (DRAQ5) to identify cytoplasmic space or DNA and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Chondrocyte density, volume, morphology, and clustering were quantified using Volocity™ software. In stiff gels after 7 d with 10% FCS, chondrocyte density remained unaffected and morphology was relatively normal with occasional cytoplasmic processes. However, in soft gels by day 1, chondrocyte volume increased (P = 0.0058) and by day 7, density increased (P = 0.0080), along with the percentage of chondrocytes of abnormal morphology (P gels. FCS exacerbated changes to density (P gel strength. Reduced gel stiffness and/or increased FCS concentrations promoted chondrocyte proliferation and clustering, increased cell volume, and stimulated abnormal morphology, producing similar changes to those occurring in OA. The increased penetration of factors in FCS into soft gels may be important in the development of these abnormal chondrocyte properties. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1041-1052, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Study on the growth promoting capacity of calf and fetal bovine serum for animal cells "in vitro" II: electrophoretic study and survey on the antiproteolytic activity of pools of calf and fetal bovine serum

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    Edda de Rizzo


    Full Text Available Calf serum and fetal bovine serum present great variability as to its growth promoting efficiency (GPE. As supplement of culture media to cultivate cells of animal origin they stimulate the "in vitro" multiplication and maintain cell viability. When fourteen lots of calf sera of variable GPE had the total protein contents as well as the percentages of serum fractions determined, no significant differences that could possibly explain the variability of the GPE were observed. Evaluation of the antiproteolytic activity of nineteen lots of calf serum and eighteen serum lots of younger calves showed that the former exhibited lower antiproteolytic titers (1:40 to 1:80 than the latter (1:80 to 1:160. Twelve lots of fetal bovine serum studied in parallel, showed the highest concentration of antiproteolytic factors, with titers equal to 1:320. Sera of bovine origin, but not fetal sera, are usually heat-inactivated, what was demonstrated to be responsible for the decrease of the antiproteolytic activity of 75% of the lots tested. This could explain the inability of certain heat-inactivated sera in promoting multiplication of some cells "in vitro", as verified with primary monkey kidney cells. The results obtained in this study indicated the convenience of submiting each lot of serum to be introduced in cell culture to previous determination of its characteristics, such as growth promoting efficiency, antiproteolytic activity and also toxicity, absence of extraneous agents, etc., in order to minimize the possibility of using serum lots of questionable quality, thus preventing not only the loss of cell lines, but also undesirable and sometimes expensive delays.

  15. Bovine apolipoprotein B-100 is a dominant immunogen in therapeutic cell populations cultured in fetal calf serum in mice and humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakamoto, Norihisa; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Muul, Linda M; Lawler, Ann M; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Candotti, Fabio; Metcalf, Julia A; Tavel, Jorge A; Lane, H Clifford; Urba, Walter J; Fox, Bernard A; Varki, Ajit; Lunney, Joan K; Rosenberg, Amy S


    ... on the cell surface and is internalized. Here we show that in the majority of patients administered 3 different types of cell-based therapies using cells grown in fetal calf serum-containing media, an antibody response to bovine apolipoprotein B-100 develops after the second infusion and is the dominant specificity. The known and potential clinical effects of such antibodies are discussed.

  16. Studies on Using Cattle and Sheep Hydatid Cyst Fluid Instead of the Fetal Calf Serum in Leishmania Culture

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    Hossein Rezvan


    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a single cell parasite causing leishmaniasis, which is a common disease between humans and animals. Due to the importance of in-vitro culture of the parasite in leishmania research, developing new methods for in-vitro cultivation of the parasite has always been a goal for leishmania researchers. The main objective of7T 5T7Tthis study was to use sheep and bovine hydatid cyst fluids as alternatives for fetal calf serum (FCS in leishmania in-vitro5T culture5T. Materials and Methods: 7TA total of 5T7T1 million leishmania promastigotes were added to 4 flasks as follow5T7T. A f5T7Tlask containing DMEM medium with 105T7T% 5T7Tfetal bovine serum5T7T, a f5T7Tlask containing DMEM and 10% sheep hydatid cyst fluid5T7T, a f5T7Tlask containing DMEM medium with 105T7T% 5T7Tbovine hydatid cyst fluid and a5T7T f5T7Tlask containing DMEM medium alone. After 2, 45T7T, 5T7T7, 95T7T, 11, 5T7T21 and 24 days, the number of parasites were counted and compared5T7T. Results: The result of this study showed that, DMEM medium enriched with 10% sheep hydatid cyst fluid in 168 hours and medium enriched with 10% bovine hydatid cyst fluid in 96 hours can act as a good alternative for fetal bovine serum in the culture Leishmania major. Conclusion: 5TThe results showed that sheep and bovine hydatid cyst fluid can be used as alternatives to FCS for dense cultivation of leishmania. The results also showed that5T, 5Tthe growth of promastigotes in medium enriched with bovine cyst fluid is more rapid than the medium enriched with sheep5T c5Tyst fluid5T in5T the beginning of cultivation.

  17. Bovine apolipoprotein B-100 is a dominant immunogen in therapeutic cell populations cultured in fetal calf serum in mice and humans. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Norihisa; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Muul, Linda M; Lawler, Ann M; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Candotti, Fabio; Metcalf, Julia A; Tavel, Jorge A; Lane, H Clifford; Urba, Walter J; Fox, Bernard A; Varki, Ajit; Lunney, Joan K; Rosenberg, Amy S


    Recent studies have demonstrated that cell populations intended for therapeutic purposes that are cultured in heterologous animal products can acquire xenoantigens, potentially limiting their utility. In investigations of the immune response to murine embryonic stem cells, we found that a strong antibody response was generated after the second infusion. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibody responses, derived from immunized mice, were found to be specific for bovine apolipoprotein B-100, which binds to abundant low-density lipoprotein receptors on the cell surface and is internalized. Here we show that in the majority of patients administered 3 different types of cell-based therapies using cells grown in fetal calf serum-containing media, an antibody response to bovine apolipoprotein B-100 develops after the second infusion and is the dominant specificity. The known and potential clinical effects of such antibodies are discussed.

  18. Forskolin effect on the cryosurvival of in vitro-produced bovine embryos in the presence or absence of fetal calf serum. (United States)

    Paschoal, Daniela Martins; Sudano, Mateus José; Guastali, Midyan Daroz; Dias Maziero, Rosiára Rosária; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Oña Magalhães, Luis Carlos; da Silva Rascado, Tatiana; Martins, Alicio; da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda


    The objective of this study was to assess the viability and cryotolerance of zebu embryos produced in vitro with or without the addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) and forskolin (F). Embryos produced in vivo were used as a control. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid supplemented with amino acids (SOFaa), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and with (2.5%) or without (0%) FCS. On day 6 of growth, the embryos from each group were divided into treatments with or without 10 μM F to induce embryonic lipolysis, comprising a total of four experimental groups: 2.5% FCS, 0% FCS, 2.5% + F and 0% + F. For vitrification, embryos were exposed to vitrification solution 1 (5 M EG (ethylene glycol)) for 3 min and then transferred to vitrification solution 2 (7 M EG, 0.5 M galactose solution and 18% (w/v) Ficoll 70) before being introduced to liquid nitrogen. The presence of FCS in the culture medium resulted in the production of embryos with a similar rate of damaged cells compared with in vivo-produced embryos. After vitrification, the 2.5% FCS group had a significantly higher rate of damaged cells when compared with the other groups (P vitrification.

  19. Mitogenesis in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from two rat models of hypertension in response to fetal calf serum and angiotensin II. (United States)

    Millar, J A; Harris, E L; Cassie, N J


    Hypertension may result from vascular hypertrophy or hyperplasia due to enhanced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which has been demonstrated in VSMCs from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. To determine whether this enhanced mitogenesis is peculiar to SHRs or a general phenomenon in genetic models of hypertension, we have measured indices of cell growth [3H]-thymidine uptake in VSMCs from SHRs and New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rats and controls [WKY and normal Wistar (N) rats] cultured in fetal calf serum (FCS) or angiotensin II (Ang II, 0.1 microM) in either 3% heat-treated FCS or serum-free medium. SHR cell numbers increased faster in response to both mitogens compared to WKY rats. However, GH and N rat responses to FCS were the same. Ang II caused a significant but similar increase in cell numbers in both GH and N rat cells (i.e., Ang II caused hyperplasia in all four strains) but [3H]thymidine uptake was significantly greater in GH rat cells. Ang II increased the total well protein content but not protein normalized on cell number, i.e., no hypertrophic effect of Ang II was seen in these actively dividing cells. We conclude that (a) growth properties of VSMCs from rats with genetic hypertension vary between strains; the differences in growth may reflect strain-specific variation in the activity of intracellular signalling systems subserving mitogenesis; and (b) Ang II causes VSMC hyperplasia.

  20. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

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    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová


    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  1. Human plasma and human platelet-rich plasma as a substitute for fetal calf serum during long-term cultivation of mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells. (United States)

    Suchánková Kleplová, Tereza; Soukup, Tomáš; Řeháček, Vít; Suchánek, Jakub


    Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), or fetal calf serum (FCS). The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT) (28.6 ± 4.6 hours), in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours); hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours), 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours) and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours) showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC's viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  2. Effects of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, fetal calf serum and bovine serum albumin on gene expression in single bovine embryos produced in the synthetic oviduct fluid culture system. (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Øzdas, Øzen Banu; Farstad, Wenche; Tverdal, Aage; Olsaker, Ingrid


    In this study the synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) system with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture is compared with an SOF system with common protein supplements. One thousand six hundred bovine embryos were cultured in SOF media supplemented with BOEC, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Eight different culture groups were assigned according to the different supplementation factors. Developmental competence and the expression levels of five genes, namely glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP), connexin43 (Cx43), (2)-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), analysed as mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were measured on bovine embryos cultured for 9 days. Gene expression of these in vitro-produced embryos was compared with the gene expression of in vivo-produced embryos. There was no significant difference found in embryo developmental competence between the Day 9 embryos in BOEC co-culture, FCS and BSA supplements in SOF media. However, differences in gene expression were observed. With respect to gene expression in in vivo and in vitro embryos, BOEC co-culture affected the same genes as did supplementation with FCS and BSA. HSP was the only gene that differed significantly between in vitro and in vivo embryos. When the different in vitro groups were compared, a significant difference between the BOEC co-culture and the FCS supplementation groups due to Glut-1 expression was observed.

  3. Effects of fetal calf serum, phenazine ethosulfate and either glucose or fructose during in vitro culture of bovine embryos on embryonic development after cryopreservation. (United States)

    Barceló-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E


    This study investigated effects of hexoses, fetal calf serum (FCS), and phenazine ethosulfate (PES) during the culture of bovine embryos on blastocyst development and survival after cryopreservation by slow freezing or vitrification. The basal, control medium was chemically defined (CDM) plus 0.5% fatty acid-free BSA. In vitro-produced bovine zygotes were cultured in CDM-1 with 0.5 mM glucose; after 60 hr, 8-cell embryos were cultured 4.5 days in CDM-2. The 8-cell embryos were randomly allocated to a 2 x 3 x 2 x 3 factorial experimental design with two energy substrates (2 mM glucose or fructose); three additives (0.3 microM PES, 10% FCS, and control); two cryopreservation methods using no animal products (conventional slow freezing or vitrification); and semen from three bulls with two replicates for each bull. A total of 1,107 blastocysts were produced. Fructose resulted in 13% more blastocysts per oocyte than glucose (37.2% vs. 32.9%), and per 8-cell embryo (51.3% vs. 45.3%; P 0.1) control, FCS, or PES for blastocysts per oocyte or per 8-cell embryo. There was a significant interaction (P embryos with PES, which reduces cytoplasmic lipid content, improved cryotolerance of bovine embryos; post-cryopreservation survival of blastocysts averaged over vitrification and slow freezing (between which there was no difference) was 91.9%, 84.9%, and 60.2% of unfrozen controls (P < 0.01) for PES, control, and FCS groups, respectively. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Differential effect of platelet-rich plasma and fetal calf serum on bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells expanded in vitro. (United States)

    Goedecke, Anja; Wobus, Manja; Krech, Mathias; Münch, Nadine; Richter, Katja; Hölig, Kristina; Bornhauser, Martin


    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from various sources have great potential for use in cell-based therapies. Since the proportion of primary MSCs contained in bone marrow or adipose tissue is low, plastic adherence and in vitro expansion are necessary to expand MSCs prior to clinical application. Human platelet-rich plasma has been introduced as an alternative serum source but functional differences have so far not been described. Here we cultured MSCs derived from human bone marrow in medium supplemented with either 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 5% and 10% platelet-rich plasma (PRP) until the first or second passage. Parameters under investigation were cell yield, clonogenicity, phenotype as well as migratory and differentiation potential. In addition, the secretion of SDF-1α and the induced migration of CD34(+) haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were investigated with regard to the different serum source. The use of PRP resulted in a significantly higher expansion rate and yield at passages 0 and 1. In addition, the level of secreted SDF-1α was significantly increased in the supernatant of MSCs cultured with FCS instead of human PRP. Consistent with this, the migration capacity of MSCs cultured with 10% FCS as well as their capability to induce the migration of CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitors in a transwell assay was higher. Our results demonstrate that human PRP can be seen as an alternative serum source to FCS for MSC cultivation. However, the requirements of the specific clinical application must be carefully considered before the respective serum source is selected. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. (United States)

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang


    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphological and Functional Analysis of Hepatocyte Spheroids Generated on Poly-HEMA-Treated Surfaces under the Influence of Fetal Calf Serum and Nonparenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinus Bader


    Full Text Available Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA has been used as a clinical material, in the form of a soft hydrogel, for various surgical procedures, including endovascular surgery of liver. It is a clear liquid compound and, as a soft, flexible, water-absorbing material, has been used to make soft contact lenses from small, concave, spinning molds. Primary rat hepatocyte spheroids were created on a poly-HEMA-coated surface with the intention of inducing hepatic tissue formation and improving liver functions. We investigated spheroid formation of primary adult rat hepatocyte cells and characterized hepatic-specific functions under the special influence of fetal calf serum (FCS and nonparencymal cells (NPC up to six days in different culture systems (e.g., hepatocytes + FCS, hepatocytes – FCS, NPC + FCS, NPC – FCS, co-culture + FCS, co-culture – FCS in both the spheroid model and sandwich model. Immunohistologically, we detected gap junctions, Ito cell/Kupffer cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and an extracellular matrix in the spheroid model. FCS has no positive effect in the sandwich model, but has a negative effect in the spheroid model on albumin production, and no influence in urea production in either model. We found more cell viability in smaller diameter spheroids than larger ones by using the apoptosis test. Furthermore, there is no positive influence of the serum or NPC on spheroid formation, suggesting that it may only depend on the physical condition of the culture system. Since the sandwich culture has been considered a “gold standard” in vitro culture model, the hepatocyte spheroids generated on the poly-HEMA-coated surface were compared with those in the sandwich model. Major liver-specific functions, such as albumin secretion and urea synthesis, were evaluated in both the spheroid and sandwich model. The synthesis performance in the spheroid compared to the sandwich culture increases approximately by a factor of 1

  7. The effect of bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of the liquid stored rabbit semen. (United States)

    Sarıözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu; Eken, Ayşe; Akçay, Aytaç


    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of liquid stored rabbit semen stored up to 72 h at 5 °C. Ejaculates were collected from five New Zealand male rabbits by artificial vagina and pooled at 37 °C following evaluation. Each pooled ejaculate was split into three equal experimental groups and diluted to a final concentration of approximately 40 × 10(6)sperm/ml (single step dilution), in an Eppendorf tube, with the Tris based extender containing BSA (5mg/ml), FCS (10%) or no additive (control) at 37 °C, cooled to 5 °C and stored for up to 72 h. The extender supplemented with BSA and FCS did not improve the percentages of motility and acrosomal abnormality during 48 h compared to the control. The additives BSA and FCS had a significant effect in the maintaining of plasma membrane integrity between 48 and 72 h storage period, compared to the control (P<0.01). The supplementation of BSA and FCS had a protective effect on motility (P<0.05), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.01) and acrosomal integrity (P<0.01) at 72 h compared to the control. The supplementations with BSA and FCS led to a reduction in DNA damage of rabbit sperm at 48 and 72 h during storage period, compared to the control (P<0.001). Although supplementation of BSA and FCS caused significant (P<0.01) decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level at 48 h and 72 h, they significantly (P<0.01) increased the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant activity up to 72 h when compared to the control group. In conclusion, BSA and FCS supplementation to liquid stored rabbit semen provide a protection for spermatozoa against cool storage-induced DNA damage and plasma membrane integrity by their antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum supplementing repair cultures on pre- and post-warm viability of biopsied bovine embryos produced in vitro. (United States)

    Yotsushima, Kenji; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Shimizu, Manabu; Okimura, Tomoko; Izaike, Yoshiaki


    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA) or fetal calf serum (FCS) on the re-expansion of biopsied blastocysts and post-warm viability of subsequently vitrified embryos. Firstly, blastocysts produced in vitro were biopsied at Day 7 and cultured to allow repair in TCM199 with 0.3% BSA or 5% FCS for 24 h. The re-expansion rates and mean total numbers of cells of the re-expanded embryos after the repair culture with BSA were almost the same as that with FCS. Secondly, after biopsied embryos were similarly cultured for repair with BSA or FCS, re-expanded embryos were selected for vitrification. After warming and exposure to 0.5 M sucrose with 20% FCS in mPBS, the embryos were cultured in TCM199 with 5% FCS for 24 h. The re-expansion rate and mean total number of cells in re-expanded blastocysts in the BSA treatment group (97.4 +/- 2.9% and 106 +/- 42) was significantly higher than that in the FCS treatment group (51.6 +/- 9.1% and 61 +/- 38), respectively (Pbovine biopsied blastocysts; but, compared with BSA supplementation, FCS supplementation during repair culture reduces the post-warm viability of biopsied and subsequently vitrified embryos.

  9. Tursiops truncatus calf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory development in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin. Tursiops truncatus calf. V.M. Peddemors·. Biology Department, University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban, 4001 Republic of South Africa. Received 30 October 1989; accepted 15 May 1990. Changes in calf-mother association are examined and ...

  10. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm. (United States)

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V Michael


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production.

  11. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm (United States)

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  12. Crimes amendment (Zoe's law) Bill 2013 (No 2): paradoxical commercial impacts of the conservative agenda on fetal rights. (United States)

    Bricknell, Roseanna; Faunce, Thomas


    In 2013, Liberal MP Chris Spence introduced a Private Member's Bill to the New South Wales Parliament, reinvigorating an earlier Bill introduced by Christian Democrat MP Fred Nile. If passed, the Bill would have bestowed legal personhood on fetuses of 20 weeks or more for the purpose of grievous bodily harm offences in the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW). The Bill had the potential to undermine freedom of choice for women in relation to abortions prior to the point of viability (capacity for fetal existence outside the womb) as well as other decisions concerning pregnancy and childbirth. One hypothesis is that legislative measures such as this that support the rights of the fetus are well intentioned initiatives by those for whom the fetus is an essentially independent entity or symbol of innocence and moral purity whose existence must be protected over and above the interests and independent decision-making capacity of the mother. This column explores this hypothesis in the context of the paradoxical negative commercial implications of such legislation on multiple areas involving fetal-maternal interaction including surrogacy.

  13. Pre- and postpartum nutritional effects on milk production, milk composition, calf weaning weight and postpartum reproductive performance of commercial beef cows


    Kearnan, Jeffrey Mark


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum and postpartum nutrition on milk production of commercial beef cows. Forty-three Angus or Angus X Holstein females, ranging in age from 2 to 6 yr, were randomly assigned by age and percentage Holstein within age to one of two prepartum grazing treatments (PRE). All females, regardless of PRE, were assigned at calving to receive the same post-calving nutritional energy. Females were assigned at calving by ag...

  14. Study on the growth promoting capacity of calf and fetal bovine serum for animal cells "in vitro" II: electrophoretic study and survey on the antiproteolytic activity of pools of calf and fetal bovine serum Estudo sobre a capacidade promotora de crescimento de soros de vitelas e de soros fetais bovinos para células de origem animal cultivadas "in vitro" II: estudo eletroforético e pesquisa da atividade antiproteolítica de soros de vitelas e de soros fetais bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda de Rizzo


    Full Text Available Calf serum and fetal bovine serum present great variability as to its growth promoting efficiency (GPE. As supplement of culture media to cultivate cells of animal origin they stimulate the "in vitro" multiplication and maintain cell viability. When fourteen lots of calf sera of variable GPE had the total protein contents as well as the percentages of serum fractions determined, no significant differences that could possibly explain the variability of the GPE were observed. Evaluation of the antiproteolytic activity of nineteen lots of calf serum and eighteen serum lots of younger calves showed that the former exhibited lower antiproteolytic titers (1:40 to 1:80 than the latter (1:80 to 1:160. Twelve lots of fetal bovine serum studied in parallel, showed the highest concentration of antiproteolytic factors, with titers equal to 1:320. Sera of bovine origin, but not fetal sera, are usually heat-inactivated, what was demonstrated to be responsible for the decrease of the antiproteolytic activity of 75% of the lots tested. This could explain the inability of certain heat-inactivated sera in promoting multiplication of some cells "in vitro", as verified with primary monkey kidney cells. The results obtained in this study indicated the convenience of submiting each lot of serum to be introduced in cell culture to previous determination of its characteristics, such as growth promoting efficiency, antiproteolytic activity and also toxicity, absence of extraneous agents, etc., in order to minimize the possibility of using serum lots of questionable quality, thus preventing not only the loss of cell lines, but also undesirable and sometimes expensive delays.O soro de vitelas e o soro fetal bovino apresentam grande variabilidade no que se refere à sua capacidade promotora de crescimento (CPC e são empregados no cultivo de células de origem animal, suplementando os meios de cultura, com a finalidade de estimular a multiplicação das células "in vitro

  15. Virome of US bovine calf serum. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric


    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gray Whale Calf Production Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  17. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range. (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin


    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  18. Calf muscle strain injuries in sport: a systematic review of risk factors for injury. (United States)

    Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania


    To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Perosomus elumbis in a Holstein calf infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. (United States)

    Karakaya, E; Alpay, G; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Alasonyalilar-Demirer, A; Akgül, B; Inan-Ozturkoglu, S; Ozyigit, M O; Seyrek-Intas, D; Seyrek-Intas, K; Yesilbag, K; Gumen, A; Keskin, A


    The detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a female Holstein calf presented with perosomus elumbis, a congenital anomaly, is reported here. A cow with dystocia was evaluated and an abnormal dead calf was detected during vaginal examination. The calf was retrieved via caesarean section and exhibited abnormalities characteristic of PE, such as vertebral and pelvic malformations. These abnormalities were further confirmed using radiographic and necropsy examinations. At necropsy cerebellar hypoplasia was an additional finding, which is a typical lesion associated with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD). Several tissue samples from the calf were tested for the presence of antigens of BVDV and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) by ELISA. In addition, sera samples from the dam and calf were tested for the presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and bluetongue disease virus (BTV) using a virus neutralization assay. Results indicated that the calf was congenitally infected with BVDV, whereas there was no evidence for the presence of BHV-1 and BTV. In the dam's serum no antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and BTV were detected. Even though the etiology of perosomus elumbis is unknown, BVDV, which causes fetal anomalies at early gestation in cows, may have been a contributing factor in this case.

  20. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Calf Injuries. (United States)

    Bright, Jacob Michael; Fields, Karl B; Draper, Ryan

    The medial head of the gastrocnemius is the third most commonly strained muscle in elite athletes after the biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The differential diagnosis of posterior calf injury includes musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal causes. Classically, delineation of these injuries from one another relied primarily on historical features and physical examination findings. The utilization of musculoskeletal ultrasound (sonography) has augmented the diagnosis of these injuries by providing dynamic, real-time confirmation. A review of PubMed, OVID, and MD Consult prior to January 2016 was performed using search terms, including s oleus ultrasound, gastrocnemius ultrasound, and tennis leg. The references of the pertinent articles were further reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 4. There have been few reviews to date of calf injuries and the use of sonography in their diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis utilizing ultrasound allows the clinician to focus management on gastrocnemius injury if present. Two-thirds of calf injuries occur at the junction of the fascia between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus. Injuries to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius occur in up to 14% of patients in some case series, but injury may occur anywhere from the proximal origin to the mid-belly to the fascial junction with the soleus. Numerous injuries to the posterior compartment can mimic gastrocnemius strain, and musculoskeletal ultrasound can aide in their diagnosis by incorporating real-time imaging into the grading of the injury and visual confirmation of physical examination findings. Acute injury to the posterior compartment of the lower extremity can represent a diagnostic challenge. Medial gastrocnemius strain represents the most common injury of the posterior compartment of the lower extremity. Ultrasound is a useful tool to assist the clinician in determining the specific cause of calf injury, estimate the severity of the injury, and

  1. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD


    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  2. Fetal Research (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.


    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  3. A case of cranium bifidum with meningocele in Ayrshire calf. (United States)

    Kisipan, Mosiany Letura; Orenge, Caleb Oburu; Gacheru, David Njogu; Ngure, Raphael Muchangi


    Congenital cranial bone defects predispose to herniation of meninges, sometimes with brain tissue involvement, to form a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cyst in the head. Such defects mainly results from focal failure of neural tube closure during fetal development and has been reported in various species of domestic mammals. A one week old Ayrshire calf with a fluctuant swelling on parieto-occipital region of the head was referred to the faculty. The calf was always lying on lateral recumbency and exhibited resistance to deep palpation around the swelling and neck flexion. Embedded to the midline of the dorso-caudal surface of the cyst's wall was a hard longitudinally oriented structure. The case was diagnosed as meningocele by means of radiographic examination. As the likelihood to full recovery was greatly reduced due to the negative impact already meted on brain tissue by intracranial pressure, the calf was euthanized on grounds of animal welfare and the diagnosis confirmed by anatomopathological findings which also revealed a circular bone defect in parieto-occipital region of the skull vault and a flattened bony structure embedded to the cyst's wall. Anatomopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis as cranial bifidum with meningocele at the parieto-occipital region of the skull vault. The presence of a bony structure embedded to the wall of meningeal sac was rather unusual and could not be sufficiently explained. It was however thought to, most likely, represent a part of interparietal bone that failed to get incorporated into squamous part of occipital bone as a result of the defect. The report also highlights challenges that work against timely delivery of urgent veterinary interventions in rural set ups of Africa and rest of the developing world, often leaving veterinarians with animal welfare consideration as main determinant of intervention measures.

  4. Calf respiratory disease and pen microenvironments in naturally ventilated calf barns in winter. (United States)

    Lago, A; McGuirk, S M; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V


    Relationships between air quality, a variety of environmental risk factors, and calf respiratory health were studied in 13 naturally ventilated calf barns during winter. A minimum of 12 preweaned calves were randomly selected and scored for the presence of respiratory disease in each barn. An air sampling device was used to determine airborne bacteria colony-forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3) of air in calf pens and central alleys within the barns. Airborne bacteria samples were collected on sheep blood agar (BAP) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in each calf pen, the barn alley, and outside the barn. Samples of bedding were collected in each pen and DM was measured. Pen bedding type and a calf nesting score (degree to which the calves could nestle into the bedding) was assigned to each barn. Calf numbers, barn and pen dimensions, ridge, eave, and curtain openings, and exterior wind speed and direction were determined and used to estimate building ventilation rates. Factors that were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory disease were reduced pen bacterial counts (log10 cfu/m3) on BAP, presence of a solid barrier between each calf pen, and increased ability to nest. Individual calf pen bacterial counts were significantly different from barn alley bacterial counts on both BAP and EMB. Significant factors associated with reduced calf pen bacterial counts on BAP were increasing pen area, increasing number of open planes of the calf pen, decreasing pen temperature, and wood-particle bedding. Significant factors associated with reduced alley bacterial counts on BAP were increased ventilation changes per hour, increased barn volume per kilogram of calf, reduced pen bacterial counts, and barn type.

  5. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit


    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  6. Fetal Polydactyly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Filges, Isabel; Kang, Anjeung; Hench, Jürgen; Wenzel, Friedel; Bruder, Elisabeth; Miny, Peter; Tercanli, Sevgi


    Records of 24 pregnancies with fetal polydactyly were reviewed for the type of polydactyly, family history, associated sonographic findings, genetic testing, and postnatal/postmortem examination findings...

  7. Fetal Abuse. (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others


    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  8. Bilateral Polydactyly in a Nondescript Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo


    Full Text Available A 7 day old non-descript female calf was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute-Izatnagar with a history of limping and unusual appearance of hindlimbs from birth. Physical examination revealed additional digit on the metatarsal regions of both the hind limbs. Radiographic examination confirmed the presence of supernumerary digits unaccompanied by any other congenital malformation. It was diagnosed as Polydactyly type IV. Surgical intervention was done to remove the extra digit in both the hind limbs. This clinical article reports the successful management of bilateral polydactyly in a non-descript calf.

  9. Changes in Tissue Oxygen Saturation in Response to Different Calf Compression Sleeves (United States)

    Dermont, T.; Morizot, L.; Bouhaddi, M.; Ménétrier, A.


    Aim. The purpose was to examine the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in response to the application of different commercially available calf compression sleeves. Methods. Eight subjects came to the laboratory to complete a session in seated position including 10 min of quiet rest followed by 3 min measuring calf StO2 without compression sleeves and then alternating of 3 min of passive rest and 3 min measuring StO2 with calf compression sleeves. A total of 15 different commercially available compression sleeves were studied in a randomized order. Calf StO2 was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results. StO2 was significantly increased with all compression sleeves (p < 0.05) compared with no compression (from +6.9% for the least effective to +22.6% for the most effective). Large differences were observed between compression sleeves (p < 0.05). StO2 was positively correlated with compression pressure (p < 0.05; r = 0.84). Conclusion. This study shows that wearing compression sleeves from various brands differently affects tissue oxygen saturation. Differences were linked to the compression pressure: higher compression pressures were associated with higher StO2. PMID:26464899

  10. Physiological calf responses to increased chromium supply in summer. (United States)

    Yari, M; Nikkhah, A; Alikhani, M; Khorvash, M; Rahmani, H; Ghorbani, G R


    The primary objective was to determine pre- and postweaning calf physiological responses to increased Cr supply under high ambient temperatures. In a randomized complete block design, 24 neonate Holstein calves (BW=41.5+/-1.9 kg) were grouped based on sex and randomly assigned to 3 treatments within each group. Treatments included either no supplemental Cr (control), 0.02 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW0.75, or 0.04 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW0.75. The average temperature-humidity index was 77 during the study. Chromium was provided as a commercial product in whole milk for preweaning calves and in a starter concentrate for postweaning calves. Calves were weaned at 1 kg of daily calf starter intake lasting for 6 consecutive days. A glucose tolerance test was conducted on d 25 postweaning. Treatments had no effects on preweaning dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and weaning age. Chromium decreased dry matter intake in postweaning calves; however, it did not affect growth and feed conversion ratio. Chromium lowered respiration rate at wk 5 without affecting fecal score and rectal temperature. Preweaning serum cortisol concentrations were altered by a 3-way interaction of Cr dose with calf sex and age. Preweaning serum glucose showed week-dependent increases by Cr. Serum insulin, urea, albumin, total protein, triiodothyronine, and thyroxin concentrations through weaning were not affected. The increasing Cr doses caused quadratic declines in serum thyroxin on d 21 postweaning, whereas blood triiodothyronine declined only with the higher Cr dose. Serum NEFA remained unchanged, but BHBA decreased by Cr in male calves on d 21 postweaning. The glucose tolerance test revealed linear reductions in area under insulin curve between 0 to 90 and 0 to 120 min after glucose infusion, suggesting improvements in peripheral insulin efficiency. Sex-dependent responses to Cr were observed for serum total protein and albumin concentrations at 21 d

  11. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.


    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  12. Fetal Macrosomia (United States)

    ... identification of fetal macrosomia useful? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2012;161:170. Negrato CA, et al. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with diabetes. 2012;4:41. Frequently ...

  13. Fetal Macrosomia (United States)

    ... lifestyle counts Fetal macrosomia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. The Fatted Calf Dessert Menu 2017


    The Fatted Calf


    The Fatted Calf was opened in 2010. In 2015 we moved to Church St. Athlone. Run by husband and wife team, Feargal and Fiona O'Donnell, our focus is on finding the best, fresh, seasonal and locally sourced ingredients, that the midlands has to offer. Our food, expertly executed by our head chef, Dee Adamson, is our take on "modern Irish" food, served in a relaxed, comfortable, setting.

  15. Short communication: Effect of calf starter on rumen pH of Holstein dairy calves at weaning. (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Oba, M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding calf starter on rumen pH of dairy calves during weaning transition. Twenty Holstein bull calves were paired into 10 blocks by starting date of the study and body weight, and fed either milk replacer and hay (MR) or MR, hay, and a commercial texturized calf starter (MR+S) in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed 750 g/d of milk replacer as the basal diet. Calves on MR+S treatment were also fed a calf starter ad libitum to maintain similar energy intake between calves within blocks, and MR calves were fed additional milk replacer that was equivalent to energy from calf starter intake. When MR+S calves consumed a calf starter at 680 g/d for 3 consecutive d, rumen pH of a MR+S calf and his MR counterpart was measured continuously for 3 d using a small ruminant rumen pH measurement system. Treatment did not affect minimum pH, mean pH, maximum pH, standard deviation of mean pH, and duration or area under pH 5.8, indicating that calf starter consumption did not appear to affect rumen pH. However, hay intake was negatively correlated to area under pH 5.8, with a breakpoint at 0.080 kg/d intake, suggesting hay intake might play an important role in mitigating ruminal acidosis in dairy calves during weaning transition. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe


    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI),

  17. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1


    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  18. Fetal syringomyelia


    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick


    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyel...

  19. Muerte fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andrés Pons, DR


    Full Text Available La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  20. Muerte fetal


    Andrés Pons, G.; Eduardo Sepúlveda, S.; Juan Luis Leiva, B.; Gustavo Rencoret, P.; Alfredo Germain, A.


    La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  1. Effects of phyto-oestrogens on veal calf prostate histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.


    In veal calf production plant-based proteins are frequently included in milk replacer fed to the animals. Since soy products, which are mostly used, are known for their high levels of phyto-oestrogens, the effects of these feeds on the veal calf prostate were examined. Goal was to determine whether

  2. The Economics of Organic Versus Conventional Cow-calf Production


    Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Nehring, Richard F.


    Costs, returns, and profitability of cow-calf farms that are organic or transitioning to organic are compared with those of cow-calf farms that are non-organic. A method of matching samples is used for the comparison. Results suggest higher cost of organic production due to higher unpaid labor, taxes and insurance, and overhead costs.

  3. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.


    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  4. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to

  5. Isolation of a subgroup two adenovirus from calf with weak calf syndrome. (United States)

    Stalber, E; Renshaw, H W; Boro, C; Mattson, D; Frank, F W


    A viral agent, designated Id-1, was isolated from the buffy coat of a calf suffering from weak calf syndrome. The virus replicated on bovine salivary gland cells and caused cytopathic effect within four days after infection-Cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding and clumping of cells. Stained preparations of infected monolayers revealed multiple intranuclear inclusions. The agent was found to be resistant to chloroform, ether, trypsin, sodium desoxycholate, oxytetracycline and a pH range of three to nine. The virus was sensitive to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and to a temperature of 70 degrees C. Cross neutralization tests with Id-1 antiserum and bovine adenovirus type 7 (strain Fujuroi) antiserum resulted in complete neutralilation of both viruses with four or less antibody units of homologous or heterologous antiserum. Images Fig. 1. PMID:187293

  6. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting


    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD; Richard J. Zienowicz, MD; Iulian Balan, MD


    Background: Curved lower legs cause psychological stress for women. In evaluating the shape, if thickness is the main contributing factor of leg aesthetic, then lipoplasty or calf reducing procedures will be the option. If the legs are slender and have no muscle hypertrophy but still have some indentation or bulges on both sides and lack an aesthetic shape what will be the options? The answer to the question is discussed in detail in this article. Methods: Twenty-two patients, operated over a...

  7. Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in a calf. (United States)

    Ikegami, T; Shirota, K; Une, Y; Nomura, Y; Wada, Y; Goto, K; Takakura, A; Itoh, T; Fujiwara, K


    Naturally occurring Clostridium piliforme infection (Tyzzer's disease) was found in a calf. Light microscopic examination revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis in the liver, catarrhal gastroenteritis, tracheitis and pneumonia, and thymic atrophy. Warthin-Starry staining clearly showed large filamentous bacilli in bundles or criss-cross patterns within the hepatocytes and epithelium and smooth muscle cells of the ileum and cecum. Immunohistochemistry using anti-C. piliforme RT and MSK strain antisera showed positive reaction against the bacilli. Electron microscopic examination revealed bacilli within the hepatocytes that demonstrated a characteristic vegetative form, with peritrichous flagella, and spores. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study using the paraffin-embedded liver sections, the 196-bp DNA fragment specific to 16S ribosomal RNA of C. piliforme was amplified. The characteristics of these bacilli are consistent with those of of C. piliforme. The PCR technique using paraffin-embedded sections should be useful for confirming C. piliforme infection in spontaneous cases.

  8. Studies on cell lines derived from calf, thymic and skin forms of bovine lymphosarcoma. (United States)

    Onuma, M


    The etiology of sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL) is not known. Long-term monolayer cultures were made from calf (CLS), thymic (TLS) and skin (SLS) forms, and serological tests, electron microscopic observations and reverse transcriptase assays were employed for the detection of an etiological agent. Bovine leukosis virus (BLV) antigen and reverse transcriptase activities remained negative in cultures from SBL cases. Treatment of a culture from CLS 3178 with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and dexamethasone resulted in production of BLV which may have been acquired from the BLV-infected dam of CLS 3178, and in an alteration of cell morphology. Focus formation in monolayer cultures and colony formation in soft agar cultures were observed in this treated cell line. Human fetal lung fibroblast cells cocultivated with the cultures from SBL resulted in rapid proliferation of cells with an increased focus formation.

  9. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila


    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  10. On the fetal magnetocardiogram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.J.; Stinstra, J.G.; van den Broek, S.P.; van den Broek, S.P.; Huirne, J.A.F.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Rogalla, Horst


    Fetal magnetocardiography is a non-invasive technique for studying the electrical activity of the fetal heart. Fetal magnetocardiograms (fMCG) can be used to diagnose and classify fetal cardiac arrhythmias reliably. An averaged fMCG shows a QRS-complex, a P-wave, and a T-wave. However, it is still

  11. Pharmacodynamics of marbofloxacin for calf pneumonia pathogens. (United States)

    Illambas, Joanna; Potter, Timothy; Cheng, Zhangrui; Rycroft, Andrew; Fishwick, John; Lees, Peter


    The pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of the fluoroquinolone, marbofloxacin, were determined for the bovine respiratory tract pathogens Mannheima haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. For six pathogenic isolates of each organism, three in vitro indices of efficacy and potency were determined, namely, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves. Each parameter was determined in two matrices, Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) and calf serum. For serum, MBC:MIC ratios were 2.7:1 (M. haemolytica) and 2.4:1 (P. multocida). The killing action of marbofloxacin had the characteristics of concentration dependency against M. haemolytica and co-dependency (on time and concentration) against P. multocida. To confirm the characteristics of the time-kill profiles, growth inhibition produced by marbofloxacin was also established ex vivo in three biological fluids, calf serum, exudate and transudate, harvested from a tissue cage model. The in vitro time-kill data were modelled with pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin, established by intramuscular administration in calves at a dose of 2 mg/kg; three levels of activity, namely bacteriostatic, 3 log10 reduction and 4 log10 reduction in bacterial counts were determined. Mean AUC(24h)/MIC values (with percentage coefficients of variation indicating inter-isolate variability) for M. haemolytica, based on serum MICs, were 31.3 (41.6), 57.7 (42.4) and 79.2 (44.6) h, respectively. Corresponding values for MHB were 20.5 (58.0), 40.5 (51.8) and 51.2 (24.30) h, respectively. When allowance was made for binding of marbofloxacin to serum protein, the AUC(24h)/MIC values for serum were similar to those for MHB. Numerical AUC(24h)/MIC values for P. multocida were slightly lower than those obtained for M. haemolytica. These data establish for the first time inter-isolate variability in AUC(24h)/MIC values required for three levels of bacterial kill for two pathogenic species and thereby

  12. Veal calf performance in response to concentrate diets of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown 58. Veal calf performance in response to concentrate diets of different rumen degradable protein content. L. Holtshausen. # and C.W. Cruywagen. Dept of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600, ...

  13. Comparison of machine milk out and calf nursing techniques for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk yields by machine milk out and calf nursing techniques were estimated monthly from April to August in 24, 3- years-old, two-breed cross cows. Overall, average milk yield estimates were 16 - 18 lb/day by machine milk out and 12.79 lb/day by calf nursing, with a difference of 3.91 lb/day. The two methods were similar ...

  14. Calf venous compliance measured by venous occlusion plethysmography: methodological aspects. (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Lindenberger, Marcus; Ekman, Mikael; Ewerman, Lea; Länne, Toste


    Calf venous compliance (C calf) is commonly evaluated with venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) during a standard cuff deflation protocol. However, the technique relies on two not previously validated assumptions concerning thigh cuff pressure (P cuff) transmission and the impact of net fluid filtration (F filt) on C calf. The aim was to validate VOP in the lower limb and to develop a model to correct for F filt during VOP. Strain-gauge technique was used to study calf volume changes in 15 women and 10 age-matched men. A thigh cuff was inflated to 60 mmHg for 4 and 8 min with a subsequent decrease of 1 mmHg s(-1). Intravenous pressure (P iv) was measured simultaneously. C calf was determined with the commonly used equation [Compliance = β 1 + 2β 2 × P cuff] describing the pressure-compliance relationship. A model was developed to identify and correct for F filt. Transmission of P cuff to P iv was 100 %. The decrease in P cuff correlated well with P iv reduction (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Overall, our model showed that C calf was underestimated when F filt was not accounted for (all P < 0.01). F filt was higher in women (P < 0.01) and showed a more pronounced effect on C calf compared to men (P < 0.05). The impact of F filt was similar during 4- and 8-min VOP. P cuff is an adequate substitute for P iv in the lower limb. F filt is associated with an underestimation of C calf and differences in the effect of F filt during VOP can be accounted for with the correction model. Thus, our model seems to be a valuable tool in future studies of venous wall function.

  15. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning. The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear.

  16. Association of Polymorphism Harbored by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene and Sex of Calf with Lactation Performance in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Yudin


    Full Text Available In a majority of mammals, male infants have heavier body mass and grow faster than female infants. Accordingly, male offspring nursing requires a much greater maternal energy contribution to lactation. It is possible that the maternal-fetal immunoendocrine dialog plays an important role in female preparation for lactation during pregnancy. Immune system genes are an integral part of gene regulatory networks in lactation and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα is a proinflammatory cytokine that also plays an important role in normal mammary gland development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the sex of calf and/or the -824A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of TNFα gene on milk performance traits in Black Pied cattle over the course of lactation. We also studied the allele frequency differences of -824A/G variants across several cattle breeds, which were bred in different climatic conditions. The G allele frequency decreased gradually over the course of lactation events in the Black Pied dairy cattle because of a higher culling rate of cows with the G/G genotype (p<0.001. In contrast to the genotypes A/A and A/G, cows with G/G genotype showed significant variability of milk and milk fat yield subject to sex of delivered calf. Milk yield and milk fat yield were significantly higher in the case of birth of a bull calf than with a heifer calf (p<0.03. The G allele frequency varies from 48% to 58% in Grey Ukrainian and Black Pied cattle to 77% in aboriginal Yakut cattle. Our results suggest that the TNFα -824A/G gene polymorphism may have an influence on the reproductive efforts of cows over the course of lactation events depending on the sex of progeny. Allocation of resources according to sex of the calf allows optimizing the energy cost of lactation. This may be a probable reason for high G allele frequency in Yakut cattle breeding in extreme environmental conditions. Similarly, the dramatic fall in milk production after

  17. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava


    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  18. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  19. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management. (United States)

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K


    The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment. During the next 20 yr, calf studies increased and included colostrum feeding, milk and milk replacer feeding, minerals and vitamins, and fats and oils. Many concepts fundamental to current knowledge and understanding of digestion, rumen development, and milk replacer formulation were developed during this period. In addition, the concept of using antibiotic growth promoters in dairy calf diets was first evaluated and developed during the 1950s. During the 20-yr period of January 1957 through December 1976, a large number of universities in the United States and 1 in Canada contributed almost 150 papers on a variety of calf-related topics. These topics included genetics, physiology of the calf, review of calf immunity, antibiotic feeding, and milk replacer ingredients. This became the golden era of calf rumen development studies, which also engendered studies of calf starter rations and ingredients. A classic review of management, feeding, and housing studies summarized research related to calf feeding and management systems up to that point with an emphasis on maintaining calf growth and health while reducing labor and feed costs. It was also during this period that metric measurements replaced English units. In the 20-yr period from 1977 to 1996, more than 400 articles on calf nutrition and management were published in JDS. With the growing research interest in calves, a paper outlining

  20. Vascular responses in forearm and calf to contralateral static exercises. (United States)

    Duprez, D A; Essandoh, L K; Vanhoutte, P M; Shepherd, J T


    Ten normal subjects performed a 90-s isometric exercise [20, 30, and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the flexor muscle of the right index finger or quadriceps muscle of the right leg. Contralateral forearm and calf blood flows (strain gauge plethysmography) and arterial blood pressure (auscultation) were measured simultaneously. Each exercise caused a decrease in forearm vascular resistance and a progressive increase in calf resistance. These changes were greatest with the 40% MVC. With finger exercise at 20 and 40% MVC, the percentage decreases in forearm vascular resistance from control were 12.3 and 22.7%, respectively (P less than 0.01). Similar decreases (9.5 and 24.9%, respectively; P less than 0.01) were noted with exercise of the quadriceps muscle. By contrast, the corresponding increases in calf vascular resistance were greater (P less than 0.01) with quadriceps exercise (13.3 and 55.4%, respectively) than with finger exercise (6.0 and 36.0%). Arrest of the circulation to the exercising muscles just before the exercise ended caused an abrupt increase in forearm vascular resistance and a decrease in calf resistance. These studies provide further evidence of the heterogeneity of responses of forearm and calf resistance vessels to certain cardiovascular stimuli.

  1. The nutritive value, intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of farm-grown and prepared sunflower-based dairy calf meals. (United States)

    Mandibaya, W; Mutisi, C; Hamudikuwanda, H; Titterton, M


    The dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility and nitrogen balance of three sunflower-based farm-grown calf meals with different roughage sources (maize stover, MSM; groundnut tops, GTM; and veld hay, VHM) and a commercial calf starter meal (control; CSM) were studied for 47 days (26 days pre- and 21 days post-weaning) in calves. The DMI was lower (but p > 0.05) with CSM (0.369 kg/day) than with the farm-grown meals (mean 0.559 kg/day), and the daily weight gain (kg/day) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between CSM (0.107), GTM (0.053), MSM (0.157) and VHM (0.217). Dry matter, organic matter and protein digestibility were higher (p Nitrogen retention was least (p sunflower-based meals are suitable for feeding young calves.

  2. Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS): Past - Present - Future. (United States)

    van der Valk, Jan; Bieback, Karen; Buta, Christiane; Cochrane, Brett; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Fu, Jianan; Hickman, James J; Hohensee, Christiane; Kolar, Roman; Liebsch, Manfred; Pistollato, Francesca; Schulz, Markus; Thieme, Daniel; Weber, Tilo; Wiest, Joachim; Winkler, Stefan; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard


    The supplementation of culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS, also referred to as 'fetal calf serum') is still common practice in cell culture applications. Due to a number of disadvantages in terms of quality and reproducibility of in vitro data, animal welfare concerns, and in light of recent cases of fraudulent marketing, the search for alternatives and the development of serum-free medium formulations gained global attention. Here, we report on the 3rd Workshop on FBS, Serum Alternatives and Serum-free Media, where (a) regulatory aspects, (b) the serum dilemma, (c) alternatives to FBS, (d) case-studies of serum-free in vitro applications, and (e) the establishment of serum-free databases, were discussed. The whole process of obtaining blood from a living calf fetus to using the FBS produced from it for scientific purposes is de facto not yet legally regulated, despite the existing EU-Directive 2010/63/EU on the use of animals for scientific purposes. Together with above mentioned challenges, several strategies have been developed to reduce or replace FBS in cell culture media in terms of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement). Most recently, releasates of activated human donor thrombocytes (human platelet lysates) have been shown to be one of the most promising serum alternatives when chemically defined media are not yet an option. Additionally, new developments in cell-based assay techniques, advanced organ-on-chip and microphysiological systems are covered in this report. Chemically-defined serum-free media are shown to be the ultimate goal for the majority of culture systems, and examples are discussed.

  3. Characterization of fetal body movement recorded by the Hewlett-Packard M-1350-A fetal monitor. (United States)

    Melendez, T D; Rayburn, W F; Smith, C V


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a commercially available monitor, the Hewlett-Packard M-1350-A fetal monitor, to record and discriminate between various fetal body movements. Twenty-four patients between 29 and 42 weeks' gestation were monitored over a 20 to 30 minute period simultaneously by the Hewlett-Packard instrument and ultrasonography. All 593 single or clustered fetal movements recorded by the monitor were seen ultrasonographically as being extremity movements that were either isolated or combined with trunk motion. Discriminating between these two types of movements was not possible on the basis of the duration of recorded movements. All adequate fetal heart rate accelerations were attributed to combined trunk and extremity movements. Detection of fetal hiccups was less exact, and recording of fetal hand, mouth, breathing, and rapid eye movements was beyond the sensitivity of the monitor. Signal artifacts were attributable to either motion of the maternal abdomen or Doppler transducer and became less of a problem with experience. Fetal extremity movements were recorded with accuracy by this new fetal monitor.

  4. Trailer microclimate and calf welfare during fall-run transportation of beef calves in Alberta. (United States)

    Goldhawk, C; Janzen, E; González, L A; Crowe, T; Kastelic, J; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S


    Twenty-four commercial loads of beef calves (BW 300 ± 52 kg, mean ± SD) were evaluated for associations among transportation factors, in-transit microclimate, and calf welfare. Transport factors evaluated included vehicle speed, space allowance, compartment within trailer, and transit duration. Calves were transported for 7 h 44 min ± 4 h 15 min, with space allowances ranging from 0.56 to 1.17 m(2)/animal. Compartment within trailer, space allowance, and vehicle speed did not affect the difference between compartment ceiling-level and ambient temperatures during a 30-min period of steady-state microclimate. During the steady-state period, a 1°C increase in ambient temperature above the mean of 5.6°C was associated with a 0.62°C decrease in the difference between ceiling-level and ambient temperature (P calves arrived in good condition and biochemical indicators of calf welfare were within reference ranges for healthy cattle. Within the study population, high pre-transport cortisol and hematocrit were associated with elevated post-transport values (P weaning to loading interval (24 or 48 h) decreased transportation shrink by 0.26 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was greater than 5°C and decreased transportation shrink by 0.11 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was less than 5°C (P post-transport treatment for disease. The study also provided correction factors for estimating in-transit microclimate that could assist in evaluation of transportation management and decisions affecting profitability and calf welfare.

  5. Enzootic bovine leukosis in a two-month-old calf. (United States)

    Oguma, Keisuke; Suzuki, Miho; Sentsui, Hiroshi


    A two-month-old calf was diagnosed with leukosis on the basis of the clinical sign of enlarged, superficial lymph nodes. Serological and genetic tests for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were performed because the calf was born from a cow infected with BLV. The serum had a weakly positive BLV antibody, and the BLV provirus was detected within neoplastic cells on performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of the BLV provirus integration site using inverse PCR revealed that the BLV integration site location was identical on all chromosomes in all tumor tissues examined. Thus, the tumor cells monoclonally proliferated following BLV infection. The present study shows that enzootic bovine leukosis can occur in a young animal, as in the two-month-old calf in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetal calf serum-free suspension culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masashi; Aizu, Yu; Shioya, Itaru; Takagi, Mutsumi


    The effects of heat treatment and concentration of fish serum (FS) on cell growth in a suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) 1-15(500) (ATCC CRL-9606) cells were investigated. An increase in FS concentration from 1% to 4% markedly increased cell density. On the other hand, heat treatment of FS showed nearly no effect on cell density. Copyright 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles. (United States)

    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna


    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and parents can be reassured that no immediate treatment is required.

  8. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.


    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  9. Fetal Cardiac Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan


    Full Text Available The present article aims to highlight fetal cardiac interventions (FCIs in terms of indications, strategies, and fetal prognoses. FCIs of the early years were predominantly pharmacological therapies for fetal arrhythmia or heart block. A transplacental transmission of therapeutic agents has now become the main route of pharmacological FCIs. There have been various FCI strategies, which can be categorized into three types: pharmacological, open FCIs, and closed FCIs. Rather than as a routine management for materno-fetal cardiac disorders, however, FCIs are only applied in those fetal cardiac disorders that are at an increased risk of mortality and morbidity and warrant an interventional therapy. Pharmacological FCIs have been well applied in fetal arrhythmias but require further investigations for novel therapeutic agents. The development of open FCI in humans is an issue for the long run. Closed FCIs may largely rely on advanced imaging techniques. Hybrid FCIs might be the future goal in the treatment of fetal heart diseases.

  10. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity. (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane


    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van


    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions

  13. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A correcting protein from Calf Thymus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.M. Eker (André); W. Vermeulen (Wim); N. Miura; K. Tanaka (Kiyoji); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk)


    textabstractA proteinous factor was purified from calf thymus and HeLa cells, which specifically corrects the excision repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) cells. Recovery of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis after microinjection of XP-A cells was used as a

  14. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, L.H.; van den Noort, J.C.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Harlaar, J.


    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles,

  15. Total parenteral nutrition in a premature rhinoceros calf. (United States)

    Herrmann, V M; Miller, R E


    A female black rhinoceros calf developed significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose, 30 mg/dL) and hypothermia (97 degrees F) within 48 hours of birth and refused to nurse. Normal gestation of the black rhinoceros is 15 months, but elongated hoof slippers and low birth weight (30 kg) suggested prematurity in this calf. Clinical symptoms of neonatal sepsis including lassitude and poor sucking continued in spite of the aggressive use of antibiotics, and the calf required mechanical ventilatory support on day 7. Nutritional support including enteral gavage feedings (Pedialyte/4 ounces of SMA [Wyeth Ayerst] with sucraflox) had been instituted and was supplemented with total parenteral nutrition on day 5. Central venous access was obtained via a jugular cutdown. The total parenteral nutrition included appropriate electrolytes and vitamins for the neonatal calf but did not include trace elements. The use of total parenteral nutrition by our zoos for therapeutic purposes is increasing. Experience with total parenteral nutrition in exotic animals such as the black rhinoceros is limited, yet this may be an important therapeutic modality in these animals, particularly those in danger of extinction.

  16. Cholesterol induces fetal rat enterocyte death in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzola J.


    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on fetal rat enterocytes and IEC-6 cells (line originated from normal rat small intestine was examined. Both cells were cultured in the presence of 20 to 80 µM cholesterol for up to 72 h. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of HMG-CoA reductase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma was measured by RT-PCR. The addition of 20 µM cholesterol reduced enterocyte proliferation as early as 6 h of culture. Reduction of enterocyte proliferation by 28 and 41% was observed after 24 h of culture in the presence and absence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively, with the effect lasting up to 72 h. Treatment of IEC-6 cells with cholesterol for 24 h raised the proportion of cells with fragmented DNA by 9.7% at 40 µM and by 20.8% at 80 µM. When the culture period was extended to 48 h, the effect of cholesterol was still more pronounced, with the percent of cells with fragmented DNA reaching 53.5% for 40 µM and 84.3% for 80 µM. Chromatin condensation of IEC-6 cells was observed after treatment with cholesterol even at 20 µM. Cholesterol did not affect HMG-CoA reductase expression. A dose-dependent increase in PPARgamma expression in fetal rat enterocytes was observed. The expression of PPAR-gamma was raised by 7- and 40-fold, in the presence and absence of fetal calf serum, respectively, with cholesterol at 80 mM. The apoptotic effect of cholesterol on enterocytes was possibly due to an increase in PPARgamma expression.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  18. Application of Sexing Technology in The Artificial Insemination Program and Cow Calf Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto


    Full Text Available In order to enhance cattle productivity and production, especially to support the cow calf operation, it is a need to have an application on innovative technology, such as spermatozoa sexing . Technology is more relevant nowadays due to the one of priority program in artificial insemination to increase genetic quality of cattle in Indonesia. Artificial Insemination Institute in Singosari had produced and commercialized thousands of straw with good results . The quality of frozen semen from those sexing sperm was very good, indicated with more than 40% rate of motility . By August 2006, 33 male calves out of 47 animals from the Y frozen semen (70 .2 1% and 29 female calves out of 30 animals from the X frozen semen (96.66% . The results shown that S/C reached 1 .71 and CR for 56.45% for its sexing frozen semen, which means these results are equal to the success of artificial program with unsexing frozen semen .

  19. Effect of exercise on calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous disease. (United States)

    Yang, D; Vandongen, Y K; Stacey, M C


    Musculoskeletal dysfunction may be associated with poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on calf muscle pump function. Twenty patients were recruited into a 6-week intensive exercise programme. Calf muscle function and calf muscle pump function were assessed using an isokinetic device and air plethysmography respectively, before and after the exercise programme. There was significant improvement in calf muscle pump function, measured as increased ejection fraction and decreased residual fraction (P venous reflux was not altered (P > 0.05). Calf muscle strength and endurance parameters all increased, but not significantly (P > 0.05). Poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration can be improved by physical exercise.

  20. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger


    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  1. Fetal scalp pH testing (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  2. Intermittent calf and foot compression increases lower extremity blood flow. (United States)

    Eze, A R; Comerota, A J; Cisek, P L; Holland, B S; Kerr, R P; Veeramasuneni, R; Comerota, A J


    Although foot compression increases foot skin perfusion and calf compression increases popliteal artery blood flow, these compression techniques have not been evaluated in combination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether calf and foot compression applied separately and simultaneously increase popliteal artery blood flow and/or foot skin perfusion, and to assess the relative merits of compression in patients with superficial femoral artery occlusion. Twenty-two legs from 12 normal volunteers with ankle/brachial indices (ABIs) > 0.96, and 10 legs from 7 claudicator patients with angiographically documented superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion and patent popliteal arteries with ABIs pressure pump (Art-Assist-AA 1000; ACI Medical Inc., San Marcos, California) were applied to the subject in the sitting position. Skin blood flow of the great toe was measured with a laser doppler (Laserflo model BPM 403A; TSI Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota), and popliteal artery blood flow was measured using duplex ultrasonography (ATL-Ultramark 9; Advanced Tech Laboratory, Bothell, Washington). Foot and calf compression was applied separately and simultaneously at 120 mm Hg pressure, with a 10-second inflation and 20-second deflation cycle. Popliteal artery blood flow and foot skin perfusion were recorded and the mean of 6 cycles calculated. Precompression popliteal artery blood flow (mL/min) for volunteers was 38.86 +/- 3.94, and for patients was 86.30 +/- 14.55 (P = 0.001). Precompression foot skin perfusion (mL/min/ 100/g tissue) for volunteers was 1.67 +/- 0.29, and for patients was 4.00 +/- 0.92 (P = 0.01). With the application of calf, foot, and simultaneous calf and foot compression, the popliteal artery blood flow increased in volunteers by 124%, 54%, and 173%, respectively, and in patients by 76%, 13%, and 50%. Foot skin perfusion increased in volunteers by 260%, 500%, and 328%, respectively, and in patients by 116%, 246%, and 188%. Relative increases in popliteal

  3. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a calf with nephrotic syndrome. (United States)

    Trang, N T; Hirai, T; Nabeta, R; Fuke, N; Yamaguchi, R


    A 2-month-old Japanese black calf was presented with a history of weight loss, exophthalmos and subcutaneous oedema of the brisket. Urinalysis and serum biochemistry showed proteinuria and hypoproteinaemia suggestive of nephrotic syndrome. Microscopically, lesions in the kidney were characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells and diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membranes with the appearance of double contours. Immune complex deposits were confirmed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence using reagents specific for bovine immunoglobulin G, complement factor C3 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). Consequently, the glomerular lesion in this case was diagnosed as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. BVDV type 1 was detected in serum by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was also identified in the glomeruli by immunofluorescence. These results suggest that BVDV may have been the cause of immune complex glomerulonephritis in this calf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reversal of lower limb edema by calf muscle pump stimulation. (United States)

    Goddard, Ayana A; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J


    Peripheral edema (PE) is commonly coupled with heart failure, restrictive cardiomyopathy, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, and hypoproteinemia. Diuretics and/or limb elevation, although commonly prescribed to treat PE, are often insufficient to remove sufficient fluid to prevent complications. We assessed the ability of the calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation to reverse PE. Fluid volume was evaluated by air plethysmography in the right legs of 54 adult women (mean age 46.7 +/- 1.5 years) following venous status assessment. Change in calf volume was assessed during 30 minutes of quiet sitting, followed by 30 minutes of sitting with CMP stimulation via micromechanical stimulation of the plantar surface. Leg volume changes demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Leg volume decreased during quiet sitting in 56% of the study group, whereas in 44% of the group, significant lower leg fluid pooling was evident (increase in calf volume of 14.0 +/- 0.3 mL/h). CMP stimulation reversed the fluid pooling in the edematous group (-2.7 +/- 0.1 mL/h) and was able to accelerate fluid removal in the nonedematous group. Approximately two fifths of adult women experience substantial pooling when their lower limbs are maintained in a dependent position. Lower-extremity edema exhibited by these women may primarily be due to inadequate calf muscle tone because exogenous stimulation of the CMP was sufficient to halt and reverse fluid pooling. Whether CMP stimulation would provide a means to treat PE in individuals with edema-related health complications, such as congestive heart failure, merits further investigation.

  5. Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a galician blond beef calf. (United States)

    Miranda, Marta; Rigueira, Lucas; Suárez, María L; Carbajales, Paloma; Moure, Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis E; Failde, Daniel; Vázquez, Sonia


    A six-month-old female Galician Blond beef calf presented signs of apathy, anorexia and weight loss. The analysis of a blood sample confirmed renal failure. Bilateral nephrolithiasis was diagnosed at necropsy. Quantitative analysis revealed the nephroliths to be composed of 100 per cent xanthine. In cattle, xanthinuria has only been described in the Japanese Black breed, but never before in other breeds. Clinical history suggested a naturally occurring xanthinuria.

  6. Calf Venous Compliance in Supine Posture Equals that Measured with Head-up Tilt (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Hargens, Alan R.


    Calf venous compliance is measured conventionally with venous occlusion, where compliance equals calf volume elevation per mmHg thigh occlusion pressure in relaxed legs of supine subjects. Compliance may also be measured during stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) as calf volume elevation per mmHg gravitational venous pressure elevation produced by HUT. Although HUT on a tilt table with a footplate activates calf muscles which could reduce compliance, this muscle activation is relatively small (less than or = 10% of maximal voluntary levels). Therefore, we hypothesized that calf compliance measured with HUT equals that measured with conventional supine venous occlusion. The venous occlusion protocol consisted of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg thigh cuff inflations held for 1, 2, 3 and 4 min, respectively, in 14 supine subjects. One min of cuff deflation to 0 mmHg separated occlusions. Nine other subjects underwent HUT through the following angles held for 30s each: -12 deg., -6 deg., 0 deg., 12 deg., 30 deg., 54 deg., and 90 deg. HUT calf venous pressure data were interpolated from Katkov and Chestukhin; these data correspond to 70-80% of calculated calf venous pressure changes (pgh). Liquid metal-in-silastic strain gauges measured calf volume for both venous occlusion and HUT compliance. Relaxed calf compliance in supine subjects equaled 4.6 +/- 0.4 ml/mmHg (X +/- SE), as measured with venous occlusion. Calf compliance during HUT equaled 4.6 +/- 1.0 ml/mmHg. Therefore, calf compliance in supine, relaxed subjects equals that measured during head-up tilt. We conclude that the minimal calf muscle activation which occurs during HUT does not importantly affect calf compliance.

  7. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers. (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A


    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( dietary NE were not different ( > 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( dietary NE ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  8. Fetal heart rate monitoring. (United States)

    Nageotte, Michael P


    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is a widely utilized means of assessment of fetal status during labor. Whereas little evidence exists regarding efficacy, this modality continues to be used extensively in every modern labor and delivery unit in developed countries. It is of importance that all providers of health care to the woman in labor and her newborn have a clear understanding of the basic pathophysiology of fetal heart rate monitoring and an appreciation for labor course and concerns as they arise in order to optimize outcomes and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence of epimeletic behavior involving a Pontoporia blainvillei calf (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Tonello Júnior


    Full Text Available The present paper constitutes the second record of epimeletic behavior for the toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei. A toninha calf carcass was recovered at Enseada Beach, São Francisco do Sul, southern Brazil (26o13’S - 48o31’W on October 9, 2001. Its total length indicated that it was a neonate or a premature calf. The calf had many parallel scratches on it, which were freshly made and produced by adult teeth. There were scratches on the fin, flukes and flippers, and the position and size of the marks demonstrated the intention of the adult to rescue the calf. The anterior region of the body showed net marks, suggesting that the calf had been accidentally entangled. The epimeletic behavior evidenced by the tooth marks could have occurred during the entanglement and/or after its liberation, and we suggest that the causa mortis of the calf was drowning.

  10. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations. (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C


    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  12. Challenge of Fetal Mortality (United States)

    ... Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order ... this page Key findings What is the impact of fetal mortality on U.S. families? What is ...

  13. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith


    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  14. Analysis of the influence factors on dystocia, stillbirth and calf birth weight in Holstein Friesian cows


    Maschurek, Nancy


    Within the past ten years many studies that deal with causes of increased dystocia and calf losses have been published. Despite the knowledge high numbers of dystocia and perinatal mortality are common in dairy herds. The calf birth weight is an important factor for pathologic parturitions, particulary in Holstein heifers. It was the objective of this study to identify risk factors of dystocia and calf death at or during birth on a large dairy farm in Germany (2132 cows, 11520 kg milk yiel...

  15. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra


    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  16. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  17. Strains of the posterior calf musculature ("tennis leg"). (United States)

    Millar, A P


    Strains of the posterior calf musculature frequently relate to overuse of the gastrocnemius muscle. The principal sports involved are the slower side-to-side sports. Treatment routine is composed of pain relief, passive stretching, exercises for the antagonists and later the agonists, and quadriceps exercises. In a series of 720 patients, over a 12-year period, this routine has been effective as evidenced by a recurrence of the condition in only 0.7% of the patients. Prevention of the injury is best obtained by regular stretching and strength development routines.

  18. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Calf Muscle Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourdeanu


    Full Text Available Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL usually occurs in the lymph nodes, approximately 30–40% of the time it can have an extranodal site of involvement and it can arise in nearly every body site such as intestine, bone, breast, liver, skin, lung, and central nervous system. Muscle involvement of DLBCL is especially uncommon, comprising 0.5% of extranodal NHL. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with extranodal DLBCL of a unique manifestation in the calf muscle, involving predominantly the gastrocnemius muscle. The patient achieved complete response and remained free of local recurrence or metastasis following diagnosis.

  19. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France. (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Maigne, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G; Cahuzac, E


    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The same associations were reported for 2005 and 2006. The mortality risks or rates for calves and heifers were positively associated with the proportion of purchased cows or being a Milk Control Program member and negatively associated with adhering to the Good Breeding Practices charter and having an autumn calving peak. The associations between mortality and the breeds or the production areas were positive or negative, depending on the classes of animal. Mortality and having a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd were negatively associated for noncrossed birth to 2-d-old calves, noncrossed 3-d- to 1-mo-old calves, and 3-d- to 1-mo-old heifers. Having a beef herd probably provides specific know-how related to newborn and young calf management that makes it easier to attain low mortality in pure-breed dairy calves. The proportion of males born was positively associated with mortality for the birth to 2-d-old calves (all classes) and for the 3-d- to 1-mo-old beef-crossed calves, but negatively for all classes of heifers. This indicates that heifer management was improved when the availability of newborn heifers decreased, resulting in low mortality. This lower mortality is apparent for all classes of heifers present on the farm during the year when the proportion of males was low, and demonstrates an anticipatory effect. In conclusion, this study shows that the presence of a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd within a farm is associated with decreased dairy calf mortality. It

  20. Short communication: Antioxidant activity of calf milk replacers. (United States)

    Soberon, M A; Liu, R H; Cherney, D J R


    A calf milk replacer (CMR) is designed to replace whole, saleable milk as a lower cost nutrient source for calves while striving to nourish a newborn calf, reduce calf mortality, strengthen immunity, and increase animal life span and productivity. Antioxidants (AO) can enhance immune defense by reducing oxidative damage, but CMR are traditionally not formulated for AO activity. The objective of this study was to compare total AO activities of bovine milk and 6 CMR (A to F) that vary in the amount and source of fat and protein. Calf milk replacers were donated by Milk Products LLC (Chilton, WI). Milk was obtained from the Cornell Dairy Research Farm bulk tank, representing milk produced within 24h by 455 cows. Milk replacers were mixed to 150 g/L with 40°C purified water. All samples were extracted in triplicate. Following hexane lipid extraction, both milk and CMR samples were extracted 5 times with ethyl acetate and then evaporated and reconstituted with 70% methanol:water. Samples were assessed for total AO activity using the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity assay where each sample was diluted to 5 descending concentrations, plated in triplicate. Ascorbic and gallic acids were standards for each plate. Type of protein (soy) had a positive effect on AO activity for CMR A, which exhibited the highest total AO activity. Natural bovine milk had the second highest AO activity. Many factors may explain the difference in AO activity between natural milk and formulated CMR, including fat, vitamin, and mineral contents, enzymatic AO, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acid profile, and AA composition. When comparing AO activity of CMR, it is important to consider the diversity in feeding recommendations, which will alter the vitamin and mineral content, thus influencing AO activity. The opportunity exists to enhance AO activity of CMR to more closely mimic that of bovine milk. Future research is warranted to compare a broader range of CMR using methods that account for

  1. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer. (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi


    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  2. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)


    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  3. Magnesium and fetal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.


    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  4. The Effect of Early Feeding of Soybean and Fishmeal Based Calf S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on growth performimce and cost, it was concluded that early feeding of calves Withsoyb,eq.'!-fishmeal ... have reached the target weaning weight, nor- mally about 60 - 70 kg. Calves may require more than 12 weeks ... calf from birth to weaning, costing 75,000 to. 100,000 Tanzanian shillings per calf. Such high.

  5. What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect calf behaviour and welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Engel, B.; Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.


    Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the ‘average calf’. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary choice,


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A procedure was developed that enables measurement of rapid variations in calf blood flow during voluntary rhythmic contraction of the calf muscles in supine, sitting, and standing positions. During the exercise, maximum blood velocity is measured by Doppler ultrasound equipment in the popliteal

  7. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth (United States)

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  8. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing


    Moore, Pete


    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices.

  9. Palaeo-environmental and dietary analysis of intestinal contents of a mammoth calf (Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia) (United States)

    van Geel, Bas; Fisher, Daniel C.; Rountrey, Adam N.; van Arkel, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Nieman, Aline M.; van Reenen, Guido B. A.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Buigues, Bernard; Gravendeel, Barbara


    Intestinal samples from the one-month-old Siberian mammoth calf 'Lyuba' were studied using light microscopy and ancient DNA to reconstruct its palaeo-environment and diet. The palynological record indicates a 'mammoth steppe'. At least some pollen of arboreal taxa was reworked, and thus the presence of trees on the landscape is uncertain. In addition to visual comparison of 11 microfossil spectra, a PCA analysis contributed to diet reconstruction. This yielded two clusters: one of samples from the small intestine and the other of large-intestine samples, indicating compositional differences in food remains along the intestinal tract, possibly reflecting different episodes of ingestion. Based on observed morphological damage we conclude that the cyperaceous plant remains and some remains of dwarf willows were originally eaten by a mature mammoth, most likely Lyuba's mother. The mammoth calf probably unintentionally swallowed well-preserved mosses and mineral particles while eating fecal material deposited on a soil surface covered with mosses. Coprophagy may have been a common habit for mammoths, and we therefore propose that fecal material should not be used to infer season of death of mammoths. DNA sequences of trnL and rbcL genes amplified from ancient DNA extracted from intestinal samples confirmed and supplemented plant identifications based on microfossils and macro-remains. Results from different extraction methods and barcoding markers complemented each other and show the value of longer protocols in addition to fast and commercially available extraction kits.

  10. Electrically induced short-lasting tetanus of the calf muscles for prevention of deep vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Lindström, B; Korsan-Bengtsen, K; Jonsson, O; Petruson, B; Pettersson, S; Wikstrand, J


    Electrical calf muscle stimulation during surgery has been used for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with varied results in several studies. This effect is mainly achieved by the reduction of venous stasis in the legs. Another possible beneficial effect might be an increased fibrinolytic activity of the blood secondary to the muscle contractions. Previously, single electrical impulses have been used for stimulation, giving rise to 'single twitches' in the muscles. In the present study the effect on calf volume of muscle stimulation with groups of impulses giving a short-lasting tetanus was investigated. Changes in calf volume were recorded by strain gauge plethysmography. Optimal values for duration, number and frequency of the impulses within the groups were determined. Stimulation with groups of impulses reduced calf venous volume approximately three times more efficiently than stimulation with single impulses. Calf muscle stimulation did not enhance the increase in fibrinolytic activity of venous blood observed after oesophago- or laryngoscopies under general anaesthesia.

  11. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne


    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine

  12. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality. (United States)

    Torsein, Maria; Lindberg, Ann; Svensson, Catarina; Jensen, Sören Krogh; Berg, Charlotte; Waller, Karin Persson


    A study of herd-level risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds showed low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in 1-7 day old calves to be more common in high mortality herds. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if calf mortality risk at herd level is associated with concentrations of α-tocopherol and/or β-carotene at individual level in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum, while controlling for herd level covariates. Inclusion criteria were affiliation to the Swedish official milk recording scheme, herd size of ≥ 120 milking cows/year, calf mortality risk (day 1-90) of at least 6% (high mortality; HM) or less than 1% (low mortality; LM) and located within one of two regions in southern Sweden. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2010 in 19 (n HM  = 9; n LM  = 10) dairy herds. Questionnaires were used to collect information about feed and routines for colostrum feeding. Feed (n = 57), colostrum (n = 162), cow serum (n = 189) and calf serum samples (n = 187) were collected and analysed for α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Other analyses e.g. total serum protein, fat content, and total solids in colostrum were also performed. Linear regression models with vitamin concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum as outcome were performed. Calves in HM herds had lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum than calves in LM herds, but the effect depended on total protein status in serum of the calf (P = 0.036). Calves from herds that fed transition milk for 3 days or more had higher α-tocopherol concentrations in serum than calves from herds feeding transition milk up to 2 days (P = 0.013). Fat percentage in colostrum was positively associated with α-tocopherol (P cow serum (P = 0.001). High calf mortality risks were associated with lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf serum for calves with failure of passive transfer. Feeding transition milk longer was associated with higher

  13. Fetal Alcohol Exposure (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  15. Energy metabolism and thermoregulation in the newborn calf. (United States)

    Vermorel, M; Dardillat, C; Vernet, J; Saido; Demigne, C


    About half of calf losses occur during the first two days of life. Mortality rate is increased by difficult parturition and adverse climatic conditions. However, thermoregulatory mechanisms are operative at birth, these including the metabolism of brown adipose tissue, shivering and physical activity. Thermoregulation is just as effective in twin as in single calves provided that calving conditions are good. Heat production of Charolais and Salers calves was lower than that of Friesian; the difference came from a lower basal metabolic rate rather from a better thermic insulation. In dystocial calves, blood pH at birth was very low, lactataemia was two or three times higher than in eutocial calves, mobilization of body lipids was reduced and plasma thyroïd hormone level were low, which can explain the lower heat production and the drop in rectal temperature. The physiological responses of calves born by caesarean parturition depend on the delay incurred during surgical removal.

  16. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo


    calving was higher than the stillbirth rate. Genetic and phenotypic variation seemed to be sufficiently high to genetically improve the trait calf and heifer mortality. Hence, a routine genetic evaluation would be valuable for monitoring and for selecting fitter animals in the Danish Holstein cattle......Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported, and the full period P5=d 1 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported. Records of animals slaughtered or exported within a defined period were set to missing for this and following...

  17. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes


    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  18. A selective chemosensor for fluoride ion and its interaction with Calf Thymus DNA (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Al Masum, Abdulla; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Islam, Md. Maidul; Alam, Md. Akhtarul; Guchhait, Nikhil


    The amido-Schiff base 1 (N1, N3-bis (2-nitrobenzylidene)benzene-1,3-dicabohydrazide) containing a sbnd CONHsbnd group and sbnd CHdbnd Nsbnd linkage has been synthesized by the condensation between isophthalic acid dihydrazide and o-nitrobenzaldehyde. This molecule can act as a fluoride ion sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity. Presence of nitro group in the phenyl ring may be responsible for the detection of fluoride ion visually with a dramatic color change from colorless to deep red in aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide solution. This Schiff base can be used as test kit for sensing of fluoride ion in the solid state. Compound 1 can detect fluoride also in commercially available toothpaste. As the compound has adequate solubility in DMSO-water mixture (7:93, v/v) and having some hydrogen bond donor and acceptor centers, we have investigated its nature of binding with Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA) using theoretical molecular modelling and other experimental methods like UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroic and thermal melting studies. Thermodynamic parameters have been obtained using the well known Van't Hoff's equation. From both theoretical and experimental findings it has been observed that it can interact effectively with CT-DNA with binding energy - 7.55 kcal/mol to - 7.50 kcal/mol.

  19. Wild reindeer calf recruitment variations; biology or methodology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers


    Full Text Available The two field methods, ground counts and aerial photography, currently used for calculating population estimates and calf recruitment for Norwegian wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus produce different results. Using population count data by both methods from the same years in various areas, I systematically compare estimates of sex and age components and decipher reasons for the discrepancies found in previous estimates made by each method. Data for aerial photography counts were found in the literature, while original data is presented for ground counts. Calf recruitment (calves/100 females and the proportion of adult males (males 1+ years/100 animals 1+ years in herds of reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell (1993-98, Rondane North (1995-97 and Setesdal-Ryfylke (1995, 1998 were recorded from ground counts of post calving groups in June-July. The estimates for number of calves per 100 females 1+ years were lower and more variable than number of calves per 100 females 2+ years. A variable number of yearling females in the groups and difficulties in correctly sexing yearlings are contributing factors. The estimates for number of calves/100 females 1+ years were higher than calves/100 animals 1+ years due to the inclusion of young males in the latter. Among animals 1+ years in the post-calving groups, males (mostly yearling males composed from 4.7 to 27.9 %. Nevertheless, both calculation methods for calf recruitment were consistently higher for ground count data than when using counts from air photographs, confirming that the two methods do not produce comparable results. Explanations for this discrepancy are (1 that calves may be easier to overlook on air photographs than in ground composition counts and (2 that the yearling male components in the post calving groups are unaccounted for when using air photographs. June recruitment rates (calves/100 females 1+ years in Rondane North were also estimated from composition counts recorded from ground

  20. Intrapartum fetal surveillance : Monitoring fetal oxygenation with fetal blood sampling and umbilical cord blood analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P; Slager, E; Fauser, B; VanGeijn, H; Brolmann, H; Vervest, H


    Although electronic fetal heart rate monitoring remains the most popular technique for fetal surveillance during labour, there is much concern about the ever rising Caesarean section rate, probably partly due to this practice. Fetal blood sampling is still the gold standard when it comes to

  1. Commercializing Patents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ted Sichelman


    .... Although more recent "prospect" theories properly recognize the importance of patent protection for commercializing inventions, they incorrectly conclude that strong, real property-like rights...

  2. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek


    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  3. Calf serum constituent fractions influence polyethylene wear and microbial growth in knee simulator testing. (United States)

    Brandt, Jan-M; Charron, Kory; Zhao, Lin; MacDonald, Steven J; Medley, John B


    Calf serum lubricants consisting of various polypeptide constituent fractions are routinely used in knee wear simulators as part of the standardized test protocol. Three calf sera (bovine, new-born and alpha) were diluted as per the recommendation of ISO 14243-3 and used in displacement-controlled knee wear simulators to investigate their effects on polyethylene wear. Biochemical analyses included measuring total polypeptide degradation, electrophoretic profiles and low-molecular weight polypeptide concentrations to elucidate their involvement in the wear process. The effects of the various calf sera constituent fractions on microbial growth were also explored. The polyethylene wear rates and the results from the biochemical analyses for the three calf serum lubricants were all found to be statistically significantly different from each other. The lubricant derived from the alpha-calf serum was closest in constituent fractions to human synovial fluid. It also showed the lowest polyethylene wear rate (14.38 +/- 0.85 mm3/million cycles) and the lowest amount of polypeptide degradation (7.77 +/- 3.87%). Furthermore, the alpha-calf serum lubricant was associated with the least amount of change in the electrophoretic profile, the least change in low-molecular weight polypeptide concentration, and the lowest microbial growth in the presence of sodium azide (a microbial inhibitor conventionally used in implant wear testing). Replacing sodium azide with a broad spectrum antibiotic-antimycotic eradicated the microbial growth. Some speculation was entertained regarding the effect of alpha-calf serum on colloid-mediated boundary lubrication. Based on the results, it was recommended that ISO 14243-3 be modified to include guidelines on calf serum constituent fractions that would favour using alpha-calf serum in order to improve the fidelity of the simulation in knee implant wear testing.

  4. Congenital agenesis of the superficial posterior compartment calf muscles in a 13-month-old infant. (United States)

    Kang, Jin Young; Jang, Dae-Hyun


    Muscle agenesis may induce cosmetic and functional deficits, particularly if the muscle is an axial limb or a large muscle. Limb muscle agenesis is a rare condition. Here, the authors report the case of a 13-mo-old girl with unilateral atrophic calf and gait abnormality. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed agenesis of the posterior superficial compartment of the calf. The patient showed an out-toeing calcaneal gait and fibular length discrepancy secondarily during growth. Normal embryology and the differential diagnostic point of foot deformity as well as the clinical implications of calf agenesis are described.

  5. Fetal drug therapy.


    Evans, M I; Pryde, P G; Reichler, A; Bardicef, M; Johnson, M P


    Fetal drug therapy encompasses several areas, including the prevention of external genital masculinization in 21-hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia), biochemical amelioration of methylmalonic acidemia, and biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. The correction of cardiac arrhythmias has become relatively commonplace, and a reduction in the risks of neural tube defects is now possible with the use of preconceptual and early conceptual folic acid. Similar...

  6. Intrapartum fetal monitoring. (United States)

    Cahill, Alison G; Spain, Janine


    Intrapartum fetal monitoring to assess fetal well-being during the labor and delivery process has been a central component of intrapartum care for decades. Today, electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is the most common method used to assess the fetus during labor without substantial evidence to suggest a benefit. A Cochrane review of 13 trials, which included over 37,000 women, found that continuous EFM provided no significant improvement in perinatal death rate [risk ratio (RR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-1.23] or cerebral palsy rate (RR 1.75; 95% CI, 0.84-3.63) as compared with intermittent auscultation; however, there was a significant decrease in neonatal seizures (RR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.80). In addition, there was a significant increase in cesarean delivery (RR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.29-2.07) and operative vaginal delivery (RR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33). Despite the lack of scientific support to suggest that EFM reduces adverse neonatal outcomes, its use is almost universal in the hospital setting and very likely has contributed to the rise in cesarean rate.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C


    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing. (United States)

    Tan, Kelvin H; Smyth, Rebecca M D; Wei, Xing


    Acoustic stimulation of the fetus has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing. To assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the merits of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. All review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Authors of published and unpublished trials were contacted for further information. Altogether 12 trials with a total of 6822 participants were included. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation reduced the incidence of non-reactive antenatal cardiotocography test (nine trials; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.81). Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with mock stimulation evoked significantly more fetal movements when used in conjunction with fetal heart rate testing (one trial, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.29). Vibroacoustic stimulation offers benefits by decreasing the incidence of non-reactive cardiotocography and reducing the testing time. Further randomised trials should be encouraged to determine not only the optimum intensity, frequency, duration and position of the vibroacoustic stimulation, but also to evaluate the efficacy, predictive reliability, safety and perinatal outcome of these stimuli with cardiotocography and other tests of fetal wellbeing.

  9. Morphology of a fossil elephant calf (Archidiskodon, Elephantidae) from the Oldowan Muhkai IIa site. (United States)

    Mashchenko, E N; Amirkhanov, Kh A; Ozherelyev, D V


    The skull and lower jaw morphology of a calf of Archidiskodon sp. from the Oldowan (Early Paleolithic) Muhkai IIa site (Akushinskii raion, Dagestan) is described. The Muhkai IIa site is dated more than 1.5 Ma. This is the first record of the skull and lower jaw of calf of this species from the northern Caucasus. A skull fragment and lower jaw with functioning teeth of the DP2/DP3 generation are preserved. The calf is at most 8-10 months of individual age. The finely plicate enamel and formation of a complete enamel loop on DP3 are evidence that the calf belongs to Archidiskodon rather than to the European Elephas lineage.

  10. Evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine Caribou Herd (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine caribou herd in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge....

  11. Continuous measurement of calf resistivity in hemodialysis patients using bioimpedance analysis. (United States)

    Zhu, Fansan; Leonard, Edward F; Carter, Mary; Levin, Nathan W


    This study demonstrates a technique to measure electrical resistivity of the calf in hemodialysis (HD) patients during HD treatment. To continuously monitor and calculate resistivity, a model of calf volume based on its geometrical size and measurement of its electrical resistance has been developed. The model makes it possible to continuously estimate reduction of the calf circumference during HD. Seventeen HD patients were studied during HD using a multi-frequency bioimpedance device (Xitron 4200). Circumference of the calf was measured by a measuring tape pre- and post- HD for each treatment. Results showed a high correlation between measurement and calculation circumference in post HD (r(2)=0.985). Further, the value of resistivity normalized by body mass index (BMI) provides information about patients' hydration state in comparison to those in healthy subjects. This technique is useful for identifying the range of optimal hydration states for HD patients.

  12. Use of foot orthoses and calf stretching for individuals with medial tibial stress syndrome. (United States)

    Loudon, Janice K; Dolphino, Martin R


    Use of orthotics and calf stretching may alleviate symptoms in runners with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). The objective of this study was to determine which patients with MTSS have a positive response to off-the-shelf foot orthoses and calf stretching based on selected clinical tests to establish a clinical prediction rule. This prospective cohort/predictive validity study enrolled 23 women and men aged 22 to 44 years with symptoms of MTSS. Interventions included off-the-shelf basic foot orthotics and calf stretching. Fifteen of the 23 runners had a 50% reduction of pain in 3 weeks of intervention. Duration was a significant factor that differentiated groups. Although an initial treatment for runners with MTSS may include off-the-shelf orthotics and calf stretching, this regimen should be only one component of an individualized rehabilitation program.

  13. Cirugía fetal

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    DR. B. Juan Luis Leiva


    Full Text Available El campo de la cirugía fetal es de reciente comienzo y rápida evolución. Con el avance en las herramientas de diagnóstico antenatal, la capacidad de diagnóstico de condiciones fetales susceptibles de ser tratadas in utero ha dado paso a una serie de procedimientos destinados a dar solución a situaciones que, de no ser por estas intervenciones, terminarían en un resultado adverso perinatal. Las técnicas descritas para la terapia fetal incluyen procedimientos percutáneos guiados por ultrasonido, cirugía fetal abierta y cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En este artículo se presentan las diversas condiciones fetales tributarias de cirugía fetal y se discuten las opciones terapéuticas actuales para cada una.

  14. Hypoxia and Fetal Heart Development


    Patterson, A.J.; Zhang, L


    Fetal hearts show a remarkable ability to develop under hypoxic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of fetal hearts allows sustained development under low oxygen conditions. In fact, hypoxia is critical for proper myocardial formation. Particularly, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor play central roles in hypoxia-dependent signaling in fetal heart formation, impacting embryonic outflow track remodeling and coronary vessel growth. Although HIF is not th...

  15. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  16. Calf stretching in correct alignment. An important consideration in plantar fasciopathies. (United States)

    Silvester, Mark


    Stretching of the calf muscles is important in the treatment of plantar fasciopathy. In order to correctly stretch the calf muscles without strain on the plantar fascia the correct alignment of the lower limb should be maintained. A clinical method of achieving this is presented along with a practical guide to assisting the patient to become familiar with correct lower limb alignment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. a note on tntensive weaner calf production fro]ii dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion. Naudd (1964) reported that out cf a total of 9l dairy herds investigated in the Republic of South Africa. only 3l e; of the herds suckled calves. ln 869oof the cases only one calf per cow was suckled. This differs conl- pletely from the practice in Britain where more than one calf per cow is raised in 90eo of the cases (Jobst.

  18. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

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    Lorenz Ingrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves.

  19. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari


    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  1. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

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    Kirkby G. Smith


    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  2. Probing the binding mode of psoralen to calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong


    The binding properties between psoralen (PSO) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were predicted by molecular docking, and then determined with the use of UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with DNA melting and viscosity measurements. The data matrix obtained from UV-vis spectra was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The pure spectra and the equilibrium concentration profiles for PSO, ctDNA and PSO-ctDNA complex extracted from the highly overlapping composite response were obtained simultaneously to evaluate the PSO-ctDNA interaction. The intercalation mode of PSO binding to ctDNA was supported by the results from the melting studies, viscosity measurements, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments, competitive binding investigations and CD analysis. The molecular docking prediction showed that the specific binding most likely occurred between PSO and adenine bases of ctDNA. FT-IR spectra studies further confirmed that PSO preferentially bound to adenine bases, and this binding decreased right-handed helicity of ctDNA and enhanced the degree of base stacking with the preservation of native B-conformation. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a major role in the binding process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal signature whistle use aids mother-calf reunions in a bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. (United States)

    King, Stephanie L; Guarino, Emily; Keaton, Loriel; Erb, Linda; Jaakkola, Kelly


    Individual vocal signatures play an important role in parent-offspring recognition in many animals. One species that uses signature calls to accurately facilitate individual recognition is the bottlenose dolphin. Female dolphins and their calves will use their highly individualised signature whistles to identify and maintain contact with one another. Previous studies have shown high signature whistle rates of both mothers and calves during forced separations. In more natural settings, it appears that the calf vocalises more frequently to initiate reunions with its mother. However, little is known about the mechanisms a female dolphin may employ when there is strong motivation for her to reunite with her calf. In this study, we conducted a series of experimental trials in which we asked a female dolphin to retrieve either her wandering calf or a series of inanimate objects (control). Our results show that she used her vocal signature to actively recruit her calf, and produced no such signal when asked to retrieve the objects. This is the first study to clearly manipulate a dolphin's motivation to retrieve her calf with experimental controls. The results highlight that signature whistles are not only used in broadcasting individual identity, but that maternal signature whistle use is important in facilitating mother-calf reunions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of anti-dsDNA by IgG ELISA test using two different sources of antigens: calf thymus versus E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anti-dsDNA antibodies frequently found in the sera Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, particularly in active disease stage. Nowadays exploit different eukaryotic and prokaryotic dsDNA as antigen source and different reagents as binder. The aim of this study to compared two dsDNA different sources and tow different kinds of reagents for binder in ELISA test. "nMethods: In this study bacterial genomic DNA from E.coli (ATCC 25922 and genomic DNA from calf thymus extracted with high purity and were used as antigens for IgG anti-dsDNA detection by ELISA. To coat dsDNA in microtiter wells, tow different kinds of reagents including methylated -BSA and poly-l-lysine (for pre-coating are used. Sera from systemic lupus erythematosus patients and from normal blood donors are used to assess sensitivity and specificity of our ELISA test in compared with IF test and commercial kits. "nResults: Our results displayed pre-coating of microtiter plates with methylated -BSA reduce nonspecific binding reaction and the relative sensitivity and specificity of ELISA increased when calf thymus DNA is employed as antigenic source in compared with IF test and commercial kits 80%, 88% and 100%, 98% respectively, but when E.coli DNA is used 73%, 69% and 85%, 79%, respectively. "nConclusion: The genomic DNA from calf thymus is a potentially useful source of antigen for detection of anti-dsDNA by ELISA. Also the use of methylatted- BSA could have an effective role in reducing of nonspecific binding reactions.

  5. Fetal heart rate variation after corticosteroids for fetal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaven, Olga; Ganzevoort, Wessel; de Boer, Marjon; Wolf, Hans


    Introduction: Several studies report a decrease of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) after corticosteroids for improvement of fetal maturity and advice not to deliver a fetus for low STV within 2-3 days after corticosteroids. However, literature is not unanimous in this respect. This

  6. Effect of fetal breathing movements on fetal cardiac hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Mooren (K.); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); Th. Stijnen (Theo)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Maximum flow velocity waveforms were studied at atrioventricular and outflow tract level in 12 cases during fetal breathing activity and in 12 cases during fetal apnea matched for maternal and gestational age and maternal parity. Gestational age ranged between 27 and

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development. (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  8. Fetal Tachyarrhythmia - Part II: Treatment

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    Martijn A. Oudijk


    Full Text Available The decision to initiate pharmacological intervention in case of fetal tachycardia depends on several factors and must be weighed against possible maternal and/or fetal adverse effects inherent to the use of antiarrhythmics. First, the seriousness of the fetal condition must be recognized. Many studies have shown that in case of fetal tachycardia, there is a significant predisposition to congestive heart failure and subsequent development of fetal hydrops and even sudden cardiac death1,2,3 Secondly, predictors of congestive heart failure have been suggested in several studies, such as the percentage of time that the tachycardia is present, the gestational age at which the tachycardia occurs4, the ventricular rate5 and the site of origin of the tachycardia6. However, the sensitivity of these predictors is low and they are therefore clinically not very useful. In addition, hemodynamic compromise may occur in less than 24 - 48 hours as has been shown in the fetal lamb7 and in tachycardic fetuses8,9. On the other hand, spontaneous resolution of the tachycardia has also been described10. Thirdly, transplacental management of fetuses with tricuspid regurgitation11, congestive heart failure or fetal hydrops is difficult12,13, probably as a result of limited transplacental transfer of the antiarrhythmic drug14,15. In case of fetal hydrops, conversion rates are decreased and time to conversion is increased13. Treatment of sustained fetal tachycardia is therefore to be preferred above expectant management, although some centers oppose this regimen and suggest that in cases with (intermittent fetal SVT not complicated by congestive heart failure or fetal hydrops, conservative management and close surveillance might be a reasonable alternative16,17,18.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.


    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  10. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance. (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W


    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( gestation increased cow BW and BCS but did not alter milk production, subsequent reproduction, or subsequent calf performance or carcass characteristics.

  11. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.


    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect

  12. Fetal and embryonic hemoglobins in erythroblasts from fetal blood and fetal cells enriched from maternal blood in fetal anemia. (United States)

    Al-Mufti, R; Hambley, H; Farzaneh, F; Nicolaides, K H


    To determine whether there is a delay or reversal in switch mechanisms from embryonic (e and z) to fetal (g) hemoglobins accompanying the erythroblastosis of anemic fetuses and whether an increased erythroblast count in fetal blood is associated with an increase in feto-maternal cell trafficking. Fetal and maternal blood samples were obtained from 10 cases with rhesus isoimmunization and 2 cases with maternal Parvo-B19 virus at 19-33 weeks' gestation. Blood samples were also taken as controls from 61 fetuses and 86 mothers. Fetal erythroblasts were isolated by triple density gradient centrifugation and magnetic cell sorting with CD71 antibody. Fluorescent antibodies were used to immuno-stain for zeta (z), epsilon (e) and gamma (g) hemoglobin chains. In the maternal samples, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes was also carried out to confirm the presence and proportion of the enriched fetal cells from maternal blood. In both fetal and maternal blood the percentage of erythroblasts positive for g-globin chain was significantly higher in the anemic fetuses compared to the controls (fetal blood, pmaternal blood, pmaternal samples of anemic fetuses compared to normal controls (pfetal hemoglobin chains. Severe fetal anemia is associated with an increase in feto-maternal cell trafficking.

  13. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

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    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  14. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John


    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  15. Fetal habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation in relation to fetal states and fetal heart rate parameters. (United States)

    van Heteren, C F; Boekkooi, P F; Jongsma, H W; Nijhuis, J G


    Fetal habituation to repeated stimulation has the potential to become a tool in the assessment of fetal condition and of the function of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). However, the influence of fetal quiescence and activity on habituation remains to be clarified. We studied habituation and the influence of fetal state and fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters on habituation in healthy term fetuses. We studied habituation in 37 healthy fetuses in two tests with an interval of 10 min. The vibroacoustic stimuli were applied to the maternal abdomen above the fetal legs for a period of 1 s every 30 s. A fetal trunk movement within 1 s after stimulation was defined as a positive response. Habituation rate is defined as the number of stimuli applied before an observed non-response to four consecutive stimuli. The FHR patterns (FHRP) of the 10 min observation period before and after the tests were visually classified. Fetal states were defined according to the FHRP. Baseline FHR, FHR variability and the number of accelerations were calculated in a subgroup of 25 fetuses. Of the 32 fetuses that responded normally during the first test, 26 habituated and six had persistent responses. The median habituation rate decreased significantly in the second test (P=0.001). There was no difference in habituation rate between fetuses that where initially in a quiet state and those in an active state. The FHR parameters before the first test and the difference between these FHR parameters before and after the test did not correlate with the habituation rate. Although the majority of healthy fetuses was able to habituate, the interfetal variability in habituation performance is such that testing of habituation seems not to be a sensitive tool for the assessment of the fetal CNS. This variability is neither the result of differences in fetal state nor of the various FHR parameters before testing, nor of the difference in change of FHR parameters arising from stimulation.

  16. Dairy calf management-A comparison of practices and producer attitudes among conventional and organic herds. (United States)

    Pempek, J A; Schuenemann, G M; Holder, E; Habing, G G


    Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use. The overall survey response rate was 49% (727/1,488); 449 and 172 conventional and organic producer respondents, respectively, were included in the final analysis. Binary, cumulative, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to test differences within and between herd types for management practices and producer attitudes. The majority of conventional (64%, 279/439) producers reported separating the calf from the dam 30 min to 6 h after birth. More organic (34%, 56/166) than conventional (18%, 80/439) producers reported separation 6 to 12 h after birth, and organic producers were more likely to agree time before separation is beneficial. Few conventional (10%, 44/448) and organic (3%, 5/171) producers reported measuring colostrum quality. Most conventional producers (68%, 304/448) hand-fed the first feeding of colostrum, whereas the majority of organic producers (38%, 69/171) allowed calves to nurse colostrum. Last, 44% (188/430) of conventional producers reported vaccinating their calves for respiratory disease, compared with 14% (22/162) of organic producers; organic producers were more likely to perceive vaccines as ineffective and harmful to calf health. Thus, the usage frequency and perceived risks and benefits of calf management practices vary considerably between conventional and organic dairy producers. These findings provide helpful information to understand decision making at the herd level regarding

  17. [Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of newborn and fetal bovine serum components]. (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Wang, Fuke; Liu, Liu


    We used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) for analyzing and identifying the active components of newborn calf serum (NCS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS). The results demonstrated significant differences in the components between NCS and FBS. FBS appeared to have more complex components than NCS, with mass to ratios (m/z) of the substances of 498, 273 and 448. These substances in FBS may be the main active components to support the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

  18. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy


    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  19. Maternal-fetal interactions in fetal cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Eghtesady, Pirooz; Sedgwick, Joseph A; Schenbeck, Jennifer L; Lam, Christopher; Lombardi, John; Ferguson, Robert; Gardner, Aimee; McNamara, Jerri; Manning, Peter


    We examined potential maternal-fetal interactions during fetal cardiopulmonary bypass. these interactions, not previously described, may significantly influence attempts at fetal cardiac surgery. Eight fetal sheep underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (5 singletons, 3 twins; 100-109 days) for 60 minutes using a centrifugal microcircuit (20 mL prime), and the placenta as oxygenator. We measured maternal hemodynamics, arterial blood gases, and changes in blood flow to the gravid uterus using bilateral uterine artery flow probes. Maternal measurements were correlated to fetal hemodynamics, blood gases, and umbilical blood flows. After bypass, fetuses were followed for 60 minutes. Decreases in uterine blood flow occurred without changes in maternal hemodynamics or arterial blood gases, but were associated with worsening fetal arterial blood gases (pH decreased from 7.2 +/- 0.2 to 7.0 +/- 0.1, partial pressure of carbon dioxide increased 45.6% and partial pressure of oxygen decreased 15.4%). Changes in maternal hemodynamics (decreased systolic blood pressure [17.5%, SD = 11] and decreased diastolic blood pressure [20.3%, SD = 15]) were only noted when uterine blood flows decreased by greater than 38.2% (SD = 26). Correction of maternal hypocalcemia (0.89 g/dL, SD = 0.1) led to improved uterine artery flows (28.3% increase, SD = 30). Finally, fetal sternotomy, cannulation, and cardiopulmonary bypass each decreased uterine artery flows by 27.5% (SD = 18), 31.0% (SD = 26), and 39.7% (SD = 25), respectively. Similar changes were not observed in the nonbypass twin. Significant changes in uterine blood flow can occur during fetal cardiopulmonary bypass support without apparent changes in maternal hemodynamics or arterial blood gases. These changes imply a unique transplacental maternal-fetal interaction. Limited data from the twin fetus suggest a localized mechanism involving only the segment of placenta exposed to extracorporeal circulation.

  20. Fetal Sex Differences in Intrapartum Electronic Fetal Monitoring. (United States)

    Porter, Anne C; Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Tuuli, Methodius; Caughey, Aaron B; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G


    Objective The article aimed to estimate differences in electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) patterns in term gestations attributable to fetal sex. Study Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive, singleton, nonanomalous, term gestations that labored during admission. EFM characteristics in the 30 minutes prior to delivery were evaluated. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted risks for EFM features by sex. To further estimate the impact of sex, we limited the analysis to gestations without composite morbidity (morbidity defined as arterial cord pH fetal sex. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture. (United States)

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina


    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance

  2. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center]. (United States)

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando


    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  3. No change in calf muscle passive stiffness after botulinum toxin injection in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Alhusaini, Adel A A; Crosbie, Jack; Shepherd, Roberta B; Dean, Catherine M; Scheinberg, Adam


    Stiffness and shortening of the calf muscle due to neural or mechanical factors can profoundly affect motor function. The aim of this study was to investigate non-neurally mediated calf-muscle tightness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection. Sixteen children with spastic CP (seven females, nine males; eight at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, eight at level II; age range 4-10 y) and calf muscle spasticity were tested before and during the pharmaceutically active phase after injection of BoNT-A. Measures of passive muscle compliance and viscoelastic responses, hysteresis, and the gradient of the torque-angle curve were computed and compared before and after injection. Although there was a slight, but significant increase in ankle range of motion after BoNT-A injection and a small, significant decrease in the torque required to achieve plantigrade and 5° of dorsiflexion, no significant difference in myotendinous stiffness or hysteresis were detected after BoNT-A injection. Despite any effect on neurally mediated responses, the compliance of the calf muscle was not changed and the muscle continued to offer significant resistance to passive motion of the ankle. These findings suggest that additional treatment approaches are required to supplement the effects of BoNT-A injections when managing children with calf muscle spasticity. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  4. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)


    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  5. Fetal stem-cell transplantation. (United States)

    Tiblad, Eleonor; Westgren, Magnus


    Fetal stem-cell transplantation is an attractive approach to the treatment of a variety of hematological, metabolic and immunological diseases before birth. The possibility of delivering a large number of cells in an early stage of life, and of taking advantage of normal fetal stem-cell migration and development, is promising. During fetal life, the capacity to mount an immune response to allogeneic cells is impaired compared with adult life. This provides an opportunity to induce tolerance to alloantigens without the need for myeloablation, although there are possible immune barriers to foreign cells in the fetus.

  6. The Danish fetal medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann


    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  7. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay. (United States)

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh


    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included.

  8. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann


    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  9. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Green, Stefan Mathias


    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both tissue...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  10. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel–Lavallee lesion (United States)

    Borrero, C. G.; Kavanagh, E. C.


    Introduction Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel–Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation. Materials and methods A case of a 53-year-old man with calf swelling is presented, with clinical and MRI correlation. Treatment options and clinical course are discussed. Conclusion The Morel–Lavallee lesion is a rare but important cause of calf swelling. MRI is the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment includes both surgical and minimally invasive modalities. PMID:19618237

  11. Reactive hyperaemia in the calf of trained and untrained subjects: a study with strain gauge plethysmography. (United States)

    Kroese, A J


    Postischaemic reactive hyperaemia in the calf was investigated by strain gauge plethysmography in three pairs of trained and untrained groups of different ages. Maximal flow and repayment in the trained adults were greater than in corresponding untrained groups. This may be due to training effect on the arterioles and a relatively great muscle volume and vascular bed in athletes. The 58-year-old trained men revealed a postischaemic hyperaemic response of approximately the same magnitude as the 25-year-old athletes. Training in old age may result in less degeneration of vascular smooth muscle as well as striated muscle and may induced a relatively great cardiac stroke volume, factors which probably influence reactive hyperaemia in the calf. Hyperaemia in 13-year-old children of different conditions of training was approximwtely the same. It is concluded that the influence of training state on postischaemic calf flow may be considered when reactive hyperaemia is used as a test of the peripheral circulation.

  12. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy


    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  13. Slow volume changes in calf and thigh during cycle ergometer exercise. (United States)

    Stick, C; Heinemann, W; Witzleb, E


    To study the transcapillary fluid movements in the human lower limb in the upright body position and during muscle exercise, the slow changes in thigh and calf volumes were measured by mercury-in-rubber-strain gauge plethysmography. Measurements were carried out on 20 healthy volunteers while sitting, standing and doing cycle ergometer exercise at intensities of 50 and 100-W. A plethysmographic recording of slow extravascular volume changes during muscle exercise was possible because movement artefacts were eliminated by low-pass filtering. While standing and sitting the volumes of both thigh and calf increased due to enhanced transcapillary filtration. While standing the mean rate of increase was 0.13%.min-1 in the calf and 0.09%.min-1 in the thigh. During cycle ergometer exercise at 50 and 100 W, the calf volume decreased with a mean rate of -0.09.min-1. In contrast, the thigh volume did not change significantly during exercise at 50 W and increased at 100 W. Most of the increase occurred during the first half of the experimental period i.e. between min 2 and 12, amounting to +0.6%. Thus, simultaneous measurements revealed opposite changes in the thigh and calf. This demonstrates that the conflicting findings reported in the literature may have occurred because opposite changes can occur in different muscle groups of the working limb at the same time. Lowered venous pressure, increased lymph flow and increased tissue pressure in the contracting muscle are considered to have caused the reduction in calf volume during exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  15. Difficult Decisions: Fetal Cell Transplants. (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Parakh, Jal S.


    Background information, techniques used, and details of the issues involved in the controversial issue of fetal cell transplantation are discussed. Questions for use in class discussion are provided. Suggestions for beginning a discussion are provided with accompanying questions. (CW)

  16. Fetal programming of renal function. (United States)

    Dötsch, Jörg; Plank, Christian; Amann, Kerstin


    Results from large epidemiological studies suggest a clear relation between low birth weight and adverse renal outcome evident as early as during childhood. Such adverse outcomes may include glomerular disease, hypertension, and renal failure and contribute to a phenomenon called fetal programming. Other factors potentially leading to an adverse renal outcome following fetal programming are maternal diabetes mellitus, smoking, salt overload, and use of glucocorticoids during pregnancy. However, clinical data on the latter are scarce. Here, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms of fetal programming, including reduced nephron number via diminished nephrogenesis and other renal (e.g., via the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and non-renal (e.g., changes in endothelial function) alterations. It appears likely that the outcomes of fetal programming may be influenced or modified postnatally, for example, by the amount of nutrients given at critical times.

  17. Epigenetic regulation and fetal programming. (United States)

    Gicquel, Christine; El-Osta, Assam; Le Bouc, Yves


    Fetal programming encompasses the role of developmental plasticity in response to environmental and nutritional signals during early life and its potential adverse consequences (risk of cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural diseases) in later life. The first studies in this field highlighted an association between poor fetal growth and chronic adult diseases. However, environmental signals during early life may lead to adverse long-term effects independently of obvious effects on fetal growth. Adverse long-term effects reflect a mismatch between early (fetal and neonatal) environmental conditions and the conditions that the individual will confront later in life. The mechanisms underlying this risk remain unclear. However, experimental data in rodents and recent observations in humans suggest that epigenetic changes in regulatory genes and growth-related genes play a significant role in fetal programming. Improvements in our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms at play in fetal programming would make it possible to identify biomarkers for detecting infants at high risk of adult-onset diseases. Such improvements should also lead to the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  18. [Monitoring of labor by fetal pulse oximetry in a case of fetal atrial-ventricular block]. (United States)

    Boudineau, M; Fondevila, M; Winer, N; Caroit, Y; Boog, G


    We present our experience with fetal pulse oximetry during labor monitoring in a case of fetal atrio-ventricular block. Fetal pulse oximetry is a recent technique of fetal monitoring. It is based on the photometric properties of hemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin. The continuous and noninvasive method measured fetal saturation in oxygen. It can detect fetal hypoxia, cause of acute suffering. Saturation was continuously greater than 40%. Spontaneous delivery raised no problem, either for the fetus or the mother.

  19. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth


    a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using...... a computerized cuff algometer. Analyses of variance on the per-protocol population (defined as participants that adhered to the protocol) were used to assess group differences in the changes from baseline. RESULT: Forty healthy volunteers were included, of which 34 participants adhered to the protocol (15...... intervention group/19 control group). No statistically significant group differences in the changes from baseline were found regarding PPT and TS measurements for the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and the arm. CONCLUSION: Four weeks of regular stretching of the calf muscles does not affect pressure...

  20. Screening for fetal aneuploidy. (United States)

    Rink, Britton D; Norton, Mary E


    Screening is currently recommended in pregnancy for a number of genetic disorders, chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural birth defects in the fetus regardless of maternal age or family history. There is an overwhelming array of sonographic and maternal serum-based options available for carrying out aneuploidy risk assessment in the first and/or second trimester. As with any screening test, the patient should be made aware that a "negative" test or "normal" ultrasound does not guarantee a healthy baby and a "positive" test does not mean the fetus has the condition. The woman should have both pre- and post-test counseling to discuss the benefits, limitations, and options for additional testing. Rapid advancements of genetic technologies have made it possible to screen for the common aneuploidies traditionally associated with advanced maternal age with improved levels of accuracy beyond serum and ultrasound based testing. Prenatal screening for fetal genetic disorders with cell-free DNA has transformed prenatal care with yet unanswered questions related to the financial, ethical, and appropriate application in the provision of prenatal risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Some Studies On Neonatal Calf Diarrhea In Egypt Part 1: Causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data confirms the principal causal agent in neonatal calf diarrhoea in Egypt as Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, Corona virus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp and Cryptosporidium spp as a single or mixed infection by the isolated agents. In addition, diet, management and sanitation are also significant contributory ...

  2. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moriarty, J M


    Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel-Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation.

  3. Assessment of calf volume in Congenital Talipes Equinovarus by computer analysed digital photography. (United States)

    Barker, Simon L; Downing, Martin; Chesney, David J; Maffulli, Nicola


    The development of evidence-based approaches to the Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) is impaired by the diversity of assessment techniques available, many of which have not been validated. Highly objective evaluation techniques that reflect the deformity and permit comparison between studies may lack the necessary link to functional features that are paramount to the patient, namely pain and mobility. Calf wasting is an acknowledged but little investigated component of the pathology. The rapid evolution of digital photography and computerised analytical techniques has yielded an opportunity to explore their role in the assessment of this common paediatric Orthopaedic pathology. This study presents the use of a cost-effective digital photographic assessment technique of maximal calf circumference and calf volume. These indices reflect the muscular development in the calf and therefore have significance in the functional assessment of CTEV and may represent an index of severity. Subjectivity has been limited by computerisation of the analysis process. The technique could easily be adapted to other volumetric analyses. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of exercise intensity on calf volume and thermoregulatory responses during upper body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoms Lindzi M.


    Full Text Available During upper body exercise the vascular adaptations of the leg have been reported to play an important thermoregulatory role. This study examined the effect of exercise intensity on thermoregulation during upper body exercise. Nine healthy male participants undertook an incremental exercise test on an arm crank ergo meter to determine peak power (Wpeak. The participants performed four experimental trials involving 5 minutes of arm exercise at either 45, 60, 75, or 90% Wpeak (70 rev.min-1 followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. Aural and skin temperatures, upper arm and calf heat flow were recorded. Calf volume was measured during exercise using plethysmography. During exercise at 45, 60, 75 and 90% Wpeak calf volume decreased (P<0.05 by -0.7±0.8, -1.4±0.9, -1.2±0.6 and -1.6±0.7% respectively. Differences were observed between 45 and 60% Wpeak, and 45 and 90% Wpeak (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest a redistribution of blood from the relatively inactive lower body during arm exercise of intensities up to 60%Wpeak after which point calf volume does not significantly decrease further. Therefore, the redistribution of blood from the inactive lower body does not produce a similar intensity dependent response to visceral blood flow during lower body exercise.

  5. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries. (United States)

    Bryan Dixon, J


    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  6. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue. (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N


    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; pcalf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries


    Bryan Dixon, J.


    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  8. Vibration and pressure wave therapy for calf strains: a proposed treatment. (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; St Louis, Marie; Fournier, Magali


    Calf (lower leg) strains have a variety of treatment regimens with variable outcomes and return to activity (RTA) time frames. These injuries involve disruption of portions or the entire gastrocnemius-soleus myo-tendinous complex. Conservative treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE). Immediately following calf injury, patients can utilize cryotherapy, massage, passive range of motion, and progressive exercise. In general, Grade I through Grade III calf strains can take up to 6 weeks before the athlete can return to training. It can also involve the loss of more than 50% of muscle integrity. Recently, vibration therapy and radial pressure waves have been utilized to treat muscular strains and other myo-tendinous injuries that involve trigger points. Studies have suggested vibration therapy with rehabilitation can increase muscle strength and flexibility in patients. Segmental vibration therapy (SVT) is treatment to a more focal area. Vibration therapy (VT) is applied directly to the area of injury. VT is a mechanical stimulus that is thought to stimulate the sensory receptors, as well as decrease inflammatory cells and receptors. Therefore, VT could be a valuable tool in treating athlete effectively and decreasing their recovery time. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader baseline knowledge of VT and propose a treatment protocol for calf strains using this technology along with radial pressure waves.

  9. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich


    , and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...

  10. Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart Supports Long-Term Survival of a Calf (United States)

    Frazier, O. H.; Cohn, William E.; Tuzun, Egemen; Winkler, Jo Anna; Gregoric, Igor D.


    The development and clinical use of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) stimulated our interest in developing a total heart replacement with continuous-flow rotary blood pumps. We constructed a continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) from 2 HeartMate II axial-flow LVADs and used this CFTAH to replace the native heart of a calf. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of total continuous flow on physiologic parameters at rest and during exercise after the animal recovered from surgery. We monitored pulmonary and systemic pump performance, and we assessed arterial blood gases, hemodynamic and biochemical variables, and neurohormone levels during the 7 weeks of CFTAH support. At day 36 after CFTAH implantation, the calf was exercised on a treadmill at increasing speeds for 40 minutes; total oxygen consumption, pump flow, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were monitored. Baseline hematologic levels were altered postoperatively but returned to normal by 2 weeks. We saw no signs of hemolysis or thrombosis during CFTAH support. The calf had a normal physiologic response to treadmill exercise. The animal gained weight and appeared to function normally during the study. The CFTAH operated within design specifications throughout the study. Homeostasis, end-organ and vasomotor function, and the ability to exercise are not adversely affected by 7 weeks of totally pulseless circulation in a calf. PMID:20069083

  11. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.


    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  12. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest (United States)

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  13. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom


    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda. (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J


    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  15. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.


    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves originates from

  16. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The growth performance of 18 Holstein and 20 Jersey heifer calves fed calf starter meals containing either cottonseed oil-cake meal (CSOCM) or soybean oil-cake meal (SBOCM) was compared. The diets were iso- nutritious in terms of crude protein and energy, and were fed from two weeks of age until two or ...

  17. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.


    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  18. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  19. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at 67. Short communication. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf starter meals. N.M. Bangani, C.J.C. Muller. # and J.A. Botha. Department of Economic ...

  20. Sex of calf and age of dam adjustment factors for birth and weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records on 2 257 Composite and 5 923 Tswana calves born between the period of 1988 and 2006 in Botswana were used to calculate additive correction factors for the effects of sex of calf and age of dam on birth weight and weaning weight. The mature age group in both breeds for the two growth characteristics was 5 ...

  1. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes


    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June

  2. Rebozo Technique for Fetal Malposition in Labor. (United States)

    Cohen, Susanna R; Thomas, Celeste R


    Fetal occiput posterior position is associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidities. Currently, clinicians have limited evidence-based techniques or tools to remedy fetal occiput posterior position. The traditional Mexican rebozo technique of pelvic massage, sifting, or jiggling offers a potentially valuable tool to help correct fetal malposition. This article reviews the adaptation of 3 rebozo techniques that can be used in labor to encourage optimum fetal positioning; outlines hospital considerations for safety, fetal heart rate monitoring, and universal precautions; and reviews the implementation plan to introduce and sustain use of the rebozo in a large academic medical center. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  3. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour. (United States)

    Neilson, James P


    Hypoxaemia during labour can alter the shape of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, notably the relation of the PR to RR intervals, and elevation or depression of the ST segment. Technical systems have therefore been developed to monitor the fetal ECG during labour as an adjunct to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring with the aim of improving fetal outcome and minimising unnecessary obstetric interference. To compare the effects of analysis of fetal ECG waveforms during labour with alternative methods of fetal monitoring. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (latest search 23 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing fetal ECG waveform analysis with alternative methods of fetal monitoring during labour. One review author independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. One review author assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Seven trials (27,403 women) were included: six trials of ST waveform analysis (26,446 women) and one trial of PR interval analysis (957 women). The trials were generally at low risk of bias for most domains and the quality of evidence for ST waveform analysis trials was graded moderate to high. In comparison to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring alone, the use of adjunctive ST waveform analysis made no obvious difference to primary outcomes: births by caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.08; six trials, 26,446 women; high quality evidence); the number of babies with severe metabolic acidosis at birth (cord arterial pH less than 7.05 and base deficit greater than 12 mmol/L) (average RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.20; six trials, 25,682 babies; moderate quality evidence); or babies with neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.22; six trials, 26,410 babies; high quality evidence). There were, however, on average

  4. Fetal maceration and retention of fetal bones in a mare. (United States)

    Burns, T E; Card, C E


    A 19-year-old Quarter Horse mare was evaluated because of bloody vaginal discharge that was apparent immediately following breeding. On transrectal ultrasonography, it was evident that the uterus was filled with fluid containing echogenic particles; linear hyperechoic structures were also visible. Endoscopy was performed, which revealed a number of bones adhered to the cranial wall and floor of the right uterine horn as well as purulent fluid in both uterine horns. Bacterial endometritis and fetal maceration were diagnosed. The mare was treated with antibiotics, and the fetal bones were manually removed from the uterus. Fetal maceration with intrauterine retention of bones is rare in mares. Use of hysteroscopy supplements ultrasonography in the diagnosis of uncommon conditions of the uterus. Macerated bones may be adhered to the endometrium, thereby requiring manual removal.

  5. Commercial applications (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  6. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira


    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  7. [Fetal echocardiography efficiency. Clinical experience]. (United States)

    San Luis Miranda, Raúl; Arias Monroy, Laura Guadalupe; Gutiérrez González, Gladis Alicia; León Avila, José Luis; Cruz Rodríguez, Armando; Osornio Correa, Porfirio Rafael


    Congenital heart disease diagnostic has a high diagnostic precision with fetal echocardiography. This study has been reported in populations with high risk and with a sensibility of 86 to 99% and specificity of 91 to 100%. To know sensibility and specificity of fetal echocardiography in high-risk pregnancies, and to describe types and frequency of congenital heart disease in utero. 229 files of pregnant women with high-risk factors, more than 15 weeks of gestation, and at birth cardiovascular exam were analyzed. This analysis was made by means of simple frequencies, sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and truth index calculation. We found 62 (27%) cases with fetal heart disease. Mean of maternal age was 27 +/- 5.5 years, and of gestational age 31 +/- 5 weeks. Risk factors that require study were: four-chamber abnormality in routine ultrasound, dysmorphy, fetal bradicardia, and poll and oligohydramnios. There were 55 (88.7%) high-risk heart diseases, and most frequent were Ebstein's anomaly, unique ventricle, hypoplastic left ventricle syndrome, and tumors. Sensibility was 98.41%, specificity was 97.59%, positive prognostic value was 97.59%, and negative prognostic value was 99.39%. Fetal echocardiography has a high diagnosis certainty in our hospital unit, thus, it has to be a normal prenatal exam in pregnant women with high-risk factors.

  8. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology. (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira


    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  9. Two cases of fetal goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior fetal neck masses are rarely encountered. Careful routine ultrasound screening can reveal intrauterine fetal goiters (FGs. The incidence of goitrous hypothyroidism is 1 in 30,000-50,000 live births. The consequences of both FG and impaired thyroid function are serious. Aims and Objectives: To emphasize role of ultrasound in both invasive and non-invasive management of FG. Materials and Methods: Two pregnant patients, during second trimester, underwent routine antenatal ultrasound revealing FG, were investigated and managed. Results: Case 1: Revealed FG with fetal hypothyroidism. Intra-amniotic injection l-thyroxine given. Follow-up ultrasound confirmed the reduction of the goiter size. At birth, thyroid dyshormogenesis was suspected and neonate discharged on 50 mcg levothyroxine/day with normal growth and development so far. Case 2: Hypothyroid mother with twin pregnancy revealed FG, in twin 1, confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 × 1.63 cm. The other twin had no thyroid swelling. Cordocentesis confirmed hypothyroidism in twin 1. Maternal thyroxine dose increased as per biochemical parameters leading to reduction in FG size. Mother delivered preterm and none of the twins had thyroid swelling. Fetal euthyroidism was confirmed on biochemical screening. Conclusion: FG during pregnancy should be thoroughly evaluated, diagnosed and immediately treated; although in utero options for fetal hypothyroidism management are available, emphasis should be laid on non-invasive procedures. Newer and better resolution techniques in ultrasonography are more specific and at the same time are less harmful.

  10. On the edema-preventing effect of the calf muscle pump. (United States)

    Stick, C; Grau, H; Witzleb, E


    During motionless standing an increased hydrostatic pressure leads to increased transcapillary fluid filtration into the interstitial space of the tissues of the lower extremities. The resulting changes in calf volume were measured using a mercury-in-silastic strain gauge. Following a change in body posture from lying to standing or sitting a two-stage change in calf volume was observed. A fast initial filling of the capacitance vessels was followed by a slow but continuous increase in calf volume during motionless standing and sitting with the legs dependent passively. The mean rates of this slow increase were about 0.17%.min-1 during standing and 0.12%.min-1 during sitting, respectively. During cycle ergometer exercise the plethysmographic recordings were highly influenced by movement artifacts. These artifacts, however, were removed from the recordings by low-pass filtering. As a result the slow volume changes, i.e. changes of the extravascular fluid were selected from the recorded signal. Contrary to the increases during standing and sitting the calf volumes of all 30 subjects decreased during cycle ergometer exercise. The mean decrease during 18 min of cycling (2-20 min) was -1.6% at 50 W work load and -1.9% at 100 W, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.01). The factors which may counteract the development of an interstitial edema, even during quiet standing and sitting, are discussed in detail. During cycling, however, three factors are most likely to contribute to the observed reduction in calf volume: (1) The decrease in venous pressure, which in turn reduces the effective filtration pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play. (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H


    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  12. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)


    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  13. Effect of kinesio tape application on calf pain and ankle range of motion in duathletes. (United States)

    Merino-Marban, Rafael; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Emilio


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m(2)) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.

  14. Relationship between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics. (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L


    The purpose of this study was to use a model of aging to examine the relationships between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics. Eighty-one active women 20-84 years of age were tested using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer interfaced with electromyography (EMG). The passive properties were tested by stretching the muscles from relaxed plantarflexion to a maximal dorsiflexion (DF) angle at a rate of 5 degrees.s(-1) (0.087 rad.s(-1)) with minimal raw EMG activity (plantarflexion at four randomly ordered velocities of 30, 60, 120, and 180 degrees.s(-1). Pearson correlation coefficients (Bonferroni adjusted) indicated a hierarchical order of high to moderate positive correlations between four passive properties and the peak and mean concentric torque for all test velocities. Correlation coefficients for the four passive properties ranged from 0.50 to 0.78 ( P<0.001), and the coefficients of determination ( r(2)) from higher to lower were: (1) maximal DF passive resistive torque ( r(2): 0.50-0.62), (2) length extensibility ( r(2): 0.40-0.49), (3) maximal muscle length ( r(2): 0.28-0.41), and (4) passive elastic stiffness in the last half of the full-stretch range of motion ( r(2): 0.25-0.31). The maximal DF passive resistive torque and the length extensibility accounted for 50-62% and 40-49% of the variability in the concentric torque, respectively. The results indicate that the concentrically stronger calf muscles of active women were positively correlated with passively stronger, longer, and stiffer calf muscles, which are characteristics of the calf muscles of younger women. Further studies are needed to examine whether therapeutic interventions, such as stretching and strengthening, can promote adaptations in the calf muscles of older women to attain these more youthful characteristics.

  15. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh...... MEASURES: Screening performance was assessed for the years 2008-2012 by calculating detection rates and screen-positive rates. RESULTS: A total of 268 342 first-trimester risk assessments for trisomy 21 were performed in singleton pregnancies. Participation rate in first-trimester screening was >90...

  16. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana


    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  17. Awareness of fetal echo in Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Warrier


    Conclusions: The awareness of fetal echocardiography, an important tool in reducing the incidence of complex CHD, thereby impacting public health, is alarmingly low in the population studied. Appropriate action to increase awareness of fetal echocardiography needs to be looked into.

  18. Births and deaths including fetal deaths (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  19. Electronic fetal monitoring of the preterm fetus. (United States)

    Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Ruth, Donna Jean


    Following an analysis of the literature, this article reviews the current practices, guidelines, and recommendations for electronic fetal monitoring of the preterm fetus. The physiologic aspects of fetal heart rate control, electronic fetal monitor parameters, and differences between the preterm and term fetus are discussed. Clearly identified is the need for clinical research regarding electronic fetal monitoring of the preterm fetus to establish evidence-based practice guidelines.

  20. Primary care fetal assessment - low-cost fetal arousal testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lid and allow it to snap back, producing a sound. The tests with the cans were classified according to whether the sound made was 'rattling' or resonant, and whether the opener was depressed gently or completely (fable I). Table I. Fetal acoustic stimulation testing with an empty soft- drink can - simulated intra-uterine sound ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators. (United States)

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.


    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  2. Sotalol in the treatment of fetal dysrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, M. A.; Michon, M. M.; Kleinman, C. S.; Kapusta, L.; Stoutenbeek, P.; Visser, G. H.; Meijboom, E. J.


    Background-Fetal tachycardia may cause hydrops fetalis and lead to fetal death. No unanimity of opinion exists regarding the optimum treatment. This study evaluates our experience with transplacental sotalol therapy to treat fetal tachycardias in terms of safety and efficacy. Methods and Results-The

  3. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor (United States)

    ... of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How is external monitoring performed? • How is ... method of periodically listening to the fetal heartbeat. Electronic fetal monitoring is a procedure in which instruments are used ...

  4. Practice Bulletin No. 173: Fetal Macrosomia. (United States)


    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases. The purpose of this document is to quantify those risks, address the accuracy and limitations of methods for estimating fetal weight, and suggest clinical management for a pregnancy with suspected fetal macrosomia.

  5. Fetal behavior and the cardiovascular-system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.

    With increasing gestation both in the human and in animals clear fetal behavioural state cycles develop. Fetal heart rate patterns are closely related to the phenomenon of behavioural state. In this review article fetal heart rate patterns will be analysed in relation to particular behavioural

  6. Fetal brain monitoring: Future applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.I.


    Future application of fetal brain monitoring is explored by selecting and analysing articles for information on types of brain damage that can be monitored, where in the brain this can be done, how long after the risk exposure, and with what method of investigation. A limited number of-mainly-case

  7. Accidental Haemorrhage and Fetal Prognosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 17, 1974 ... perinatal mortality associated with accidental haemorrhage. The importance of clinical signs in determining fetal prognosis is discussed. A suggested clinical approach to cases of accidental haemorrhage, where on admission the fetus is found to be alive in utero, is given. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 764 (1974).

  8. Ultrasonic prediction of fetal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 19, 1983 ... The assessment of gestational age and fetal weight forms an integral part of present-day antenatal care. Birth mass has a major influence on perinatal .... The average estimated mass was 3223 g with a standard deviation of 502 g. In summary, it can be stated that the estimates were in close agreement with ...

  9. Hypoxia and Fetal Heart Development (United States)

    Patterson, A.J.; Zhang, L


    Fetal hearts show a remarkable ability to develop under hypoxic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of fetal hearts allows sustained development under low oxygen conditions. In fact, hypoxia is critical for proper myocardial formation. Particularly, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor play central roles in hypoxia-dependent signaling in fetal heart formation, impacting embryonic outflow track remodeling and coronary vessel growth. Although HIF is not the only gene involved in adaptation to hypoxia, its role places it as a central figure in orchestrating events needed for adaptation to hypoxic stress. Although “normal” hypoxia (lower oxygen tension in the fetus as compared with the adult) is essential in heart formation, further abnormal hypoxia in utero adversely affects cardiogenesis. Prenatal hypoxia alters myocardial structure and causes a decline in cardiac performance. Not only are the effects of hypoxia apparent during the perinatal period, but prolonged hypoxia in utero also causes fetal programming of abnormality in the heart’s development. The altered expression pattern of cardioprotective genes such as protein kinase c epsilon, heat shock protein 70, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, likely predispose the developing heart to increased vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury later in life. The events underlying the long-term changes in gene expression are not clear, but likely involve variation in epigenetic regulation. PMID:20712587

  10. Fetal programming of neuropsychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Manchia, Mirko; Pintus, Roberta; Gerosa, Clara; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Fanos, Vassilios


    Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia. The perinatal epigenetic factors have been divided in two main groups: maternal factors and fetal factors. The maternal factors include diet, smoking, alcoholism, hypertension, malnutrition, trace elements, stress, diabetes, substance abuse, and exposure to environmental toxicants, while the fetal factors include hypoxia/asphyxia, placental insufficiency, prematurity, low birth weight, drugs administered to the mother or to the baby, and all factors causing intrauterine growth restriction. A better comprehension of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases may help researchers and clinicians develop new diagnostic tools and treatments to offer these patients a tailored medical treatment strategy to improve their quality of life. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:207-223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Resource Guide. (United States)

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The guide was developed to assist professionals working with American Indian people as a resource in obtaining printed and non-printed materials on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The resource guide is divided into the following sections: films (4), books (5), bibliographies (2), pamphlets (16), posters (5), slides (2), training curriculum (3), and…

  12. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine


    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  13. Extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. 46 neonatal moose calves from the 1988 cohort were...

  14. Evaluation of sensory quality of calf chops: a new methodological approach. (United States)

    Etaio, I; Gil, P F; Ojeda, M; Albisu, M; Salmerón, J; Pérez Elortondo, F J


    A new method to evaluate the sensory quality of calf chops was developed by discussion with experts. Resulting method comprised four parameters: quality related to odor, texture, flavor and persistence. For each parameter, the sensory characteristics perceived are marked and, by using decision trees, corresponding quality is directly scored, so making the assessment more objective. Global sensory quality is calculated by weighting these four partial qualities. Due to sensory characteristic collection, the method also provides an exhaustive description of each sample. To check the appropriateness of the method, 127 calf chop samples were evaluated by a panel specifically trained to apply it. Results confirmed the suitability of the method to describe the samples and differentiate among them according to their quality level. This innovative approach can be very useful for quality control and also to study the effects of different factors on meat sensory quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Binding of a new bisphenol analogue, bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian; Tang, Bo-Ping


    Interactions of bisphenol S, a new bisphenol analogue with bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA were investigated using different spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling calculation. According to the analysis of experimental and theoretical data, we concluded that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding primarily mediated the binding processes of bisphenol S with bovine serum albumin and DNA. In addition, the electrostatic force should not be excluded. Molecular modeling studies indicated that the binding site of bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin located in the subdomain IB, while bisphenol S was a groove binder of DNA. In addition, BPS did not obviously induce second structural changes of bovine serum albumin, but it induced a conformational change of calf thymus DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf blood flow during static handgrip exercise. (United States)

    Saito, M; Mano, T; Iwase, S


    To test the function of sympathetic vasco-constrictor nerves on blood flow in resting limbs during static muscle contraction, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to the leg muscle was recorded from the tibial nerve microneurographically before, during and after 2 min of static handgrip (SHG). Simultaneously, calf blood flow (CBF) was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. An increase in MSNA, a decrease in CBF and an increase in calf vascular resistance (CVR) in the same resting limb occurred concomitantly during SHG. However, the increase in CVR was blunted in the second minute of handgrip when MSNA was still increasing. The results indicated that the decrease of CBF during SHG reflects the increase in MSNA, while the dissociation between MSNA and CVR at the later period of SHG may be related to metabolic change produced by the vasoconstriction.

  17. Effects of level of social contact on dairy calf behavior and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Larsen, Lars Erik


    Housing preweaned dairy calves in pairs rather than individually has been found to positively affect behavioral responses in novel social and environmental situations, but concerns have been raised that close contact among very young animals may impair their health. In previous studies, the level......), individual housing with auditory, visual, and tactile contact (T), pair housing (P), or individual housing with auditory and visual contact the first 2 wk followed by pair housing (VP). At 6 wk of age, calves were subjected to a social test and a novel environment test. In the social test, all pair......-housed calves (P and VP) had a shorter latency to sniff an unfamiliar calf than did individually housed calves (I, V; and T), whereas calves with physical contact (T, P, and VP) sniffed the unfamiliar calf for longer than calves on the remaining treatments (I and V). In the novel environment test, calves...

  18. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento


    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn


    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... tested applying high resolution oxygraphy on isolated muscle fibers. RESULTS: The NIRS exercise tests showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the PAD+T2D group by a longer recovery of the deoxygenation resulting from exercise in spite of a higher exercise oxygenation level compared to the PAD...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...

  20. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay


    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  1. ST analysis of fetal electrocardiography in labor. (United States)

    Amer-Wåhlin, I; Maršál, K


    Since its introduction more than 40 years ago, electronic fetal monitoring has become widely used for intrapartum surveillance to determine fetal wellbeing in labor. Although fetal hypoxia and acidosis are reflected in changes in fetal heart rate, there is no evidence that cardiotocography has been effective in reducing neonatal morbidity related to fetal distress occurring during labor. Indeed the specificity of this tool is poor and in many instances the incorporation of electronic fetal monitoring into intrapartum care has merely led to an increase in medical intervention rather than an improvement in neonatal outcome. Fetal electrocardiography (ECG) analysis provides an additional method for assessing the response of the fetus to hypoxia and in particular to the development of metabolic acidosis. ST changes in the fetal ECG can be quantified with computational analysis, reducing subjective interpretation that has been problematic with traditional electronic fetal monitoring. Formal algorithms indicating appropriate points for intervention in labor have been designed. The fetal ECG has been shown to be a useful adjunct to traditional electronic fetal monitoring in several randomized controlled trials with evidence of reduced rates of neonatal encephalopathy and reduced rates of obstetric intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin


    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  3. Trace elements deficiencies in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the mature newborn calf


    Guyot, Hugues; Aliaoui, Hamani; Rollin, Frédéric


    In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical signs (tachypnea, tachycardia and sometimes depression) develop in the first hours after birth and are due to insufficiency of functional surfactant. Knowing that trace elements deficiencies can slow pulmonary maturation, the aim of this study was to investigate trace elements stat...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to the calf muscle complex. (United States)

    Koulouris, George; Ting, Amy Y I; Jhamb, Ashu; Connell, David; Kavanagh, Eoin C


    The objective was to describe the imaging findings following acute injury to the calf musculature. We retrospectively reviewed 59 MR examinations in patients who sustained injuries to the calf muscle from April 2001 to September 2004 (48 men, 11 women), with an average age of 31 and 47 years respectively (range in men 20-53; range in women 33-63). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the musculotendinous unit and the extent of the injury. A total of 79 separate sites of strain injury were identified (39 solitary, 20 dual). Of the 39 isolated strains, injury to the gastrocnemius was most common (19 out of 39; 48.7%), preferentially involving the medial head in 18 cases and the lateral head in 1 case. The soleus was also commonly involved (18 out of 39; 46.2%), with 2 cases (5.1%) of distal avulsions of the plantaris. Of the 20 dual injuries, a combination of gastrocnemius injury with soleus injury was the most frequent finding (12 out of 20; 60%). Dual injuries of both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles were demonstrated in 4 cases (20%), with the soleus and tibialis posterior injured in 3 cases (15%). A combination of soleus and flexor hallucis longus injury was seen in 1 case (5%). This retrospective study utilizing MRI demonstrates that the medial head of the gastrocnemius is the most commonly injured muscle of the calf, closely followed by the soleus, the latter finding rarely reported in the sonographic literature. Dual injuries of the calf muscle complex occur much more commonly than previously reported and may be of prognostic significance.

  5. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers.

  6. Rheology of semi-dilute solutions of calf-thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the rheology of semi-dilute solutions of the sodium salt of calf-thymus DNA in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The frequency response data can be fitted very well to the hybrid model with two dominant relaxation times 0 and 1. The ratio (0/1)∼ 5 is seen to be fairly constant on changing the temperature ...

  7. High-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation: effects of frequency of current on blood flow in the human calf muscle. (United States)

    Heath, M E; Gibbs, S B


    1. Twelve healthy subjects received high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation (115-475 V d.c.) delivered in separate treatments of 2, 32 and 128 pulses/s for 10 min at the subject's maximum tolerable voltage while calf muscle blood flow was measured by non-invasive Whitney strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. 2. The high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation was administered with negative polarity by an intermittent mode of 30 s on, 30 s off. Measurements of calf muscle blood flow were made during each 30 s period when the stimulus was off. The effect of one 30 s maximum isometric contraction of the calf muscles on blood flow was used as a standard for evaluating the effectiveness of high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation on calf muscle blood flow. 3. Significant (paired t-tests; P less than 0.05) increases in calf muscle blood flow over the preceding baseline levels occurred for the isometric contraction (322%) and for frequencies of 2 pulses/s (33.5%) and 128 pulses/s (13.36%), but not for a frequency of 32 pulses at which calf muscle blood flow increased in only six of 12 subjects. The mean increases in calf muscle blood flow at 2 and 128 pulses/s represented 11.63% and 4.0%, respectively, of that resulting from the isometric contraction. 4. A clear positive correlation between voltage level and the magnitude of increase in calf muscle blood flow was demonstrated but differed for each frequency used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf


    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William


    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  9. Calf injuries in professional football: Treat the patient or the scan? - A case study. (United States)

    Barreira, Paulo; Kassarjian, Ara; Araújo, João Pedro; Ferreira, Ruben; Espregueira Mendes, João


    To describe a case of a professional football player with significant imaging findings despite a rather innocuous clinical presentation with gradual onset of calf pain and who was able to continue training and playing with minor medical intervention. To discuss some of the limitations of existing muscle injury grading systems and their potential to cover the full range of injury presentations for calf injuries. Case report. A professional football player was assessed by physical examination, clinical testing and imaging (MRI) after a gradual onset of a calf injury. After returning to training and competition, a follow-up of his symptoms was performed with regular ultrasound imaging assessments. A professional football player (35 years, 1.90 m, 88 kg) male, African, striker, playing in the Professional Arabian Gulf League. The discordance between the clinical presentation and the imaging findings resulted in a challenging situation regarding the decision of whether to allow the player to train and compete. In addition, existing muscle injury grading systems do not seem to cover the full range of injuries seen in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Governance for Resilience: CALFED as a Complex Adaptive Network for Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Booher


    Full Text Available A study of California's water planning and management process, known as CALFED, offers insights into governance strategies that can deal with adaptive management of environmental resources in ways that conventional bureaucratic procedures cannot. CALFED created an informal policy-making system, engaging multiple agencies and stakeholders. The research is built on data from 5 years of field work that included interviews with participants, review of documents, and observation of meetings. We argue that CALFED can be seen as a self-organizing complex adaptive network (CAN in which interactions were generally guided by collaborative heuristics. The case demonstrates several innovative governance practices, including new practices and norms for interactions among the agents, a distributed structure of information and decision making, a nonlinear planning method, self-organizing system behavior, and adaptation. An example of a resulting policy innovation, a method to provide real-time environmental use of water while protecting a reliable supply of water for agricultural and urban interests, is described. We outline how ideas about complex adaptive network governance differ from ideas about traditional governance. These differences result in ongoing tension and turbulence as they do for other self-organizing governance processes that operate in a context of traditional governance.

  11. The effect of some molecules and ions on gastric function in the milk-fed calf (United States)

    Bell, F. R.; Razig, S. A. D.


    1. The abomasum of the milk-fed calf has been examined using an adaptation of the Serial Test Meal method devised by Hunt & Spurrell (1951). The emptying process, acid secretion and pepsin secretion were studied. 2. Using serial test meals of simple solutions instilled into the abomasum via a cannula, our investigation leaves no doubt that the osmolarity of the abomasal contents significantly modifies the rate of abomasal emptying. 3. Hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying but bicarbonate is most effective. 4. Increasing the concentration of solutes in the abomasal contents slows abomasal emptying. Sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride and urea do not delay abomasal emptying until hypertonic concentrations are attained. Hypotonic solutions of potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose, lactose, hydrochloric acid and acetic acid delay abomasal emptying. 5. The results obtained in the calf show that the abomasum is under restraint probably from duodenal receptors as is the simple stomach (Hunt & Knox, 1968) and that an osmoreceptor as postulated by Hunt (1956) is an important factor in this mechanism. 6. Acid secretion is inhibited when hypertonic solutions are instilled into the abomasum. 7. Pepsin secretion is not affected by simple solutions in the abomasum. 8. Gastric function in the milk-fed calf appears to be controlled by mechanisms essentially similar to those already demonstrated in the simple stomach. PMID:4568911

  12. Duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerspach Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report was to describe duodenal obstruction caused by a rubber foreign body in a cow. Case Presentation The clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings in a five-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple are described. The main clinical signs were anorexia, ruminal tympany, decreased faecal output and abomasal reflux syndrome. Ultrasonographic examination revealed reticular hyperactivity and a dilated duodenum. A diagnosis of duodenal ileus was made and the cow underwent right-flank laparotomy, which revealed a dilation of the cranial part of the duodenum because of obstruction by a pliable foreign body. This was identified via enterotomy as a calf feeding nipple. The cow was healthy at the time of discharge four days after surgery and went on to complete a successful lactation. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of duodenal obstruction by a calf feeding nipple. This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of the causes of duodenal ileus, which is usually caused by obstruction of the duodenum by a phytobezoar.

  13. Maternal buprenorphine treatment and fetal neurobehavioral development. (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Velez, Martha; McConnell, Krystle; Spencer, Nancy; Tuten, Michelle; Jones, Hendree E; King, Van L; Gandotra, Neeraj; Milio, Lorraine A; Voegtline, Kristin; DiPietro, Janet A


    Gestational opioid use/misuse is escalating in the United States; however, little is understood about the fetal effects of medications used to treat maternal opioid use disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal buprenorphine administration on longitudinal fetal neurobehavioral development. Forty-nine buprenorphine-maintained women who attended a substance use disorder treatment facility with generally uncomplicated pregnancies underwent fetal monitoring for 60 minutes at times of trough and peak maternal buprenorphine levels. Data were collected at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Fetal neurobehavioral indicators (ie, heart rate, motor activity, and their integration [fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling]) were collected via an actocardiograph, digitized and quantified. Longitudinal data analysis relied on hierarchic linear modeling. Fetal heart rate, heart rate variability, and heart rate accelerations were significantly reduced at peak vs trough maternal buprenorphine levels. Effects were significant either by or after 28 weeks gestation and tended to intensify with advancing gestation. Fetal motor activity and fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling were depressed from peak to trough at 36 weeks gestation. Polysubstance exposure did not significantly affect fetal neurobehavioral parameters, with the exception that fetuses of heavier smokers moved significantly less than those of lighter smokers at 36 weeks gestation. By the end of gestation, higher maternal buprenorphine dose was related to depression of baseline fetal cardiac measures at trough. Maternal buprenorphine administration has acute suppressive effects on fetal heart rate and movement, and the magnitude of these effects increases as gestation progresses. Higher dose (≥13 mg) appears to exert greater depressive effects on measures of fetal heart rate and variability. These findings should be balanced against comparisons to gestational methadone effects

  14. Short-term resistance training with blood flow restriction enhances microvascular filtration capacity of human calf muscles. (United States)

    Evans, Colin; Vance, Steven; Brown, Maggie


    Resistance training increases muscle strength and endurance but may require high intensity and long duration to enhance capillarity. Vascular occlusion during low-load resistance training augments the strength and endurance gains compared with low-load resistance training alone, but in this study we investigated whether it also promotes microvascular filtration capacity, an index of capillarity. Nine healthy males performed short-term low-intensity resistance training of the calf muscles (four sets of 50 heel raises, three times a week for 4 weeks) under restricted (thigh cuff inflated to 150 mmHg on the non-dominant leg) or unrestricted (dominant leg without thigh cuff) blood flow conditions. Before and after resistance training, calf filtration capacity and resting blood flow were assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, and calf muscle strength and fatigue were assessed respectively by maximal voluntary contraction and force decline during electrically evoked ischaemic contractions in both legs. Calf filtration capacity increased by 26% in the restricted leg but did not increase significantly in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle strength was 18% greater in the restricted leg but unchanged in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle fatigue and resting blood flow did not change in either leg. Resistance training promoted microvascular filtration capacity, an effect that was somewhat enhanced by blood flow restriction, and could be due to increased capillarization.

  15. Fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly - additional malformations, chromosomal anomalies and fetal outcome


    Langolf, Olga


    Fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly is defined as sonographically measured ventricular width of at least 10 mm in the atrium from 13 weeks of gestation till term, measured perpendicular to the long axis of the cerebral lateral ventricles. Our data are derived from the Center for Prenatal Diagnosis, Kurfürstendamm 199, Berlin. The fetuses were examined between 1/1/1998 and 7/31/2006. All ultrasound examinations were performed by gynecologists specialized in prenatal diagnosis. 27 645 fetuse...

  16. Fetal myocardial performance (Tei) index in fetal hemoglobin Bart's disease. (United States)

    Luewan, S; Tongprasert, F; Srisupundit, K; Tongsong, T


    To assess the effectiveness of Tei index in differentiating fetal Hb Bart's disease in pregnancies at risk in the first half of pregnancy. Pregnancies meeting the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited to the study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) singleton pregnancies, 2) gestational age of 12 - 20 weeks, 3) at risk of Hb Bart's disease, 4) confirmed fetal diagnosis of Hb Bart's disease. Fetuses with frank hydrops fetalis or fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities or structural anomalies were excluded. Tei index was performed and immediately recorded before invasive prenatal diagnosis was performed. Of 152 fetuses, 50 were finally proven to be affected by Hb Bart disease, and the remainder was unaffected. Mean (± SD) Tei index were 0.48 ± 0.07 and 0.54 ± 0.08 in group of unaffected and affected fetuses, respectively. The mean difference was 0.05 which was statistically significant (p Hb Bart's disease was significantly higher than that in normal fetuses implying that Tei index may be a novel useful and non-invasive tool for early detection of fetal Hb Bart's disease among pregnancies at risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth (United States)


    Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Production of β-lactamase in staphylococci was also investigated. Associations between certain cow factors and subclinical mastitis and IMI, and associations between cow and calf factors and 200 day calf weaning weight were also studied. The herds were visited once within a month after calving and once at weaning. Udder examination and quarter milk sampling, for somatic cell count and bacteriology, were performed in 8 to 12 cows per herd and occasion. Results Approximately 50%, 40% and 10% of the cows had subclinical mastitis, IMI, and at least one blind quarter, respectively, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Intramammary infections (mainly due to staphylococci) were identified in 13-16% of the milk samples. Less than 5% of the staphylococcal isolates produced β-lactamase. Approximately 11% of the cows sampled twice had the same IMI (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) at both samplings. Cow factors of importance for subclinical mastitis and/or IMI were teat and udder shape, breed, parity, presence of blind quarters, and cow hygiene. No significant associations were found between udder health parameters studied and calf weaning weights. Conclusions Subclinical mastitis and IMI, but not blind quarters, were common in beef cows, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Most IMI were caused by staphylococci and more than 95% of those were sensitive to penicillin. Cows with large funnel-shaped teats or pendulous udder after calving, and cows with blind quarters

  18. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation. (United States)

    Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Schuppli, C A; Weary, D M


    The public has become increasingly interested in the welfare of food animals, but the food animal industries possess few mechanisms for public engagement. Here we present results from a web-based forum designed to allow stakeholders to share views on controversial issues in dairying. In response to the question "Should dairy calves be separated from the cow within the first few hours after birth?" participants were able to indicate "yes," "no," or "neutral" and either write a reason in support of their view or select reasons provided by other participants. Four independent groups of participants were recruited (a total of 163 people); 31% said they had no involvement in the dairy industry; the remaining 69% (with some involvement in the industry) were students or teachers (33%), animal advocates (13%), producers (11%), veterinarians (9%) and other dairy industry professionals (3%). Overall, little consensus existed among participants across groups; 44% chose "yes," 48% "no," and 9% "neutral." Responses varied with demographics, with opposition to early separation higher among females, animal advocates, and those with no involvement with the dairy industry. A fifth group was recruited at a dairy industry conference (an additional 28 participants); 46% chose "yes," 32% "no," and 21% "neutral." Across all 5 groups, opponents and supporters often referenced similar issues in the reasons they provided. Opponents of early separation contended that it is emotionally stressful for the calf and cow, it compromises calf and cow health, it is unnatural, and the industry can and should accommodate cow-calf pairs. In contrast, supporters of early separation reasoned that emotional distress is minimized by separating before bonds develop, that it promotes calf and cow health, and that the industry is limited in its ability to accommodate cow-calf pairs. These results illustrate the potential of web-based forums to identify areas of agreement and conflict among stakeholders

  19. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes. (United States)

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L


    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions (Panthera leo) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebras (Equus quagga), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe population

  20. Effect of calf-raise training on rapid force production and balance ability in elderly men. (United States)

    Ema, Ryoichi; Ohki, Shunsuke; Takayama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Yuji; Akagi, Ryota


    This study examined whether home-based, high-speed calf-raise training changes the rate of torque development (RTD) during plantar flexion contractions and balance performance in elderly men. Thirty-four healthy elderly men (73 ± 5 yr) were randomly assigned to a training or control group (n = 17 in each group). The subjects in the training group completed 8 wk (3 times/wk) of home-based bilateral calf-raise training using body mass. Before and after the intervention, RTD during plantar flexion contractions and center-of-pressure (COP) displacement during single-leg standing were measured. Surface electromyographic amplitude of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during the strength and single-leg standing was measured. Clinical magnitude-based inferences were used to interpret the training effect, with the smallest worthwhile effect assumed to be 0.2 of the baseline SD. The peak RTD increased 21% (90% confidence limits, ±19%) relative to the control group, which was accompanied by corresponding changes of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) activations. The effect on COP displacement was possibly trivial (0%, ±13%), whereas substantial reduction in the MG (-19%, ±15%) and SOL (-25%, ±13%) activations during standing was observed. Our findings indicate that calf-raise training at home, performed without special equipment or venue, induces a substantial increase in the plantar flexors' rapid force-generating capability and triceps surae activations. Although the training effect on standing balance performance was not substantial, observed changes in the triceps surae activations during standing are expected to contribute to future balance performance improvement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Calf-raise training with the intent to move rapidly, without special equipment or venue, induces an improvement of explosive plantar flexion force, which is attributable to neuromuscular rather than musculotendinous adaptations. Although the training effect on balance

  1. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)


    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  2. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale


    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  3. Idiopathic polyhydramnios and fetal gender. (United States)

    Stanescu, A D; Banica, R; Olaru, G; Ghinda, E; Birdir, Cahit


    To determine the relationship between idiopathic polyhydramnios and fetal gender in the absence of fetal or maternal abnormalities. This was a retrospective population-based register study. 295 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios (amniotic fluid index (AFI) higher than 24 cm) who were delivered at our institution from January 2002 till December 2012 were included. Only pregnancies with an uncomplicated outcome were accepted in this study. The incidence of the male to female fetuses was compared with the one in the general population. Among pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios, the following gender distribution was found: 72.9% male and 37.1% female. The distribution in the general population was 51.5% female and 48.5% male. The mean AFI was significantly increased in male fetuses (p polyhydramnios is more frequent in male normal fetuses than in female ones.

  4. Fetal growth and developmental programming. (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A


    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  5. Fetal programming in meat production. (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun


    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mussel mimetic tissue adhesive for fetal membrane repair: initial in vivo investigation in rabbits. (United States)

    Kivelio, A; Dekoninck, P; Perrini, M; Brubaker, C E; Messersmith, P B; Mazza, E; Deprest, J; Zimmermann, R; Ehrbar, M; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N


    Iatrogenic preterm prelabour rupture of fetal membranes (iPPROM) remains the main complication after invasive interventions into the intrauterine cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing capability and tissue interaction of mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive (mussel glue) in comparison to fibrin glue on punctured fetal membranes in vivo. A mid-gestational rabbit model was used for testing the materials. The fetal sacs of pregnant rabbits at day 23 were randomly assigned into experimental groups: unoperated (negative control), unclosed puncture (positive control), commercially available fibrin glue (FG) with decellularized amnion scaffold (DAM), mussel glue (MG) with DAM, or mussel glue alone. Evaluation was done at term (30 days' gestation) assessing fetal survival, fetal membrane integrity and histology of the membranes. Fetal survival was not significantly lower in any of the treatment groups compared to the negative control. All plugging materials could be found at the end of the pregnancy and no adverse effects on the fetus or the pregnant does could be observed. Sac integrity was higher in all treatment groups compared to the positive control group but significant only in the FG+DAM group. Cellular infiltration could be seen in fibrin glue and DAM in contrast to mussel glue which was only tightly adhering to the surrounding tissue. These cells were mostly of mesenchymal phenotype staining positive for vimentin. CD68 positive macrophages were found clustered around all the plugging materials, but their numbers were only significantly increased for the mussel glue alone group compared to negative controls. Mussel glues performance in sealing fetal membranes in the rabbit model was comparable to that of fibrin glue. Taking into account its other favorable properties, it is a noteworthy candidate for a clinically applicable fetal membrane sealant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality. (United States)

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl


    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy; Resonance magnetica fetal: tecnica aplicaciones y anatomia normal del feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M [Corporacio Sanitaria del Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)


    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs.

  9. Fetal alcohol exposure: consequences, diagnosis, and treatment. (United States)

    Pruett, Dawn; Waterman, Emily Hubbard; Caughey, Aaron B


    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent, with as many as 12% of pregnant women consuming alcohol. Alcohol intake may vary from an occasional drink, to weekly binge drinking, to chronic alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Whereas there are certain known consequences from fetal alcohol exposure, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, other effects are less well defined. Craniofacial dysmorphologies, abnormalities of organ systems, behavioral and intellectual deficits, and fetal death have all been attributed to maternal alcohol consumption. This review article considers the theoretical mechanisms of how alcohol affects the fetus, including the variable susceptibility to fetal alcohol exposure and the implications of ethanol dose and timing of exposure. Criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome are discussed, as well as new methods for early detection of maternal alcohol use and fetal alcohol exposure, such as the use of fatty acid ethyl esters. Finally, current and novel treatment strategies, both in utero and post utero, are reviewed.

  10. Glycemic control and fetal abdominal circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath


    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the correlation between the glycemic status and increase in fetal abdominal circumference in gestational diabetes patients and its relationship with fetal birth weight. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM patients were taken up for study with duly informed consent and suggested for anthropometry profile and glycemic profile with HbA1C. Fetal abdominal circumference was measured during routine scans. The patients were followed up till delivery and the fetal birth was noted. Inclusion Criteria: Seventy-five gestational diabetic mothers who have attended a secondary level diabetic clinic and on regular follow-up were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria: Pre-GDM mothers, patients with co-morbid disease were excluded from the study. Expected Results: Fetal abdominal circumference correlated well with fluctuating glycemic control and fetal birth weight.

  11. Effects of two-stage weaning with nose flap devices applied to calves on cow body condition, calf performance, and calf humoral immune response. (United States)

    Lippolis, K D; Ahola, J K; Mayo, C E; Fischer, M C; Callan, R J


    The effects of nose flap devices in calves before dam separation on cow BCS, pre- and postseparation calf performance, and humoral immune response were compared with traditional weaning. Primiparous and multiparous Angus and Hereford cows ( = 113) and their Angus, Hereford, and Angus × Hereford calves (179.4 ± 3.92 kg and 161 ± 22.7 d of age) were used. Cow-calf pairs were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (NF) or 2) no nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (CON). Calves were separated from dams on d 0, and calves were placed in group feed-yard pens for 28 d. A subset ( = 75) of weaned calves were placed into 1 of 8 pens to evaluate DMI. Cow BCS was measured on d -21 and 56, and calves were given modified live vaccinations (d -21 and 1), challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; d 1), and weighed (d -21, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28). In addition, blood samples were collected (d -21, 1, 14, and 28) to measure primary humoral immune response. Control calves tended to have greater BW on d 14 ( = 0.09) and 21 ( = 0.07) than NF calves, and CON calves had greater ( Serum neutralization tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were used to measure humoral response to a viral vaccination. Serum antibody titers to BVDV-1 for CON calves tended ( = 0.08) to be greater on d 1 and were greater ( Serum antibody titers for BHV-1 were greater ( serum BVDV-1 and BHV-1 titers, and humoral immune response to OVA were decreased in calves that received the nose flap treatment.

  12. Fetal macrosomia as an important indicator of fetal malformation syndrome: ultrasonic findings of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EA Pley; PA de Jong; MD E.J.M. Wouters


    Two extraordinary cases of fetal macrosomia are presented. It is discussed that extreme fetal growth should raise the suspicion of a malformation syndrome and deserves thorough antenatal ultrasonographic examination.

  13. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott


    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  14. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth. (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L


    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  15. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth.Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile for gestational age at death (stillbirth or delivery (live birth using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate. Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1 stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3 fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5 a different pattern of fetal growth

  16. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values. (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J


    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Early non-invasive detection of fetal Y chromosome sequences in maternal plasma using multiplex PCR. (United States)

    Kolialexi, Aggeliki; Tounta, Georgia; Apostolou, Paraskevi; Vrettou, Christina; Papantoniou, Nikos; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Antsaklis, Aris; Mavrou, Ariadni


    Clinical indications for fetal sex determination include risk of X-linked disorders, a family history of conditions associated with ambiguous development of the external genitalia, and some fetal ultrasound findings. It is usually performed in the first trimester from fetal material obtained through CVS and is associated with an approximately 1% risk of miscarriage. Ultrasound fetal sex determination is often performed after 11 weeks of gestation. This study aims to validate a reliable method for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal gender using maternal plasma cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) for fetal sex assessment in the first trimester of pregnancy and test its clinical utility in the diagnosis of potentially affected pregnancies in carriers of X-linked disorders. In the validation study, blood samples from 100 pregnant women at 6-11 weeks of gestation were analysed. In the clinical study, 17 pregnancies at risk of having an affected fetus were tested. 7 ml of maternal blood in EDTA were obtained and cffDNA was extracted using a commercially available kit. DNA was enzymatically digested using a methylation sensitive endonuclease (AciI) to remove maternal unmethylated sequences of the RASSF1A gene. A multiplex PCR was performed for the simultaneous amplification of target sequences of SRY and DYS14 from chromosome Y, along with RASSF1A and ACTB sequences. Amplification of these loci indicates fetal gender, confirms the presence of cffDNA and allows assessment of digestion efficiency. After establishing the appropriate experimental conditions, validation studies were successful in all 100 cases tested with no false negative or false positive results. Y chromosome-specific sequences were detected in 68 samples, and 32 cases were diagnosed as female based on the amplification of RASFF1A sequences only, in the absence of ACTB. In the clinical studies, fetal sex was correctly diagnosed in 16 pregnancies, and one case was reported as inconclusive. Fetal sex

  18. Electronic fetal monitoring: family medicine obstetrics. (United States)

    Rodney, John R M; Huntley, Benjamin J F; Rodney, Wm Macmillan


    Electronic fetal monitoring assesses fetal health during the prenatal and intrapartum process. Intermittent auscultation does not detect key elements of fetal risk, such as beat-to-beat variability. Family medicine obstetric fellowships have contributed new knowledge to this process by articulating a method of analysis that builds on evidence-based recommendations from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology as well as the National Institute of Child Health and Development. This article summarizes the development, interpretation, and management of electronic fetal heart rate patterns and tracings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal MR imaging of fetal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Ichiro; Tamaya, Teruhiko (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    MR imaging has recently been used in medical scene, especially in obstetrics. The definite prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly using MR imaging has proved to be useful. But MR imaging of normal fetal organs remains to be understood. There have been not complete systemical research works about normal fetus by MR imaging, up to date. MR imaging on 25 pregnant cases were carried out to get the definite diagnosis of the possible fetal anomalies. MR imaging in fetus is usually disturbed by fetal movement. Generally, diazepam to mother or muscle relaxants to fetus have been used in given cases in order to obtain good quality of imaging. Mothers were requested to walk around the lobby in hospital before examination and fetal movement was decreased, resulting in 85% good imaging. The understanding of normal findings of fetal organs by MR imagings is important for diagnosis of the fetal anomalies. For example, brain and bowel showed high signals in T{sub 1} weighted images. Lung showed high signal in T{sub 2} weighted images. Liver was demonstrated clearly in T{sub 1} weighted images and proton density images. Heart and vessels showed low signals because of flow void phenomenon. Thus, it is necessary to detect and diagnose fetal anomalies after understanding the normal findings of fetal organs in MR imaging. (author).

  20. Fetal motor activity and maternal cortisol (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Laudenslager, Mark L.


    The contemporaneous association between maternal salivary cortisol and fetal motor activity was examined at 32 and 36 weeks gestation. Higher maternal cortisol was positively associated with the amplitude of fetal motor activity at 32 weeks, r(48) = .39, p activity were more common in fetuses of women with higher cortisol, Mann-Whitney U = 58.5. There were no sex differences in fetal motor activity, but the associations between maternal cortisol and fetal motor amplitude and overall movement were significantly stronger for male than female fetuses. PMID:19630038

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Facts and Prevention. (United States)

    Shelton, Maria; Cook, Martha


    This article provides a brief introduction to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including characteristics, incidence, current government programs, successful local programs, and implications for school administrators. (DB)

  2. Fetal Endoscopic Surgery for Spina Bifida (United States)


    Neural Tube Defects; Spina Bifida, Open; Myelomeningocele; Fetal Disease; Hydrocephalus; Chiari Malformation Type 2; Congenital Abnormality; Surgery; Maternal, Uterus or Pelvic Organs, Affecting Fetus

  3. Fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Experience of a fetal cardiology reference center


    Paulo Zielinsky; Dillenburg, Rejane F.; Gustavo G. Lima; Zimmer, Lúcia P.


    Objetivo - Avaliar a forma de apresentação, diagnóstico e tratamento das taquiarritmias supraventriculares fetais, através do relato de uma série de casos acompanhados em um centro terciário de cardiologia fetal. Métodos - São descritos 25 casos de taquiarritmia supraventricular diagnosticados intra-útero, no período de janeiro/89 a outubro/97, em uma população compreendendo 3117 gestantes. Resultados - Foram diagnosticados 17 casos de taquiarritmia supraventricular e 8 casos de flutter atria...

  4. Botulinum toxin a does not decrease calf pain or improve ROM during limb lengthening: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Keun Jung; Shin, Dong Eun; Kim, Hyun Woo


    During lower limb lengthening, distraction-induced muscle pain and surrounding joint contractures are frustrating complications for which few effective treatments are available. We evaluated Botulinum Toxin Type A (BtX-A) injection in the calf muscles during human tibial distraction osteogenesis. We hypothesized that it may decrease calf pain and increase ROM of the surrounding joints by reducing muscle stiffness. Between April 2010 and January 2011, we evaluated 36 patients undergoing bilateral tibia lengthening who met prespecified inclusion criteria. All patients underwent stature lengthening with lengthening over a nail or lengthening and then nailing. BtX-A (200 IU) was injected at the calf muscle only in one leg for each patient and the same amount of sterile normal saline was injected into the other leg as a control. Selection of the leg receiving the toxin was randomized. Clinical evaluation included a VAS score for calf pain and measurement of ROM of the knees and ankles and calf circumference, with evaluations performed in a double-blinded manner. Side-to-side differences were analyzed until the end of consolidation phase. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 30 months; range, 24-39 months). The distraction rate and the final length gain were similar in the treated and control limbs. A priori power analysis suggested that 34 legs were required to achieve statistical significance of 0.05 with 80% of power to detect a 50% difference in treatment effect between treatment and control groups. There were no differences in calf pain, knee and ankle ROM, and maximal calf circumferences between the two legs at each time point. Local injection of 200 IU BtX-A at the human calf muscle does not appear to reduce calf pain or help enhance ROM of the knee and ankle during tibial lengthening. However, the small sample size provided sufficient power to detect only relatively large clinical effects; future, larger trials will be needed to determine whether smaller

  5. Hip, thigh and calf muscle atrophy and bone loss after 5-week bedrest inactivity. (United States)

    Berg, Hans E; Eiken, Ola; Miklavcic, Lucijan; Mekjavic, Igor B


    Unloaded inactivity induces atrophy and functional deconditioning of skeletal muscle, especially in the lower extremities. Information is scarce, however, regarding the effect of unloaded inactivity on muscle size and function about the hip. Regional bone loss has been demonstrated in hips and knees of elderly orthopaedic patients, as quantified by computerized tomography (CT). This method remains to be validated in healthy individuals rendered inactive, including real or simulated weightlessness. In this study, ten healthy males were subjected to 5 weeks of experimental bedrest and five matched individuals served as ambulatory controls. Maximum voluntary isometric hip and knee extension force were measured using the strain gauge technique. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip, thigh and calf muscles, and radiological density (RD) of the proximal tibial bone were measured using CT. Bedrest decreased (P muscle strength by 20 (8)% in knee extension, and by 22 (12)% in hip extension. Bedrest induced atrophy (P muscles in the gluteal region, thigh and calf, ranging from 2 to 12%. Atrophy was more pronounced in the knee extensors [9 (4)%] and ankle plantar flexors [12 (3)%] than in the gluteal extensor muscles [2 (2)%]. Bone density of the proximal tibia decreased (P muscle or bone indices (P > 0.05), when examined at similar time intervals. The present findings of a substantial loss in hip extensor strength and a smaller, yet significant atrophy of these muscles, demonstrate that hip muscle deconditioning accompanies losses in thigh and calf muscle mass after bedrest. This suggests that comprehensive quantitative studies on impaired locomotor function after inactivity should include all joints of the lower extremity. Our results also demonstrate that a decreased RD, indicating bone mineral loss, can be shown already after 5 weeks of unloaded bedrest, using a standard CT technique.

  6. The influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Ni Ji


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery. METHODS: Thirty six patients(40 eyeswith primary nasal pterygium were enrolled in this study, which were divided into study group and control group randomly, with 20 eyes in each group. All patients received pterygium excision and limbal stem cell autograft surgery and tobramicin dexamethasone eye drops after surgery. Patients of the study group received protein free calf blood extract eye gel while those of the control group received 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops furthermore. Ocular surface disease index(OSDIquestionnaire, tear film break-up time(BUTand Schirmer's Ⅰ test Ⅰ(SⅠtwere carried before and 3 months after surgery to evaluate the dry eye degree of the patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the age, gender and size of the pterygium of the study and control groups preoperatively. There was no statistical difference between the OSDI(2.33±1.02 vs 2.32±0.93, BUT(8.80±2.48 vs 8.35±2.28seconds and SⅠt(4.30±2.30 vs 4.40±2.44of the two groups preoperatively. There was statistical difference between the OSDI(1.45±0.47 vs 1.81±0.60, BUT(11.20±2.07 vs 9.50±2.40seconds and SⅠt(8.35±3.13 vs 6.35±2.18of the two groups 3 months postoperatively, which was also different from that of the preoperative data correspondingly. CONCLUSION: Protein free calf blood extract eye gel could reduce the dry eye after pterygium surgery.

  7. Clinical efficacy of florfenicol in the treatment of calf respiratory tract infections. (United States)

    Aslan, V; Maden, M; Erganis, O; Birdane, F M; Corlu, M


    This paper reports on a study of the aetiology of calf pneumonia and the clinical efficacy of florfenicol, a new antibiotic in Turkey. Twenty-seven weaned and unweaned calves (13 males and 14 females) between 1 and 16 months of age brought to the clinics of Selçuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Science. Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were taken from the animals diagnosed to have upper respiratory tract infection associated with bronchitis (N=2), bronchitis (N=5), bronchopneumonia (N=4), pneumonia (N=3), pleuropneumonia (N=11), bronchopneumonia plus pulmonary oedema (N=2) based on the results of the clinical and laboratory examinations. Then microbiological isolation and antibiotic culturing were performed. The animals were treated with 1 ml/15 kg (20 mg/kg) florfenicol (Nuflor, DIF) twice within 48 hours via intramuscular injection. At the end of the treatment, 23 of the weaned and unweaned calves were completely healed, 1 calf had died and 3 calves showed no healing. The results of BAL samples and microbiological examinations of the 3 calves that did not respond to the treatment indicated that these cases were affected by mixed infections of yeasts, fungi, and bacteria. Widespread pleuropneumonia was observed. According to the results of the microbiological examination of the BAL samples, Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica had the highest isolation rate (25%) compared with the other isolated bacteria, namely, Klebsiella pneumonia (20%), Actinomyces pyogenes (15%), beta-hemolytic streptococci. (10%), Staphylococcus spp. (5%), and E. coli (5%). The study also revealed fungi [Penicillum spp. (5%) and Aspergillus spp. (5%)] and two calves (10%) had a yeast infection.. We conclude that florfenicol has a high bacteriological and clinical efficacy (100% and 96% respectively) in the treatment of calf respiratory tract diseases.

  8. Calf Augmentation and Restoration: Long-Term Results and the Review of the Reported Complications. (United States)

    Niechajev, Igor; Krag, Christen


    Augmentation or reconstruction of the calves is indicated in patients with thin legs, for bodybuilders, or when there is a defect after an injury or illness. The principle of placing implants under the investing crural fascia was worked out in the 1980s. The senior author (I.N.) introduced many technical modifications and improvements for this operation, among them the new instrument, an inserter for the calf implants. Presented patient material is unique in that the more challenging reconstructive cases almost equal the numbers of the aesthetic cases. During the years 1991 through 2016, 50 patients underwent 60 calf contour corrections. Indications were aesthetic in 23 patients, six were bodybuilders, and 21 underwent lower leg reconstruction because of deformity caused by illness. According to evaluation by the surgeon, excellent-to-good results were obtained in 30 out of 37 followed patients. Patients rated their results as very good (18), good (10), acceptable (7) and bad (2). One 28-year-old professional bodybuilder sustained acute anterior compartment syndrome in one leg. Implants were removed 16 h after surgery, but he developed ischaemia in the anterior compartment leading to the necrosis of muscles. After several surgical operations, including microsurgical transfer of the innervated central caput of the quadriceps femoris muscle, he could resume his bodybuilding activities. Other complications were minor and manageable. Calf augmentation, performed properly, has evolved to be a safe, efficient and aesthetically pleasing operation. The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be kept in mind. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  9. A survey on relationships between thyroid hormone levels and clinical findings in dairy calf diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hajimohammadi


    Full Text Available Calf diarrhea is an important disease that occurs in association with the interaction of various infectious agents and calf susceptibility. The economic losses is associated with death loss and treatment costs, reduction of live weight gain, and reduction of productive life span, which may be considerable. Thyroid hormones previously thought mainly in thermoregulation and energy metabolism. Recently, several studies have challenged on their roles in the metabolic response of animals to certain conditions such as nutritional, environmental, or disease state. The aim of the present study was to survey relationships between thyroid hormones in calves with diarrhea in the different clinical features. Holstein calves (50 within 1 day to 2 months old with signs of diarrhea and healthy calves (40 with similar age and sex were selected. Standard clinical examinations and also dehydration degree assessment were carried out on each calf and recorded accordingly. Calves with clinical signs of diarrhea were divided in different groups based on the severity of the clinical findings, fever and degree of dehydration. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein from all calves into vacutainer tubes for serum collection.T4, fT4, T3 and fT3 concentrations were measured by validated methods. A significant increase in T4, T3 and fT3 in diarrheic calves was observed (P<0.05. Thyroid hormones in calves with severe clinical signs decreased significantly (P<0.001 compared to calves with moderate or mild systemic clinical signs. Thyroid hormones between febrile diarrheic calves compared to afebrile diarrheic calves had no significant changes. Diarrheic calves with severe dehydration compared to diarrheic calves with mild and moderate dehydration had significant decreases in their thyroid hormones (P<0.001.

  10. Placental fetal vascular thrombosis lesions and maternal thrombophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeksma, F. A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Khong, T. Y.

    Aims: Following intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), the placental fetal vessels undergo regressive changes. These changes are virtually indistinguishable from lesions that are the result of fetal vascular thrombosis (FVT). This study investigated the relation between these lesions and maternal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasad Naik


    Full Text Available Background: Muscle energy technique is used for restoring normal tone in hypertonic muscles, strengthening weak muscles, preparing muscle for subsequent stretching, one of the main uses of this method is to normalize joint range which may help in increase flexibility and performance in sprinters. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of muscle energy technique on flexibility of hamstrings and calf muscles and sprinting performance in sprinters. The objective of the study is to determine the muscle energy technique on hamstrings and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance in sprinters by using goniometer and timing of sprinting performance. Method: The study design is an experimental study in which 30 male sprinters were recruited in this study. The study sample included all male healthy sprinters, aged between 15 -30 years. All subjects received warm up, muscle energy technique and cool down exercises daily for a period of 6weeks.The outcome measures are 90°-90°popliteal angle for assessing hamstring flexibility and ROM of ankle joint for calf muscles by universal goniometer and sprinting performance time by using stopwatch. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test are used to analyse the data. A significant difference was found between pre and post values of hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance after the analysis in this study. Conclusion: This study shows that there was a significant effect of MET on hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance.

  12. Effect of a static calf-stretching exercise on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Muir, I W; Chesworth, B M; Vandervoort, A A


    A within-subject experimental design was used with to measure the effect of calf-stretching exercises on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in a group of 20 healthy men (aged 21 to 40). The purpose of this study was to determine if the performance of calf-stretching exercises would produce a decrease in resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion. Calf-stretching exercises are widely used in sporting, fitness, and rehabilitation settings yet the effects of stretching on the passive mechanics of the ankle joint are not well understood. A KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the passive resistive torque of the ankle while the joint complex was moved through return cycles from 10 degrees plantarflexion to 10 degrees dorsiflexion at a constant velocity of 6 degrees/s. Each subject's right or left ankle was randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental condition. The latter underwent a total of 4 static stretches, each lasting 30 seconds. The main findings of the study were that the calf-stretching exercises did not produce a significant reduction in the resistive torque during ankle dorsiflexion, as measured by the peak to peak torque at 10 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion or in the center range of the hysteresis loop at 0 degree dorsiflexion. Static calf-stretching exercises of short duration did not reduce the passive resistance of the connective tissue within the surrounding muscle and joint structures in the ankles of healthy young men.

  13. Venous capacity, venous refill time and the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump in normal subjects. (United States)

    Barendsen, G J; van den Berg, J W


    With strain gauge plethysmography various procedures to assess the competence of the venous system in the lower leg were compared in 10 normal subjects. The reproducibility and ease of use were established, and normal values were obtained. It is concluded, that measurements in the sitting position are preferable to those in the standing position. To measure the venous capacity, the dependency test is the method of choice. Rhythmic exercise to assess the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump can be restricted to five successive contractions. The refill time after exercise is not a suitable parameter to assess the competence of the venous valves.

  14. Relative rates of biosynthesis of collagen type I, type V and type VI in calf cornea.


    Kern, P.; Menasche, M.; Robert, L


    The biosynthesis of type I, type V and type VI collagens was studied by incubation of calf corneas in vitro with [3H]proline as a marker. Pepsin-solubilized collagen types were isolated by salt fractionation and quantified by SDS/PAGE. Expressed as proportions of the total hydroxyproline solubilized, corneal stroma comprised 75% type I, 8% type V and 17% type VI collagen. The rates of [3H]proline incorporation, linear up to 24 h for each collagen type, were highest for type VI collagen and lo...

  15. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of antiviral drug nevirapine with calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Shahabadi, Nahid


    The interaction of calf thymus DNA with nevirapine at physiological pH was studied by using absorption, circular dichroism, viscosity, differential pulse voltammetry, fluorescence techniques, salt effect studies and computational methods. The drug binds to ct-DNA in a groove binding mode, as shown by slight variation in the viscosity of ct-DNA. Furthermore, competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 indicate that nevirapine binds to DNA via groove binding. Moreover, the structure of nevirapine was optimized by DFT calculations and was used for the molecular docking calculations. The molecular docking results suggested that nevirapine prefers to bind on the minor groove of ct-DNA.

  16. Delayed resumption of development of inhibited Cooperia oncophora in a yearling calf. (United States)

    Smith, H J


    During a study of larval inhibition, resumption of development of Cooperia oncophora was observed in one calf to occur over a prolonged period of time. This animal had grazed for 14 weeks, was treated with thiabendazole and stabled for eight weeks prior to grazing the same pasture for ten days in late fall. A marked increase in Cooperia egg output started about six months after restabling. Worm egg outputs persisted for about 14 months with counts of up to 1000 eggs per gram during the first eight months of this period followed by a period with low counts of 50 to 150 eggs per gram. PMID:2914219

  17. Delayed resumption of development of inhibited Cooperia oncophora in a yearling calf.


    Smith, H J


    During a study of larval inhibition, resumption of development of Cooperia oncophora was observed in one calf to occur over a prolonged period of time. This animal had grazed for 14 weeks, was treated with thiabendazole and stabled for eight weeks prior to grazing the same pasture for ten days in late fall. A marked increase in Cooperia egg output started about six months after restabling. Worm egg outputs persisted for about 14 months with counts of up to 1000 eggs per gram during the first ...

  18. Calf thymus extract attenuates severity of experimental encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Kocięba, Maciej; Kuryszko, Jan; Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of Lewis rats with calf thymus extract (TFX®) and its six-peptide fraction on the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Interferon- ß served as a reference drug. We found that intramuscular administration of the thymus extract fraction significantly reduced clinical, immunological, histological, and ultrastructural alterations inherent in the disease. We suggest that TFX® or TFX®-derived fractions have potential as therapeutics in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  19. Methods and reproducibility of measurement of resistivity in the calf using regional bioimpedance analysis. (United States)

    Zhu, Fansan; Sarkar, Shubho; Kaitwatcharachai, Charoen; Greenwood, Roger; Ronco, Claudio; Levin, Nathan W


    The usefulness of regional bioimpedance analysis (RBIA) in determining the dry weight in dialysis patients is currently being investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of measurement of resistivity in the calf. Twenty-five normal subjects and 10 patients undergoing regular hemodialysis were studied. Four electrodes inserted into a blood pressure cuff were placed on the calf. Bioimpedance was continuously measured over 3- to 5-min periods (Xitron Hydra). After a resting period of 1 min, cuff pressure was increased to above the systolic blood pressure (SBP) for a few seconds to expel excess ECF fluid and then deflated. The effect on recordings of moving the electrodes 2 cm higher and then 2 cm lower than the normal position was studied in 8 normal subjects. In a second study of reproducibility, post-dialysis measurements were made twice in 10 patients who maintained the same post-dialysis target weight throughout the study period. The mean resting resistivity rho(0) in normal subjects was 532.6 +/- 95 rising to 583.9 +/- 99.7 when cuff pressure was applied rho(p). The average values of rho(0) and rho(p) in patients post-dialysis were 489 +/- 74 and 537 +/- 77 respectively showing that there were no significant differences in rho(0) and rho(p) between normal subjects and patients post-dialysis. The mean values of change in resistivity when the electrodes were shifted between the lowest and highest positions on the calf were -3.66 +/- 4.45 and -1.44 +/- 3.82%, respectively. Repeat measurement of resistivity in patients post-dialysis varied by 2.04 +/- 2.29% while post-dialysis body weight varied by 0.17 +/- 0.47%. In this study, resistivity measurement by RBIA at the calf showed similar levels of fluid loading in patients post-dialysis as in normal subjects. This study also showed that change in electrode position resulted in a mean change in resistivity of <5% and repeated measurements showed a change in resistivity <3

  20. The use of fetal Doppler in obstetrics. (United States)

    Gagnon, Robert; Van den Hof, Michiel


    To develop national guidelines on the use of fetal Doppler in obstetrics. Whether umbilical cord artery, umbilical cord venous, ductus venosus, and middle cerebral artery Doppler are useful in assessing fetal health. Prediction of adverse perinatal outcome or prediction of fetal anemia. MEDLINE search and review of bibliographies in identified articles. The evidence was reviewed by the Diagnostic Imaging Committee and the principal authors. A quality of evidence assessment was undertaken as outlined in the report of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Intrauterine growth restriction complicates 5% to 10% of all pregnancies and up to 30% of multiple pregnancies. In 60% of these pregnancies, the primary cause is placental insufficiency. Improvement in the identification of the fetus at risk of intrauterine demise may lead to more successful management strategies. Management of fetal red blood cell isoimmunization requires a prediction of fetal anemia. If invasive procedures to predict fetal anemia can be replaced with noninvasive tests, fetal morbidity and mortality can be reduced. 1. Umbilical artery Doppler should be available for assessment of the fetal-placental circulation in pregnant women with suspected severe placental insufficiency. (I-A) 2. Depending on other clinical factors, reduced, absent, or reversed umbilical artery end-diastolic flow is an indication for enhanced fetal surveillance or delivery. If delivery is delayed to enhance fetal lung maturity with maternal administration of glucocorticoid, intensive fetal surveillance until delivery is suggested for those fetuses with reversed end-diastolic flow. (II-1B) 3. Umbilical artery Doppler should not be used as a screening tool in healthy pregnancies, as it has not been shown to be of value in this group. (I-A) 4. Umbilical venous double pulsations, in the presence of abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms, necessitate a detailed assessment of fetal health status. (II-3B) 5

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. (United States)

    Denny, LeeAnne; Coles, Sarah; Blitz, Robin


    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from intrauterine exposure to alcohol and are the most common nonheritable causes of intellectual disability. The percentage of women who drink or binge drink during pregnancy has increased since 2012. FAS is commonly missed or misdiagnosed, preventing affected children from receiving needed services in a timely fashion. Diagnosis is based on the presence of the following clinical features, all of which must be present: prenatal and/or postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphology, central nervous system dysfunction, and neurobehavioral disabilities. FASD is a broader diagnosis that encompasses patients with FAS and others who are affected by prenatal alcohol exposure but do not meet the full criteria for FAS. Management is multidisciplinary and includes managing comorbid conditions, providing nutritional support, managing behavioral problems and educational difficulties, referring patients for habilitative therapies, and educating parents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other organizations recognize no safe amount of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and recommend complete abstinence from alcohol. All women should be screened for alcohol use during preconception counseling and prenatal care, and alcohol use should be addressed with brief interventions.

  2. Luteoma-induced fetal virilization. (United States)

    Ugaki, Hiromi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Tokugawa, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Tadashi


    A pregnancy luteoma represents an unusual response of ovarian stromal cells to the altered hormonal levels of pregnancy. It is a distinctive non-neoplastic lesion characterized by solid proliferations of luteinized cells resulting in a tumor-like ovarian enlargement. Most patients are asymptomatic; the ovarian enlargement is usually discovered incidentally at cesarean section or during postpartum tubal ligation. We report a typical case that we found at cesarean section to be associated with a virilized infant who manifested clitoromegaly and labial fusion. We detected an increased level of testosterone in the maternal patient. We concluded that the ovarian luteoma induced the fetal virilization.

  3. Fetal antigen 2: an amniotic protein identified as the aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of human procollagen type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teisner, B; Rasmussen, H B; Højrup, P


    with the aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of human procollagen type I as determined by nucleotide sequences. After oxidative procedures normally employed for radio-iodination (iodogen and chloramine-T), FA2 lost its immunoreactivity. An antigen which cross-reacted with polyclonal rabbit anti-human FA2 was demonstrated...... in fetal calf serum. Gel filtration with analysis of fractions by inhibition ELISA showed that the bovine homologue was present in the same molecular forms as those in human amniotic fluid, and immunohistochemical analysis with anti-human FA2 showed that its distribution in bovine skin was identical...... to that of FA2 in human skin. FA2 is a circulating form of the aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of procollagen type I, and this is the first description of its isolation and structural characterization in humans. Udgivelsesdato: 1992-Dec...

  4. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  5. Commercial Landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini


    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests. PMID:23686656

  6. Fetal extraperitoneal rectal perforation: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal extraperitoneal rectal perforation is a very rare condition, but prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment produce overall good outcome. Its etiology and pathophysiology are poorly understood. Only 16 cases have been reported worldwide. We report another case of fetal extraperitoneal rectal perforation managed by ...

  7. Pathophysiology of Increased Fetal Nuchal Translucency Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen


    Full Text Available Increased fetal nuchal translucency thickness is associated with trisomy 13, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, Turner syndrome, other sex chromosome abnormalities, as well as many fetal anomalies and genetic syndromes. This article provides a comprehensive review of the cardinal proposed pathophysiology including altered composition of the extracellular matrix, abnormalities of the heart and great arteries, and disturbed or delayed lymphatic development.

  8. [Evolution of electronic fetal monitoring in labor]. (United States)

    Dell'Anna, A; Portuesi, A; Angioli, R


    Intrapartum fetal hypoxia remains an important cause of neonatal permanent handicap and death, and in many cases it is related to lack of optimal fetal surveillance. In the last 40 years cardiotocography (CTG) has been routinely used for fetal monitoring yet this technique lacks reproducibility and its interpretation by healthcare professionals remains an important variable. Indeed, this technology not only does not improve clinically important outcomes, but also, on the contrary, leads to an increase in the number of caesarean sections carried out. Recent research has focused the attention on specific components of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) tracings, such as ST-segment analysis (STAN) or fetal pulse oximetry (FPO). Fetal ST-segment analysis and pulse oximetry provide important parameters when used in addition to CTG, but their combined use obviously does not eliminate CTG interpretation limits. Although continuous electronic fetal monitoring is now ubiquitously utilized in modern practice, risks and benefits associated with its use are worth analysing. The analysis of the research and clinical practices carried out in the past several decades may provide useful insights into the current use of electronic fetal monitoring and new system associated procedures (STAN and FPO), which have influenced what has now become a routine modern obstetric practice.

  9. Obesity's impact on intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring. (United States)

    Brocato, Brian; Lewis, David; Mulekar, Madhuri; Baker, Susan


    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact maternal obesity has on the percentage of unmonitored electronic fetal monitoring (EFM). Women undergoing induction of labor at term were categorized into three groups: Group 1 (body mass index (BMI) fetal distress is present.

  10. Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Fetal Ascites and Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan


    The ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal ascites caused by Toxoplasma Gondii is presented. When a diagnosis of fetal ascites without obvious etiological malformation is established, toxoplasmosis should be suspected. A serological test should be performed, in view of the possibility of antenatal treatment...

  11. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.


    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been

  12. Tocolytics for suspected intrapartum fetal distress. (United States)

    Kulier, R; Hofmeyr, G J


    Prophylactic tocolysis with betamimetics and other agents has become widespread as a treatment for fetal distress. Uterine relaxation may improve placental blood flow and therefore fetal oxygenation. However there may also be adverse maternal cardiovascular effects. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of tocolytic therapy for suspected fetal distress on fetal, maternal and perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: February 1999. Randomised trials comparing tocolytic therapy with no treatment or treatment with another tocolytic agent for suspected fetal distress. Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted data. Three studies were included. Compared with no treatment, there were fewer failed improvements in fetal heart rate abnormalities with tocolytic therapy (relative risk 0.26, 95% 0.13 to 0.53). Betamimetic therapy compared with magnesium sulphate showed a non-significant trend towards reduced uterine activity (relative risk 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 1.10). Betamimetic therapy appears to be able to reduce the number of fetal heart rate abnormalities and perhaps reduce uterine activity. However there is not enough evidence based on clinically important outcomes to evaluate the use of betamimetics for suspected fetal distress.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An International Concern. (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon


    Describes Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in infants, caused by mothers' consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Both disabilities found in relatively high proportions of American Indian children. Discusses impact of disabilities on education. Discusses parent education programs in United States and abroad. (TES)

  14. Can Fetal Macrosomia be Prevented? | Inegbenebor | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal macrosomia is an obstetric complication that makes child birth hazardous to women in labor, and sometimes an enigma to medical practitioners. It tasks the skills of obstetricians and places a burden on human and material medical resources. There is therefore a need for the prevention of fetal macrosomia in order to ...

  15. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo


    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable...

  16. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf. (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William


    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  17. Cost-effective and accurate method of measuring fetal fraction using SNP imputation. (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Jai-Hoon; Kim, Kangseok; Kim, Sunshin


    With the discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood, the demand for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been increasing. To obtain reliable NIPT results, it is important to accurately estimate the fetal fraction. In this study, we propose an accurate and cost-effective method for measuring fetal fractions using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 84 samples were sequenced via semiconductor sequencing using a 0.3x sequencing coverage. SNPs were genotyped to estimate the fetal fraction. Approximately 900,000 SNPs were genotyped, and 250,000 of these SNPs matched the semiconductor sequencing results. We performed SNP imputation (1000Genome phase3 and HRC v1.1 reference panel) to increase the number of SNPs. The correlation coefficients (R2) of the fetal fraction estimated using the ratio of non-maternal alleles when coverage was reduced to 0.01 following SNP imputation were 0.93 (HRC v1.1 reference panel) and 0.90 (1000GP3 reference panel). An R2 of 0.72 was found at 0.01x sequencing coverage with no imputation performed. We developed an accurate method to measure fetal fraction using SNP imputation, showing cost-effectiveness by using different commercially available SNP chips and lowering the coverage. We also showed that semiconductor sequencing, which is an inexpensive option, was useful for measuring fetal fraction. python source code and guidelines can be found at, Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism: diagnostic and therapeutic approachment (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Özdemir, Ahmet


    Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism may occur in mothers with Graves’ disease. Fetal thyrotoxicosis manifestation is observed with the transition of TSH receptor stimulating antibodies to the fetus from the 17th–20th weeks of pregnancy and with the fetal TSH receptors becoming responsive after 20 weeks. The diagnosis is confirmed by fetal tachycardia, goiter and bone age advancement in pregnancy and maternal treatment is conducted in accordance. The probability of neonatal hyperthyroidism is high in the babies of mothers that have ongoing antithyroid requirement and higher antibody levels in the last months of pregnancy. Clinical manifestation may be delayed by 7–17 days because of the antithyroid drugs taken by the mother. Neonatal hyperthyroidism symptoms can be confused with sepsis and congenital viral infections. Herein, the diagnosis and therapeutic approach are reviewed in cases of fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism. PMID:28439194

  19. Fetal response to induced maternal emotions. (United States)

    Araki, Miyuki; Nishitani, Shota; Ushimaru, Keisho; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Oishi, Kazuyo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki


    This study investigated the relationship between fetal movements and acute maternal emotional changes during pregnancy. Two empirically validated feature film clips were used for the external generation of two subjectively and facially well-characterized target emotions: happiness and sadness. We simultaneously monitored separate fetal arm, leg, and trunk movements by means of two ultrasound apparatuses while maternal emotions were manipulated by film clip presentation. The number of fetal arm movements, but not the duration, was increased when pregnant women were being shown a happy film. Both the number and the duration of fetal arm movements decreased with the sad film presentation. Neither the presentation of happiness nor the presentation of sadness affected fetal leg or trunk movements. These findings suggest that induced emotions in pregnant women primarily affect arm movements of their fetuses, and that positive and negative emotions have the opposite effects on fetus movement.

  20. Development of the human fetal testis. (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Fowler, Paul A


    Masculinisation and adult fertility in the male are dependent on appropriate fetal endocrine programming. There is also now increasing evidence to indicate that the same mechanisms which regulate masculinisation also affect the general wellbeing of males throughout their life and, particularly, during ageing. Testosterone, secreted by the fetal testes, is the main factor regulating these processes and an understanding of fetal testis development in the human male is essential if we are to prevent adult reproductive disorders. This review focuses on what is known about human testis development and describes the effects of maternal smoking, a surrogate of possible xenotoxicant exposure on fetal testis and fetal liver function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Carl PC


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. Case presentation A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. Conclusion For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can

  2. Aspiration Thrombectomy Using a Guiding Catheter in Acute Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Usefulness of the Calf-Squeeze Technique

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    Lee, Jae A; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Yu, Hee Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The effectiveness of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy using guiding catheter in the treatment of an acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was evaluated by the use of imaging and the clinical follow-up of patients. A prospective analysis of ten patients (seven women, three men; median age, 56.9 years) with common iliac vein (CIV) obstruction and ipsilateral DVT was performed for this study. All patients presented with leg edema or pain and were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis via an ipsilateral popliteal vein approach after insertion of a temporary inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Subsequently, the patients were treated with by aspiration thrombectomy using a guiding catheter to remove the residual thrombus. The calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy can be used to induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliteal, tibial, and muscular veins were used to increase venous flow. The calf-squeeze technique was employed at mean of 1.3 times (range, 1-3 times). All patients showed proximal migration of a popliteal and muscular vein thrombus during the execution of the calf-squeeze technique. Successful recanalization was achieved in all patients (100%) without any complications. On duplex ultrasonography, which was performed immediately after the aspiration thrombectomy, four patients had a residual thrombus in the soleal muscular veins. However, none of the patients had a thrombus in the popliteal and tibial veins; and, during follow-up, no DVT recurred in any patient. The use of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy after catheter-directed thrombolysis can induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliotibial and muscular veins and is an effective method that can remove a thrombus in calf veins.

  3. Development of sociality and emergence of independence in a killer whale (Orcinus orca) calf from birth to 36 months. (United States)

    Guarino, Sara; Hill, Heather M; Sigman, Julie


    Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period. Focal follow video recordings of a mother-calf pair housed at SeaWorld San Antonio were collected 2-6 times a day for 5-15 min at 6-month intervals. Using a sample of randomly selected video recordings at each month, developmental changes in swims and social interactions with her mother, swims and social interactions with non-maternal partners, and solitary activities (e.g., solitary swims, solitary play) were observed across the months. The calf spent most of her time swimming with the mother across the 36-month period. The time the calf socialized with her mother was greater than the time she socialized with others at each month. Besides her mother, the calf socialized more often with the other adult female compared to adult males. As the calf matured, the increase in the time she spent socializing with adult killer whales other than the mother corresponded with an increase in the rate and time spent in solitary play. The developmental trends of sociality and emerging independence replicate research conducted with calves of other dolphin species. Zoo Biol. 36:11-20, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults. (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R


    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. NCT01842412.

  5. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model (United States)

    Niu, Jing; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Vinks, Alexander A.; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar


    Background Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK) using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model. Methods Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check. Results A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated. Conclusions For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms

  6. Influence of vision and static stretch of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing. (United States)

    Nagano, Akinori; Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Hay, Dean C; Himeno, Ryutaro; Fukashiro, Senshi


    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of vision and stretching of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing. Under pre-stretch conditions, participants stood on a force plate for 30s and the sway of the ground reaction force center of pressure was recorded. The following postural sway variables were calculated off-line: sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range, mean mediolateral position and mean anteroposterior position. For post-stretch conditions, participants stood quietly on a device that was utilized to impose a static 3 min ankle joint dorsiflexion stretch. Immediately thereafter, participants moved onto the force platform where postural sway parameters were again recorded. Randomized eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were tested in both cases. Results showed that postural sway significantly increased due to stretch (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal anteroposterior range, mean anteroposterior position), as well as eye closure (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range). The interaction between stretch and eye closure was also significant (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range), suggesting that there were only minor increases in postural sway after stretch under the eyes-open condition. It was suggested that stretching of the calf muscles has the effect of increasing postural sway, although this effect can be greatly compensated for when vision is included.

  7. Ankle-foot orthoses that restrict dorsiflexion improve walking in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness. (United States)

    Ploeger, Hilde E; Bus, Sicco A; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans


    In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We investigated the effect of DR-AFOs on gait biomechanics, walking energy cost, speed, and perceived waking ability in this patient group. Sixteen polio survivors with calf muscle weakness underwent 3D-gait analyses to assess gait biomechanics when walking with a DR-AFOs and with shoes only. Ambulant registration of gas-exchange during a 6 min walk test determined walking energy cost, and comfortable gait speed was calculated from the walked distance during this test. Perceived walking ability was assessed using purposely-designed questionnaires. Compared with shoes-only, walking with the DR-AFOs significantly increased forward progression of the center of pressure (CoP) in mid-stance and it reduced ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion in mid- and terminal stance (p muscle weakness, DR-AFOs improved gait biomechanics, speed, and perceived walking ability, compared to shoes-only. Effects may depend on the shoes-only gait pattern, therefore further study is needed to determine which patients benefit most from the DR-AFO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Venous reflux has a limited effect on calf muscle pump dysfunction in post-thrombotic patients. (United States)

    Haenen, J H; Janssen, M C; Brakkee, A J; Van Langen, H; Wollersheim, H; De Boo, T M; Skotnicki, S H; Thien, T


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between calf muscle pump dysfunction (CMD) and the presence and location of valvular incompetence. Deep vein obstruction might influence CMD, and so venous outflow resistance (VOR) was measured. VOR and calf muscle pump function were measured in 81 patients, 7-13 years after venographically confirmed lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The supine venous pump function test (SVPT) measures CMD, and the VOR measures the presence of venous outflow obstructions, both with the use of strain-gauge plethysmography. Valvular incompetence was measured using duplex scanning in 16 vein segments of one leg. Venous reflux was measured in proximal veins using the Valsalva manoeuvre, and in the distal veins by distal manual compression with sudden release. Abnormal proximal venous reflux was defined as a reflux time of more than 1 s, and abnormal distal venous reflux as a reflux time of more than 0.5 s. No statistically significant relationship was found between the SVPT and either the location or the number of vein segments with reflux. Of the 81 patients, only nine still had an abnormally high VOR, and this VOR showed no relationship with the SVPT. In conclusion, venous reflux has a limited effect on CMD, as measured by the SVPT. The presence of a venous outflow obstruction did not significantly influence the SVPT. Duplex scanning and the SVPT are independent complementary tests for evaluating chronic venous insufficiency.

  9. American and German attitudes towards cow-calf separation on dairy farms (United States)

    Busch, Gesa; Weary, Daniel M.; Spiller, Achim; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.


    Public concerns regarding the quality of life of farm animals are often focused on specific practices such as separating the cow and calf immediately after birth. The available scientific literature provides some evidence in support of this practice (including reduced acute responses to separation when it does occur), as well as evidence of disadvantages (such as increased risk of uterine disease in cows). The aim of this study is to systematically examine public views around this practice. Specifically, this study analyzes the views of American and German citizens to separation of cow and calf at birth using a quantitative segmentation approach. Although the majority of participants opposed early separation, a small proportion of our sample supported the practice. According to participants’ preference for early and later separation and their evaluation of different arguments for both practices, three clusters were identified. US participants were more likely to support early separation compared to German participants. The arguments presented for and against both practices caused different reactions in the three clusters, but did not appear to sway the opinions of most participants. The results show considerable opposition to the practice of early separation in large parts of the sample and suggest that the dairy industry should consider approaches to address this concern. PMID:28301604

  10. Characterization of adducts formed in reactions of acrolein with thymidine and calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Pawłowicz, Agnieszka J; Kronberg, Leif


    Acrolein, an important industrial chemical and environmental contaminant, has been shown to interact with nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the reactivity of acrolein towards thymidine and calf-thymus double- and single-stranded DNA in aqueous buffered solutions. LC-MS Analyses of the reaction mixture of acrolein with thymidine showed the formation of five structurally different adducts. The structures of the products were determined on the basis of mass spectrometry, UV absorbance, and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The adducts were identified as 3-(3-oxopropyl)thymidine (dT1), 3-[(tetrahydro-2,4-dihydroxypyran-3-yl)methyl]thymidine (dT2), 2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(thymidin-3-yl)pent-2-enal (dT3), 3-hydroxy-2-methylidene-5-(thymidin-3-yl)pentanal (dT4), and 2-[(thymidin-3-yl)methyl]penta-2,4-dienal (dT5). The adducts dT2-dT5 were formed in reaction of dT1 with acrolein. In the reaction of acrolein with calf-thymus DNA, dT1 was the only adduct detected in the DNA hydrolysate.

  11. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo. (United States)

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori


    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements. (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A


    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  13. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.

  14. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh


    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal-calf relationships and their influence on calves up to 120 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Souza-Conde AL


    Full Text Available Objectives. To research parental behavior and measure the weight of Nelore and Guzerat calves up to 120 days of age, collecting data from birth up to the first lactation. Materials and methods. Seven different corporal positions were considered to obtain specific data for each of the following categories: time to stand (TP, time to intend to feed after standing (TPTM, weight at birth (PN, weight at 120 days (P120, and time in contact with the calf (TCC. Additionally, independent variables were also evaluated, organized by class: weight at birth (CPN, number of calvings (CNP, order of calving in relation with the herd (CLPR, time of calving (CHP, and finally, hindering to feed (CTAT. Results. There was a significant result in favor of the Nelore race over the Guzerat race. The statistical averages for Nelore and Guzerat were: Time to stand averaged 71 and 153 minutes; time to intend to feed after standing, 39 minutes for Nelore and of 114 minutes for Guzerat. For variable weight at 120 days, Nelore reached an average of 122 kg, and Guzerat 109 kg. For the time in contact with the calf variable there was no significant variance between races. Conclusions. Results showed the superiority of the Nelore race, considering it better adapted to local environmental conditions.

  16. Serum interleukin-6 as a prognostic marker in neonatal calf diarrhea. (United States)

    Fischer, Stephani; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Czerny, Claus-Peter; Neumann, Stephan


    Neonatal calf diarrhea is still one of the most important diseases in calf rearing, and severe diarrhea has a marked effect on animal welfare. Furthermore, significant economic losses can result from this disease due to high mortality rates, high medical costs, and low weight gain. To avoid a fatal outcome of the disease, it is crucial that vulnerable calves are identified as early as possible. Interleukin-6 is described as an early and reliable prognostic marker in several diseases. In this study, 20 scouring calves were tested by ELISA for their IL-6 serum concentrations. Samples were collected twice, at the beginning of diarrhea and 7 to 10d later. Regarding the clinical outcome after 7 to 10d, calves were classified as recovered or nonrecovered. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted to determine the prognostic value of IL-6 for the progress of clinical symptoms. At the beginning of diarrhea, the IL-6 concentration was significantly higher in nonrecovering calves compared with those that recover 7 to 10d after the onset of diarrhea. Interleukin-6 proved to be a useful additional parameter in the clinical examination. High initial IL-6 values can support the decision for closer monitoring and an adapted therapeutic strategy for the respective calves. This may help to prevent unnecessary animal suffering and reduce economic losses. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Mahir S [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Reyngoudt, Harmen [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Deene, Yves de [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Sazak, Hakan S [Department of Statistics, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Fieremans, Els [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Delputte, Steven [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); D' Asseler, Yves [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Derave, Wim [Department of Movement and Sports Science, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, Ghent (Belgium); Lemahieu, Ignace [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium)


    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pH{sub i} range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 {+-} 0.57/4.8 {+-} 1.59 mM (mean {+-} SD) for athletes and 2.58 {+-} 0.65/3.3 {+-} 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that {sup 1}H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  18. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function. (United States)

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N


    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running. (United States)

    Kerhervé, Hugo A; Samozino, Pierre; Descombe, Fabrice; Pinay, Matthieu; Millet, Guillaume Y; Pasqualini, Marion; Rupp, Thomas


    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness) were determined at 12 km·h(-1) at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS) were assessed using visual analog scales. Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p 6 on a 10-cm scale) with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p biomechanics and lower limb muscle functional capabilities toward a more dynamic behavior compared to control session. However, wearing compression sleeves did not affect performance and exercise-induced DOMS, while it minimized Achilles tendon pain immediately after running.

  20. Numerical modeling of the fetal blood flow in the placental circulatory system (United States)

    Shannon, Alexander; Gallucci, Sergio; Mirbod, Parisa


    The placenta is a unique organ of exchange between the growing fetus and the mother. It incorporates almost all functions of the adult body, acting as the fetal lung, digestive and immune systems, to mention a few. The exchange of oxygen and nutrients takes place at the surface of the villous tree. Using an idealized geometry of the fetal villous trees in the mouse placenta, in this study we performed 3D computational analysis of the unsteady fetal blood flow, gas, and nutrient transport over the chorionic plate. The fetal blood was treated as an incompressible Newtonian fluid, and the oxygen and nutrient were treated as a passive scalar dissolved in blood plasma. The flow was laminar, and a commercial CFD code (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used for the simulation. COMSOL has been selected because it is multi-physics FEM software that allows for the seamless coupling of different physics represented by partial differential equations. The results clearly illustrate that the specific branching pattern and the in-plane curvature of the fetal villous trees affect the delivery of blood, gas and nutrient transport to the whole placenta.

  1. Dietary protein during gestation affects circulating indicators of placental function and fetal development in heifers. (United States)

    Sullivan, T M; Micke, G C; Magalhaes, R S; Martin, G B; Wallace, C R; Green, J A; Perry, V E A


    The influences of nutritional protein during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy on placental hormones and fetal growth were determined in composite beef heifers. At artificial insemination, heifers were stratified by weight within each composite genotype into 4 treatment groups: High High (HH=1.4kg crude protein (CP)/day for first and second trimesters of gestation; n=16), High Low (HL=1.4kg CP/day for first trimester and 0.4kg CP/day for second trimester; n=19), Low High (LH=0.4kg CP/day for first trimester and 1.4kg CP/day for second trimester; n=17) or Low Low (LL=0.4kg CP/day for first and second trimesters; n=19). Maternal plasma bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (bPAG) and progesterone (P4) were determined at gestation day (gd) 28, 82, 179 and 271 (mean gestation length 286 days) in addition to P4 at term. Estrone sulphate (ES) and bovine placental lactogen (bPL) concentrations were measured at gd 124, 179, 236 and 271 and at term in addition to ES at gd 82. Low dietary protein increased placental function as indicated by increased bPAG (P<0.001) and ES (P=0.02) concentrations in first trimester and increased bPL concentrations (P=0.01) in the second trimester of gestation. In the third trimester, when dietary treatment had ceased, placental function was no longer associated with previous dietary treatments. Dam genotype affected placental function as measured by bPL (P<0.001) and ES concentrations (P=0.02). Calf gender, heifer age and maternal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, -II and leptin did not affect hormonal indicators or circulating markers of placental function. Enhanced placental function during the third trimester, as measured by ES, was associated with increased calf birth weight (P=0.003).

  2. Regenerative healing following fetal myocardial infarction (United States)

    Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Danzer, Enrico; Davey, Marcus G.; Allukian, Myron; Englefield, Virginia; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Liechty, Kenneth W.


    Objectives The adult response to myocardial infarction results in inflammation, scar formation, left ventricular dilatation, and loss of regional and global function. Regenerative scarless healing has been demonstrated in fetal dermis and tendon and is associated with diminished inflammation. We hypothesized that following fetal myocardial infarction there would be minimal inflammation, regenerative healing, and preservation of function. Methods Anteroapical myocardial infarction encompassing 20% of the left ventricle were created in adult or early gestation fetal sheep. Myocardial function was serially assessed using quantitative echocardiography. Infarct architecture was examined histologically for evidence of scar formation. Cellular inflammation, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results In the adult sheep 4 weeks following myocardial infarction, there was a significant decline in ejection fraction (41±7.4% to 26±7.4%, p<0.05), and the akinetic myocardial segment increased in size (6.9±0.8 cm to 7.9±1.1 cm, p<0.05). In contrast, there was no decline in the fetal ejection fraction (53±8.1% to 55±8.8%) and no akinetic fetal myocardial segment 4 weeks post-infarction. The fetal infarcts lacked an inflammatory cell infiltrate and healed with minimal fibrosis, compared to the adults. Fetal infarcts also demonstrated BrdU+ proliferating cells, including cardiomyocytes, within the infarct. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the fetal response to myocardial infarction is dramatically different than the adult and is characterized by minimal inflammation, lack of fibrosis, myocardial proliferation, and restoration of cardiac function. Diminished inflammation is associated with fetal regenerative cardiac healing following injury. Understanding the mechanisms involved in fetal myocardial regeneration may lead to applications to alter the adult response following myocardial infarction. PMID:20452780

  3. Prevalence and Comparative Studies of Some Major Serotype of E.Coli from Cattle and Buffalo Calf Scour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagh A.A. and Jani R.G.

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to find the different serotype of E.coli isolates from the young cattle and buffalo calves affected with calf scours. Different strains of E. coli were isolated from 30 cases of calf scour from both cattle and buffalo calves each. All the isolates of E. coli were typed for ‘O’ antigen. The relationship of serotypes of E. coli to each case showed that two of the twenty six serotypes were common and appeared most virulent in both the species. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 458-459

  4. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: Response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin (United States)

    Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are variable and frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-depriv...

  5. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus (United States)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  6. Economics of transitioning from a cow-calf-yearling operation to a stocker operation as a potential strategy to address brucellosis risk in northwestern Wyoming (United States)

    An alternative enterprise for cattle ranchers that produce cows and calves is the production of stocker cattle. While stocker only operations have generally found to be less profitable than cow-calf or cow-calf-yearling operations, potential reasons for switching to stockers from having cows could i...

  7. On commercial media bias


    Germano, Fabrizio


    Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strongest ef...

  8. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc


    .... The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending...

  9. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes accross warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows. (United States)

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  10. Hypoxia: From Placental Development to Fetal Programming. (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Lais; Veras, Mariana Matera


    Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O 2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood. In this review, the role of hypoxia in fetal development, placentation, and fetal programming is summarized. Hypoxia is a basic mechanism involved in different pregnancy disorders and fetal health developmental complications. Although there are scientific data showing that hypoxia mediates changes in the growth trajectory of the fetus, modulates gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, and determines the health status later in adulthood, more mechanistic studies are needed. Furthermore, if we consider that intrauterine hypoxia is not a rare event, and can be a consequence of unavoidable exposures to air pollution, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and other very common conditions (drug addiction and stress), the health of future generations may be damaged and the incidence of some diseases will markedly increase as a consequence of disturbed fetal programming. Birth Defects Research 109:1377-1385, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)


    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  12. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan


    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.


    Varadinova, M R; Metodieva, R; Boyadzhieva, N


    Our knowledge of fetal programming has developed notably over the years and recent data suggest that an unbalanced diet prior and during pregnancy can have early-onset and long-lasting consequences on the health of the offspring. Specific negative influences of high dietary glucose and lipid consumption, as well as undernutrition, are associated with development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes in the offspring. The mechanisms underlying the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus may involve structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes. The aim of this review is to illustrate how adverse intrauterine environment may influence molecular modifications in the fetus and cause epigenetic alterations in particular. It has been demonstrated that prenatal epigenetic modifications may be linked to the pathogenesis and progression of the adult chronic disorders. Studies on epigenetic alterations will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term effects of in utero exposure and may open new perspectives for disease prevention and treatment.

  14. Clinical experience with the Hewlett-Packard M-1350A fetal monitor: correlation of Doppler-detected fetal body movements with fetal heart rate parameters and perinatal outcome. (United States)

    Devoe, L; Boehm, F; Paul, R; Frigoletto, F; Penso, C; Goldenberg, R; Rayburn, W; Smith, C


    Our purpose was to correlate measures of Doppler-detected fetal movements with standard fetal heart rate parameters and perinatal outcomes. This prospective, multiinstitutional trial used the Hewlett-Packard M1350A monitor to record simultaneous fetal heart rate baseline, variability, accelerations, decelerations, and number of fetal movements, and duration and percent of total time. These data were compared at 10- and 30-minute intervals during nonstress tests and were correlated with fetal heart rate baseline parameters and maternally perceived fetal movements and with outcomes of infants delivered within 7 days of the last test. At six centers 1704 actocardiograms from 884 third-trimester patients were analyzed. Doppler-detected fetal movement counts, durations, and percent of total time correlated weakly with all baseline fetal heart rate parameters (all values < 0.20). All fetal movement parameters increased significantly in successive 10-minute blocks and in periods of increased or normal fetal heart rate variability compared with those with fetal heart rate variability. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the percent of total movement time were comparable to those of standard nonstress test parameters. The risk of poor perinatal outcomes after nonreactive nonstress tests was lower in cases with fetal movements than in those without. Doppler actocardiography may help to discriminate fetal states during antepartum testing. It may prevent inappropriate diagnosis of fetal compromise when the nonstress test is nonreactive or nonreassuring.

  15. Loci associated with adult stature also affect calf birth survival in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Höglund, Johanna; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt


    effects on the service sire calving index (SCI), and body conformation index (BCI) at the same location (~39 Mb) on chromosome 6 in Nordic Red cattle. The targeted region was analyzed for SCI and BCI component traits. The QTL peak included LCORL and NCAPG genes, which had been reported to influence fetal...

  16. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min outdoor trail running.Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg. Running time, heart rate and muscle oxygenation of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (measured using portable near-infrared spectroscopy were monitored continuously. Muscle functional capabilities (power, stiffness were determined using 20 s of maximal hopping before and after both sessions. Running biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness were determined at 12 km·h−1 at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS were assessed using visual analog scales.Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p < 0.05, without any difference in deoxygenation kinetics during the run, and without any significant change in run times. Wearing CS was associated with (i higher aerial time and leg stiffness in running at constant rate, (ii with lower ground contact time, higher leg stiffness, and higher vertical stiffness in all-out running, and (iii with lower ground contact time in hopping. Significant DOMS were induced in both CS and CON (>6 on a 10-cm scale with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p < 0.05.Discussion: Calf compression did not modify muscle oxygenation during ~2 h 30

  17. Modifying a Cow-Calf Biophysical Simulation Model for Analyses of Alternative Enterprises (United States)

    Lutes, Jennifer L.

    Cow-calf producers in the United States, tasked with providing beef calves for the beef industry, have had a multitude of difficulties to overcome in recent years. Producers in northwest Arkansas were negatively impacted by high hay prices coupled with low beef cattle market prices due to severe drought experienced in portions of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time they also faced high grain prices, due to a record low harvest, combined with portions of the corn harvest diverted from human and animal feed to ethanol production. Tight lending policies of this time, reminiscent of the housing market crash in 2008, along with the negative public attention associated with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions associated with beef production, lead to a tough situation for cattle producers faced with increasing input costs, decreased revenue, and lack of access to loans. With these issues in mind, this research aimed to determine if incorporating switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) production on a cow-calf farm could serve to increase net returns, decrease income volatility, lower net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without decreasing beef output, and provide a viable source of feedstock for a potential bio-refinery. The study determined that switchgrass is a potential solution to these problems and thus aimed to discover differences in switchgrass supply under different government policies in four northwestern counties in Arkansas to an as-yet, non-existent bio-refinery. It was determined that growing switchgrass on pastureland, once devoted to cow-calf production, is a viable enterprise diversification tool that under the right conditions could be used to improve producer financial and environmental outcomes. However, bioenergy production is slow to gain traction in the US due to adverse market conditions from low fossil fuel prices. Thus, in the US, there are only a few bio-refineries currently online and accepting lignocellulosic biomass, however none of them are

  18. Correlation of ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight with actual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sonographic fetal weight estimation is an important component of antenatal care. Aim: To sonographically estimate fetal ... estimation is known to be an important component of standard antenatal care.3 Fetal weight is one ..... Raman S, Urquhart R, Yusof M. Clinical versus ul- trasound estimation of fetal weight.

  19. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders


    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations....... The thyroid gland appeared normal in size, and cord blood TSH and free T 4 were both within normal limits. At ultrasound control 6 days later, the right ovarian cyst was not visible, while the left cyst was still present. Thus, our report supports previous findings that fetal goiter can be treated...

  20. Fetal Heart Monitoring From Maternal ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manikandan


    Full Text Available Observing fetal health is very important for mothers and the fetus well-being. Most of the conditions can be monitored via ECG so Fetal ECG extraction plays an important role. Extracting Fetal ECG implies filtering maternal ECG and other artifacts and due to the presence of reference signal which is mothers ECG from chest adaptive filter is used much often. This paper proposes adaptive noise cancellation technique using LMS algorithm and heart rate detection algorithm. The method can also be used for a model based design to achieve result on hardware platform.

  1. Exploration of binding of bisphenol A and its analogues with calf thymus DNA by optical spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei


    Bisphenol A and its analogues have carcinogenic potentials and toxicities. However, there are lacks of studies elucidating gene toxic interactions of bisphenols with DNA. In this work, the binding modes of five bisphenol compounds with calf thymus DNA were characterized. The multi-spectroscopic experimental results indicated that the fluorescence quenching of bisphenols by calf thymus DNA point to groove binding. The ultraviolet visible and circular dichroism spectral data displayed that bisphenols partly induced conformational changes of calf thymus DNA. In addition, the binding constants of bisphenol A, diphenolic acid, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, bisphenol fluorine with calf thymus DNA obtained from fluorescence emission spectra were 1.09×10(4), 3.65×10(4), 4.46×10(4), 1.69×10(4), 4.49×10(4)Lmol(-1) at 298.15K, which indicated that the multi-noncovalent binding forces were involved in the binding processes. In silico investigations indicated that DNA has the preferable binding sites binding with bisphenols by minor groove binding and electrons transfer from DNA bases to bisphenols occurred. In addition, the structural differences of these five bisphenols partly affected the binding ability of them with DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PCR-based identification of Neospora caninum in the umbilical cord of a newborn calf in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Azevedo da Cunha Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted at a beef cattle breeding farm in the far southern region of Brazil. The birth of a calf with unilateral corneal opacity was immediately reported to the Laboratory of Parasitology, in the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; blood was collected from the cow and calf before colostrum intake. The umbilical cords from this calf and from six other healthy animals were collected. Serological examination, utilizing an indirect fluorescent antibody test, was done using a cut-off point of 1:100. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed using the umbilical cord samples. Serological tests showed that the calf was positive for Neospora caninum at birth, with a titer of 1:1600; a titer of 1:3200 was reported in the dam. PCR, using umbilical cord tissue from the affected animal, was positive for the presence of this parasite, and the molecular identity of the amplified product was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, the detection of N. caninum DNA in the umbilical cord represents a novel alternative test for the diagnosis of this parasitic infection in newborn calves that are clinically suspected to have neosporosis.

  3. Multi-residue analysis of anabolics in calf urine using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, A; Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A


    We describe the development of an HPLC method with diode-array detection (DAD) for the analysis and identification of 20 substances with anabolic properties, that are considered as potential growth promoters, to be used for the analysis of extracts of calf urine samples. The substances are separated

  4. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinari Takamura


    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  5. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf (United States)


    Abstract A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle. PMID:15532887

  6. A quantitative assessment of the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by tallow-based calf milk-replacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.


    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to assess the risk of BSE transmission to calves by calf milk-replacer (CMR). We assumed that any BSE infectivity in the CMR would be associated with the allowable levels of impurities in tallow used to manufacture the milk-replacer. Simulations used...

  7. Prepartum nutrition and solar radiation in beef cattle: II. Residual effects on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin, and calf growth. (United States)

    Shell, T M; Early, R J; Carpenter, J R; Buckley, B A


    Residual effects of nutrition and solar radiation during the last two-thirds of gestation on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M in both colostrum and calf serum, and calf growth were determined in beef cattle. Nineteen mature, multiparous crossbred cows (Bos taurus) at d 90 of pregnancy were assigned to either low (LO, 70% NRC total energy intake) or high (HI, 110% NRC total energy intake) nutritional level (sudangrass hay) and to either shade (S) or no shade (NS) treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. After parturition, all cows were moved into a large paddock and managed uniformly. Calf weights and calf serum were collected within 1 d postpartum, thereafter at 2-wk intervals for the next 12 wk, and then at 4-wk intervals until weaning. Colostrum samples were taken from the cow and milk yields were determined by the "weigh-suckle-weigh" technique. Neither prepartum nutrition nor environment influenced lactational performance of the dam. Concentrations of IgG were elevated in the colostrum of LO cows (15.3 vs 7.8 g/100 mL, LO vs HI, respectively; P calves from S cows than in those from NS cows. This difference in IgM profile did not seem to be due to any residual effect from prepartum treatments. Postnatal growth of calves from birth until weaning were similar across all prepartum treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Mechanism of Exciplex Formation Between Cu-Porphyrin and Calf-thymus DNA as Revealed by Saturation Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvedko, A.G.; Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, S.G.; Ermolenkov, V.V.; Turpin, P.Y.; Greve, Jan; Otto, Cornelis


    The excited-state complex (exciplex) formation that results from the photoinduced interaction of water-soluble cationic copper(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyl)]porphyrin [Cu(TMpy-P4)] with calf-thymus DNA has been studied in detail by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy using both ~10 ns

  9. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  10. Effects of repeated ankle stretching on calf muscle-tendon and ankle biomechanical properties in stroke survivors. (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J; Harvey, Richard; Zhang, Li-Qun


    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in active and passive biomechanical properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit induced by controlled ankle stretching in stroke survivors. Ten stroke survivors with ankle spasticity/contracture and ten healthy control subjects received intervention of 60-min ankle stretching. Joint biomechanical properties including resistance torque, stiffness and index of hysteresis were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. The force output of the triceps surae muscles was characterized via the torque-angle relationship, by stimulating the calf muscles at a controlled intensity across different ankle positions. Compared to healthy controls, the ankle position corresponding to the peak torque of the stroke survivors was shifted towards plantar flexion (Pstretching intervention, especially in dorsiflexion (P=0.013). Stretching significantly improved the force output of the impaired calf muscles in stroke survivors under matched stimulations (Pstretching (Pstretching loosened the ankle joint with increased passive joint range of motion and decreased joint stiffness. At the muscle-tendon level, repeated stretching improved calf muscle force output, which might be associated with decreased muscle fascicle stiffness, increased fascicle length and shortening of the Achilles tendon. The study provided evidence of improvement in muscle tendon properties through stretching intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal movement counting--effects on maternal-fetal attachment: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Saastad, Eli; Israel, Pravin; Ahlborg, Tone; Gunnes, Nina; Frøen, J Frederik


      Women presenting with decreased fetal movement have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fetal movement counting may be associated with improvement in maternal-fetal attachment, which in turn, improves pregnancy outcome and postnatal mother-infant attachment. The study aim was to test whether maternal-fetal attachment differed between groups of mothers who systematically performed fetal movement counting and mothers who followed standard antenatal care where routine fetal movement counting was discouraged.   In a multicenter, randomized trial, 1,123 women were assigned to either systematic fetal movement counting from pregnancy week 28 or to standard antenatal care. This study sample included primarily white, cohabiting, nonsmoking, and relatively well-educated women. The outcome measure was maternal-fetal attachment, measured by using the Prenatal Attachment Inventory. Analysis was by intention-to-treat.   No difference was found between the groups in the scores on prenatal attachment; the means and standard deviations were 59.54 (9.39) and 59.34 (9.75) [corrected] for the intervention and the control groups, respectively (p = 0.747). The mean difference between the groups was 0.20 (95% CI: -1.02-1.42) [corrected].   Fetal movement counting in the third trimester does not stimulate antenatal maternal-fetal attachment. This result differs from a previous study where fetal movement counting improved maternal-fetal attachment. Further research with a focus on possible mediating factors such as levels of stress, concern, and other psychological factors is required. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Real-Time Automatic Fetal Brain Extraction in Fetal MRI by Deep Learning


    Salehi, Seyed Sadegh Mohseni; Hashemi, Seyed Raein; Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Ouaalam, Abdelhakim; Estroff, Judy A.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Warfield, Simon K.; Gholipour, Ali


    Brain segmentation is a fundamental first step in neuroimage analysis. In the case of fetal MRI, it is particularly challenging and important due to the arbitrary orientation of the fetus, organs that surround the fetal head, and intermittent fetal motion. Several promising methods have been proposed but are limited in their performance in challenging cases and in real-time segmentation. We aimed to develop a fully automatic segmentation method that independently segments sections of the feta...

  13. Biobanking of patient and patient-derived xenograft ovarian tumour tissue : efficient preservation with low and high fetal calf serum based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, Nicolette G.; Tomar, Tushar; Duiker, Evelien W.; Meersma, Gert Jan; Klip, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Wisman, G. Bea A.; de Jong, Steven


    Using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for preclinical cancer research demands proper storage of tumour material to facilitate logistics and to reduce the number of animals needed. We successfully established 45 subcutaneous ovarian cancer PDXs, reflecting all histological subtypes, with an overall

  14. Fetal Heart Rate Pattern Notification Guidelines and Suggested Management Algorithm for Intrapartum Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring


    Downs, Thomas; Zlomke, Evelyn


    Context: Numerous randomized controlled trials have demonstrated limited efficacy of intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring in improving fetal outcome. A potential reason is the wide variability in clinical decision making seen with its use. Standardizing management of variant intrapartum fetal heart rate tracings may reduce this variability and lead to improvement in fetal outcome.

  15. Induction of C-type virus in cell lines derived from calf form bovine lymphosarcoma. (United States)

    Onuma, M; Okada, K; Yamazaki, Y; Fujinaga, K; Fujimoto, Y; Mikami, T


    For attempt to detect an etiological agent, cultures from bovine lymphosarcoma cases (adult form (ALS), calf form (CLS), and thymic form (TLS) were maintained in vitro for over a 18 month period. In two cultures from ALS, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) antigen was constantly detected. On the other hand, BLV antigen remained negative in cultures from two CLS and one TLS cases up to 40 passages. The RNA dependent DNA polymerase activities in these cultures were also negative. Treatment of a culture from CLS (3178) originated from liver tumor with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU) and dexamethasone (DXM) resulted in production of an agent serologically and morphologically similar to BLV and in alteration of cell morphology. No virus was detected in culture from TLS after treatment with IdU and DXM.

  16. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak


    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  17. [Efficacy of protein-free calf blood extract for mechanical corneal epithelial defects in human eyes]. (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-di; Gong, Lan; Sun, Xing-huai; Zhao, Nai-qing; Zhu, Zhao-rong; Li, Yu-min; Yao, Ke; Zhao, Wu-ling


    To evaluate the clinical efficacy between protein-free calf blood extract eye drops and recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops for mechanical corneal epithelial defects in human eyes. A multi-center, randomized and double-blind study with a parallel, positive-control designation was carried out from April to November in 2005 at Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University, Xinhua Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, the First Hospital of Zhejiang University, the Second Hospital of Zhejiang University and Qingdao Municipal Hospital. 240 patients (240 eyes) with confirmed diagnosis of corneal epithelial defects at that six hospitals were enrolled in this study and were randomly arranged into two groups in average. One group (120 eyes) were treated by 20% protein-free calf blood extract eye drops which was defined as the experimental group while the other (120 eyes) by 5000 IU/ml recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops as the positive control group. The drug was delivered in both groups 4 times per day, one drop each time in the 14 days duration. The symptoms and signs were scored and the safety was evaluated on the pre-delivery day, the third post-delivery day (day 3), day 7 and day 14. The variants in the study were tested for the different efficacy and safety between the two drugs using non-inferiority test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, chi-square test, continuity correction chi-square test, Fisher's exact probabilities, analysis of variance, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test and so on. The criterion for statistical significance was P recombinant human epidermal growth factor group (day 3: X2 = 1.5677, P = 0.4566, day 7: X2 = 1.7152, P = 0.4242, day 14: X2 = 3.0814, P = 0.2142). The total scores of symptoms and signs in experimental group had a obvious descending (6.009 +/- 3.030) compared with the positive control group with a descending of (5.177 +/- 2

  18. Interaction of vasicine with calf thymus DNA: Molecular docking, spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric insights (United States)

    R. S., Sai Murali; R. S., Sai Siddhardha; Rajesh Babu, D.; Venketesh, S.; Basavaraju, R.; Nageswara Rao, G.


    The present study brings out the interaction between vasicine, an alkaloid and Adhatoda vasica Nees with double stranded DNA. The physico-chemical interaction between small molecules and nucleic acids is a major area of focus in screening drugs against various cancers. Molecular probing in our study using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) has revealed interaction of vasicine with DNA double helix. Here we report the interaction of vasicine with Calf thymus DNA. We present for the first time the results obtained from UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric techniques that suggest a moderate to strong electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions mediating the DNA binding properties of vasicine, leading to disruption of DNA secondary structure.

  19. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Stefan Mathias; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D


    Changes in the concentration of interstitial K+ surrounding skeletal muscle fibres ([K+]I) probably play some role in the regulation of cardiovascular adjustments to muscular activity, as well as in the aetiology of muscle pain and fatigue during high-intensity exercise. However, there is very...... little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods......+. Calf muscle pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. On average, [K+]I was 4.4 mmol l(-1) at rest and increased during minutes 3-5 of incremental exercise by approximately 1-7 mmol l(-1) as a positive function of power output. K+ release also increased as a function of exercise intensity...

  20. Reduction in the bactericidal activity of selected cathelicidin peptides by bovine calf serum or exogenous endotoxin. (United States)

    Bartlett, Karen H; McCray, Paul B; Thorne, Peter S


    Synthetic cathelicidin peptides exhibit enhanced antimicrobial action and avid binding to LPS, thereby detoxifying the action of endotoxin released from degrading bacteria. A series of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAP) and sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP) congeners were examined to determine whether LPS-binding could predict other beneficial characteristics of the peptides. The peptides were challenged in complex media with bovine calf serum or LPS, and their ability to kill the Gram negative pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 43816) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA103) was then assessed. LPS-binding efficiency was not correlated with antimicrobial activity in complex media. Additionally, LPS- and serum-binding may interfere with the antimicrobial activity of peptides in complex media. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Consequences of transfer of an in vitro-produced embryo for the dam and resultant calf. (United States)

    Bonilla, L; Block, J; Denicol, A C; Hansen, P J


    No reports exist on consequences of in vitro production (IVP) of embryos for the postnatal development of the calf or on postparturient function of the dam of the calf. Three hypotheses were evaluated: calves born as a result of transfer of an IVP embryo have reduced neonatal survival and altered postnatal growth, fertility, and milk yield compared with artificial insemination (AI) calves; cows giving birth to IVP calves have lower milk yield and fertility and higher incidence of postparturient disease than cows giving birth to AI calves; and the medium used for IVP affects the incidence of developmental abnormalities. In the first experiment, calves were produced by AI using conventional semen or by embryo transfer (ET) using a fresh or vitrified embryo produced in vitro with X-sorted semen. Gestation length was longer for cows receiving a vitrified embryo than for cows receiving a fresh embryo or AI. The percentage of dams experiencing calving difficulty was higher for ET than AI. We observed a tendency for incidence of retained placenta to be higher for ET than AI but found no significant effect of treatment on incidence of prolapse or metritis, pregnancy rate at first service, services per conception, or any measured characteristic of milk production in the subsequent lactation. Among Holstein heifers produced by AI or ET, treatment had no effect on birth weight but the variance tended to be greater in the ET groups. More Holstein heifer calves tended to be born dead, died, or were euthanized within the first 20d of life for the ET groups than for AI. Similarly, the proportion of Holstein heifer calves that either died or were culled for poor health after 20d of age was greater for the ET groups than for AI. We observed no effect of ET compared with AI on age at first service or on the percentage of heifers pregnant at first service, calf growth, or milk yield or composition in the first 120d in milk of the first lactation. In a second experiment, embryos were

  2. [Relationship of prenatal stress and depression to maternal-fetal attachment and fetal growth]. (United States)

    Kwon, Mi-Kyung; Bang, Kyung-Sook


    Prenatal depression is associated with potential negative consequences for the mother and infant. The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's stress, and depression and their impact on maternal-fetal attachment and fetal growth. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and fetal sonogram from a convenience sample of 166 pregnant women. Women who have a low educational level, poor health and are dissatisfied with their marriage showed low maternal-fetal attachment. Prenatal depression had significant correlations with length of pregnancy and level of stress. Even though correlation between maternal stress and fetal weight (r=-.15, p=.099) and correlation between maternal depression and maternal-fetal attachment (r=-.13, p=.095) were not statistically significant, the impact of the prenatal psychological state of mothers can not be ignored as it relates to fetal health. Maternal-fetal attachment and fetal growth can be affected by maternal emotional state, including stress or depression. These findings suggest that primary care nurses in hospitals and public health centers should provide prenatal depression screening and nursing intervention programs for management and prevention of prenatal stress and depression.

  3. Maternal plasma fetal DNA fractions in pregnancies with low and high risks for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hudecova

    Full Text Available Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk.

  4. Fetal cell-free DNA fraction in maternal plasma is affected by fetal trisomy. (United States)

    Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Ebara, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Samura, Osamu; Yotsumoto, Junko; Nishiyama, Miyuki; Miura, Kiyonori; Sawai, Hideaki; Murotsuki, Jun; Kitagawa, Michihiro; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Hirahara, Fumiki; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Sago, Haruhiko; Sekizawa, Akihiko


    The purpose of this noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) study was to compare the fetal fraction of singleton gestations by gestational age, maternal characteristics and chromosome-specific aneuploidies as indicated by z-scores. This study was a multicenter prospective cohort study. Test data were collected from women who underwent NIPT by the massively parallel sequencing method. We used sequencing-based fetal fraction calculations in which we estimated fetal DNA fraction by simply counting the number of reads aligned within specific autosomal regions and applying a weighting scheme derived from a multivariate model. Relationships between fetal fractions and gestational age, maternal weight and height, and z-scores for chromosomes 21, 18 and 13 were assessed. A total of 7740 pregnant women enrolled in the study, of which 6993 met the study criteria. As expected, fetal fraction was inversely correlated with maternal weight (P<0.001). The median fetal fraction of samples with euploid result (n=6850) and trisomy 21 (n=70) were 13.7% and 13.6%, respectively. In contrast, the median fetal fraction values for samples with trisomies 18 (n=35) and 13 (n=9) were 11.0% and 8.0%, respectively. The fetal fraction of samples with trisomy 21 NIPT result is comparable to that of samples with euploid result. However, the fetal fractions of samples with trisomies 13 and 18 are significantly lower compared with that of euploid result. We conclude that it may make detecting these two trisomies more challenging.

  5. Myo-inositol uptake by cultured calf retinal pigment epithelial cells: regulation by glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, M.; Rockey, J.H.


    Confluent primary (P-1) or subcultured passage 2 or 3 (P-2, P-3) calf retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) were incubated with (/sup 3/H)-myo-inositol (MI, 100-200 in balanced salt solution (BSS), for 5 to 60 min at 37/sup 0/C. MI uptake into RPE (P-2, 5 days old) was saturable with K/sub m/ of 147 and V/sub max/ of 5.5 pmole/min/ DNA. P-1 or P-2 incubated with 10 MI for 40 min accumulated MI against a concentration gradient ((MI)in/(MI)out > 20). Replacement of 150 mM NaCl in BSS by 150 mM choline-Cl reduced the uptake of MI by 87%. MI uptake was inhibited (39%) when cells were incubated in BSS in the absence of Ca Cl/sub 2/. Transport of MI into RPE incubated in the presence of phloridzin, ouabain or 2,4-dinitrophenol (1 mM each) for 10 min was inhibited by 65, 37 and 21%, respectively. ..cap alpha..-D-Glucose (20 mM) in the incubation media inhibited MI uptake into primary (or P-2) cultured RPE by 30 or 43% when cells were incubated for 10 or 60 min, respectively. The ability of RPE cells, grown in the presence of 50 mM glucose for 15-25 days, to concentrate MI (40 was reduced up to 41%. Cultured RPE cells accumulated myo-inositol by an active transport system, sensitive to ouabain, DNP and phloridzin. High glucose in the incubation media or in the growth media inhibited the uptake of MI into calf RPE cells.

  6. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf. (United States)

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C


    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  7. Female reproductive success and calf survival in a North Sea coastal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population. (United States)

    Robinson, Kevin P; Sim, Texa M C; Culloch, Ross M; Bean, Thomas S; Cordoba Aguilar, Isabel; Eisfeld, Sonja M; Filan, Miranda; Haskins, Gary N; Williams, Genevieve; Pierce, Graham J


    Between-female variation in reproductive output provides a strong measure of individual fitness and a quantifiable measure of the health of a population which may be highly informative to management. In the present study, we examined reproductive traits in female bottlenose dolphins from the east coast of Scotland using longitudinal sightings data collected over twenty years. From a total of 102 females identified between 1997 and 2016, 74 mothers produced a collective total of 193 calves. Females gave birth from 6 to 13 years of age with a mean age of 8. Calves were produced during all study months, May to October inclusive, but showed a seasonal birth pulse corresponding to the regional peak in summer water temperatures. Approximately 83% (n = 116) of the calves of established fate were successfully raised to year 2-3. Of the known mortalities, ~45% were first-born calves. Calf survival rates were also lower in multiparous females who had previously lost calves. A mean inter-birth interval (IBI) of 3.80 years (n = 110) and mean fecundity of 0.16 was estimated for the population. Calf loss resulted in shortened IBIs, whilst longer IBIs were observed in females assumed to be approaching reproductive senescence. Maternal age and size, breeding experience, dominance, individual associations, group size and other social factors, were all concluded to influence reproductive success (RS) in this population. Some females are likely more important than others for the future viability of the population. Consequently, a better knowledge of the demographic groups containing those females showing higher reproductive success would be highly desirable for conservation efforts aimed at their protection.

  8. Effects of spray-dried whole egg and biotin in calf milk replacer. (United States)

    Quigley, J D


    Holstein bull calves (n = 120) were fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, or 20% of the formulation (0, 22, or 44% of crude protein) as spray-dried whole egg powder in a 56-d feeding trial. Milk replacer was medicated with oxytetracycline and neomycin and was fed from d 1 to 42 of the study in a phase-fed program. All experimental milk replacers were supplemented with B vitamins, except biotin. One half of all calves were supplemented with 1 mg/kg of supplemental biotin to determine whether avidin in the egg protein product inhibited growth. Increasing spray-dried whole egg caused a linear reduction in body weight, body weight gain at 28 and 56 d of the study, calf starter intake, and feed efficiency. Calves fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, and 20% spray-dried whole egg gained an average of 486, 369, and 302 g/d, respectively, during the 56-d trial. Efficiency of feed utilization was 446, 318, and 231 g of body weight gain per kilogram of dry matter intake. Improvement in body weight and feed efficiency occurred when calves began consuming calf starter on d 29. Digestibility of protein or fat from egg may have been reduced during the trial; however, the addition of biotin to the milk replacer did not influence animal performance, suggesting that avidin in spray-dried whole egg was not responsible for impaired performance. The spray-dried whole egg product used in this study did not provide nutrients to support adequate growth of milk-fed calves.

  9. Impact of dry weight determined by calf bioimpedance ratio on carotid stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Lun; Liu, Jing; Ma, LiJie; Sun, Fang; Shen, Yang; Huang, Jing; Cui, TaiGen


    Our previous study has shown that modification of bioimpedance technique by the measurement of bioimpedance ratio in the calf (calf-BR) was a simple and practical method in assessing fluid status in hemodialysis patients. However, the consequences of periodical dry weight (DW) adjustment under the guidance of calf-BR on target organ damage have not been investigated. One hundred fifteen hemodialysis patients were enrolled in this pilot trial. Patients were divided into bioimpedance group and control group according to their dialysis schedule. In the bioimpedance group, DW was routinely adjusted under the guidance of calf-BR every 3 months. In the control group, the assessment of DW remained a clinical judgment. Carotid stiffness, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and calf-BR were measured at baseline and at the 12th month in both groups. Home blood pressure (BP) was monitored monthly. Episodes of dialysis-related adverse events were recorded. No significant differences were observed in parameters between the two groups at baseline. Compared with the control group, the bioimpedance group had significantly lower values in terms of the annual averages of systolic home BP (147.4 ± 15.3 mm Hg vs. 152.6 ± 16.9 mm Hg, P = 0.019), carotid stiffness index β (10.7 ± 3.3 vs. 12.2 ± 3.1, P = 0.003), LVMI (155.21 ± 15.64 g/m(2) vs. 165.17 ± 16.76 g/m(2) , P measurement improved arterial stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy with good tolerability in hemodialysis patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  10. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld


    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries......, antenatal prophylaxis is combined with postnatal prophylaxis to further minimize the immunization risk. Due to lack of knowledge of the fetal RhD type, antenatal prophylaxis is given to all D-negative women. In the European population, approximately 40% of pregnant women carry a D-negative fetus...... and are thus at no risk of immunization. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping enables antenatal prophylaxis to be targeted to only those women carrying a D-positive fetus to avoid unnecessary treatment. Based on an analysis of cell-free fetal DNA from the plasma of pregnant women, this approach has recently...

  11. [Quality and effectiveness of electronic fetal monitoring]. (United States)

    Biringer, K; Danko, J


    To evaluate effectiveness of electronic fetal monitoring methods during labor. A case series study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin, Slovak Republic. We followed 112 fetuses with simultaneous continuous monitoring (cardiotocography (CTG), intrapartal fetal pulse oxymetry (IFPO), and analysis of ST segment in fetal electrocardiogram (STAN)) during labor. We determined the effective time for every diagnostic tool. histograms, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman's coefficient; significance (alfa): p STAN > IFPO (94.8% +/- 15.1% vs. 90.4% +/- 18.3% vs. 87.4% +/- 21.2%). STAN was the most effective tool in the second stage of labor (91.3% +/- 9.4%). The most effective fetal monitoring tool is CTG. However STAN is the best diagnostic method in the second stage of labor, because of its bio-signal quality.

  12. Fetal surveillance and outcome in postterm pregnancy


    Kitlinski, Margareta


    To minimize the risk of short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality among children born postterm, studies were performed to evaluate the fetal surveillance program. (1) Male-fetus pregnancies were at an increased risk

  13. Fetal hypoxia and programming of matrix metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Tong, Wenni; Zhang, Lubo


    Fetal hypoxia adversely affects the brain and heart development, yet the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies indicate an important role of the extracellular matrix in fetal development and tissue remodeling. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. This review summarizes current knowledge of the mechanisms by which fetal hypoxia induces the imbalance of MMPs, TIMPs and collagen expression patterns, resulting in growth restriction and aberrant tissue remodeling in the developing heart and brain. Collectively, this information could lead to the development of preventive diagnoses and therapeutic strategies in the fetal programming of cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Treatments (United States)

    ... receive such services. Loving, nurturing, and stable home environment Children with FASDs can be more sensitive than other ... E., & Schwartz, L. (2012). Neurocognitive habilitation therapy for children with fetal ... Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66, 24-34. Top of ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... About . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Interventions Alcohol ...

  16. Erythropoietin elevation in the chronically hyperglycemic fetal lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, A.F. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington) Widness, J.A.; Garcia, J.F.; Raye, J.R.; Swartz, R.


    The effects of chronic fetal glucose infusion upon fetal oxygenation and endogenous erythropoietin (Ep) production were studied using the chronically catheterized fetal lamb. Fetal glucose infusion at rates between 5 and 20 mg/kg/min resulted in sustained fetal hyperglycemia. During glucose infusion (maximal glucose concentration achieved = 55.4 +/- 3.7 mg/dl) fetal arterial oxygen contents fell from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 4.2 +/- 1.0 ml/dl while no changes were observed in simultaneously sampled, noninfused twins. Although plasma insulin concentration rose in the infused fetuses, the elevations were inconstant and no relationship between fetal plasma insulin concentration and decrement in fetal oxygen content was evident. The changes in plasma Ep concentration were noted prior to any significant fetal metabolic acidosis (as evidence of tissue hypoxia) and no changes in plasma Ep concentration were observed in simultaneously sampled noninfused twins. No relationship was apparent between fetal arterial plasma insulin and Ep concentrations. Since neither fetal anemia nor hemodilution occurred in these preparations, glucose-induced fetal hyposemia is the likely mechanism behind elevated fetal Ep concentrations in these experiments. Similarities between this animal model and human fetuses and infants of diabetic mothers suggest that chronic in utero hypoxemia may be a common feature responsible for such diverse abnomalities as polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and late fetal demise. The mechanism behind the glucose-induced fetal hypoxemia is not known.

  17. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...... definitions and interpretations of commercialization. We offer a process-oriented definition of commercialization that is theoretically founded in the capability-based view of the firm. We also outline an agenda for future theoretical development and empirical research on commercialization aimed at advancing...

  18. Fetal MR imaging of Kniest dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tinkle, Bradley T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    We present a case of Kniest dysplasia, a rare form of the type II collagenopathies, with prenatal MRI. Sonography revealed only short limbs in the fetus. Fetal MRI findings included enlarged hyaline cartilaginous structures with abnormally high T2 signal intensity, delayed ossification of the pubic and ischial bones, and platyspondyly. By delineating the cartilaginous abnormalities, fetal MRI can contribute to the prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasias. (orig.)

  19. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming


    Thompson, Loren P.; Yazan Al-Hasan


    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that pr...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Exposure: The Common Toll


    Nakhoul, Marie R; Seif, Karl E; Haddad, Natasha; Haddad, Georges E


    Alcohol has always been present in human life, and currently it is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age consume alcohol. It has become increasingly clear over the last years that alcohol exposure during fetal development can have detrimental effects on various organ systems, and these effects are exerted by alcohol through multiple means, including effects on free radical formation, cellular apoptosis, as well as gene expression. Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to a spectrum of sho...

  1. Epidemiology of fetal death in Latin America. (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, A; Belizán, J M; Díaz-Rossello, J L


    To identify risk factors associated with fetal death, and to measure the rate and the risk of fetal death in a large cohort of Latin American women. We analyzed 837,232 singleton births recorded in the Perinatal Information System Database of the Latin American Center for Perinatology and Human Development (CLAP) between 1985 and 1997. The risk factors analyzed included fetal factors and maternal sociodemographic, obstetric, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted relative risks were obtained, after adjustment for potential confounding factors, through multiple logistic regression models based on the method of generalized estimating equations. There were 14,713 fetal deaths (rate=17.6 per 1000 births). The fetal death risk increased exponentially as pregnancy advanced. Thirty-seven percent of all fetal deaths occurred at term, and 64% were antepartum. The main risk factors associated with fetal death were lack of antenatal care (adjusted relative risk [aRR]=4.26; 95% confidence interval, 3.84-4.71) and small for gestational age (aRR=3.26; 95% CI, 3.13-3.40). In addition, the risk of death during the intrapartum period was almost tenfold higher for fetuses in noncephalic presentations. Other risk factors associated with stillbirth were: third trimester bleeding, eclampsia, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, syphilis, gestational diabetes mellitus, Rh isoimmunization, interpregnancy interval or =4, maternal age > or =35 years, illiteracy, premature rupture of membranes, body mass index > or =29.0, maternal anemia, previous abortion, and previous adverse perinatal outcomes. There are several preventable factors that should be dealt with in order to reduce the gap in fetal mortality between Latin America and developed countries.

  2. Fetal Doppler velocimetry and bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk among growth-restricted preterm infants: an observational study. (United States)

    Lio, Alessandra; Rosati, Paolo; Pastorino, Roberta; Cota, Francesco; Tana, Milena; Tirone, Chiara; Aurilia, Claudia; Ricci, Cinzia; Gambacorta, Alessandro; Paladini, Angela; Mappa, Ilenia; Buongiorno, Silvia; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni


    To investigate whether fetal growth restriction (FGR) diagnosis, based on pathological prenatal fetal Doppler velocimetry, is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) independently of being small for gestational age (SGA) per se at birth among very preterm infants. Prospective, observational study. FGR was defined as failing fetal growth in utero and fetal Doppler velocimetry abnormalities. Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Roma, Italy. Preterm newborns with gestational age ≤30 weeks and birth weight (BW) ≤1250 g. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In the study period, 178 newborns were eligible for the study. Thirty-nine infants (22%) were considered fetal growth-restricted infants. Among the 154 survived babies at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, 12 out of 36 (33%) of the FGR group developed BPD versus 8 out of 118 (7%) of the NO-FGR group (p<0.001). BPD rate was sixfold higher among the SGA-FGR infants compared with the SGA-NO-FGR infants. In a multivariable model, FGR was significantly associated with BPD risk (OR 5.1, CI 1.4 to 18.8, p=0.01), independently from BW z-score that still remains a strong risk factor (OR 0.5, CI 0.3 to 0.9, p=0.01). Among SGA preterm infants, BPD risk dramatically increases when placenta dysfunction is the surrounding cause of low BW. Antenatal fetal Doppler surveillance could be a useful tool for studying placenta wellness and predicting BPD risk among preterm babies. Further research is needed to better understand how FGR affects lung development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Application of reproductive biotechnology for the recovery of endangered breeds: birth of the first calf of Murciana-Levantina bovine breed derived by OPU, in vitro production and embryo vitrification. (United States)

    Ruiz, S; Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, J; Astiz, S; Peinado, B; Almela, L; Poto, A


    In a conservation project, reproductive biotechnology was implemented for the recovery and conservation of an endangered bovine breed in Spain. The breed Murciana-Levantina, declared to be worthy of special protection status (, is of great interest because of its hardness, longevity, docility and disease resistance. This contribution describes the birth of the first calf of this breed obtained by reproductive biotechnology, using ultrasound-guided punction and aspiration of ovarian follicles, in vitro embryo production, vitrification of embryos by a cryotop device and, finally, the transfer of cryopreserved embryos to recipient heifers of a commercial dairy herd. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, P [Oxford BioHorizons Ltd. (United Kingdom); Scopesi, F [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy); Serra, G [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy)


    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  5. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  6. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance (United States)

    Rolfe, P.; Scopesi, F.; Serra, G.


    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  7. Isolated single umbilical artery and fetal karyotype. (United States)

    Dagklis, T; Defigueiredo, D; Staboulidou, I; Casagrandi, D; Nicolaides, K H


    To determine the need for fetal karyotyping in cases of an isolated single umbilical artery (SUA) identified during the second-trimester routine anomaly scan. All patients booked for antenatal care and delivery in our hospital are offered two ultrasound scans in pregnancy, one at 11-13 weeks' gestation as part of screening for chromosomal defects and another at 20-23 weeks for detailed fetal examination. In addition we examine patients referred from other hospitals because of suspected fetal abnormalities during their routine second-trimester scan. We performed a search of the database to retrieve all cases with an SUA and reviewed the ultrasound findings, fetal karyotype and pregnancy outcome. There were 643 cases with SUA, including 424 (65.9%) where the condition was isolated, 133 (20.7%) with one major fetal defect and 86 (13.4%) with multiple defects. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was 0% in the isolated SUA group, 3.7% in those with one defect and 50.7% in those with multiple defects. The commonest chromosomal abnormalities were trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and triploidy, which together accounted for 82.9% of cases. The finding of an SUA should prompt the sonographer to search for fetal defects and if these are found the risk for chromosomal abnormalities is increased. In cases of apparently isolated SUA there is no evidence of increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities. (c) 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno


    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides an index of blood flow and vasoconstriction in calf skeletal muscle during lower body negative pressure. (United States)

    Hachiya, T; Blaber, A P; Saito, M


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used previously for forearm blood flow estimation at rest and during exercise. In this study we applied NIRS to selectively monitor deep calf oxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) responses in order to estimate blood flow changes in the calf muscle during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in calf skeletal muscle oxygenated-Hb, after the removal of superficial tissue responses, were related to blood flow changes during orthostatic stress, and to determine the efficacy of using NIRS measurements as an index of vasoconstriction. Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. All attempted a graded LBNP trial from baseline (0 mmHg) to -60 mmHg LBNP in 10 mmHg steps at 5-min intervals. Calf blood flow changes were estimated by oxygenated-Hb responses in relation to changes in mercury strain gauge plethysmography and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Calf selective deep oxygenated-Hb decreased continuously from -10 mmHg LBNP. Regression analysis showed that oxygenated-Hb was significantly related to declines in plethysmography evaluations of blood flow [oxygenated-Hb = (-1.57 +/- 0.26) + (1.86 +/- 0.49) plethysmography, r(2) = 0.87 +/- 0.09]. Changes in MSNA (total activity) were also inversely related to oxygenated-Hb (slope calf oxygenated-Hb can be utilized to estimate calf muscle blood flow changes that are most likely caused by vasoconstriction during graded LBNP.

  10. Is blood thicker than water? The role of kin and non-kin in non-mother-calf associations of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). (United States)

    Levengood, Alexis L; Dudzinski, Kathleen M


    Relationships are important for social animals and kinship can play a vital role. Still, occurrence and function of kin bonds (aside from mother) in delphinid calf associations, alloparenting, or calf rearing are poorly represented in the literature. This study examined the role of kin and non-kin in non-mother-calf associations for a managed population of bottlenose dolphins. Calf associations were event sampled to determine if kin and non-kin differences existed in frequency or duration. Calves with kin present exhibited a higher average number of associates than calves without kin. Yet calves showed no conclusive association preference in frequency; though some individuals showed early signs of developing kin preferences. Duration and context of associations did not differ between kin and non-kin, suggesting they serve the same developmental purpose. However, personality, calf age, and associate age played a greater role in the formation of calf associations, supporting the notion that calves choose associates with similar traits, aiding in their development in difficult and changing environments. Though kinship is important in the formation of relationships in older dolphins, it appears that outside the mother-calf bond, there are other more influential factors, such as age, personality, and sociality in the formation of early developmental bonds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of intracellular interferon-alpha confers antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and does not affect the full development of SCNT embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Yu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease, one of the most significant diseases of dairy herds, has substantial effects on farm economics, and currently, disease control measures are limited. In this study, we constructed a vector with a human interferon-α (hIFN-α (without secretory signal sequence gene cassette containing the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus. Stably transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts were obtained by G418 selection, and hIFN-α transgenic embryos were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Forty-six transgenic embryos were transplanted into surrogate cows, and five cows (10.9% became pregnant. Two male cloned calves were born. Expression of hIFN-α was detected in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, transgenic SCNT embryos, and different tissues from a transgenic SCNT calf at two days old. In transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, expression of intracellular IFN-α induced resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection, increased apoptosis, and induced the expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase gene (PKR and the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene (2'-5' OAS, which are IFN-inducible genes with antiviral activity. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of PKR, 2'-5' OAS, and P53 were significantly increased in wild-type bovine fetal fibroblasts stimulated with extracellular recombinant human IFN-α-2b, showing that intracellular IFN-α induces biological functions similar to extracellular IFN-α. In conclusion, expression of intracellular hIFN-α conferred antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and did not significantly affect the full development of SCNT embryos. Thus, IFN-α transgenic technology may provide a revolutionary way to achieve elite breeding of livestock.

  12. Precocious Ossification of the Tympanoperiotic Bone in Fetal and Newborn Dolphins: An Evolutionary Adaptation to the Aquatic Environment? (United States)

    Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Vaccaro, Calogero; Poggi, Roberto; Mazzariol, Sandro; Huggenberger, Stefan; Zotti, Alessandro


    The present study, performed with a dual-energy X-ray (DXA) bone densitometer on a series of fetal and newborn striped and short-beaked common dolphins, shows that the bone density of the area of the tympanic bulla within the tympanoperiotic complex starts with 0.483 g cm(-2) in 5- to 6-month-old specimens of striped (or common) dolphin fetuses and reaches 1.841 g cm(-2) in newborn striped dolphins, with values consistently higher than in other parts of the skull or elsewhere in the skeleton. The same results apply to the common bottlenose dolphins, in which the area of the tympanic bulla has a density of 0.312 g cm(-2) in 5-month-old specimens and becomes four times as much in newborns. Regardless of the areal bone density results correlated to the DXA-technique, comparisons with DXA-bone density data in the literature referred to other mammals emphasize the presence of very high mineral deposition in the area of the tympanoperiotic bone in fetal and newborn dolphins and the most dense part of it belongs to the tympanic bulla. The early osseous maturation of the tympanic bulla area may be compared to what described in fin whales and may represent an unique ontogenetic and phylogenetic feature of cetaceans, possibly related to the development of essential acoustic sense and establishment of immediate post-natal mother-calf relationship. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Three-dimensional fetal cephalometry. (United States)

    Bettega, G; Chenin, M; Sadek, H; Cinquin, P; Lebeau, J; Coulomb, M; Raphaël, B


    Craniofacial growth has been the subject of numerous studies in which different techniques have been elaborated aiming to model this dynamic phenomenon in a rational manner. One of the methods employed is cephalometric analysis applied to the fetus. Generally, however, these studies are confined to the exploration of a single spatial plane (sagittal plane), whose orientation is never defined in a rigorous and perfectly reproducible manner. Thus, none of these analyses offers a formal growth model. This has led us to propose a new method of fetal cephalometric study taking into account criteria for proper reproducible analysis: spatial exploration of the head performed through three-dimensional tomodensitometric images and precise location of landmarks and reproducibility of the orientation of each image, which is assured by reference to the vestibular orientation (based on the external semicircular canals), as has been described by Girard and Perez and further developed by Fenart. When the labyrinth is developed, this orientation does not change during the growth stages of the head, even with craniofacial deformities. This permits application of this orientation on fetuses and the superposition of images of different subjects. The methodology is presented using two normal human fetuses, and the advantages of this computerized tool are discussed.

  14. Usefulness of two-dimensional time-of-flight MR venography (2D-TOF MRV) for screening of deep vein of the Calf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Akihiko; Sugie, Chikao; Kitase, Masanori; Mizutani, Masaru [Kariya General Hospital, Aichi (Japan)


    2D-TOF MRV of the Calf has been thought to be inappropriate for visualizing the Calf veins because of the low flow velocity and volume. We analyze the usefulness of 2D-TOF MRV of the Calf in screening for deep veins in 54 patients. In our study, signals of deep vein were seen in 82.6% of the patients; we conclude that 2D-TOF MRV is noninvasive, concise and useful examination for confirming the flow of deep vein as preoperative assessment of varix. (author)

  15. A Comparison Between Impedance Measured by a Commercial Analyzer and your Value Adjusted by a Theoretical Model in Body Composition Evaluation (United States)


    suprailiac, thigh and calf sites, in order to get data to estimate FFM from antropometric parameters. The equations used for body composition estimate...Similarly, a scatter plot of the fat -free mass estimated from the new equation using Ztheo (FFMbia-adjusted) against our antropometric �gold...A COMPARISON BETWEEN IMPEDANCE MEASURED BY A COMMERCIAL ANALYZER AND YOUR VALUE ADJUSTED BY A THEORETICAL MODEL IN BODY COMPOSITION EVALUATION

  16. Intrapartum fetal monitoring by ST-analysis of the fetal ECG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, M.E.M.H.


    Objective Intrapartum fetal monitoring aims to identify fetuses at risk for neonatal and long-term injury due to asphyxia. To serve this purpose, cardiotocography (CTG) combined with ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG), which is a relatively new method, may be used. The main aim of this

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects-- Support for Teachers and Families. (United States)

    Duckworth, Susanna V.; Norton, Terry L.


    Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions. (DLH)

  18. Preschool Teacher Attitude and Knowledge Regarding Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects. (United States)

    Mack, Faite R-P.

    The Centers for Disease Control estimate that each year more than 8,000 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) babies are born, and that many more babies go undiagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), a less severe condition. FAS and FAE have been identified as major contributors to poor memory, shorter attention spans, lower IQs, diminished achievement…

  19. Commercial applications of ferrofluids (United States)

    Raj, K.; Moskowitz, R.


    Ferrofluids have been in the commercial arena for over two decades. In this paper, the most advanced, successful commercial applications of ferrofluids are discussed. These applications center around the tribological characteristics of ferrofluids, e.g., sealing, damping and hydrodynamic bearings. Also, an account of some lesser known applications is presented.

  20. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam


    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how suc...

  1. Fetal primary hydrothorax with spontaneous resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Trocado


    Full Text Available Fetal primary hydrothorax is a rare congenital anomaly with an estimated incidence of 1:10.000–15.000 pregnancies, with an unpredictable clinical course, ranging from spontaneous resolution to fetal death. We present a case of a unilateral fetal pleural effusion identified at 35th gestational week. A 37 year-old woman (G2P1 presented to our routine term pregnancy evaluation. The pregnancy had been otherwise uneventful. At ecographic evaluation a large anechogenic fluid collection was identified in the right fetal hemithorax, with atelectasis of right lung, displacing the heart and mediastinal structures to the contralateral hemithorax. Hydramnios was also identified. No other structural abnormalities were detected, as no signs of hydrops. Fetal biometry was compatible with gestational age. Fetal ecochardiogram was structurally and functionally normal. Doppler evaluation of the peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery was normal. Screening for congenital infections was negative. Complete blood cell count, blood type and antibody screening rulled-out immune hydrops. Karyotype analysis was not performed as family decision. Serial ecographic re-evaluations showed a progressive volume decrease and at the 38th week there was total resolution of the effusion. A C-section was performed at the 39th week. A live female infant was born weighing 3205 g, with no need of ventilatory support. One year post-partum follow-up evaluation confirmed the child was healthy. Spontaneous regression has been reported to occur in 9–22% of primary fetal hydrothoraxes, but the features predicting a better prognosis remain difficult to define. Unilateral effusion, spontaneous resolution and absence of hydrops at the age of diagnosis seem to be indicators of better outcome.

  2. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.


    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  3. Genetic variations and normal fetal growth. (United States)

    Dunger, D B; Petry, C J; Ong, K K


    Size at birth is said to be a highly heritable trait, with an estimated 30-70% of the variability a result of genetics. Data from family studies may be confounded, however, by potential interactions between fetal genes and the maternal uterine environment. Overall, the maternal environment tends to restrain fetal growth, and this is most evident in first pregnancies. Restraint of fetal growth appears to be inherited through the maternal line. Potential genetic candidates include the mitochondrial DNA 16189 variant, and common variants of exclusively maternally expressed genes, such as H19, which have been associated with size at birth. Maternal blood glucose levels and blood pressure are also correlated with size at birth, but the degree to which these changes relate to genetic variation in the mother is unclear. Elegant studies in mouse knockout models and rare genetic variants in humans have highlighted the importance of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, insulin and their respective receptors in determining fetal growth. However, data linking common variation in the genes that regulate these proteins and receptors with size at birth are few and inconsistent. Interestingly, common variation in the insulin gene (INS) variable number tandem repeats, which regulates the transcription of insulin and IGF-II, has been associated with size at birth, largely in second and subsequent pregnancies, where maternal restraint is least evident. This suggests that fetal genes, and in particular paternally expressed genes, may have significant effects on fetal growth during pregnancies where maternal restraint of fetal growth is less evident. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. On the flow through the normal fetal aortic arc at late gestation (United States)

    Pekkan, Kerem; Nourparvar, Paymon; Yerneni, Srinivasu; Dasi, Lakshmi; de Zelicourt, Diane; Fogel, Mark; Yoganathan, Ajit


    During the fetal stage, the aortic arc is a complex junction of great vessels (right and left ventricular outflow tracks (RVOT, LVOT), pulmonary arteries (PA), ductus, head-neck vessels, decending aorta (Dao)) delicately distributing the oxygenated blood flow to the lungs and the body -preferential to the brain. Experimental and computational studies are performed in idealized models of the fetal aorta to understand and visualize the unsteady hemodynamics. Unsteady in vitro flow, generated by two peristaltic pumps (RVOT and LVOT) is visualized with two colored dyes and a red laser in a rigid glass model with physiological diameters. Helical flow patterns at the PA's and ductal shunting to the Dao are visualized. Computational fluid dynamics of the same geometry is modeled using the commercial code Fidap with porous boundary conditions representing systemic and pulmonary resistances (˜400000 tetrahedral elements). Combined (RVOT+LVOT) average flow rates ranging from 1.9 to 2.1-L/min for 34 to 38-weeks gestation were simulated with the Reynolds and Womersly numbers (Dao) of 500 and 8. Computational results are compared qualitatively with the flow visualizations at this target flow condition. Understanding fetal hemodynamics is critical for congenital heart defects, tissue engineering, fetal cardiac MRI and surgeries.

  5. Fetal-specific DNA methylation ratio permits non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Elisavet A.; Karagrigoriou, Alex; Tsaliki, Evdokia; Velissariou, Voula; Carter, Nigel P.; Patsalis, Philippos C.


    The trials performed worldwide towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPD) of Down syndrome (or Trisomy 21) have demonstrated the great commercial and medical potential of NIPD compared to the currently used invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures. Extensive investigation of methylation differences between the mother and the fetus has led to the identification of Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs). In this study, we present a strategy using the Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDiP) methodology in combination with real-time qPCR to achieve fetal chromosome dosage assessment which can be performed non-invasively through the analysis of fetal-specific DMRs. We achieved non-invasive prenatal detection of trisomy 21 by determining the methylation ratio of normal and trisomy 21 cases for each tested fetal-specific DMR present in maternal peripheral blood, followed by further statistical analysis. The application of the above fetal-specific methylation ratio approach provided correct diagnosis of 14 trisomy 21 and 26 normal cases. PMID:21378977

  6. Relationship of unkeratinized skin to bovine fetal mummification: an hypothesis. (United States)

    Hubbert, W T


    Evidence is reviewed in support of the hypothesis that immature unkeratinized fetal skin must be present if bovine fetal mummification is to occur. The reduction in fetal and amniotic fluid is considered to be the result of intrafetal (fetal death) or prefetal (caruncular damage) effects on the normal net fluid flow from the maternal circulation through the fetal circulation and then across the fetal skin into the amniotic cavity. As the skin is keratinized permeability is reduced drastically thus limiting fluid loss from the fetus.

  7. Intrauterine management of fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with cardiac failure. (United States)

    Muniswaran, G; Japaraj, R P; Asri Ranga, A R; Cheong, H K


    Fetal arrhythmias are not uncommon in pregnancy. The diagnosis can be established on routine ultrasound scan. Fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most common cause of fetal tachycardia. If left undiagnosed and untreated, these fetuses may develop cardiac failure, hydrops fetalis and eventually death. We report two fetuses diagnosed antenatally to have fetal SVT. Both fetuses were in cardiac failure and were successfully treated with maternal administration of antiarrhythmic medications. Digoxin, and in severe instances, a combination with flecanaide significantly improved fetal outcomes and prevented fetal mortality. The long term prognosis of such patients are good.

  8. Incidence and predictors of obstetric and fetal complications in women with structural heart disease. (United States)

    van Hagen, Iris M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Donvito, Valentina; Liptai, Csilla; Morissens, Marielle; Murphy, Daniel J; Galian, Laura; Bazargani, Nooshin Mohd; Cornette, Jérôme; Hall, Roger; Johnson, Mark R


    Women with cardiac disease becoming pregnant have an increased risk of obstetric and fetal events. The aim of this study was to study the incidence of events, to validate the modified WHO (mWHO) risk classification and to search for event-specific predictors. The Registry Of Pregnancy And Cardiac disease is a worldwide ongoing prospective registry that has enrolled 2742 pregnancies in women with known cardiac disease (mainly congenital and valvular disease) before pregnancy, from January 2008 up to April 2014. Mean age was 28.2±5.5 years, 45% were nulliparous and 33.3% came from emerging countries. Obstetric events occurred in 231 pregnancies (8.4%). Fetal events occurred in 651 pregnancies (23.7%). The mWHO classification performed poorly in predicting obstetric (c-statistic=0.601) and fetal events (c-statistic=0.561). In multivariable analysis, aortic valve disease was associated with pre-eclampsia (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3 to 5.5). Congenital heart disease (CHD) was associated with spontaneous preterm birth (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2 to 2.7). Complex CHD was associated with small-for-gestational-age neonates (OR=2.3, 95%CI=1.5 to 3.5). Multiple gestation was the strongest predictor of fetal events: fetal/neonatal death (OR=6.4, 95%CI=2.5 to 16), spontaneous preterm birth (OR=5.3, 95%CI=2.5 to 11) and small-for-gestational age (OR=5.0, 95%CI=2.5 to 9.8). The mWHO classification is not suitable for prediction of obstetric and fetal events in women with cardiac disease. Maternal complex CHD was independently associated with fetal growth restriction and aortic valve disease with pre-eclampsia, potentially offering an insight into the pathophysiology of these pregnancy complications. The increased rates of adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes in women with pre-existing heart disease should be highlighted during counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  9. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics. (United States)

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A


    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P growth performance and carcass characteristics. During the initial 126 d, DDGS substitution increased ADG (linear effect, P = 0.03), G:F (quadratic effect, P = 0.03), and dietary NE (quadratic effect, P = 0.02), maximal for both at 20% DDGS inclusion rate. Based on estimated indispensable AA supply to the small intestine as a percentage of requirements during the initial 126-d period, histidine was first limiting followed by methionine. During the final 179-d period and overall (305-d feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf-fed Holstein are consistent with current tabular standards. Extra-caloric value of DDGS as a metabolizable AA source is apparent during the initial growing phase. The UIP value of DDGS used in this study (35%) was considerably less than current tabular estimates (52%; NRC, 2000).

  10. The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT) project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (United States)


    Background Half of all lower limb deep vein thrombi (DVT) in symptomatic ambulatory patients are located in the distal (calf) veins. While proximal disease warrants therapeutic anticoagulation to reduce the associated risks, distal DVT often goes untreated. However, a proportion of untreated distal disease will undoubtedly propagate or embolize. Concern also exists that untreated disease could lead to long-term post thrombotic changes. Currently, it is not possible to predict which distal thrombi will develop such complications. Whether these potential risks outweigh those associated with unrestricted anticoagulation remains unclear. The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT) trial aims to compare therapeutic anticoagulation against conservative management for patients with acute symptomatic distal deep vein thrombosis. Methods ACT is a pragmatic, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Adult patients diagnosed with acute distal DVT will be allocated to either therapeutic anticoagulation or conservative management. All patients will undergo 3 months of clinical and assessor blinded sonographic follow-up, followed by 2-year final review. The project will commence initially as an external pilot study, recruiting over a 16-month period at a single center to assess feasibility measures and clinical event rates. Primary outcome measures will assess feasibility endpoints. Secondary clinical outcomes will be collected to gather accurate data for the design of a definitive clinical trial and will include: (1) a composite endpoint combining thrombus propagation to the popliteal vein or above, development of symptomatic pulmonary embolism or sudden death attributable to venous thromboembolic disease; (2) the incidence of major and minor bleeding episodes; (3) the incidence of post-thrombotic leg syndrome at 2 years using a validated screening tool; and (4) the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence at 2 years. Discussion The ACT trial will explore the

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results (United States)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.


    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  12. Calf muscle oxygen saturation and the effects of supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication. (United States)

    Beckitt, Tim A; Day, Jude; Morgan, Maria; Lamont, Peter M


    The mechanisms underlying the symptomatic improvement witnessed as a result of exercise training in intermittent claudication remain unclear. There is no reproducible evidence to support increased limb blood flow resulting from neovascularization. Changes in oxygenation of active muscles as a result of blood redistribution are hypothesized but unproven. This study sought evidence of improved gastrocnemius oxygenation resulting from exercise training. The study recruited 42 individuals with claudication. After an initial control period of exercise advice, participants undertook a 3-month supervised exercise program. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy monitored calf muscle oxygen saturation (Sto(2)) during exercise and after a period of cuff-induced ischemia. Comparison was made with 14 individuals undergoing angioplasty for calf claudication. Clinical outcomes of claudication distance and maximum walking distance were measured by treadmill assessment. Significant increases occurred in mean [interquartile range] claudication disease (57 [38-78] to 119 [97-142] meters; P = .01) and maximum walking distance (124 [102-147] to 241 [193-265] meters; P = .02) after supervised exercise but not after the control period. No change occurred in resting Sto(2) at any interval. Angioplasty (27% [21-34] to 19% [13-29]; P = .02) but not exercise training (26% [21-32] vs 23% [20-31]; P > .20) resulted in a reduced Sto(2) desaturation in response to submaximal exercise and an increased hyperemic hemoglobin oxygen recovery rate after ischemia (0.48 [0.39-0.55] to 0.63 [0.52-0.69] s(-1); P = .01). However supervised exercise reduced the Sto(2) recovery half-time by 17% (82 [64-101] to 68 [55-89] seconds; P = .02). Supervised exercise training is not associated with increased gastrocnemius muscle oxygenation during exercise or increased hyperemic hemoglobin flow after a model of ischemia. This suggests that the symptomatic improvement witnessed is not the result of increased

  13. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses. (United States)

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D


    The objectives of this study were to determine if percentage Bos taurus (0 or 50%) of the cow had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among 3 mating systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated during a feeding trial that encompassed a gestation and lactation feeding trial for each of 2 groups of cows. Cows were 0 or 50% Bos taurus (100 or 50% Nellore) breed type: Nellore cows (NL; n = 10) mated to Nellore bulls, NL cows (n = 9) mated to Angus bulls, Angus x Nellore (ANL; n = 10) and Simmental x Nellore (SNL; n = 10) cows mated to Canchim (5/8 Charolais 3/8 Zebu) bulls. Cows were individually fed a total mixed diet that contained 11.3% CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. At 14-d intervals, cows and calves were weighed and the amount of DM was adjusted to keep shrunk BW and BCS of cows constant. Beginning at 38 d of age, corn silage was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was measured using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At 190 d of age, calves were slaughtered and body composition estimated using 9-10-11th-rib section to obtain energy deposition. Regression of BW change on daily ME intake (MEI) was used to estimate MEI at zero BW change. Increase in percentage Bos taurus had a significant effect on daily ME requirements (Mcal/d) during pregnancy (P taurus had a positive linear effect on maintenance requirements of pregnant (P = 0.07) and lactating (P taurus groups, respectively. The 50% B. taurus cows, ANL and SNL, suckling crossbred calves had greater total MEI (4,319 +/- 61 Mcal; P taurus cows suckling NL (3,484 +/- 86 Mcal) or ANL calves (3,600 +/- 91 Mcal). The 0% B. taurus cows suckling ANL calves were more efficient (45.3 +/- 1.6 g/Mcal; P = 0.03) than straightbred NL (35.1 +/- 1.5 g/Mcal) and ANL or SNL pairs (41.0 +/- 1.0 g/Mcal). Under the conditions of this study, crossbreeding improved cow/ calf efficiency and showed an advantage for cows that

  14. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore


    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  15. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics. (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott M


    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  16. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jia Wang


    AIM:To compare the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(72 eyes...

  17. A clinical case of neosporosis in a 4-week-old holstein friesian calf which developed hindlimb paresis postnatally. (United States)

    Uesaka, Karin; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Inokuma, Hisashi


    A 4-week-old female Holstein Friesian calf presented with hindlimb paresis. Neurologic examination of spinal reflexes revealed depressed or absent reflexes of the hindlimbs. Menace responses on both sides disappeared on examination of cranial nerves. The calf was finally diagnosed with Neospora caninum infection by pathological findings including nonsuppurative inflammation associated with cysts in the cerebrum and spinal cord. High levels of antibody against recombinant surface antigen 1 of N. caninum (NcSAG1) were detected by ELISA from both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. This result suggests that detection of antibodies against N. caninum by NcSAG1-ELISA in serum and CSF could be useful for the clinical diagnosis of neosporosis in calves with acquired neurological signs.

  18. Effect of a static calf muscle-tendon unit stretching program on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion of older women. (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Bradley, Bruce; Witkowski, Kimberly; McKee, Rose; Telesmanic, Christopher; Chavez, Andre; Kennedy, Karen; Zimmerman, Grenith


    While there has been considerable research on stretching, a paucity of research has focused on stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in older women. Because limited ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) is associated with gait abnormalities and increases the risk of falls in the elderly, we investigated the effect of static stretching on flexibility of the calf MTU of healthy elderly adults. Twenty healthy female volunteers, 76 to 91 years of age, were recruited from Linda Valley Villa, an independent living center. Subjects performed a static stretching program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was taken prior to beginning the stretching program and 3 days after the last stretching day. Mean increase in passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was 12.3 degrees (SD= 4.4 degrees ) (p dorsiflexion ROM for elderly women.

  19. Preliminary validation of a calf-side test for diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves. (United States)

    Elsohaby, I; Keefe, G P


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an initial version of a calf-side test (ZAPvet Bovine IgG test, ZBx Corp., Toronto, ON, Canada) for diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in dairy calves. Blood samples (n=202) were collected from calves from 1 to 11d of age. Serum IgG concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. The mean IgG concentration was 1,764±1,035mg/dL, with a range from 133 to 5,995mg/dL. The ZAPvet Bovine IgG test was used to assess FTPI (serum IgG Bovine IgG test showed good potential for further development as a cost-effective, rapid calf-side test for monitoring FTPI in dairy calves. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colostrum and milk protein rankings and ratios of importance to neonatal calf health using a proteomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Asger; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Bendixen, Emøke


    colostrum:milk spectral count ratios as these. Using this approach indicated, for example, that osteopontin, haptoglobin, milk amyloid A, and gelsolin may be interesting molecules to study in detail in their relation to calf health. Although the sensitivity, identification, and ranking of proteins varied......, including innate immune proteins, developmental factors, immunomodulatory factors, and the presence of cellular immunity. The objective of this study was to produce a comprehensive comparison of the bovine colostrum proteome and the milk proteome by applying 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass...... spectrometry. Further, the objectives were to rank proteins mutually and generate protein ratios from the spectral counts of the 2 proteomes and ELISA to gain insight into which proteins could be of most relevance to neonatal calf health. To obtain an in-depth picture of the bovine colostrum and milk proteome...

  1. Intrapartum fetal scalp lactate sampling for fetal assessment in the presence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate trace. (United States)

    East, Christine E; Leader, Leo R; Sheehan, Penelope; Henshall, Naomi E; Colditz, Paul B; Lau, Rosalind


    Fetal scalp blood sampling for lactate estimation may be considered following identification of an abnormal or non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern. The smaller volume of blood required for this test, compared with the more traditional pH estimation, may improve sampling rates. The appropriate use of this practice mandates systematic review of its safety and clinical effectiveness prior to widespread introduction. To evaluate the effectiveness and risks of fetal scalp lactate sampling in the assessment of fetal well-being during labour, compared with no testing or alternative testing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015). All published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared fetal scalp lactate testing with no testing or alternative testing to evaluate fetal status in the presence of a non-reassuring cardiotocograph during labour. We used the standard methodological procedures of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. Two review authors independently assessed the studies. The search identified two completed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and two ongoing trials. The two published RCTs considered outcomes for 3348 mother-baby pairs allocated to either lactate or pH estimation of fetal blood samples when clinically indicated in labour. Overall, the published RCTs were of low or unclear risk of bias. There was a high risk of performance bias, because it would not have been feasible to blind clinicians or participants.No statistically significant between-group differences were found for neonatal encephalopathy (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 3.09, one study, 2992 infants) or death. No studies reported neonatal seizures. We had planned to report death with other morbidities, for example, neonatal encephalopathy; however, the data were not available in a format suitable for this, therefore death due to congenital abnormality was considered alone

  2. Improving the spectral resolution and spectral fitting of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle by the SPREAD technique. (United States)

    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhang, Yudong; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Peterson, Bradley S


    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1) H MRSI) has been used for the in vivo measurement of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) in human calf muscle for almost two decades, but the low spectral resolution between extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) and IMCLs, partially caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, has hindered the accuracy of spectral fitting. The purpose of this paper was to enhance the spectral resolution of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle using the SPREAD (spectral resolution amelioration by deconvolution) technique and to assess the influence of improved spectral resolution on the accuracy of spectral fitting and on in vivo measurement of IMCLs. We acquired MRI and (1) H MRSI data from calf muscles of three healthy volunteers. We reconstructed spectral lineshapes of the (1) H MRSI data based on field maps and used the lineshapes to deconvolve the measured MRS spectra, thereby eliminating the line broadening caused by field inhomogeneities and improving the spectral resolution of the (1) H MRSI data. We employed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with 200 noise realizations to measure the variations of spectral fitting parameters and used an F-test to evaluate the significance of the differences of the variations between the spectra before SPREAD and after SPREAD. We also used Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) to assess the improvements of spectral fitting after SPREAD. The use of SPREAD enhanced the separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks in (1) H MRSI spectra from human calf muscle. MC simulations and F-tests showed that the use of SPREAD significantly reduced the standard deviations of the estimated IMCL peak areas (p < 10(-8) ), and the CRLBs were strongly reduced (by ~37%). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pastures, calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula


    Full Text Available The effects of climatic and density-dependent factors on calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves were studied between the years 1965-87 in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland (67°50´N. The Oraniemi area is divided into five pasture regions, in which the annual home range of the reindeer varied from 300 to 600 km2. The more than trebled reindeer density over the period 1965-87 in Oraniemi had no detrimental effect on calf production (range 15-74 calves/100 females, nor on the mean carcass weight of the calves in 1974-87 (range 16.8-23.2 kg. The annual variations in calf% were explained best by snow conditions during the previous winter and spring and their effects on the nutritional status of the females. The carcass weights of the calves were greater following a warm, rainy May and lower following a warm, rainy June and July. The weather in spring affects the emergence of green vegetation, which is reflected in the condition of females and their milk production, while the weather in early and mid-supper probably affects the quantities of blood-sucking insects and their activity. Carcass weights upon slaughtering rose from September to the beginning of December but then fell quickly. The differences in reindeer densities between the five pasture regions was not reflected in the calf% over the period 1984-87, but the carcass weights of calves were lower following high densities in the pasture regions, especially in the winter pastures.

  4. Development and validation of a continuous in vitro system reproducing some biotic and abiotic factors of the veal calf intestine. (United States)

    Gérard-Champod, Marie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Bravo, David; Alric, Monique


    Following the January 2006 European ban of antibiotics used as growth promoters in the veal calf industry, new feed additives are needed in order to maintain animal health and growth performance. As an alternative to in vivo experiments in the testing of such additives, an in vitro system modeling the intestinal ecosystem of the veal calf was developed. Stabilization of the main cultured microbial groups and their metabolic activity were tracked in an in vitro continuous fermentor operated under anaerobiosis, at pH 6.5, and at a temperature of 38.5 degrees C and supplied with one of three different nutritive media (M1, M2, or M3). These media mainly differed in their concentrations of simple and complex carbohydrates and in their lipid sources. In vitro microbial levels and fermentative metabolite concentrations were compared to in vivo data, and the biochemical composition of the nutritive media was compared to that of the veal calf intestinal content. All three nutritive media were able to stabilize anaerobic and facultative anaerobic microflora, lactate-utilizing bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, and Bacteroides fragilis group bacteria at levels close to in vivo values. The microbiota was metabolically active, with high concentrations of lactate, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids found in the fermentative medium. Comparison with in vivo data indicated that M3 outperformed M1 and M2 in simulating the conditions encountered in the veal calf intestine. This in vitro system would be useful in the prescreening of new feed additives by studying their effect on the intestinal microbiota levels and fermentative metabolite production.

  5. The value of near-infrared spectroscopy for the assessment of calf muscle function in venous patients. (United States)

    Vasdekis, Spyros N; Tzemailas, Ioannis; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Mastoraki, Sotiria; Mantas, George K; Lazaris, Andreas


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique with the potential to determine the degree of tissue oxygenation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the use of NIRS as a reliable method of detecting calf muscle pump dysfunction in groups of patients with venous disease. Patients with superficial venous insufficiency (SVI) or history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were classified according to the comprehensive classification system for chronic venous disorders (clinical class, etiology, anatomy, and pathophysiology) and compared with controls (GROUP variable). A 10-stage evaluation of ambulatory venous function was performed, and corresponding values of calf regional oxygen saturation (crSaO 2 , %) at each phase were recorded (TIME variable). Thereafter, the percentage changes of crSaO 2 values (Δ scores, %) between a given phase and the reference phase were estimated. Differences among groups and phases were evaluated using analysis of variance. Subgroup analysis between C0-C2 and C3-C6 patients was performed. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to detect the best predictive capability for SVI and DVT. A total of 30 patients with SVI, 31 patients with DVT, and 34 controls were included in the study. A statistically significant effect of TIME (F = 382.4; P patients. The measurement of crSaO 2 using NIRS detected alterations in calf muscle pump oxygenation during exercise and differences in tissue oxygenation among SVI patients, DVT patients, and controls. NIRS may represent a reliable noninvasive tool for the study of calf muscle dysfunction in venous disease and a useful vehicle for generating testable hypotheses in the laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary studies of offspring exposure to phenylbutazone and ivermectin during the perinatal period in a Holstein cow-calf model. (United States)

    Chamberlain, Pamela L; Fowler, Bruce A; Sexton, Mary J; Peggins, James O; Bredow, Jurgen von


    The pregnant Holstein cow and her newborn calf were evaluated as an animal model to study in utero and for lactational drug transfer and offspring exposure. A nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, phenylbutazone, and an antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, were tested in the model. Prior to parturition, pregnant cows were dosed orally to steady state with phenylbutazone at 4 g/day or given a single subcutaneous injection of 200 microg ivermectin/kg body wt. The level of drug transferred to calves exposed in utero, in utero combined with lactational exposure, and via lactational exposure only, was measured from days 1 through 7 postpartum. At birth the plasma level in phenylbutazone-exposed calves was approximately one-half the dam's steady-state level. For ivermectin-exposed calves, plasma levels were at or below the limit of quantitation (0.5 ng/ml) at birth, suggesting that placental transfer of ivermectin is limited in the cow. For both drugs, rapid accumulation of the drug in calf plasma occurred with lactational exposure to a mean daily dose of 2 microg ivermectin/kg body wt or 0.1 mg phenylbutazone/kg body wt/day for the first 7 days of life. The accumulation observed in the newborn calf is attributed to the lipid solubility and long elimination half-lives of these drugs. These results demonstrate that drug transfer and offspring exposure can be studied using the cow-calf model. The data also highlight the importance of considering not only the dose but also physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the drug in the offspring when evaluating the safety of a newborn's exposure to a drug in breast milk.

  7. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification


    Jia Wang


    AIM:To compare the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(72 eyes)of patients undergoing phacoemulsification were selected and divided into the observation group and the control group by random number table method. After surgery, the observation group were treated with deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops while the control group were treated with rec...

  8. Commercial Landing System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  9. Commercial Manure Applicators (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  10. Regional hydrothermal commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This plan for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Region articulates the complete range of initiatives (federal, state, local, and industrial) required for the early commercialization of the regions geothermal resources. (MHR)

  11. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M


    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  12. Fetal anaemia as a cause of fetal injury: diagnosis and management. (United States)

    Chan, Lin Wai; Lau, Tze Kin; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung


    This review provides up-to-date information on the diagnosis and management of fetal anaemia. Exciting advances in the field of red blood cell isoimmunization are phasing out the need for invasive procedures. Rhesus blood group genotyping using fetal DNA in maternal plasma has been introduced into clinical practice with remarkable success. The role of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in screening for fetal anaemia has been confirmed in various causes of fetal anaemia. A recent review of a successful Iran national screening programme for thalassaemia provided a timely and valuable educational opportunity. The value of intrauterine transfusion as a treatment for fetal anaemia was demonstrated by both high success rate and low procedure-related pregnancy loss rate. Fetal anaemia is one of the severe fetal conditions that affect the worldwide population. Rhesus isoimmunization remains an important health issue despite the recommendation for anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis and injection after sensitizing events. Noninvasive ultrasound diagnostic methods have replaced traditional invasive procedures in the assessment of fetus at risk of anaemia due to various causes, including red blood cell isoimmunization, parvovirus B19 infection and thalassaemia. The increased availability of intrauterine transfusion will help to improve the prognosis of these anaemic fetuses.

  13. Automatic real-time tracking of fetal mouth in fetoscopic video sequence for supporting fetal surgeries (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Xie, Tianliang; Ohya, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Fujie, Masakatsu G.


    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) was developed to treat severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) via fetoscopy, by which a detachable balloon is placed into the fetal trachea for preventing pulmonary hypoplasia through increasing the pressure of the chest cavity. This surgery is so dangerous that a supporting system for navigating surgeries is deemed necessary. In this paper, to guide a surgical tool to be inserted into the fetal trachea, an automatic approach is proposed to detect and track the fetal face and mouth via fetoscopic video sequencing. More specifically, the AdaBoost algorithm is utilized as a classifier to detect the fetal face based on Haarlike features, which calculate the difference between the sums of the pixel intensities in each adjacent region at a specific location in a detection window. Then, the CamShift algorithm based on an iterative search in a color histogram is applied to track the fetal face, and the fetal mouth is fitted by an ellipse detected via an improved iterative randomized Hough transform approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed automatic approach can accurately detect and track the fetal face and mouth in real-time in a fetoscopic video sequence, as well as provide an effective and timely feedback to the robot control system of the surgical tool for FETO surgeries.

  14. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic and abdominal malformations; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie thorakaler und abdomineller Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woitek, R.; Asenbaum, U.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Brugger, P.C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Wien (Austria)


    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fetal thoracic and abdominal malformations. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In cases of suspected pathologies based on fetal ultrasound MRI can be used for more detailed examinations and can be of assistance in the differential diagnostic process. Improved imaging of anatomical structures and of the composition of different tissues by the use of different MRI sequences. Fetal MRI has become a part of clinical routine in thoracic and abdominal malformations and is the basis for scientific research in this field. In cases of thoracic or abdominal malformations fetal MRI provides important information additional to ultrasound to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic evaluation and surgical planning. (orig.) [German] Diagnose und Differenzialdiagnose fetaler thorakaler und abdomineller Malformationen. Ultraschall, MRT. MRT zur weiteren Abklaerung und genaueren Differenzierung bei vielen im Ultraschall gestellten Verdachtsdiagnosen. Verbesserte anatomische Darstellung mittels MRT und Darstellung unterschiedlicher Gewebezusammensetzung mittels verschiedener MR-Sequenzen. Die fetale MRT ist bei der angegebenen Fragestellung in die klinische Routine eingegangen und liefert weiterhin die Basis fuer wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen in diesem Bereich. Die fetale MRT liefert beim Vorliegen thorakaler oder abdomineller Malformationen komplementaer zum Ultraschall wichtige Zusatzinformationen, um die diagnostische Genauigkeit zu erhoehen, die Prognoseabschaetzung zu verbessern und ggf. eine bessere chirurgische Planung zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  15. Mechanisms of Fetal Programming in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Jones


    Full Text Available Events that occur in the early fetal environment have been linked to long-term health and lifespan consequences in the adult. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which may occur as a result of nutrient insufficiency, exposure to hormones, or disruptions in placental structure or function, may induce the fetus to alter its developmental program in order to adapt to the new conditions. IUGR may result in a decrease in the expression of genes that are responsible for nephrogenesis as nutrients are rerouted to the development of more essential organs. Fetal survival under these conditions often results in low birth weight and a deficit in nephron endowment, which are associated with hypertension in adults. Interestingly, male IUGR offspring appear to be more severely affected than females, suggesting that sex hormones may be involved. The processes of fetal programming of hypertension are complex, and we are only beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  16. An advanced method in fetal phonocardiography. (United States)

    Várady, Péter; Wildt, Ludwig; Benyó, Zoltán; Hein, Achim


    The long-term variability of the fetal heart rate (FHR) provides valuable information on the fetal health status. The routine clinical FHR measurements are usually carried out by the means of ultrasound cardiography. Although the frequent FHR monitoring is recommendable, the high quality ultrasound devices are so expensive that they are not available for home care use. The passive and fully non-invasive acoustic recording called phonocardiography, provides an alternative low-cost measurement method. Unfortunately, the acoustic signal recorded on the maternal abdominal surface is heavily loaded by noise, thus the determination of the FHR raises serious signal processing issues. The development of an accurate and robust fetal phonocardiograph has been since long researched. This paper presents a novel two-channel phonocardiographic device and an advanced signal processing method for determination of the FHR. The developed system provided 83% accuracy compared to the simultaneously recorded reference ultrasound measurements.

  17. Glucocorticoids and fetal programming part 1: Outcomes. (United States)

    Moisiadis, Vasilis G; Matthews, Stephen G


    Fetal development is a critical period for shaping the lifelong health of an individual. However, the fetus is susceptible to internal and external stimuli that can lead to adverse long-term health consequences. Glucocorticoids are an important developmental switch, driving changes in gene regulation that are necessary for normal growth and maturation. The fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is particularly susceptible to long-term programming by glucocorticoids; these effects can persist throughout the life of an organism. Dysfunction of the HPA axis as a result of fetal programming has been associated with impaired brain growth, altered behaviour and increased susceptibility to chronic disease (such as metabolic and cardiovascular disease). Moreover, the effects of glucocorticoid-mediated programming are evident in subsequent generations, and transmission of these changes can occur through both maternal and paternal lineages.

  18. Fetal programming and eating disorder risk. (United States)

    Jones, Candace; Pearce, Brad; Barrera, Ingrid; Mummert, Amanda


    Fetal programming describes the process by which environmental stimuli impact fetal development to influence disease development later in life. Our analysis summarizes evidence for the role of fetal programming in eating disorder etiology through review of studies demonstrating specific obstetric complications and later eating risk of anorexia or bulimia. Using Pubmed, we found thirteen studies investigating obstetric factors and eating disorder risk published between 1999 and 2016. We then discuss modifiable maternal risk factors, including nutrition and stress, that influence anorexia or bulimia risk of their offspring. Translation of these findings applies to preventative strategies by health organizations and physicians to provide optimal health for mothers and their children to prevent development of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Updates in fetal spina bifida repair. (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Yair J; Belfort, Michael A


    To examine updates in fetal spina bifida surgical repair, as well as promising results emerging from translational medicine. Although the Management of Myelomeningocele Study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health helped establish the neonatal benefits of prenatal spina bifida repair via uterine hysterotomy, also known as 'open' fetal surgery, fetoscopic approaches may yield better maternal and obstetric outcomes. Spina bifida is a severe congenital malformation associated with significant neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality. Although 'open' fetal spina bifida repair has become the standard prenatal surgical approach due to proven neonatal benefit, this approach is associated with significant maternal and obstetric risks. Recent developments from multidisciplinary clinical and translational research have highlighted the potential for novel fetoscopic surgical approaches to decrease maternal morbidity and reduce obstetric risks. Moreover, novel stem cell therapies coupled with in-utero medical approaches targeting the pathophysiological pathways associated with spina bifida are likely to make additional significant impact.

  20. Molecular spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the interaction of anti-platelet drug ticlopidine with calf thymus DNA (United States)

    Afrin, Shumaila; Rahman, Yusra; Sarwar, Tarique; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Tabish, Mohammad


    Ticlopidine is an anti-platelet drug which belongs to the thienopyridine structural family and exerts its effect by functioning as an ADP receptor inhibitor. Ticlopidine inhibits the expression of TarO gene in S. aureus and may provide protection against MRSA. Groove binding agents are known to disrupt the transcription factor DNA complex and consequently inhibit gene expression. Understanding the mechanism of interaction of ticlopidine with DNA can prove useful in the development of a rational drug designing system. At present, there is no such study on the interaction of anti-platelet drugs with nucleic acids. A series of biophysical experiments were performed to ascertain the binding mode between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments confirmed the formation of a complex between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. Moreover, the values of binding constant were found to be in the range of 103 M- 1, which is indicative of groove binding between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. These results were further confirmed by studying the effect of denaturation on double stranded DNA, iodide quenching, viscometric studies, thermal melting profile as well as CD spectral analysis. The thermodynamic profile of the interaction was also determined using isothermal titration calorimetric studies. The reaction was found to be endothermic and the parameters obtained were found to be consistent with those of known groove binders. In silico molecular docking studies further corroborated well with the experimental results.

  1. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemia in the human calf: a study with strain gauge plethysmography. (United States)

    Kroese, A J


    In order to study the influence of muscular inactivity on reactive hyperaemia, postischaemic blood flow was measued with strain gauge plethysmography in the calf of twenty-nine patients, who had been treated with a plaster cast for a trauma of the lower limb. The contralateral leg served as a comparison. In all but two patients postischaemic maximal flow was lower in the immobilized calf. A negative correlation existed between maximal flow and the duration of immobilization. In the course of 6 weeks after removal of the cast, the difference in maximal flow between both sides became insignificant. Venous volume and venous emptying were not different in the two limbs. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemic response may be explained by an effect of inactivity on the arterioles, muscle atrophy, a decrease in capillarization and in oxidative capacity of the muscle fibres. It is concluded that inactivity and atrophy of the lower limb musculature in patients with peripheral arterial disease may be a contributing factor to the low reactive hyperaemic response in the calf of such patients.

  2. Johne's disease: reliability of environmental sampling to characterize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in beef cow-calf herds. (United States)

    Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K


    Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P < 0·001) as well as the herd-level test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones.

  3. Slow passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion. (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L; Vander Linden, Darl W; McNair, Peter J; Riggin, Tammy J; Albertson, Jeff S; Mattick, Danita J; Wegley, Joseph C


    Examine the slow passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion. A cross-sectional comparative design. The passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion have not been studied. Fifteen older women (mean 79 years) with active dorsiflexion dorsiflexion were tested. The right ankle was stretched from plantarflexion to maximal dorsiflexion and released into plantarflexion at 5 degrees /s with minimal surface EMG activity in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. Length, passive-elastic stiffness and stored passive-elastic energy were examined. The older women had less maximal passive dorsiflexion, a greater initial stretch angle, and less angular change than the younger women (P dorsiflexion (P dorsiflexion. Older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion have decreased calf muscle length, passive resistive forces and stored passive-elastic energy that may impact static and dynamic standing balance activities. Greater passive-elastic stiffness within their ambulatory dorsiflexion range of motion may partially compensate for the deficits.

  4. The effect of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Egan, Kathleen S; Therneau, Terry M; Laskowski, Edward R


    Masked randomized trial. To examine the effects of a 6-week program of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ADFROM) in healthy subjects. Static stretching of the calf MTU is often prescribed to increase flexibility in patients with shortened connective tissues or to maintain ADFROM in healthy individuals. Presently, physical therapists lack specific information on the optimal dosage of calf MTU stretching necessary to produce improvement in ADFROM. One hundred one adults (63 women, 38 men; mean age +/- SD, 40.0 +/- 10.9 years; range, 21-59) with no visual evidence of gait impairment due to lower-extremity dysfunction participated in the study. Active ADFROM was measured with a universal goniometer. Participants were randomly assigned to group 1, no stretch controls (n = 24), or to 1 of 3 experimental groups carrying out a 6-week program of standing wall stretches once per day: individuals in group 2 stretched for 30 seconds (n = 26); individuals in group 3 stretched for 1 minute (n = 24); individuals in group 4 stretched for 2 minutes (n = 27). After 6 weeks, the results of an analysis of variance found no effect of treatment on active ADFROM. The results of this study show that a 6-week program of once-per-day static stretching for up to 2 minutes is not sufficient to increase active ADFROM in healthy subjects.

  5. Cetacean mother-calf behavior observed from a small aircraft off Southern California. Animal Behavior and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Smultea


    Full Text Available During early developmental stages, cetacean calves are dependent on their mothers for survival. Protection of young whales engaged in behaviors that are biologically important is critical for population recovery, so that appropriate management actions can be taken to minimize human disturbance. However, the occurrence and frequency of whale nursing and calves back-riding their mothers (both considered important to calf survival have rarely been observed nor adequately quantified or defined. Therefore, it may not always be clear when disruption is occurring. We used extended behavioral observations, still photography, and video camera footage obtained during aircraft surveys in the Southern California Bight in 2008 – 2013 to characterize cetacean mother-calf interactions. Based on observations of four mother/calf pairs (two gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus, one fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, and one blue whale, B. musculus and one killer whale presumed mother/yearling pair (Orcinus orca, we describe bouts of nursing and calves riding on the backs of their presumed mothers, including activity duration, frequency, and relative body positioning. We conclude with specific definitions useful to wildlife conservation agencies authorizing and establishing restrictions to certain human activities when they might constitute behavioral disruptions.

  6. Mapping and exome sequencing identifies a mutation in the IARS gene as the cause of hereditary perinatal weak calf syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hirano

    Full Text Available We identified an IARS (isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase c.235G>C (p.Val79Leu substitution as the causative mutation for neonatal weakness with intrauterine growth retardation (perinatal weak calf syndrome. In Japanese Black cattle, the syndrome was frequently found in calves sired by Bull A. Hence, we employed homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis. In order to identify the perinatal weak calf syndrome locus in a 4.04-Mb region of BTA 8, we analysed a paternal half-sibling family with a BovineSNP50 BeadChip and microsatellites. In this critical region, we performed exome sequencing to identify a causative mutation. Three variants were detected as possible candidates for causative mutations that were predicted to disrupt the protein function, including a G>C (p.Val79Leu mutation in IARS c.235. The IARS c.235G>C mutation was not a homozygous risk allele in the 36 healthy offspring of Bull A. Moreover, the IARS Val79 residue and its flanking regions were evolutionarily and highly conserved. The IARS mutant (Leu79 had decreased aminoacylation activity. Additionally, the homozygous mutation was not found in any of 1526 healthy cattle. Therefore, we concluded that the IARS c.235G>C mutation was the cause of hereditary perinatal weak calf syndrome.

  7. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.



    Ana-Maria Florea; Constantin Giurca


    The contract is a legal instrument used to organize economic and social life. International trade agreement has certain features in order to ensure the international exchange of goods and services between the Contracting Parties. In terms of commercial contract, there is a foreign origin element, that gives the parties the right to determine the law to govern the contract. A fundamental aspect of commercial contract, in addition to that of determining the law applicable to judicial report est...

  9. Commodification and commercial surrogacy. (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J


    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  10. Carboplatin interaction with calf-thymus DNA: A FTIR spectroscopic approach (United States)

    Jangir, Deepak K.; Tyagi, Gunjan; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Kundu, Suman


    Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug, used for the treatment of different types of cancers, particularly solid tumors. Carboplatin, like other platinum containing drugs, exerts its cytotoxic effect through DNA binding via cross-linking. It forms interstrand and intrastrand cross-linking with DNA. Intrastrand cross-linking is dominant and believed to be conferring antitumoral efficacy of the drug. This cross-linking results in alteration of DNA winding and bending, which hampers DNA replication and transcription and finally leads to cell death. In the present work, we studied the interaction of carboplatin with calf-thymus DNA in buffer solution under physiological conditions. Different concentrations of carboplatin were incubated with a constant DNA concentration to form carboplatin-DNA complexes. These complexes were studied with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to understand the binding modes of carboplatin with DNA and its effect on DNA conformation. The results showed that carboplatin binds to DNA through direct interaction of platin-DNA bases (guanine, thymine, adenine and cytosine), with a small perturbation of phosphate group of DNA backbone, while DNA remains in the B-conformation. DNA aggregation was also observed at higher drug concentrations.

  11. Surgical Repair of Congenital Recto-Vaginal Fistula with Atresia Ani in a Cow Calf

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    Abdul Shakoor, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Muhammad Younus and Muhammd Kashif


    Full Text Available A three days old cross bred cow calf affected with recto-vaginal fistula along with atresia ani and fusion of vulvular lips was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang. Emergency surgery was done after the infiltration of local anesthesia at the approximated site of anus. Blind rectal pouch was incised to suture it with the skin by using black breaded silk #1. A 3 inches long incision was made at the site of vulvular fusion to restore the normal genitalia. After exposing the defective site, 4 inches long slit causing direct communication between rectum and vagina (Recto-vaginal fistula was obliterated with chromic cat gut # 1. Having washed with normal saline, Neomycine Sulphate ointment was smeared twice a day at the newly constructed anal opening for two weeks. A course of antibiotic consisting of penicillin and streptomycin was administered intramuscularly for five days. The sutures were removed on 14th post-operative day. Animal was recovered uneventfully without recurrence of any defect up to follow up of 2 months.

  12. Binding of an anticancer Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside with calf thymus DNA: Biophysical and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Sandhya; Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa, E-mail:


    In the present work, we report the interaction of a bioactive Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside, diosmin (DIO) with calf thymus DNA employing ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. The mode of binding between DIO and DNA was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, 3D-fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, FT-IR, circular dichroism, melting temperature (T{sub m}) measurements and differential pulse voltammogram studies. The results revealed the intercalative mode of binding between DIO and DNA. Further, the values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆H° (−388.32 kJ mol{sup −1}) and ∆S° (−1.22 kJ mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}) indicated that the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a major role in the binding of DIO to DNA. The observed negative ∆G° values revealed the spontaneity of interaction process. The binding of DIO to DNA–EB was found to be stronger in the presence of coexisting substances. -- Highlights: • Mechanism of interaction of diosmin with DNA was studied by spectroscopic methods. • Ethidium bromide was used as a fluorescence probe in the present study. • The van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a significant role in the interaction. • Intercalative mode of binding was proposed between DIO and DNA.

  13. Thigh and calf blood flows after isometric contraction in untrained and trained subjects. (United States)

    Kitamura, K; Shimaoka, M; Matsui, H; Miyamura, M


    The present study was undertaken to examine whether or not there were any differences between untrained and trained subjects in the changes of blood flow in the ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs after isometric exercise. Blood flow of the thigh and calf in both right and left legs were measured simultaneously before and after isometric contraction with mercury-in-silastic strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. In the present study, the main pattern of blood flow responses in the active and non-active limbs was strikingly similar in all subjects: a significant fall in blood flow immediately after isometric contraction at a force of about 50% of maximal muscle strength for 15 sec was observed in the non-active lower limbs. Peak blood flow of the exercised thigh in the trained group was significantly higher than that in the untrained ones. From these results, it was suggested that higher blood flow after isometric exercise in the trained subjects may be due to the improvement of degree of vasodilation in the lower limb as a result of physical training.

  14. Eosinophilic granuloma with Splendore-Hoeppli material caused by Mannheimia granulomatis in a calf (United States)

    KAWASHIMA, Yuuto; TAKAHASHI, Hiroyasu; SHIMOO, Megumi; TAMAMURA, Yukino; ISHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; KADOTA, Koichi


    A large subcutaneous mass, formed on the left lower jaw of a 4-month-old Japanese Black male calf, was partially excised for histological and bacteriological examinations. Antibiotic treatment resulted in a good prognosis. Bacteria isolated from the excised material were characterized by weak hemolysis and positive reactions for catalase and oxidase, and were 99% identical to Mannheimia granulomatis strains. The presence of the leukotoxin gene product was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Histological examination showed that the excised material was composed of dense fibrous connective tissue with sparsely distributed eosinophilic granulomas or abscesses. These foci frequently contained Splendore-Hoeppli material with rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria. Except for the absence of lymphangitis and the presence of basophils and mast cells, the histology of this lesion resembled that of lechiguana associated with coinfection of M. granulomatis and Dermatobia hominis. Leukotoxin was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry within Splendore-Hoeppli material and was judged to be responsible for its formation. PMID:26947171

  15. Structure of the oligosaccharides of three glycopeptides from calf thymocyte plasma membranes. (United States)

    Kornfeld, R


    The carbohydrate composition and oligosaccharide structure of three glycopeptides isolated from delipidated calf thymocyte plasma membranes following Pronase digestion have been determined. Five major glycopeptide fractions were separated using Bio-Gel P-6 gel filtration and diethylaminoethylcellulose chromatography. The structure of the oligosaccharide chains of three of these glycopeptides was determined by a combination of sequential degradation with glycosidases and methylation analysis. These oligosaccharide structures consist of complex, highly branched N-linked chains containing at their nonreducing termini the unusual sequence Gal(beta1 leads to 3)Gal(beta1 leads to 4)GlcNAc leads to as well as the more usual sequence SA(alpha2 leads to 3)Gal(beta1 leads to 4)GlcNAc leads to. In addition, one glycopeptide also contains short O-linked chains with the structure Gal(beta leads to 3)GalNAc leads to Ser(Thr) which have receptor activity for the lectin from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

  16. Investigation on the toxic interaction of chrysoidine hydrochloride-CTMAB combined contamination with calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Chi, Zhenxing; Liu, Rutao; Pan, Xingren; Teng, Yue; Qin, Hao; Zhu, Jianhua; Hao, Xiaopeng


    The toxic interaction of the azo dye-chrysoidine hydrochloride combined with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) in living tissue was studied in vitro. The absorption spectrum, resonance light scattering (RLS), circular dichroism (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that the toxicity of chrysoidine hydrochloride itself to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) is weak, while the chrysoidine hydrochloride-CTMAB combined pollution showed obvious toxic interaction with ct-DNA. The chrysoidine hydrochloride-CTMAB combined contamination can interact with ct-DNA to form an ion-associated complex through electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The conformation of DNA was changed in the interaction process to show toxic. The experimental results showed that the combination of chrysoidine hydrochloride-CTMAB has higher toxicity to ct-DNA than either chrysoidine hydrochloride or CTMAB individually, and the combined pollution showed a strong toxic co-effect at a dose of 3.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) chrysoidine hydrochloride and 1.6x10(-5) mol L(-1) CTMAB. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conformation and Rheological Properties of Calf-Thymus DNA in Solution

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    Lourdes Mónica Bravo-Anaya


    Full Text Available Studies of DNA molecule behavior in aqueous solutions performed through different approaches allow assessment of the solute-solvent interactions and examination of the strong influence of conformation on its physicochemical properties, in the presence of different ionic species and ionic concentrations. Firstly, the conformational behavior of calf-thymus DNA molecules in TE buffer solution is presented as a function of temperature. Secondly, their rheological behavior is discussed, as well as the evidence of the critical concentrations, i.e., the overlap and the entanglement concentrations (C* and Ce, respectively from steady state flow and oscillatory dynamic shear experiments. The determination of the viscosity in the Newtonian plateau obtained from flow curves η ( allows estimation of the intrinsic viscosity and the specific viscosities at zero shear when C[η] < 40. At end, a generalized master curve is obtained from the variation of the specific viscosity as a function of the overlap parameter C[η]. The variation of the exponent s obtained from the power law η~ −s for both flow and dynamic results is discussed in terms of Graessley’s analysis. In the semi-dilute regime with entanglements, a dynamic master curve is obtained as a function of DNA concentration (CDNA > 2.0 mg/mL and temperature (10 °C < T < 40 °C.

  18. A physiological model for interpretation of arterial spin labeling reactive hyperemia of calf muscles.

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    Hou-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available To characterize and interpret arterial spin labeling (ASL reactive hyperemia of calf muscles for a better understanding of the microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD, we present a physiological model incorporating oxygen transport, tissue metabolism, and vascular regulation mechanisms. The model demonstrated distinct effects between arterial stenoses and microvascular dysfunction on reactive hyperemia, and indicated a higher sensitivity of 2-minute thigh cuffing to microvascular dysfunction than 5-minute cuffing. The recorded perfusion responses in PAD patients (n = 9 were better differentiated from the normal subjects (n = 7 using the model-based analysis rather than characterization using the apparent peak and time-to-peak of the responses. The analysis results suggested different amounts of microvascular disease within the patient group. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel analysis method and facilitates understanding of the physiology involved in ASL reactive hyperemia. ASL reactive hyperemia with model-based analysis may be used as a noninvasive microvascular assessment in the presence of arterial stenoses, allowing us to look beyond the macrovascular disease in PAD. A subgroup who will have a poor prognosis after revascularization in the patients with critical limb ischemia may be associated with more severe microvascular diseases, which may potentially be identified using ASL reactive hyperemia.

  19. Deciphering the mechanism of interaction of edifenphos with calf thymus DNA (United States)

    Ahmad, Ajaz; Ahmad, Masood


    Edifenphos is an important organophosphate pesticide with many antifungal and anti-insecticidal properties but it may cause potential hazards to human health. In this work, we have tried to explore the binding mode of action and mechanism of edifenphos to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Several experiments such as ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and emission spectroscopy showed complex formation between edifenphos and CT-DNA and low binding constant values supporting groove binding mode. These results were further confirmed by circular dichroism (CD), CT-DNA melting studies, viscosity measurements, density functional theory and molecular docking. CD study suggests that edifenphos does not alter native structure of CT-DNA. Isothermal calorimetry reveals that binding of edifenphos with CT-DNA is enthalpy driven process. Competitive binding assay and effect of ionic strength showed that edifenphos binds to CT-DNA via groove binding manner. Hence, edifenphos is a minor groove binder preferably interacting with A-T regions with docking score - 6.84 kJ/mol.

  20. Deciphering the intercalative binding modes of benzoyl peroxide with calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Xia, Kaixin; Zhang, Guowen; Gong, Deming


    The binding of benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a flour brightener, with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was predicted by molecular simulation, and this were confirmed using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a chemometrics algorithm. The molecular docking result showed that BPO could insert into the base pairs of ctDNA, and the adenine bases were the preferential binding sites which were validated by the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. The mode of binding of BPO with ctDNA was an intercalation as supported by the results from ctDNA melting and viscosity measurements, iodide quenching effects and competitive binding investigations. The circular dichroism and DNA cleavage assays indicated that BPO induced a conformational change from B-like DNA structure towards to A-like form, but did not lead to significant damage in the DNA. The complexation was driven mainly by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic data matrix was resolved by a multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares algorithm. The equilibrium concentration profiles for the components (BPO, ctDNA and BPO-ctDNA complex) were extracted from the highly overlapping composite response to quantitatively monitor the BPO-ctDNA interaction. This study has provided insights into the mechanism of the interaction of BPO with ctDNA and potential hazards of the food additive. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.