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Sample records for commercial dog food

  1. Aflatoxin status of some commercial dry dog foods in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in commercial dry dog foods in the city of Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria, was investigated. Dry dog food samples from 6 producers were purchased on five different occasions from retail outlets in Ibadan, Nigeria. High performance liquid chromatography was used for separation ...

  2. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Comparison of voluntary food intake and palatability of commercial weight loss diets in healthy dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hours, Marie Anne; Sagols, Emmanuelle; Junien-Castagna, Ariane; Feugier, Alexandre; Moniot, Delphine; Daniel, Ingrid; Biourge, Vincent; Samuel, Serisier; Queau, Yann; German, Alexander J

    2016-12-05

    Obesity in dogs and cats is usually managed by dietary energy restriction using a purpose-formulated weight loss diet, but signs of hunger and begging commonly occur causing poor owner compliance. Altering diet characteristics so as to reduce voluntary food intake (VFI) can improve the likelihood of success, although this should not be at the expense of palatability. The aim of the current study was to compare the VFI and palatibility of novel commercially available canine and feline weight loss diets. The relative performance of two canine (C1 and C2) and two feline (F1 and F2) diets was assessed in groups of healthy adult dogs and cats, respectively. Diets varied in energy, protein, fibre, and fat content. To assess canine VFI, 12 (study 1) and 10 (study 2) dogs were offered food in 4 meals, for 15 min on each occasion, with hourly intervals between the meals. For feline VFI, 12 cats were offered food ad libitum for a period of 18 h per day over 5 consecutive days. The palatability studies used separate panels of 37 dogs and 30 cats, with the two diets being served, side-by-side, in identical bowls. In dogs, VFI was significantly less for diet C1 than diet C2 when assessed on energy intake (study 1, 42% less, P = 0.032; study 2, 28% less, P = 0.019), but there was no difference in gram weight intake (study 1: P = 0.964; study 2: P = 0.255). In cats, VFI was 17% less for diet F1 than diet F2 when assessed by energy intake (P canine diets (P = 0.490), whilst the panel of cats diet preferred F1 to F2 (P obese dogs and cats on controlled weight loss programmes.

  4. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Brazilian commercial dog food: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, the exposure of non-human species to ionizing radiation, as well as its effects, has been given a different focus; on the one hand due to the increasing knowledge on different exposure situations that these species are subjected to and on the other hand, due to the concern regarding biodiversity and its protection. To estimate the effects of ionizing radiation over non-human biota, several key points must be considered, such as radionuclide concentration, dosimetry models, reference biota and others. A vast number of non-human individuals can be represented by reference organisms defined by different international organisms (UNSCEAR, ICRP and the FASSET project), to facilitate the assessment of exposure, absorbed dose and radiation effect for individuals from alike environments. There is, however, no specific representative for domestic animals, like dogs and cats. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world, consuming over 2 million tons of feed every year. The Brazilian Association of the Industry of Products for Pets (ABINPET) foresees, for the year of 2013, an economic growth of 8.1% that may represent 0.34% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Animal food content and quality evaluations have been presented elsewhere, while no radiological study and the consequences from its ingestion have ever been conducted in the country. Hence, the present study will evaluate absorbed doses for domestic animals (i.e. dogs and cats) due to ingestion of food designed for them, by determining the radioactivity content of natural and anthropogenic cause. Initially, the activity concentrations in different brands of dry dog and cat food will be assessed by high resolution gamma spectrometry. Several brands usually consumed in Brazil were selected for the study. Eighteen dog food samples were prepared (crushed into powder and kiln dried) and tightly sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks, with a plan screw cap and bubble

  5. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from brand, super-premium dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  6. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  7. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  8. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio Di Donfrancesco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products.

  9. Dog Food Consumption in the Caribbean: A Baseline Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs in the Caribbean have been traditionally viewed as low maintenance pets which are fed leftovers from the household. Changes in the lifestyle of Caribbean families have resulted in changes in their eating patterns. These changes can be expected to have consequences for the feeding of dogs, which may require households to switch to commercial dog food. This paper reports the finding of a survey of groups involved with pets and animal welfare in the Caribbean conducted on behalf of the Pet Food Institute, a non-profit industry association. The study examined perspectives on how dogs are fed in the Caribbean and activities conducted to educate pet owners and the public. Use of household scraps and commercial dog food was associated with household income, except in the case of some high income dependent territories. The findings indicate that while many animal welfare groups in the Caribbean provide educational programs, not all of these provide recommendations on feeding pets and so they neglect to provide information on an important aspect of animal welfare.

  10. Food engorgement in 35 dogs (2009-2013) compared with 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Lisa; Reese, Shona; Hosgood, Giselle

    2017-11-25

    The clinical features and management of food engorgement (FE) in dogs have not been previously described. This retrospective observational study describes characteristics and outcome of 35 dogs with FE, and compares features on presentation to 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus (GDV). Cases were retrospectively reviewed for history, clinical findings and outcome. Gastric distension was measured by caudal gastric margin (CGM), level with lumbar vertebrae, on a lateral abdominal radiograph. Frequent characteristics of dogs with FE included tachycardia, tachypnoea, hyperproteinaemia, increased base excess (BE), mild hypernatraemia and hyperlactataemia. There was overlap in CGM between dogs with GDV (CGM range L3 to >L6) and dogs with FE (CGM range dogs with GDV, lactate concentration in dogs with FE was not associated with CGM or BE. Dogs with FE mostly received medical intervention consisting of fluid therapy and analgesia, and all dogs survived to discharge. In conclusion, dogs with FE frequently presented with acid-base and electrolyte derangements, including hyperlactataemia. While dogs with FE can have gastric distension as severe as that seen with GDV, outcome with supportive care only is excellent. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Karina De Carli; Haese, Douglas; Kill, João Luís; Pires, Achicine Furno; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Colnago, Geraldo Luiz; Lucas, Wendius Henrique; Gama, Gabriela Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food) in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry ...

  12. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (5): discrepancies between ingredients and labeling in commercial pet foods

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Elimination dietary trials for the diagnosis of adverse food reactions (food allergies) in dogs and cats are often conducted with commercial pet foods while relying on their label to select those not containing previously-eaten ingredients. There are concerns that industrial pet foods might contain unlisted food sources that could negate the usefulness of performing food trials. Furthermore, unidentified ingredients might cause clinical reactions in patients hypersensitive to such ...

  14. Comparison of ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility of dry dog foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Thomas, G.; Bosch, G.; Fahey, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    The apparent total tract and ileal digestibility assays to measure AA absorption in commercial canine diets were compared in the present study. Five ileal cannulated dogs were fed 5 commercial dry canine foods selected to contain 19 to 30% CP in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Ileal and total tract

  15. Edible TV: Your Child and Food Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B., Comp.; Engle, Pamela C., Comp.

    This document reports on the impact of television food commercials on children under 12, focusing specifically on how commercials influence children's food preferences and concepts, how they affect children's knowledge of nutrition, and how they contribute to obesity. Part I is a compilation of short excerpts from relevant testimony before the…

  16. Food irradiation nears commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One person out of eight in the world today suffers from chronic undernourishment. This problem is likely to get worse as the world's population doubles during the next thirty to forty years. Since about 25% or more of our harvested food is lost due to various kinds of wastage and spoilage, food preservation is no less important than food production. To supply the world's demand for food, it is more reasonable to conserve what is produced than to produce more to compensate for subsequent losses. Thus, it is obvious that all methods of preserving food and agricultural produce should be examined to see if their use might alleviate the world's food shortage, and that to develop better and safer techniques of food preservation will improve food supplies. Food preservation is an ever greater problem for the developing countries, not only because of their chronic problems of undernourishment, but also because most of them are in tropical or sub-tropical regions where food spoilage is rapid. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) held a symposium on food irradiation at Colombo in Sri Lanka. The symposium paid special attention to the use of food irradiation in preserving tropical fruits as well as fish and fish products. It also examined the cost of the food irradiation process and compared it with those of conventional processes. Food irradiation is one field in which advance is most likely to be achieved through international co-operation. This co-operation has been supported by the IAEA and FAO in a number of ways. During the last 15 years three previous symposia (Karlsruhe, 1966; Bombay, 1972; Wageningen, 1977), numerous panel meetings, and training courses, have been held on this subject and many nations' food irradiation projects have been supported by technical assistance and co-ordinated research programmes

  17. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemhorst, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  18. Quality and digestibility of dry foods from different commercial categories for adult dogs Qualidade e digestibilidade de alimentos comerciais de diferentes segmentos de mercado para cães adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Domingues de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC and metabolizable energy (ME of 16 adult dog foods of different commercial categories were determined. The products were classified as superpremium (n=5, premium (n=6 and economic (n-5. The ADC was estimated using the chromic oxide method, in a randomly assigned experiment. The superpremium foods presented higher nutricional densities: the protein content was 9 and 5 point percent higher than economical and premium foods, respectively, while fat content was 7 and 4.5 point percent higher. Economic foods presented low protein and high crude fiber and ash. There were products with higher crude fiber and ash than that declared by the manufacturers. Then mean ADC of superpremium, premium and economic products were, respectively, 81.5, 74.7 and 59.25% for dry matter, 83.2, 76.9 and 66.2% for crude protein, and 85.6, 81.5 and 65.8% for crude energy. These results were significantly different (P<0,05, which indicates a high digestibility for superpremium products and very low digestibility for economic ones. Variations among foods were important in the premium and economic categories, since products with different quality were found in a given commercial category. Because of its chemical composition and digestibility, the economic diets presented low ME (2.7kcal/g. Possibly, the selection of ingredients and industrial processing were responsible for the large difference in quality among products. Digestibility has proved to be an important tool when used in association with chemical composition in the production, evaluation and classification of foods for dogs and cats.Foram avaliados a composição química, coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA e energia metabolizável (EM de 16 rações de diferentes segmentos comerciais, destinadas a cães adultos. Os produtos foram divididos em super-premium (n=5, premium (n=6 e econômicos (n=5. Os CDA foram estimados pelo óxido cr

  19. Effect of breed on food preference tests for dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Pedro Zanatta; Diego Surek; Larissa Wünsche Risolia; Ananda Portella Félix; Alex Maiorka; Simone Gisele de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the differences among four dog breeds as to food selectivity, choice agreement, and the number scores that best evaluate the degree of food choice agreement. For that, 115 food preference tests were analyzed. In each of those tests, 20 dogs were used (eight Beagles, four Labradors, four Siberian Huskies, and four Basset Hounds), in two evaluation days. The medians of intake difference between two diets were calculated for days one, two, and for both days to deter...

  20. Food hypersensitivity in 20 dogs with skin and gastrointestinal signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, S

    1995-12-01

    Canine food allergy can be defined as a nonseasonal, pruritic skin disorder of dogs that is associated with the ingestion of a substance found in the dog's diet. This study records the use of a proprietary dried fish, corn and soya-based diet for the investigation and maintenance of food allergic dogs when fed initially as a restricted allergen diet and then as a maintenance diet after challenge. All the dogs showed evidence of pruritic skin disease and in addition demonstrated gastrointestinal signs. These included the presence of faecal mucus and blood, tenesmus and increased faecal frequency; all the signs associated with colitis. Both cutaneous and gastrointestinal signs resolved when an elimination diet was fed and could be reproduced when the animal was appropriately challenged. Ten dogs were trialled on a home cooked diet of fish and potato and 10 dogs on the proprietary complete food. All the dogs were challenged to identify their food allergies. Nineteen of the dogs have subsequently been successfully maintained on the proprietary food.

  1. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, P.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron

  2. Food claims and nutrition facts of commercial infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu-Chin; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi Chun

    2018-01-01

    Composition claim, nutrition claim and health claim are often found on the commercial complementary food packaging. The introduction of complementary foods (CFs) to infants is a turning point in the development of their eating behavior, and their commercial use for Taiwanese infants is growing. In Taiwan, lots of the advertisements for CFs employed health or nutrition claims to promote the products, but the actual nutritional content of these CFs is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the food claims of commercial complementary food products with their actual nutrition facts. A sample of 363 commercial CFs was collected from websites, local supermarkets, and other food stores, and their nutrition-related claims were classified into composition, nutrition, and health categories. Although the World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, 48.2% of the commercial CFs were targeted at infants younger than 6 months. Therefore, marketing regulations should be implemented to curb early weaning as a result of products targeted at infants younger than 6 months. More than 50% of Taiwanese commercial CFs have high sugar content and more than 20% were high in sodium. Products with health claims, such as "provides good nutrition to children" or "improves appetite," have higher sodium or sugar content than do those without such claims. Moreover, products with calcium or iron content claims did not contain more calcium or iron than products without such claims. Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of the products with "no added sugar" claims were classified as having high sugar content as compared to those without such claims. Parents cannot choose the healthiest food products for their children by simply focusing on food claims. Government should regulate the labeling of nutrition facts and food claims for foods targeted at infants younger than 12 months.

  3. The atopic dog: a model for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermel, R W; Kock, M; Griffey, S M; Reinhart, G A; Frick, O L

    1997-02-01

    The renewed interest in food allergy and its investigation has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model with similar comparative aspects of form and function relative to humans. Therefore we have been characterizing an inbred colony of high immunoglobulin E-producing dogs that were immunized subcutaneously with food antigen extracts in alum and that developed clinical manifestations of food allergy after oral challenges with food antigen. These dogs had appreciably high IgE antibody titer to specific food antigens, as measured by an enzyme-labeled immunodot assay. Skin test results for the food antigens were consistently positive, as evidenced by a wheal-and-flare reaction. Gastroscopic food sensitivity was tested through an endoscope by injecting allergenic food extracts into the gastric mucosa after intravenous injection of Evans blue dye. Mucosal changes included swelling and erythema, some petechiae and blue patching, and in some instances generalized gastric erythema and hyperperistalsis. Examination of immediate-reaction biopsy specimens revealed edema and few inflammatory cells. Examination of late-reaction biopsy specimens revealed increased eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltrations typical of late-phase allergic inflammatory responses. Direct mucosal challenge with food extracts confirmed the clinical and immunologic evidence of food allergy in these immunized dogs and suggests the usefulness of the atopic dog as a model for food allergy. This model might also be useful in detecting hidden food allergies in unexplained inflammatory gastrointestinal tract diseases.

  4. Dog rivalry impacts following behavior in a decision-making task involving food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Suchak, Malini

    2017-07-01

    Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food. Dog rivalry scores were calculated using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire and indicated each dog's tendency to engage aggressively with the other household dog. Low-rivalry dogs were more likely to approach the empty plate than high-rivalry dogs when the observer dog was allowed to approach the plates immediately after the demonstrator had moved out of sight. This difference between low- and high-rivalry dogs disappeared, however, when observer dogs had to wait 5 s before approaching the plates. The same pattern was observed during a control condition when a human removed the food from a plate. Compared to low-rivalry dogs, high-rivalry dogs may pay less attention to other dogs due to a low tolerance for having other dogs in close proximity.

  5. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina De Carli Loureiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry matter. Ten adult dogs were distributed in double Latin block squares (5x5 with five treatments and five periods, totalling ten repetitions per treatment. The residue sirloin steak presented the highest levels of essential (414.2g kg-1 of dry matter and non-essential (399.0g kg-1 of dry matter amino acids in tested ingredients. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter - ADCDM (907g kg-1, ADCOM (930g kg-1, ADCCP (841g kg-1, ADCAEE (954g kg-1 values, and DE (5069kcal kg-1 and ME (4781kcal kg-1 values between testicle, residue sirloin steak, and liver. The trachea presented lower digestibility and energy values (digestible and metabolizable than the other ingredients. This lower trachea digestibility resulted in higher faecal volume for natural and dry matter (P0.05 in faecal score between ingredients. Ingredients tested in this study can be used in feeds for adult dogs; however, their nutritional levels and digestibility values should be considered for correct diet balance.

  6. Food-poisoning and commercial air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, R; Edwards, P J; Kelly, M J; Millar, B C; Rooney, P J; Moore, J E

    2007-09-01

    With the introduction of budget airlines and greater competitiveness amongst all airlines, air travel has now become an extremely popular form of travel, presenting its own unique set of risks from food poisoning. Foodborne illness associated with air travel is quite uncommon in the modern era. However, when it occurs, it may have serious implications for passengers and when crew are affected, has the potential to threaten safety. Quality, safe, in-flight catering relies on high standards of food preparation and storage; this applies at the airport kitchens (or at subcontractors' facilities), on the aircraft and in the transportation vehicles which carry the food from the ground source to the aircraft. This is especially challenging in certain countries. Several foodborne outbreaks have been recorded by the airline industry as a result of a number of different failures of these systems. These have provided an opportunity to learn from past mistakes and current practice has, therefore, reached such a standard so as to minimise risk of failures of this kind. This review examines: (i) the origin of food safety in modern commercial aviation; (ii) outbreaks which have occurred previously relating to aviation travel; (iii) the microbiological quality of food and water on board commercial aircraft; and (iv) how Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points may be employed to maintain food safety in aviation travel.

  7. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCortinovis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek and chives, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants, products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  8. 9 CFR 318.12 - Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of dog food or similar... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.12 Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official establishments. (a) When dog food, or similar uninspected article is...

  9. Functional foods in pet nutrition: Focus on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Palmieri, Beniamino; Pezzuto, Federica; Cocco, Raffaella; Flores, Gonzalo; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2017-06-01

    Functional foods provide health benefits if they are consumed on a regular basis as part of a varied diet. In this review, we discuss the availability and role of functional foods in pet nutrition with a focus on dogs and cats. Indeed, functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies. This evidence derives largely from clinical studies while only limited evidence is available from studies in dogs and cats. Therefore, functional food consumption should be further investigated in pet nutrition to understand how dietary interventions can be used for disease prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Household Food items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cortinovis, C.; Caloni, F.

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally ...

  11. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA. Fourteen healthy privately-owned dogs were used in this study. Blood and fecal samples were collected prior to dogs being placed for two-weeks on one of two diets (with one considered to be BPA-free), and blood and fecal samples were collected again. Serum/plasma samples were analyzed for chemistry and hematology profiles, cortisol concentrations, 5-methylcytosine in lymphocytes, and total BPA concentrations. Fecal samples were used for microbiome assessments. Both diets contained BPA, and after two-weeks of being on either diet, dogs had a significant increase in circulating BPA concentrations (pre-samples=0.7±0.15ng/mL, post-samples=2.2±0.15ng/mL, pfood increased circulating BPA concentrations in dogs comparable to amounts detected in humans, and greater BPA concentrations were associated with serum chemistry and microbiome changes. Dogs, who share our internal and external environments with us, are likely excellent indicators of potential human health concerns to BPA and other environmental chemicals. These findings may also have relevance to aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Does Flooring Substrate Impact Kennel and Dog Cleanliness in Commercial Breeding Facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith; Hurt, Moriah; Bauer, Amy; Croney, Candace

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary It is important to understand how the flooring substrate used in dog housing impacts dog health and well-being. Aspects to consider include paw, elbow, and hock health, the cleanliness of the dog, and the ability of the floors to be cleaned easily and thoroughly. This pilot study assessed the health and cleanliness of 118 dogs housed on three different types of flooring commonly found in commercial breeding kennels. No serious paw, elbow, or hock problems were identified. Thirty-one percent or fewer kennels at each facility were found to have fecal contamination after routine cleaning and the majority of dogs were clean. These findings indicate that a well-managed kennel can maintain clean, healthy dogs on different types of flooring substrates. Abstract Evaluation of kennel flooring surfaces is needed to understand their impacts on dog health and well-being. This pilot study aimed to characterize aspects of physical health, kennel cleanliness, and dog body cleanliness on flooring types common in US breeding kennels. Subjects were 118 adult dogs housed on diamond-coated expanded metal (DCEM), polypropylene (POLY), or concrete (CON) flooring at five commercial breeding facilities in Indiana, U.S. Body condition, paw, elbow, and hock health scores were recorded. Each indoor kennel and dog was visually assessed for cleanliness. Kennels were swabbed immediately after cleaning with electrostatic dry cloths and cultured for Escherichia coli. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Mean body condition score (BCS), kennel and dog cleanliness scores were all near ideal (3, 1.15, and 1.04, respectively). Thirty-one percent or fewer kennels at each facility were culture-positive for E. coli after cleaning. No serious paw, elbow, or hock problems were identified. Overall, the findings indicate that with appropriate management and regular access to additional surfaces, dog foot health, cleanliness, and kennel cleanliness can be maintained on the flooring

  13. Natural and artificial radioactivity in commercial food for domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity throughout the planet and their eventual consequences are studied by Environmental Radioprotection. Over the past years, the international agencies concerned with radiation protection have debated over the practices conducted so far, regarding the protection of the fauna and ora, which believed that the recommendations implemented for human beings assured that other species were also protected. Thus, assessments of the activity concentration of different radionuclides in the environment, as well as the absorbed doses for species from different ecosystems, due to internal and external exposures, are needed. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world and annually produces over 2 million tons of feed. The present work has investigated the radioactivity levels in commercial brands of dry dog and cat food, using high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results have shown activity concentrations for artificial radionuclides below the detector's Minimum Detectable Activity and also, low concentration levels for the natural radionuclides, varying from 0,9 ± 0,3 Bq/kg up to 5,1 ± 0,7 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, from 1,2 ± 0,4 Bq/kg up to 11,1 ± 1,0 Bq/kg for 232 Th and from 156 ± 7 Bq/kg up to 410± 19 Bq/kg for 40 K. In order to verify the mineral content in pet food, EDXRF technique was applied and, using multivariate statistics, correlations between the mineral and radionuclide content were verified. The good correlation observed between concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and calcium could be associated with meat and bone our used in feed manufacturing. The internal dose for some organs were inferred by Monte Carlo method and the results were no higher than 1 μGy/day. In summary, results have shown that the activity levels found in the pet food are low enough to conclude that the brands evaluated carry no radiological risks for the animals that consume them. (author)

  14. National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao, Patricia C; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J

    2013-02-01

    On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Investigators reviewed patients' medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities.

  15. Effect of breed on food preference tests for dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pedro Zanatta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the differences among four dog breeds as to food selectivity, choice agreement, and the number scores that best evaluate the degree of food choice agreement. For that, 115 food preference tests were analyzed. In each of those tests, 20 dogs were used (eight Beagles, four Labradors, four Siberian Huskies, and four Basset Hounds, in two evaluation days. The medians of intake difference between two diets were calculated for days one, two, and for both days to determine if there were selectivity difference among breeds. A randomized block experimental design was applied, and medians were submitted to the test of Friedmann. Food choice agreement and the degree of agreement among breeds were evaluated by the kappa index, using two different scales. Basset Hounds were the most selective when two different foods were offered, whereas Labradors were the least selective. When performing food preference tests, Siberian Huskies and Basset Hounds are recommended; however, they must be used individually to prevent that the results of one breed could neutralize those of the other breed. The use of a scale of food preference with three scores is recommended in order to obtain results that are more reliable.

  16. An investigation of selected chemical contaminants in commercial pet foods in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; El Sharkawy, Nabela I; Moustafa, Gihan G

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to identify the levels of various contaminants in both wet and dry commercial pet foods in Egypt. A total of 20 local and imported pet food products (3 samples each) were screened for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, for mycotoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and for nitrate and nitrite levels by nitrate-nitrite spectrophotometry. Cat food, on average, had greater concentrations of the metals cadmium, chromium, lead, and tin than dog food. Of the investigated metals, only tin concentration exceeded the safe level compared with the standards of the National Research Council and the European Commission for the dog and cat. According to the guidelines of the Association of American Feed Control Officials for canned pet foods, the nitrate and nitrite contents of examined foods greatly exceeded the recommended level. No total aflatoxins were detected in the surveyed samples. None of the samples analyzed had levels above international limits established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for ochratoxin, and only 1 sample exceeded the level for aflatoxin B1. Of the 20 samples analyzed for zearalenone, 4 samples had higher levels than the FAO maximum tolerable levels. These results indicate that pet foods marketed in Egypt, especially cat foods, occasionally contain contaminants that could result in adverse effects in pets. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side

  18. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. Objective - We experimentally tested the side

  19. Measurement of allergen-specific IgG in serum is of limited value for the management of dogs diagnosed with cutaneous adverse food reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Leistra, M.H.G.; Sinke, J.D.; Vroom, M.W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported in the literature in terms of the usefulness of serological testing for IgG against food allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (CAFR). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available IgG ELISA for

  20. Measurement of allergen-specific IgG in serum is of limited value for the management of dogs diagnosed with cutaneous adverse food reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Leistra, M H G; Sinke, J D; Vroom, M W; Savelkoul, H F J; Hendriks, W H

    Conflicting results have been reported in the literature in terms of the usefulness of serological testing for IgG against food allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (CAFR). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available IgG ELISA for

  1. The Influence of Televised Food Commercials on Children's Food Choices: Evidence from Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, Timothy R; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    To investigate how food commercials influence children's food choices. Twenty-three children ages 8-14 years provided taste and health ratings for 60 food items. Subsequently, these children were scanned with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while making food choices (ie, "eat" or "not eat") after watching food and nonfood television commercials. Our results show that watching food commercials changes the way children consider the importance of taste when making food choices. Children did not use health values for their food choices, indicating children's decisions were largely driven by hedonic, immediate rewards (ie, "tastiness"); however, children placed significantly more importance on taste after watching food commercials compared with nonfood commercials. This change was accompanied by faster decision times during food commercial trials. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a reward valuation brain region, showed increased activity during food choices after watching food commercials compared with after watching nonfood commercials. Overall, our results suggest watching food commercials before making food choices may bias children's decisions based solely on taste, and that food marketing may systematically alter the psychological and neurobiologic mechanisms of children's food decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do television food commercials target children in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Wilcke, Ann-Christin

    2012-08-01

    To examine whether the German food industry directs commercials for unhealthy products to children and whether self-administered voluntary restrictions on the promotion of less healthy foods (the EU Pledge) are effective to mitigate this exposure. By analysing German data from television (TV) channels, advertised products were categorized and food products classified as core foods (healthy) and non-core foods (less healthy). Marketing techniques were documented. Food commercials were furthermore compared with commercials for toy products, and comparisons were made between advertising patterns before and after the EU Pledge. Data for ten German TV channels were recorded for two weekdays and two weekend days from 06.00 to 22.00 hours in 2007 and 2008. A second sample containing one weekday and one weekend day of three German TV channels was recorded again in 2010 for comparison in the same time period. In total 16 062 advertisements from 2007-2008 and 2657 from 2010 were analysed. In 2007-2008 19·9 % of TV commercials were for food products, of which 73 % were for non-core foods, 21 % for core foods and 6 % not classified. In three specified channels widely viewed by children and youth, 14·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 88·2 % were for non-core foods. Commercials for unhealthy foods were broadcast significantly more often during children's peak viewing and in children's programmes, with a higher use of promotional characters and premiums than found in commercials for non-food products. In 2010, analysis of the three specified channels found that 18·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 98·2 % were for non-core foods. While the use of premiums decreased compared with other commercials, the use of promotional characters in non-core food commercials increased, especially during children's programmes. Children in Germany are exposed to large numbers of food commercials. The exposure to commercials for non-core foods and the use of

  3. Evaluation of food hygiene in commercial food service establishments in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Kauser, Naazia; N., Santoshi Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee the meals served are hygienic for consumption. The unhygienic working practices and attitude of the food handlers often play a major role in the food contamination process.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and Food hygiene practices among food handlers in commercial food service outlets in Hyderabad. Two hundred food handlers from 20 food service outlets in the vicinity...

  4. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group ( P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.

  5. Sodium monitoring in commercially processed and restaurant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Haytowitz, David B; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley; Nickle, Melissa; Showell, Bethany; Thomas, Robin; Roseland, Janet; Williams, Juhi; Khan, Mona; Nguyen, Quynhanh; Hoy, Kathy; Martin, Carrie; Rhodes, Donna; Moshfegh, Alanna; Gillespie, Cathleen; Gunn, Janelle; Merritt, Robert; Cogswell, Mary

    2015-03-01

    Most sodium in the US diet comes from commercially processed and restaurant foods. Sodium reduction in these foods is key to several recent public health efforts. The objective was to provide an overview of a program led by the USDA, in partnership with other government agencies, to monitor sodium contents in commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We also present comparisons of nutrients generated under the program to older data. We track ∼125 commercially processed and restaurant food items ("sentinel foods") annually using information from food manufacturers and periodically by nationwide sampling and laboratory analyses. In addition, we monitor >1100 other commercially processed and restaurant food items, termed "priority-2 foods" (P2Fs) biennially by using information from food manufacturers. These foods serve as indicators for assessing changes in the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We sampled all sentinel foods nationwide and reviewed all P2Fs in 2010-2013 to determine baseline sodium concentrations. We updated sodium values for 73 sentinel foods and 551 P2Fs in the USDA's National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (releases 23-26). Sodium values changed by at least 10% for 43 of the sentinel foods, which, for 31 foods, including commonly consumed foods such as bread, tomato catsup, and potato chips, the newer sodium values were lower. Changes in the concentrations of related nutrients (total and saturated fat, total sugar, potassium, or dietary fiber) that were recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for reduced or increased consumption accompanied sodium reduction. The results of sodium reduction efforts, based on resampling of the sentinel foods or re-review of P2Fs, will become available beginning in 2015. This monitoring program tracks sodium reduction efforts, improves food composition databases, and strengthens national nutrition monitoring. © 2015

  6. Toxic myopathy in a dog associated with the presence of monensin in dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J S

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a case of toxic myopathy in a two year old sheltie dog with clinical signs of profound weakness, myoglobinuria, and muscle enzyme elevations. The clinical signs were likely related to the accidental inclusion of monensin sodium in the dog's food. This food was prepared by a small feed milling company that also prepares cattle and chicken rations. A change of dog food resulted in remission of the clinical signs.

  7. Toxic Myopathy in a Dog Associated with the Presence of Monensin in Dry Food

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a case of toxic myopathy in a two year old sheltie dog with clinical signs of profound weakness, myoglobinuria, and muscle enzyme elevations. The clinical signs were likely related to the accidental inclusion of monensin sodium in the dog's food. This food was prepared by a small feed milling company that also prepares cattle and chicken rations. A change of dog food resulted in remission of the clinical signs.

  8. FDA regulations for commercial food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeguchi, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on food irradiation on March 27, 1981 (FDA, 1981). The next step in the rulemaking process is a proposed rule that will deal with low-dose irradiation of certain foods and high-dose irradiation of spices. The status of the proposed regulation is discussed

  9. Food and nutrition in Canadian "prime time" television commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J

    1993-01-01

    Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices.

  10. Needs of food irradiation and its commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    On July 5, 1983, the United States Food and Drug Administration filed a notice in the Federal Register approving the use of Cobalt 60 or Cesium 137 gamma radiation to reduce or control microbial contamination in spices, onion powder and garlic powder. The approval was the first in nineteen years issued by the FDA and appears to set the stage for increased regulatory approvals in the area of radiation preservation of foods. On July 8, 1983, the Codex Alimentarius Commission approved an international standard for irradiated foods. The standard had previously been introduced by experts in the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization. The ability of properly applied ionizing energy to inhibit sprouting, to eliminate the need for toxic chemical fumigants for insect disinfestation purposes, to extend refrigerated shelf life of many food products, to eliminate parasites and pathogens from our food chain and to preserve precooked packaged food products for indefinite storage without freezing or refrigeration, dictates the timeliness of food irradiation technology. (author)

  11. Needs of food irradiation and its commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welt, M A

    1984-01-01

    On July 5, 1983, the United States Food and Drug Administration filed a notice in the Federal Register approving the use of cobalt 60 or cesium 137 gamma radiation to reduce or control microbial contamination in spices, onion powder and garlic powder. The approval was the first in nineteen years issued by the FDA and appears to set the stage for increased regulatory approvals in the area of radiation preservation of foods. On July 8, 1983, the Codex Alimentarius Commission approved an international standard for irradiated foods. The standard had previously been introduced by experts in the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization. The ability of properly applied ionizing energy to inhibit sprouting, to eliminate the need for toxic chemical fumigants for insect disinfestation purposes, to extend refrigerated shelf life of many food products, to eliminate parasites and pathogens from our food chain and to preserve precooked packaged food products for indefinite storage without freezing or refrigeration, dictates the timeliness of food irradiation technology.

  12. Commercialization opportunities of oleogels for functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleogels (or organogels) have been recognized as very promising candidates as trans fat and saturated fat replacements. Not only can the oleogel technology remove harmful fats in foods, but it also can produce a variety of functional foods when functional ingredients such as omega-3 oil, phytosterol...

  13. Economic costs and benefits of commercial food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P. A; Freeman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Decisions about commercialization of potential food irradiation applications usually involve pre-feasibility and feasibility studies to assess the expected return on investment. In this paper treatment costa/charges in theory and practice, investment philosophy, and the role of the multi-purpose plant in food irradiation are discussed. Other countries benefit commercially from the irradiation of a limited range of foods, including spices and frozen shrimps, exported from Southeast Asia. Some aspects of the feasibility of commercially irradiating these products, as well as mangoes and grains, in ASEAN countries and Australia are examined

  14. Does Flooring Substrate Impact Kennel and Dog Cleanliness in Commercial Breeding Facilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stella

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of kennel flooring surfaces is needed to understand their impacts on dog health and well-being. This pilot study aimed to characterize aspects of physical health, kennel cleanliness, and dog body cleanliness on flooring types common in US breeding kennels. Subjects were 118 adult dogs housed on diamond-coated expanded metal (DCEM, polypropylene (POLY, or concrete (CON flooring at five commercial breeding facilities in Indiana, U.S. Body condition, paw, elbow, and hock health scores were recorded. Each indoor kennel and dog was visually assessed for cleanliness. Kennels were swabbed immediately after cleaning with electrostatic dry cloths and cultured for Escherichia coli. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Mean body condition score (BCS, kennel and dog cleanliness scores were all near ideal (3, 1.15, and 1.04, respectively. Thirty-one percent or fewer kennels at each facility were culture-positive for E. coli after cleaning. No serious paw, elbow, or hock problems were identified. Overall, the findings indicate that with appropriate management and regular access to additional surfaces, dog foot health, cleanliness, and kennel cleanliness can be maintained on the flooring types investigated.

  15. Commercialization of irradiated foods in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.

    2001-01-01

    Preservation of food by gamma radiation is technically feasible and economically viable under conditions existing in Pakistan. To educate the consumers, programme for dissemination of information regarding food irradiation was implemented to educate the consumers. Test marketing of irradiated products was carried out for 5-6 years and more than 8 tons of irradiated vegetables were sold to consumers who were briefed about the advantages of radiation technology. A number of condiments including pepper and chillies were irradiated on a large scale (more than 10 tons) at the Pakistan Radiation Service (PARAS) during the years 1996-1998. Comprehensive Harmonised food irradiation regulations, covering all foods in seven classes, were approved in 1996. The charges for irradiating various food commodities ranged from US$19.71/ton potatoes (0.10 kGy) to US$38.32/ton for spices (10.0 kGy). Once the techno-economic feasibility is demonstrated, huge post-harvest losses of different food commodities can be avoided. This will make the country not only self-sufficient in food, but with enough surplus for export. (author)

  16. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; van Strien, Tatjana

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  17. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  18. Commercial applications of food ionization in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Pierre-Louis

    1994-01-01

    Due to the long history of nuclear energy in France, French public is not frightened by nuclear applications in its everyday life. The first industrial initiative on food ionization dates back to 1956. In 1980, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Ionization concluded that food ionization up to a certain maximum dose presented neither toxicological nor nutritional hazard. This opened the new era for the industrial development. But in 1988, a draft directive to harmonize national legislations was issued by the Commission of European Communities. This stopped many industrial initiatives due to uncertainty. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 tons of various food items have been ionized in France in 1991. About 40% are spices, followed by dry fruit, vegetables, and deboned poultry meat. Most of the present applications are intended to eliminate microorganisms. In 1992, 8 industrial facilities were in operation, mostly using gamma sources. Local research associations were founded to promote food ionization. Food ionization development in the past 30 years has been rapid and important, but the future of this process depends on the European harmonization of legislations. (K.I.)

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  20. Time for commercializing non-food biofuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The booming automobile in China has added additional pressure on the country that needs to import almost 50% of its oil. Non-food-based biofuel is a viable fuel alternative for cars. China already has the required-foundation to commercialize non-food-based biofuel. Chinese crop straw and stock, energy crop, and woody biomass that could potentially be converted into energy are projected to be 700 million toe (ton of oil equivalent) in the near future. Meanwhile, Chinese food-based ethanol fuel industry ranks as the world's third after United States and Brazil. Several non-food-based ethanol plants are constructed or under constructed, one of which has been licensed. However, more efforts should be directed to commercializing non-food-based biofuel, including industrialized feedstock, strengthening key technology research, supporting private enterprise, and E10 upgrading to E20. The enormous increase in private ownership of car must compel China to commercialize biofuel. (author)

  1. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  2. Customers’ buying behaviour   toward premium dog food brands -   A case study of Bozita Robur

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Christofer; Liashchenko, Anastasiia; Andreasson, Rebecka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge of customers’ buying behaviour toward premium dog food by examining their brand associations and how these are shaped by using Bozita Robur as a case study. Background: Market for dog food has increased heavily during the last decades what made knowledge of underlying driving forces of dog food consumption crucial for dog food producers. Quite peculiar is a phenomenon of purchasing behaviour towards a product purchased but not ...

  3. Evaluation of colonoscopic allergen provocation as a diagnostic tool in dogs with proven food hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenspach, K; Vaden, S L; Harris, T S; Gröne, A; Doherr, M G; Griot-Wenk, M E; Bischoff, S C; Gaschen, F

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the colonoscopic allergen provocation (COLAP) test as a new tool for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy. Oral food challenges as well as COLAP testing were performed in a colony of nine research dogs with proven immediate-type food allergic reactions. In addition, COLAP was performed in five healthy dogs. When compared with the oral challenge test, COLAP accurately determined 18 of 23 (73 per cent) positive oral challenge reactions (73 per cent) in dogs with food allergies and was negative in the healthy dogs. The accuracy of this new test may be higher than that for gastric sensitivity testing. Therefore, COLAP holds promise as a new test to confirm the diagnosis of suspect IgE-mediated food allergy in dogs.

  4. Free-ranging dogs prefer petting over food in repeated interactions with unfamiliar humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; Sau, Shubhra; Das, Jayjit; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-12-15

    Dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) are the first species to have been domesticated and, unlike other domesticated species, they have developed a special bond with their owners. The ability to respond to human gestures and language, and the hypersocial behaviours of dogs are considered key factors that have led them to become man's best friend. Free-ranging dogs provide an excellent model system for understanding the dog-human relationship in various social contexts. In India, free-ranging dogs occur in all possible human habitations. They scavenge among garbage, beg for food from humans, give birth in dens close to human habitations, and establish social bonds with people. However, there is ample dog-human conflict on the streets, leading to morbidity and mortality of dogs. Hence, the ability to assess an unfamiliar human before establishing physical contact could be adaptive for dogs, especially in the urban environment. We tested a total of 103 adult dogs to investigate their response to immediate social and long-term food and social rewards. The dogs were provided a choice of obtaining food either from an experimenter's hand or the ground. The dogs avoided making physical contact with the unfamiliar human. While immediate social reward was not effective in changing this response, the long-term test showed a strong effect of social contact. Our results revealed that these dogs tend to build trust based on affection, not food. This study provides significant insights into the dynamics of dog-human interactions on the streets and subsequent changes in behaviour of dogs through the process of learning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Monitoring sodium in commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the sodium we eat comes from commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Sodium reduction in these foods is a key component of several recent public health efforts. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of USDA, CDC and FDA have launched a collaborative program to monitor sodium ...

  6. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, F. [MDS Nordion International Inc. 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario K2k 1x8 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  7. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.

    1997-01-01

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  8. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, F [MDS Nordion International Inc. 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario K2k 1x8 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  9. Researches and commercialization of food irradiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Ha Yiming; Chen Hao; Liu Chunquan; Chen Xiulan

    2007-01-01

    The status of food irradiation on research, standard and commercialization is described in the paper. The main research fields now include degradation of chloramphenicol residue by irradiation, promoting safety of meat products, frozen seafood and ready-to-eat products by irradiation, lower activity of allergic protein by irradiation, identification of irradiated food and irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. The existed standards need to be revised, and new standard need to be established. The commercialization stages of food irradiation and quality assurance system of irradiation company are also analyzed. (authors)

  10. Responses of dogs with food allergies to single-ingredient dietary provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, J G; Meyer, E K; Sosis, E J

    1996-08-01

    To characterize specific food ingredients causing allergic reactions in dogs and to assess cross-reactivity between proteins derived from a single animal source or from different plant products. Prospective study. 25 dogs with histories and cutaneous signs consistent with food-allergic dermatitis. Dogs were fed a food-elimination diet until resolution of clinical signs and then challenged with their original diet. A diagnosis of food allergy was made if there was complete return of pruritus within 14 days of challenge exposure. After diagnosis, dogs were fed the food-elimination diet until signs related to dietary challenge abated. The dogs then were fed beef, chicken, chicken eggs, cows' milk, wheat, soy, and corn in single-ingredient provocation trials for 1 week. Any cutaneous reactions to these food ingredients were recorded by their owners. Beef and soy most often caused adverse cutaneous reactions, although all ingredients induced clinical signs in at least 1 dog. Mean number of allergens per dog was 2.4, with 80% reacting to 1 or 2 proteins and 64% reacting to 2 or more of the proteins tested. A significant difference was found between dogs reacting to beef versus cows' milk and between dogs reacting to soy versus wheat; thus, the hypothesis of cross-reactivity to ingredients derived from a single animal source or to different plant products was not supported. Similar differences between chicken meat and eggs were not identified. Long-term management of dogs with food allergies is facilitated by identification of the most commonly encountered food allergens. Because cross-reactivity cannot be verified, each protein source should be included separately in food-provocation trials.

  11. Commercialization of food irradiation in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottee, J.; Kunstadt, P.; Fraser, F.

    1995-01-01

    Commercializing food irradiation in the United States has been a major marketing and business challenge. This paper begins by examining the situation before America's first food irradiator was established, in 1992. With the Vindicator irradiator in place, beneficial changes and market offerings took place, amidst perceived activist threats and disinterest from the food industry. Initial efforts to market irradiated foods were made by independents in the food business, as part of their attempts to differentiate themselves from large food companies and grocery chains. Special tactics were needed to launch products into sensitive and fearful market-places. The brisk sales of irradiated foods in small, initial markets, has been an unexpected success. This paper discusses the methods used to promote positive awareness of irradiated foods nationally, building on small local successes. (Author)

  12. When fed foods with similar palatability, healthy adult dogs and cats choose different macronutrient compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Vondran, Jodi C; Vanchina, Melissa A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2018-05-17

    Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients. By choosing any combination of foods, dogs and cats could individually set their macronutrient intake. Plasma metabolomic profiles were determined at baseline and after animals had consumed their food intake of choice for 28 days. Based on food intake calculations over 28 days, dogs on average chose to consume most of their calories from fat (41.1±4.3%) and then carbohydrate (35.8±3.7%), whereas cats on average chose to consume most of their calories from carbohydrate (43.1±4.0%) and then protein (30.3±3.9%; all P foods with similar palatability, dogs and cats consume different macronutrient compositions, and concentrations of circulating metabolites in cats reflect food choices. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Status of commercial food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    It may be difficult for some to realize, but the United States is now starting its fourth decade in food irradiation research. This vast storehouse of research data now makes the ultimate task of bringing the technology to the consumer marketplace that much easier. Radiation Technology, Inc. of Rockaway, New Jersey has pioneered the use of radiation processing for the commercial preservation of food and has established the first food irradiation facility in the United States in West Memphis, Arkansas. The facility, designed by Radiation Technology, Inc., provides the necessary versatility to meet the needs of the food industry. (author)

  14. Status of commercial food irradiation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, Martin A.

    It may be difficult for some to realize, but the United States is now starting its fourth decade in food irradiation research. This vast storehouse of research data now makes the ultimate task of bringing the technology to the consumer marketplace that much easier. Radiation Technology, Inc. of Rockaway, New Jersey has pioneered the use of radiation processing for the commercial preservation of food and has established the first food irradiation facility in the United States in West Memphis, Arkansas. The facility, designed by Radiation Technology, Inc., provides the necessary versatility to meet the needs of the food industry.

  15. Progress with commercial food radurization in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The commercial radurization of food is not a simple process although it has high potential advantages in a world of malnutrition and undernourishment. Before investing in food technology, the undertaker has to be sure about the user's acceptance of his product and the provitability of his process. The Atomic Energy Corporation undertook a marketing survey in South Africa in which the radurization process, its advantages and its feasibility was tested and demonstrated

  16. Progress with commercial food radurization in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linde, H J

    1986-07-01

    The commercial radurization of food is not a simple process although it has high potential advantages in a world of malnutrition and undernourishment. Before investing in food technology, the undertaker has to be sure about the user's acceptance of his product and the profitability of his process. The Atomic Energy Corporation undertook a marketing survey in South Africa in which the radurization process, its advantages and its feasibility was tested and demonstrated.

  17. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definition...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling...

  20. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definition...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definition...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definition...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19 Section 1000.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions §...

  7. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling...

  8. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial foods and culinary arts. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description;…

  9. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts. Student Learning Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 13 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 13 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in commercial foods and culinary arts. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning…

  10. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts. Student Learning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains one module for completing a course in commercial foods and culinary arts. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. The module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information…

  11. Selected serum oxidative stress biomarkers in dogs with non-food-induced and food-induced atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Ramón M; Rubio, Camila P; Cerón, José J; Ansón, Agustina; Tichy, Alexander; Mayer, Ursula

    2018-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of human and canine atopic dermatitis (AD) through several distinct mechanisms. Selected serum biomarkers of OS (sbOS) have been validated in normal dogs and studied in several canine diseases. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the sbOS evaluated in this study have not previously been described in canine AD. The aims of the study were to evaluate a panel of sbOS in dogs with food-induced (FIAD) and non-food-induced (NFIAD) AD: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and serum total thiol (THIOL). The aim was to compare these metabolites with those in healthy control dogs, and to correlate sbOS with validated pruritus and CADESI-04 severity scales in dogs with AD. Forty six healthy, nine NFIAD and three FIAD client-owned dogs were included. The study was designed as a cohort study. There were significant differences in atopic dogs when compared to healthy dogs for all of the sbOS analysed. These findings suggest that OS could play a role in the pathogenesis of canine NFIAD and FIAD. In addition, the evaluation of sbOS could be useful for precision medicine to help to detect atopic dogs that might benefit from antioxidant-targeted therapies. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. A comparison study of anti food allergy of plane tree leaves extract with the chemical drug therapy in affected dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Torkan, Saam; Mohajeri, Nima; Khamesipour, Faham

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy includes an overreaction of the immune system to certain foods or substances that trigger the immune system become confused. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of plantain leaf extract on immunity against food allergies in dogs. This study performed on 12 dogs and the dogs were divided into 3 groups. In 3 groups, 2 times a day for 5 days 10 grams of turmeric tablet was administered to food allergies occur in all catego...

  13. Most domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer food to petting: population, context, and schedule effects in concurrent choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has indicated both petting (McIntire & Colley, 1967) and food (Feuerbacher & Wynne, 2012) have reinforcing effects on dog behavior and support social behavior towards humans (food: Elliot & King, 1960; social interaction: Brodbeck, 1954). Which type of interaction dogs prefer and which might produce the most social behavior from a dog has not been investigated. In the current study, we assessed how dogs allocated their responding in a concurrent choice between food and petting. Dogs received five 5-min sessions each. In Session 1, both food and petting were continuously delivered contingent on the dog being near the person providing the respective consequence. Across the next three sessions, we thinned the food schedule to a Fixed Interval (FI) 15-s, FI 1-min, and finally extinction. The fifth session reversed back to the original food contingency. We tested owned dogs in familiar (daycare) and unfamiliar (laboratory room) environments, and with their owner or a stranger as the person providing petting. In general, dogs preferred food to petting when food was readily available and all groups showed sensitivity to the thinning food schedule by decreasing their time allocation to food, although there were group and individual differences in the level of sensitivity. How dogs allocated their time with the petting alternative also varied. We found effects of context, familiarity of the person providing petting, and relative deprivation from social interaction on the amount of time dogs allocated to the petting alternative. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Glycemic index and glycemic load of commercial Italian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzina, F; Dall'Asta, M; Casiraghi, M C; Sieri, S; Del Rio, D; Pellegrini, N; Brighenti, F

    2016-05-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are useful parameters in the nutritional classification of carbohydrate foods. Diets characterized by a low GI and/or a low GL have been repeatedly and independently associated with decreased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to report the GI and GL value of carbohydrate-rich foods available on the Italian market and mostly consumed in Italy. GI values were determined according to FAO/WHO (1997) and ISO (2010). Overall, the 141 commercial foods that were analyzed represent food categories that are the source of >80% carbohydrate intake in Italy. The food items chosen were based mainly on the market share of the brand within each food category and grouped into 13 food categories: 1) beverages: fermented milk drink, juice, smoothie, soft drink; 2) biscuits; 3) breads; 4) bread substitutes; 5) breakfast cereals; 6) cakes and snacks; 7) candy and confectionery; 8) cereals; 9) desserts and ice-creams; 10) marmalade and jam; 11) pasta; 12) pizza; 13) sugar and sweetener. This database of commercial Italian foods partly overcomes the lack of information on GI and GL of local foods, contributing to a better understanding of the association between GI/GL and health and providing a more informed choice to Italian consumers and health practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  16. Technology review of commercial food service equipment - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, S; Krsikapa, S [Canadian Gas Research Inst., Don Mills, ON (Canada); Fisher, D; Nickel, J; Ardley, S; Zabrowski, D [Fisher Consultants (Canada); Barker, R F [ed.

    1996-05-15

    Technical information on commercial gas cooking appliances was presented. This second volume provided an appliance-by-appliance comprehensive assessment of the energy performance of commercial food service equipment. Energy assessments were made for the following categories of cooking equipment: fryers, griddles, broilers, ranges, Chinese ranges, ovens, steamers, steam kettles, and braising pans. Recommendations were made for improving the energy efficiency and overall performance of gas appliances to support of the Canadian gas utilities marketing and energy conservation initiatives. 71 refs., 37 tabs., 58 figs.

  17. Effect of dog food containing 460 ppm fluoride on rat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, T A; Schellenberg, D; Metzler, C M; Oostveen, J; Morey, M J

    1984-01-01

    A one-generation, two-litter rat reproduction study was done in a kennel in Allegan County, Michigan, as part of an investigation of reproductive problems in Shetland sheepdogs (shelties). Since 1970, at least 115 sheltie litters at this kennel have been grossly deformed and/or have died, generally within 3 d of birth. The causative factor(s) appears to be associated with the environment, as the shelties have had successful pregnancies elsewhere. There was some concern that a potential threat to human reproduction also might exist in this area. After it was discovered that fluoride in the dog food had apparently caused mottled teeth and bony exostoses in dogs at this and at least two other kennels, dog-food fluoride content and local well water were investigated as possible causes of the reproductive problems. A two-way factorial statistical design allowed assessment of dietary fluoride content and water source and interaction between the two. UPj:TUC(SD)spf rats, 9 males and 18 females in each group, were assigned to treatment with high-fluoride dog food (460 ppm) and well water; high-fluoride dog food and distilled water; low-fluoride dog food (56 ppm) and well water; and low-fluoride dog food and distilled water. After 60 d in the kennel, the rats were mated. Even after two litters, the only adverse effect was dental fluorosis in the high-fluoride groups. The results indicated that rats cannot be used in the search for the cause(s) of reproductive problems in dogs in this kennel.

  18. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A portrait of food and drink in commercial TV series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Rosaen, Sarah F; Worrell, Tracy R; Salmon, Charles T; Volkman, Julie E

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the content and presentation of food and drink on fictional, commercial television. It provides the first comparison of food and drink consumption across different television program genres designated for different age groups. Data originated with a random sample of 50 taped episodes of children's shows, 50 episodes of "tween" programs (shows targeted for 9- to 14-year-olds), 40 episodes of afternoon soaps, and 50 episodes of prime time shows. The choice of TV series was based solely on the strength of Nielsen audience ratings. The study coded the foods for nutritional content and the drinks for alcoholic/nonalcoholic content, how they were used, and in what context. Findings indicate that foods were more commonly offered and consumed on children's shows, and that problematic foods (defined as oils, solid fats, and foods with added sugars) were significantly more prevalent in youth-oriented shows than in adult-oriented shows. Although there was only a negligible presence of alcohol on children's shows, the average hourly use of alcohol on the tween shows matched that of the adult programs; therefore, alcohol was as common in the shows directed at young audiences as in shows for adults. Negative outcomes were largely absent from food and drink behaviors on these TV series.

  20. The effect of ingredients in dry dog foods on the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Malathi; Glickman, Nita W; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2006-01-01

    Using dry dog food label information, the hypothesis was tested that the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) increases with an increasing number of soy and cereal ingredients and a decreasing number of animal-protein ingredients among the first four ingredients. A nested case-control study was conducted with 85 GDV cases and 194 controls consuming a single brand and variety of dry food. Neither an increasing number of animal-protein ingredients (P=0.79) nor an increasing number of soy and cereal ingredients (P=0.83) among the first four ingredients significantly influenced GDV risk. An unexpected finding was that dry foods containing an oil or fat ingredient (e.g., sunflower oil, animal fat) among the first four ingredients were associated with a significant (P=0.01), 2.4-fold increased risk of GDV. These findings suggest that the feeding of dry dog foods that list oils or fats among the first four label ingredients predispose a high-risk dog to GDV.

  1. Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Connect With Us New & Noteworthy Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... healthy. Diseases The most common diseases associated with dogs that can cause human illness are: Campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter ...

  2. Prospect of commercialization of food irradiation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.

    1990-01-01

    As a tropical country, the ambient temperature and humidity are high in Indonesia, accordingly foods are apt to be spoiled. Although the production of some important food crops increased from 1986 to 1988, the level of postharvest loss of the crops was also high. The loss was caused mostly by the lack of technological improvement in preservation, processing and distribution system. The export of Indonesian typical tropical commodities increased from 1986 to 1988, but sometimes a part of the commodities was detained by the importing countries since the quality did not meet the requirement. The development of new technologies such as radiation technology is necessary. The limited volume of spices and herbal tea has been irradiated for commercial purpose since 1987. Indonesia has approved the food irradiation technology for commercial purpose in December, 1987. But due to the limited capacity of the existing irradiation facility, the volume of irradiation cannot be increased. At present, there are two irradiation facilities available, the batch type irradiator for foods and latex irradiator. The information transfer for facilitating public acceptance and the barriers and constraints are discussed. (K.I.)

  3. Techno-commercial aspects of food irradiation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun; Madhusoodanan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Research and development work has been carried out at Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center for more than past fifty years. After establishing potential commercial applications, a lot of time and efforts were spent on proving the wholesomeness and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods. The first approval from health authorities came in 1994 for processing potato, onion and spices. Additional commodities were approved in 1998 and 2001, bringing the list of commodities to more than 20. Two technology demonstration plants were set up by the government, one for high dose applications like microbial decontamination of spices and dry vegetables in 2000, and another for low dose applications, like sprout inhibition and insect disinfestation, in 2003. In 2004, irradiation was approved as a quarantine measure. This enabled export of mango to USA after a gap of 18 years in 2007. More than a dozen plants have now been set up by private entrepreneurs in the country. - Highlights: ► The paper reports historical developments and current status of food irradiation in India. ► Some R and D and techno-commercial aspects are highlighted. ► The paper is based on an invited talk delivered during IMRP-2011 in Food Irradiation-Phytosan II Session.

  4. Volatile Compounds in Dry Dog Foods and Their Influence on Sensory Aromatic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Adhikari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their possible influence on sensory aromatic profile. Grain-free dry dog foods were compared to dry dog foods manufactured with grain, but also with different protein sources for their aromatic volatiles. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the aromatic compounds present in the headspace of these samples. Partial Least Squares regression was performed to correlate the instrumental aromatic data with the descriptive aroma analysis data. A total of 54 aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in the dry dog food samples, with aldehydes and ketones being the most represented organic volatiles group. Grain-added products were on the average higher in total volatiles than grain-free products. Partial Least Squares regression analysis indicated possible connections with sensory aromatic profile and grain-added samples, such as rancid aroma and aldehydes, especially hexanal. The results of this study showed that dry dog foods are products with complex odor characteristics and that grain-free products are less aromatic.

  5. ELISA testing for soy antigens in dry dog foods used in dietary elimination trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis-Mahn, Christine; Remillard, Rebecca; Tater, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The use of elimination diet trials is necessary in the diagnosis of food allergies and intolerances. The objective of this study was to determine in vitro if four over-the-counter (OTC) dry dog foods carrying a "no soy" claim and seven veterinary therapeutic dry dog foods designed for food elimination trials were suitable for a soybean elimination trial. A 100 g sample of each diet plus one soy positive and one soy negative control diet were submitted for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing to an independent food laboratory. The positive control diet contained >25 ppm soy protein antigens and the negative control contained 25 ppm. Three veterinary therapeutic diets had less than the lowest detectable limit of soy protein and four were positive (>2.5 ppm). OTC dog food diets that claim to contain "no soy" may contain high concentrations of soy protein and, therefore, should not be used in soy elimination trials in suspect food allergic dogs. The veterinary therapeutic diet selected for a soy elimination trial needs to be carefully chosen based on diet history.

  6. Technology review of commercial food service equipment - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, S; Krsikapa, S [Canadian Gas Research Inst., Don Mills, ON (Canada); Fisher, D; Nickel, J; Ardley, S; Zabrowski, D [Fisher Consultants (Canada); Barker, R F [ed.

    1996-05-15

    Market and technical information on gas fired equipment used in the commercial food service sector in Canada and in each province or territory was presented. Results of a market study and technology review were integrated to establish energy consumption and energy saving potential in this sector. Eight categories of commercial cooking appliances were studied. They were: fryers, griddles, broilers, ranges, ovens, tilting skillets, steam kettles and steamers. Focus was on gas fired appliances, although electric appliances were also included. The total energy consumption of the appliances was estimated at 76,140.37 GBtu in 1994. Gas appliances accounted for 63 per cent of the total inventory and consumed 83 per cent of the total energy used. Cooking energy efficiencies for the gas fired commercial cooking equipment ranged from 10 per cent to 60 per cent. The electric appliances had cooking energy efficiencies ranging from 35 per cent to 95 per cent. A list of recommendations were made for the many opportunities to introduce higher efficiency commercial cooking appliances, essential to slow down or to stabilize the energy consumption of cooking appliances over the next decade. 66 refs., 14 tabs., 18 figs.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on Commercial Food Packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalar, P.J.; Abad, L.V.; Laurio, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma Radiation is a well-known technology to inactivate bacterial pathogens in food products. Currently, there is a growing interest in this technology considering its advantage of being a non-thermal process and the convenience of food being pre-packaged in its final form before treatment that prevents possible recontamination. The process of irradiating pre-packaged food requires that appropriate packaging materials are chosen as this would play a vital role in the quality assessment and safety evaluation of the irradiated products. Irradiation can cause changes to the packaging materials that might affect its integrity and functionality as a barrier e.g. to chemical or microbial contamination. Likewise, components of packaging materials that have been irradiated may migrate to food as a result of irradiation. Hence, this study was conducted to screen locally available commercial packaging films and determine its effect with radiation. Commercials packaging films made up of PET / FOIL / PE, Plain PET 12 / Foil 7 / PE 100, VMPET 12 / PE 70, OPP 20 / Foil 6.5 / PE 40, PET 12 / CPS 40, PET 12 / PE 50, Laminated PET / PE, Nylon / PE, and Nylon 15 / PE 50 were investigated for its effect with gamma radiation at 10 kGy. Their mechanical and thermal properties generally did not show any changes after irradiation except for OPP 20/ Foil 6.5 / PE 40. Gel Permeation Chromatography of leachates from water samples detected the presence of high molecular weight radiolytic products especially from laminated PET/PE films. Radiation effects were minimal for VMPET12/PE70, Nylon/PE and Nylon 15/PE 50 films. Preliminary results, using the stable isotope technique, to study the leachates in the water samples in contact with the packaging materials reveal an indicative increase in δ"1"8O"0/_0_0 and δD 0/_0_0.(author)

  8. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF

  9. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  10. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs : a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Elisa; Pelst, Michael; Hesta, Myriam; Cox, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healt...

  11. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  12. 77 FR 69785 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... be trained or meet minimum experience requirements, be free of convictions related to animal cruelty... or dog walking services on the City Animal Care and Control Department's dog walking and professional...

  13. Intake of minerals, trace elements and vitamins in bone and raw food rations in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillitzer, Natalie; Becker, Nicola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vitamin and mineral content of bone and raw food rations fed to adult dogs in Germany. Pet owners completed a standardised feeding questionnaire. The composition of 95 rations was calculated from mean data for foodstuffs using nutrition balancing software. Typical ration ingredients were meats, fish, offal, dairy products, eggs, oil, nuts, cod liver oil and natural and commercial supplements. The supply of nutrients was compared with the recommended allowance (RA). Of the rations that were used, 10 % supplied vitamin D was below RA. About half of the rations supplied less iodine than the minimum requirement. Many of the rations had low Zn and Cu supply, and 25 % of the rations supplied only 70 % of RA for vitamin A or less. A total of 60 % of the rations had one or more of the above-mentioned imbalance. The remaining 40 % of rations either had minor problems like Ca excess from bones or they were balanced.

  14. A comparison study of anti food allergy of plane tree leaves extract with the chemical drug therapy in affected dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Torkan, Saam; Mohajeri, Nima; Khamesipour, Faham

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy includes an overreaction of the immune system to certain foods or substances that trigger the immune system become confused. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of plantain leaf extract on immunity against food allergies in dogs. This study performed on 12 dogs and the dogs were divided into 3 groups. In 3 groups, 2 times a day for 5 days 10Grmy turmeric tablet was administered to food allergies occur in all categories. To first group twice...

  15. A lab-on-a-chip-based multiplex platform to detect potential fraud of introducing pig, dog, cat, rat and monkey meat into the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Md Abdur; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Ali, Md Eaqub

    2015-01-01

    Food forgery has posed considerable risk to public health, religious rituals, personal budget and wildlife. Pig, dog, cat, rat and monkey meat are restricted in most religions, but their sporadic adulteration are rampant. Market controllers need a low-cost but reliable technique to track and trace suspected species in the food chain. Considering the need, here we documented a lab-on-a-chip-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the authentication of five non-halal meat species in foods. Using species-specific primers, 172, 163, 141, 129 and 108-bp sites of mitochondrial ND5, ATPase 6 and cytochrome b genes were amplified to detect cat, dog, pig, monkey and rat species under complex matrices. Species-specificity was authenticated against 20 different species with the potential to be used in food. The targets were stable under extreme sterilisation (121°C at 45 psi for 2.5 h) which severely degrades DNA. The assay was optimised under the backgrounds of various commercial meat products and validated for the analysis of meatballs, burgers and frankfurters, which are popular fast food items across the globe. The assay was tested to detect 0.1% suspected meats under commercial backgrounds of marketed foods. Instead of simplex PCR which detects only one species at a time, such a multiplex platform can reduce cost by at least fivefolds by detecting five different species in a single assay platform.

  16. Effects of natural antioxidants on the stability of omega-3 fatty acids in dog food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glodde Florentina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The efficiency of five natural antioxidants (curcumin, cranberry, pomegranate, grape seed extract (GSE, and açai berry in reducing lipid oxidation in dog food was compared to that of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA.

  17. Hygiene quality and presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in raw food diets for dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nilsson

    2015-10-01

    CMY-2 group and only one of them was also resistant to a non-beta-lactam antibiotic. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that raw food diets could be a source of ESC-resistant E. coli to dogs and highlight the need for maintaining good hygiene when handling these products to prevent infection.

  18. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  19. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M; O'Neill, Lynda; Carr, B Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines.

  20. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C.; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M.; O’Neill, Lynda; Carr, B. Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines. PMID:29706668

  1. Occurrence of furan in commercial processed foods in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisseto, A P; Vicente, E; Furlani, R P Z; Ueno, M S; Pereira, A L D; Toledo, M C F

    2012-01-01

    Selected commercial processed foods available in the Brazilian market (306 samples) were analysed for furan content using a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method preceded by headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS). Canned and jarred foods, including vegetable, meat, fruit and sweet products, showed levels up to 32.8 µg kg⁻¹, with the highest concentrations observed in vegetables and meats. For coffee, furan content ranged from 253.0 to 5021.4 µg kg⁻¹ in the roasted ground coffee and from not detected to 156.6 µg kg⁻¹ in the beverage. For sauces, levels up to 138.1 µg kg⁻¹ were found. In cereal-based products, the highest concentrations (up to 191.3 µg kg⁻¹) were observed in breakfast cereal (corn flakes), cracker (cream crackers) and biscuit (wafer). In general, these results are comparable with those reported in other countries and will be useful for a preliminary estimate of the furan dietary intake in Brazil.

  2. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  3. Organohalogen Compounds in Pet Dog and Cat: Do Pets Biotransform Natural Brominated Products in Food to Harmful Hydroxlated Substances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakatsu, Susumu; Iwata, Hisato; Yoo, Jean; Kubota, Akira; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-05

    There are growing concerns about the increase in hyperthyroidism in pet cats due to exposure to organohalogen contaminants and their hydroxylated metabolites. This study investigated the blood contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, and MeO-PBDEs), in pet dogs and cats. We also measured the residue levels of these compounds in commercially available pet foods. Chemical analyses of PCBs and OH-PCBs showed that the OH-PCB levels were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower in cat and dog food products than in their blood, suggesting that the origin of OH-PCBs in pet dogs and cats is PCBs ingested with their food. The major congeners of OH-/MeO-PBDEs identified in both pet food products and blood were natural products (6OH-/MeO-BDE47 and 2'OH-/MeO-BDE68) from marine organisms. In particular, higher concentrations of 6OH-BDE47 than 2'OH-BDE68 and two MeO-PBDE congeners were observed in the cat blood, although MeO-BDEs were dominant in cat foods, suggesting the efficient biotransformation of 6OH-BDE47 from 6MeO-BDE47 in cats. We performed in vitro demethylation experiments to confirm the biotransformation of MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs using liver microsomes. The results showed that 6MeO-BDE47 and 2'MeO-BDE68 were demethylated to 6OH-BDE47 and 2'OH-BDE68 in both animals, whereas no hydroxylated metabolite from BDE47 was detected. The present study suggests that pet cats are exposed to MeO-PBDEs through cat food products containing fish flavors and that the OH-PBDEs in cat blood are derived from the CYP-dependent demethylation of naturally occurring MeO-PBDE congeners, not from the hydroxylation of PBDEs.

  4. Reactivity to television food commercials in overweight and lean adults: Physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Burgon, Rachel H; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2017-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates that acute exposure to food advertising increases food intake. However, little research to date has explored the potential mechanisms underpinning this, such as the extent to which food commercials elicit conditioned physiological responses (e.g. increased salivation). The aim of the current study was to examine salivary, cognitive and consumptive responses to televised food commercials in overweight (N=26) and lean (N=29) adult females. Participants attended two laboratory sessions in a counterbalanced order; in one session they viewed a television show with embedded commercials for unhealthy foods, and in the other session they viewed the same show with non-food commercials. In both conditions, following viewing participants were exposed to an in vivo food cue (freshly cooked pizza) which they were then invited to eat ad libitum. Salivation was measured at baseline, during commercial exposure, and during in vivo exposure. Participants also self-reported components of appetite on visual analogue scales and completed a word stem task. Results indicated little evidence of increased salivary reactivity to the food commercials. In both conditions, lean participants showed reliable salivary responses to the in vivo food cue. In contrast, overweight participants only showed increased salivation to the in vivo cue in the food commercials condition. Food commercial exposure did not increase the number of food-related cognitions or amount of food consumed, but did drive a greater increase in desire to eat prior to pizza consumption than exposure to the control commercials. Exposure to food advertising primes eating-related motivations, and while it may not be associated with increased intake or salivation per se, non-food commercials may attenuate subsequent physiological responses to actual food cues in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  6. Are dogs (Canis familiaris) misled more by their owners than by strangers in a food choice task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E; Valsecchi, P

    2011-01-01

    Dogs are highly skilled in understanding a large variety of human social cues and use them appropriately to solve a number of different cognitive tasks. They rely on human signals even when these are contradictory or misleading and ultimately prevent them from correctly solving a task. In the following two experiments, we investigated whether the owner and a stranger differently influenced dogs' choices in food discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 48 dogs were tested in 3 different conditions: (1) choice between a large and a small amount of dog pellets with no demonstration; (2) choice between a large and a small amount of dog pellets after having witnessed the owner/stranger favouring the small quantity; (3) choice between two single food pellets after observing the owner/stranger choosing one of them. In Experiment 2, 48 dogs could choose between two foods of different palatability: in Condition 1, dogs chose between a slice of sausage and a dry pellet with no demonstration. In Condition 2, the same choice was available but with a person (owner/stranger) showing a preference for the dry pellet. In Condition 3, dogs chose between a single dry pellet and 8 slices of sausage, with the person (owner/stranger) showing a preference for the pellet. In both experiments, dogs conformed to the human's indications even though these led to the selection of the less advantageous option (i.e. the smaller amount of food in Experiment 1 or the low quality food in Experiment 2). However, the owner and the stranger did not differently influence the dogs' behaviour. Results show that dogs are willing to follow a person's indication even when this is visibly (if perhaps only mildly) counterproductive to them and that they are socially prepared to rely equally on cues given by the owner and an unfamiliar friendly person.

  7. Traditional versus commercial food processing techniques - A comparative study based on chemical analysis of selected foods consumed in rural Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham I. C. Mwadiwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of industrialisation, food processors are constantly looking for ways to cut costs, increase production and maximise profits at the expense of quality. Commercial food processors have since shifted their focus from endogenous ways of processing food to more profitable commercial food processing techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the holistic impact of commercial food processing techniques on nutrition by comparing commercially (industrially processed food products and endogenously processed food products through chemical analysis of selected foods. Eight food samples which included commercially processed peanut butter, mealie-meal, dried vegetables (mufushwa and rice and endogenously processed peanut butter, mealie-meal, dried vegetables (mufushwa and rice were randomly sampled from rural communities in the south-eastern and central provinces of Zimbabwe. They were analysed for ash, zinc, iron, copper, magnesium, protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy, crude fibre, vitamin C and moisture contents. The results of chemical analysis indicate that endogenously processed mealie-meal, dried vegetables and rice contained higher ash values of 2.00g/100g, 17.83g/100g, and 3.28g/100g respectively than commercially processed mealie-meal, dried vegetables and rice, which had ash values of 1.56g/100g, 15.25g/100g and 1.46g/100g respectively. The results also show that endogenously processed foods have correspondingly higher iron, zinc and magnesium contents and, on the whole, a higher protein content. The results also indicate that commercially processed foods have higher fat and energy contents. The result led to the conclusion that the foods are likely to pose a higher risk of causing adverse conditions to health, such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases to susceptible individuals. Based on these findings, it can, therefore, be concluded that endogenously processed foods have a better nutrient value and health implications

  8. The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Verbrugghe, A.; Hesta, M.; Holst, J.J.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Depending on type and inclusion level, dietary fibre may increase and maintain satiety and postpone the onset of hunger. This 7-week study evaluated the effect of fibre fermentability on physiological satiety-related metabolites and voluntary food intake (VFI) in dogs. Sixteen healthy adult dogs

  9. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico JA; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaig...

  10. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm 2 after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances

  11. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackevica, Aiga, E-mail: aima@env.dtu.dk; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm{sup 2} after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  12. An Investigation on Social Representations: Inanimate Agent Can Mislead Dogs (Canis familiaris) in a Food Choice Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdai, Judit; Gergely, Anna; Petró, Eszter; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    The nature of mental representation of others plays a crucial role in social interactions. Dogs present an ideal model species for the investigation of such mental representations because they develop social ties with both conspecifics and heterospecifics. Former studies found that dogs' preference for larger food quantity could be reversed by humans who indicate the smaller quantity. The question is whether this social bias is restricted to human partners. We suggest that after a short positive social experience, an unfamiliar moving inanimate agent (UMO) can also change dogs' choice between two food quantities. We tested four groups of dogs with different partners: In the (1) Helper UMO and (2) Helper UMO Control groups the partner was an interactive remote control car that helped the dog to obtain an otherwise unreachable food. In the (3) Non-helper UMO and (4) Human partner groups dogs had restricted interaction with the remote control car and the unfamiliar human partners. In the Human partner, Helper UMO and Helper UMO Control groups the partners were able to revert dogs' choice for the small amount by indicating the small one, but the Non-helper UMO was not. We suggest that dogs are able to generalize their wide range of experiences with humans to another type of agent as well, based on the recognition of similarities in simple behavioural patterns.

  13. An Investigation on Social Representations: Inanimate Agent Can Mislead Dogs (Canis familiaris in a Food Choice Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Abdai

    Full Text Available The nature of mental representation of others plays a crucial role in social interactions. Dogs present an ideal model species for the investigation of such mental representations because they develop social ties with both conspecifics and heterospecifics. Former studies found that dogs' preference for larger food quantity could be reversed by humans who indicate the smaller quantity. The question is whether this social bias is restricted to human partners. We suggest that after a short positive social experience, an unfamiliar moving inanimate agent (UMO can also change dogs' choice between two food quantities. We tested four groups of dogs with different partners: In the (1 Helper UMO and (2 Helper UMO Control groups the partner was an interactive remote control car that helped the dog to obtain an otherwise unreachable food. In the (3 Non-helper UMO and (4 Human partner groups dogs had restricted interaction with the remote control car and the unfamiliar human partners. In the Human partner, Helper UMO and Helper UMO Control groups the partners were able to revert dogs' choice for the small amount by indicating the small one, but the Non-helper UMO was not. We suggest that dogs are able to generalize their wide range of experiences with humans to another type of agent as well, based on the recognition of similarities in simple behavioural patterns.

  14. Comparison of a commercial blood cross-matching kit to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Leo Roa; Streeter, Elizabeth; Malandra, Allison

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood transfusion cross-match kit when compared to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility. A prospective observational in intro study performed from July 2009 to July 2013. Private referral veterinary center. Ten healthy dogs, 11 anemic dogs, and 24 previously transfused dogs. None. Forty-five dogs were enrolled in a prospective study in order to compare the standard blood transfusion cross-match technique to a commercial blood transfusion cross-matching kit. These dogs were divided into 3 different groups that included 10 healthy dogs (control group), 11 anemic dogs in need of a blood transfusion, and 24 sick dogs that were previously transfused. Thirty-five dogs diagnosed with anemia secondary to multiple disease processes were cross-matched using both techniques. All dogs cross-matched via the kit had a compatible major and minor result, whereas 16 dogs out of 45 (35%) had an incompatible cross-match result when the standard laboratory technique was performed. The average time to perform the commercial kit was 15 minutes and this was 3 times shorter than the manual cross-match laboratory technique that averaged 45-50 minutes to complete. While the gel-based cross-match kit is quicker and less technically demanding than standard laboratory cross-match procedures, microagglutination and low-grade hemolysis are difficult to identify by using the gel-based kits. This could result in transfusion reactions if the gel-based kits are used as the sole determinant of blood compatibility prior to transfusion. Based on our results, the standard manual cross-match technique remains the gold standard test to determine blood transfusion compatibility. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  15. Determination of mammalian deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in commercial vegetarian and vegan diets for dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakubo, K; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A

    2017-02-01

    The determination of undeclared ingredients in pet food using different analytical methods has been reported in recent years, raising concerns regarding adequate quality control, dietary efficacy and the potential for purposeful adulteration. The objective of this study was to determine the presence or absence of mammalian DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on diets marketed as vegetarian or vegan for dogs and cats. The diets were tested in duplicate; two samples were purchased approximately 3 to 4 months apart with different lot numbers. Multiplex PCR-targeted mitochondrial DNA with two species-specific primers was used to amplify and sequence two sections of the cytochrome b gene for each of the 11 mammalian species. Half of the diets assessed (7/14) were positive for one or more undeclared mammalian DNA source (bovine, porcine, or ovine), and the result was repeatable for one or more species in six diets. While most of the detected DNA was found at both time points, in some cases, the result was positive only at one time point, suggesting the presence may have been due to unintentional cross-contact with animal-sourced ingredients. DNA from feline, cervine, canine, caprine, equine, murine (mouse and rat) and leporine was not identified in any samples. However, evidence of mammalian DNA does not confirm adulteration by the manufacturer nor elucidate its clinical significance when consumed by animals that may benefit from a vegetarian or vegan diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  17. Can diet composition affect behaviour in dogs? : food for thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of food goes beyond the basic provision of energy and essential nutrients for the maintenance of physical health. Studies in rats, pigs, and human subjects have shown that behaviour and mood can be influenced by specific nutrients consumed. The research described in this thesis aimed

  18. Acceptability of Dry Dog Food Visual Characteristics by Consumer Segments Based on Overall Liking: a Case Study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Baquero, David; Koppel, Kadri; Chambers, Delores; Hołda, Karolina; Głogowski, Robert; Chambers, Edgar

    2018-05-23

    Sensory analysis of pet foods has been emerging as an important field of study for the pet food industry over the last few decades. Few studies have been conducted on understanding the pet owners’ perception of pet foods. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding on the perception of the visual characteristics of dry dog foods by dog owners in different consumer segments. A total of 120 consumers evaluated the appearance of 30 dry dog food samples with varying visual characteristics. The consumers rated the acceptance of the samples and associated each one with a list of positive and negative beliefs. Cluster Analysis, ANOVA and Correspondence Analysis were used to analyze the consumer responses. The acceptability of the appearance of dry dog foods was affected by the number of different kibbles present, color(s), shape(s), and size(s) of the kibbles in the product. Three consumer clusters were identified. Consumers rated highest single-kibble samples of medium sizes, traditional shapes, and brown colors. Participants disliked extra-small or extra-large kibble sizes, shapes with high-dimensional contrast, and kibbles of light brown color. These findings can help dry dog food manufacturers to meet consumers’ needs with increasing benefits to the pet food and commodity industries.

  19. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    . In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...... days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles...... was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed...

  20. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; JA Perez-Cueto, Federico; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background: Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public...... sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods: In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food...... in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through...

  1. Relation of obesity to neural activation in response to food commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2014-07-01

    Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but the neural response to food advertising and its association with obesity is largely unknown. This study is the first to examine how neural response to food commercials differs from other stimuli (e.g. non-food commercials and television show) and to explore how this response may differ by weight status. The blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging activation was measured in 30 adolescents ranging from lean to obese in response to food and non-food commercials imbedded in a television show. Adolescents exhibited greater activation in regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. occipital gyrus), attention (e.g. parietal lobes), cognition (e.g. temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellar lobe), movement (e.g. anterior cerebellar cortex), somatosensory response (e.g. postcentral gyrus) and reward [e.g. orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] during food commercials. Obese participants exhibited less activation during food relative to non-food commercials in neural regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. cuneus), attention (e.g. posterior cerebellar lobe), reward (e.g. ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ACC) and salience detection (e.g. precuneus). Obese participants did exhibit greater activation in a region implicated in semantic control (e.g. medial temporal gyrus). These findings may inform current policy debates regarding the impact of food advertising to minors. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs: a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, E; Pelst, M; Hesta, M; Cox, E

    2017-01-18

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs. Eight experimental healthy beagle dogs, never orally exposed to peanut, were randomized in two groups to receive SLIT with peanut or placebo for 4 months. Subjects were monitored daily for local and systemic adverse effects. Blood samples for complete blood count and serum biochemistry, and urine for urinalysis were collected and the dogs' body weight was recorded at day 0, 35 and 119 of the SLIT treatment. Sera for the determination of peanut-specific IgG and IgE were collected at day 0, 35, 49, 70, 91, 105 and 119. Intradermal tests were performed before (day 0) and after (day 119) the experiment. The content of each dispenser used to administer treatment or placebo was tested for sterility after usage. In order to assess the presence or absence of sensitization, dogs were challenged 6 months after the end of the study with 2000 μg of peanut extract daily for 7 to 14 days. All dogs completed the study. The treatment did not provoke either local or systemic side-effects. Peanut-specific IgG significantly increased in treatment group. Even though a significant increase in peanut-specific IgE was also seen, intradermal tests were negative in all dogs before and after the experiment, and the challenge test did not trigger any adverse reactions in the treated dogs, which shows the protocol did not cause sensitization to peanut, but nevertheless primed the immune system as indicated by the humoral immune response. All dispenser solutions

  3. The impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to determine if fruit and vegetable (FV) commercials have an impact on preschool children's preferences for specific FV. A year of extensive formative assessment was conducted to develop two 30-second commercials; Judy Fruity promoted apples and bananas and Reggie Veggie promoted br...

  4. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged

  5. Food Commercials and Kids: Characterizing Advertising Content of Children's Online Television Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Jerrod; Staley, Daniel; Smith, Chaquenta; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2011-01-01

    Internet marketing has gained attention as a new medium to advertise food products to children. This study examines the prevalence of food marketing during children's television programs that are available on the internet. While food is the largest product category advertised, commercials make up a smaller portion of episode time online compared to previous reports of television advertising.

  6. Not all food additive related reactions originate from commercial foods: chronic urticaria due to home-made canned tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, S; Karaayvaz, M; Caliskaner, Z; Gulec, M

    2005-01-01

    Additives and preservatives in commercial foods have been implicated in the etiology of chronic urticaria, but such foods have not been widely accepted. In some countries, as in ours, people prefer to use home-made foodstuffs to avoid potentially hazardous commercial additives. However, not all home-made foodstuffs are safe, especially regarding allergies. In this report, we describe a patient with chronic urticaria due to home-made canned tomato prepared using "tomato drug" as a "safe (!)" additive.

  7. My owner, right or wrong: the effect of familiarity on the domestic dog's behavior in a food-choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amy; Arter, Jennifer; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2014-03-01

    Dogs are strongly influenced by human behavior, and they readily form bonds with specific humans. Yet these lines of inquiry are not often combined. The goal of this study was to investigate whether such bonds would play a role in how dogs behave in response to human signals. Using various types of signals, we compared dogs' use of information from a familiar human (their owner) versus an unfamiliar human when choosing between two food containers. In some conditions, the owner indicated a container that gave food and a stranger indicated a container that did not; in other conditions, this was reversed. Dogs more often chose the container indicated by or nearest to their owner, even when this container never yielded a food reward. In two conditions, dogs chose at chance: a control condition in which both pointers were strangers and a condition in which the owner and stranger sat reading books and provided no social signal. This is the first study to directly compare owners to strangers in a single food-choice situation. Our results suggest that dogs make decisions by attending preferentially to social signals from humans with whom they have become familiar.

  8. Food irradiation: outlook for commercialization in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    An account is presented of the long-term and near-term outlooks for food irradiation in the United States, with particular reference to US regulatory status and to the problems of securing public acceptance of the process. Actions taken by international organizations to consider and determine whether irradiated food is wholesome are summarized. A table is included showing dose levels for various food applications. Political and sociological aspects are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Analysis of thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Heinze, Cailin R

    2014-01-15

    To measure thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats as an initial assessment of the variation among canned foods and to determine the effects of flavor (fish vs nonfish) of the food, texture (paté vs nonpaté) of the food, country of manufacture, and size of the company on thiamine concentration. Prospective cross-sectional study. 90 canned, nontherapeutic diets formulated for cats (1 fish and 1 nonfish flavor for each of 45 brands). Each canned food was homogenized, and thiamine concentration was analyzed with a fluorometric method. Thiamine concentration was below the minimums of the Association of American Feed Control Officials in 12 of 90 (13.3%) foods and below the recommended allowance of the National Research Council in 14 of 90 (15.6%) foods. Paté foods had significantly lower thiamine concentrations than did nonpaté foods, and foods from smaller companies had significantly lower thiamine concentrations, compared with concentrations in foods from larger companies. Flavor of food and country of manufacture were not significantly associated with thiamine concentration. A wide range of thiamine concentrations was found in the foods evaluated. Thiamine concentration in a substantial percentage of commercially available canned foods was below the amount recommended for adult cats. Additional research on interlot and intralot variation in thiamine concentrations of foods formulated for cats is warranted. Companies should implement strict quality control and analysis practices regarding food products. Clinicians should consider thiamine deficiency as a differential diagnosis in a cat with acute neurologic dysfunction.

  10. Stable Food Crops Turning Into Commercial Crops: Case studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RahelYilma

    case study analyses for the cereal crops of teff3, wheat and rice. Specifically, the ... behavior of households during the process of commercial transformation of subsistence ..... roducer → rural assembler, and producer → consumer. As with teff ...

  11. Neutralizing Antibody Response in Dogs and Cats Inoculated with Commercial Inactivated Rabies Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIRAISHI, Rikiya; NISHIMURA, Masaaki; NAKASHIMA, Ryuji; ENTA, Chiho; HIRAYAMA, Norio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Japan, the import quarantine regulation against rabies has required from 2005 that dogs and cats should be inoculated with the rabies vaccine and that the neutralizing antibody titer should be confirmed to be at least 0.5 international units (IU)/ml. The fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is used as an international standard method for serological testing for rabies. To achieve proper immunization of dogs and cats at the time of import and export, changes in the neutralizing antibody titer after inoculation of the rabies vaccine should be understood in detail. However, few reports have provided this information. In this study, we aimed to determine evaluated, such changes by using sera from experimental dogs and cats inoculated with the rabies vaccine, and we tested samples using the routine FAVN test. In both dogs and cats, proper, regular vaccination enabled the necessary titer of neutralizing antibodies to be maintained in the long term. However, inappropriate timing of blood sampling after vaccination could result in insufficient detected levels of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:24389741

  12. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (3): prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats is not precisely known. This imprecision is likely due to the various populations that had been studied. Our objectives were to systematically review the literature to determine the prevalence of CAFRs among dogs and cats with pruritus and skin diseases. Results We searched two databases for pertinent references on August 18, 2016. Among 490 and 220 articles respectively found in the Web of Science (Science...

  13. Assessing the validity of commercial and municipal food environment data sets in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine Ig; Black, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    The present study assessed systematic bias and the effects of data set error on the validity of food environment measures in two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets. Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and concordance were calculated by comparing two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets with ground-truthed data collected within 800 m buffers surrounding twenty-six schools. Logistic regression examined associations of sensitivity and PPV with commercial density and neighbourhood socio-economic deprivation. Kendall's τ estimated correlations between density and proximity of food outlets near schools constructed with secondary data sets v. ground-truthed data. Vancouver, Canada. Food retailers located within 800 m of twenty-six schools RESULTS: All data sets scored relatively poorly across validity measures, although, overall, municipal data sets had higher levels of validity than did commercial data sets. Food outlets were more likely to be missing from municipal health inspections lists and commercial data sets in neighbourhoods with higher commercial density. Still, both proximity and density measures constructed from all secondary data sets were highly correlated (Kendall's τ>0·70) with measures constructed from ground-truthed data. Despite relatively low levels of validity in all secondary data sets examined, food environment measures constructed from secondary data sets remained highly correlated with ground-truthed data. Findings suggest that secondary data sets can be used to measure the food environment, although estimates should be treated with caution in areas with high commercial density.

  14. Potentials for Commercial Production of Biogas from Domestic Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Solid waste management, food waste, anaerobic digestion, biogas ... Ministry of Environment, 2005) have not been able to ... waste management system which ensures financial returns at ... that incorporates recycling, composting, incineration.

  15. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A.

    2013-01-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  16. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  17. Hydroponic food production: a definitive guidebook for the advanced home gardener and the commercial hydroponic grower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resh, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Hydroponic Food Production: A Definitive Guidebook for the Advanced Home Gardener and the Commercial Hydroponic Grower details advances that have taken place in this field since the publication of the previous edition in 2001...

  18. Potentials for commercial production of biogas from domestic food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work reported in this paper investigated the potentials of commercial biogas production from biodegradable waste in Benin metropolis. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved characterization of solid waste generated and determination of the quantity of potential feed stock for biogas ...

  19. Bioactive small molecules in commercially available cereal food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Stine K.; Adhikari, Khem B.; Laursen, Bente B.

    2017-01-01

    processes. The concentrations of 11 BX compounds were determined by liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) in 25 supermarket-available cereal food products. The total BX content varied from below the limit of detection to >500 μg/g dry matter (DM) with some degree of variation...

  20. Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Maillard reaction can occur during processing of pet foods. During this reaction, the e-amino group of lysine reacts with reducing sugars to become unavailable for metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the reactive lysine (RL; the remaining available lysine) to total lysine

  1. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine

  2. OUTLINE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS COURSE IN COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FOOD PREPARATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A TWO-SEMESTER COURSE TO PREPARE 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY LEVEL COMMERCIAL FOOD PREPARATION JOBS SUCH AS FOOD SERVICE WORKERS, COOK HELPERS, CATERER HELPERS, SALAD MAKERS, BAKER HELPERS, SHORT ORDER COOKS, AND TRAY LINE WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS…

  3. Monitoring sodium levels in commercially processed and restaurant foods - dataset and webpages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Agriculture Research Service (ARS) in collaboration with Food Surveys Research Group, ARS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been monitoring commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States since 2010. About 125 highly consumed, s...

  4. Processing traits and digestibility of extruded dog foods with soy protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, K S; Sarcinelli, M F; Baller, M A; Putarov, T C; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2018-04-11

    Soya bean protein concentrate (SPC) with two particle sizes were evaluated on extrusion parameters, kibble formation, digestibility and palatability of dog foods. Eight diets were extruded: PBM-control diet based on poultry by-product meal (PBM); GM-a diet in which corn gluten meal (GM) replaced 45% of the diet protein; cSPC15%, cSPC30% and cSPC45%-diets in which SPC of coarse particle size (600 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein; and sSPC15%, sSPC30% and sSPC45%-diets in which SPC of small particle size (200 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein. The digestibility of nutrients was evaluated for the PBM, GM, cSPC45% and sSPC45% diets, using six dogs per food. The PBM, GM and cSPC45% diets were compared for palatability. Data were submitted for analysis of variance, and the means were compared by polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p beans resulted in an ingredient with low fermentable fibre content, which did not alter faecal formation or characteristics. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Prospective pilot study to detect dogs with non food-induced canine atopic dermatitis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruet, Vincent; Dumon, Henri; Bourdeau, Patrick; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Martin, Lucile

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) remains challenging due to the lack of a simple biomarker or metabolic profile. In human medicine, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is an analytical technique used for several diseases. It requires a small amount of sample and allows the identification of structural moieties of biomolecules on the basis of their infrared absorption, with limited sample pretreatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of FTIR. Three groups were tested: 21 dogs with non food-induced CAD (NFICAD), 16 dogs with inflammatory conditions of various origins but without allergic dermatoses (OD) and 10 healthy dogs (H). Peripheral blood was collected and spectra were acquired with a FTIR spectrophotometer. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the full wavenumber spectra (4000-600/cm), followed by a Fisher discriminant analysis (DA) to assess the differences between the three groups. The PCA followed by the DA of whole spectra showed significant differences between the three groups. These results suggest that by using the FTIR method, dogs with NFICAD can be differentiated from healthy dogs and dogs with nonallergic inflammation. There was no overlap between the spectral data of the three groups indicating that NFICAD dogs were correctly segregated from the H and OD groups. A study on a larger cohort including common pruritic skin diseases is necessary to confirm these initial results and the relevance of this diagnostic technique. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Cinnarizine food-effects in beagle dogs can be avoided by administration in a Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Kristensen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate if a SNEDDS approach can eliminate the food-effect on cinnarizine absorption and to, investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin energy, could mimic food effect in dogs for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine.......To elucidate if a SNEDDS approach can eliminate the food-effect on cinnarizine absorption and to, investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin energy, could mimic food effect in dogs for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine....

  7. The type of dog that came before dogs eats different types of food during different times of the year, and we can tell by looking at their teeth very very close up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    There is a type of dog that came before dogs were dogs, but to tell this story, we will just call them "dogs." These dogs were not liked much by the people who have to take care of lots of 4-legged animals that later become our food, so they killed all the dogs years ago. Years later, some people from a big park that doesn't have any soon-to-be food animals realized this was a bad thing to have done. They asked our friends above us to send us some new dogs to put in our park, and because our friends are usually very nice, they said yes and we got some new dogs. The new dogs really liked the park, it was full of food and not full of people with guns. The dogs even helped the park by making their food move around which helped trees grow better so really a good day for everyone (except the food animals, but they'd had it too good for too long anyway). My question was: how much of the hard stuff that holds animals up from the inside do the dogs eat after they first eat all the soft bits? As it turns out, teeth can help tell that story if we look at them very very close up, so close up that we need glass like the kind you would use to focus light to burn things but even better than that and also some computers. From up close, if the teeth look beat up, then the dog ate lots of hard stuff, but if the teeth look like a lot of lines, then the dog ate more soft stuff. When we looked at the dogs who died in the park (sad, but it happens, and they continue to help us learn), we found that it didn't matter how old the dog was (which was a surprise), or what position the dog had in their pack (an even bigger surprise), but it did matter if the dog was a boy or a girl (yet another surprise), and it mattered even more what time of year the dog died (this one sort of makes sense). Boy dogs eat more hard stuff than girl dogs, which was a surprise to us and we are still working to figure out why. The time of year matches up to how much food is in the park: when it is cold there is

  8. Regulations on consume and commercialization of food irradiation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.E.B.; Perez, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A Mexican standard for food irradiation is ready for final publication after the authority received and reviewed public comments of the project published in April 1994. The standard establish the radiation doses for different classes of food, based on ICGFI recommendations. Also included are controls for sampling, packaging, labelling, transportation, process inspection and accordance with international regulations. The results of the economical analysis of cost-benefit of the application of the standard show that the net present value is positive. The method of calculation is presented explaining the assumptions considered for the estimation of the total annual savings and surveillance costs. A final version of the research program report on radiation quarantine treatment of Mexican mangoes will be used for the petition to APHIS for the amendment of quarantine procedures to permit importation into the USA of irradiated products. (Author)

  9. The effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and type of food on gastric content volume and acidity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, Ioannis; Rallis, Timoleon; Raptopoulos, Dimitris

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and variety of food on gastric content (GC) volume and pH in dogs. Randomized, cross-over, prospective experimental study. Fifteen mongrel dogs (nine females and six males 1-4 years old, weighing 10-24.5 kg). Each dog received the same seven treatments in random order: dry food 3 hours before anaesthesia (BA) (treatment 3D), canned food (half daily rate) 3 hours BA (treatment 3C), 0% fat cow milk 3 hours BA (treatment 3M), dry food 10 hours BA (treatment 10D), canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10C), low fat canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10F) and low protein canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10P). All animals were pre-medicated with propionyl promazine and anaesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium and maintained with halothane. GC was aspirated using an orogastric catheter and its volume and pH were measured. Treatment 10F had significantly lower GC pH than all the 3-hour treatments. Treatments 10D and 10P had significantly lower pH than treatments 3D and 3C. Treatment 3M had significantly lower pH than the other 3-hour treatments. Treatment 3D had significantly greater gastric volume than treatments 3M, 10C, 10F and 10P. Canned food at half the daily rate administered 3 hours before anaesthesia did not increase significantly the GC volume compared to the other types of food used. The GC pH was also high. This type of food fed 3 hours before induction of anaesthesia may be of benefit in reduction of the incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux during anaesthesia in dogs.

  10. Antibodies to parvovirus, distemper virus and adenovirus conferred to household dogs using commercial combination vaccines containing Leptospira bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M; Namikawa, K; Maruo, T; Lynch, J; Sahara, H

    2010-12-11

    To examine how the inclusion (+) or exclusion (-) of inactivated Leptospira antigens in a vaccine for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2) affects antibody titres to CPV-2, CDV and CAdV-1 antigens, household dogs were vaccinated with commercially available vaccines from one of three manufacturers. CPV-2, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titres were measured 11 to 13 months later and compared within three different age groups and three different bodyweight groups. There were significant differences between CPV-2 antibody titres in dogs vaccinated with (+) vaccine and those vaccinated with (-) vaccine for two products in the two-year-old group and for one product in the greater than seven-year-old group; no significant differences were seen that could be attributed to bodyweight. No differences in CDV antibody titres were observed within age groups, but a significant difference was seen in the 11 to 20 kg weight group for one product. Significant differences in CAdV-1 antibody titres were seen for one product in both the two-year-old group and the ≤10 kg weight group.

  11. Effects of different commercial solutions in therapy of hypovolemia in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovolemia is represented in the clinical pathology of the dog in a high percentage. It mostly presents an accompanying syndrome in many diseased conditions (vomiting, diarrhea, sequestration, burns, cold burns, ascites periocardiac efusions, and others, while they primarily occur following acule hemorrhagia. Having in mind its diverse etiology, hypovolemia, in addition to a lack of fluids, can also be characterized by various other deficiencies (of electrolytes, proteins, albumins, carbohydrates, which presents an important factor for evaluating the condition of the patient and prescribing the adequate therapy.

  12. How good is this food? A study on dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travain, Tiziano; Colombo, Elisa Silvia; Grandi, Laura Clara; Heinzl, Eugenio; Pelosi, Annalisa; Prato Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-15

    Understanding how animals express positive emotions is becoming an interesting and promising area of research in the study of animal emotions and affective experiences. In the present study, we used infrared thermography in combination with behavioral measures, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to investigate dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event: receiving palatable food from the owner. Nineteen adult pet dogs, 8 females and 11 males, were tested and their eye temperature, HR, HRV and behavior were recorded during a 30-minutestestconsisting of three 10-minute consecutive phases: Baseline (Phase 1), positive stimulation through the administration of palatable treats (Feeding, Phase 2) and Post-feeding condition following the positive stimulation (Phase 3). Dogs' eye temperature and mean HR significantly increased during the positive stimulation phase compared with both Baseline and Post-feeding phases. During the positive stimulation with food (Phase 2), dogs engaged in behaviors indicating a positive emotional state and a high arousal, being focused on food treats and increasing tail wagging. However, there was no evidence of an increase in HRV during Phase 2 compared to the Phase 1, with SDNN significantly increasing only in Phase 3, after the positive stimulation occurred. Overall results point out that IRT may be a useful tool in assessing emotional states in dogs in terms of arousal but fails to discriminate emotional valence, whose interpretation cannot disregard behavioral indexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The commercial food landscape: outdoor food advertising around primary schools in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Cretikos, Michelle; Rogers, Kris; King, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    Food marketing is linked to childhood obesity through its influence on children's food preferences, purchase requests and food consumption. We aimed to describe the volume and nature of outdoor food advertisements and factors associated with outdoor food advertising in the area surrounding Australian primary schools. Forty primary schools in Sydney and Wollongong were selected using random sampling within population density and socio-economic strata. The area within a 500 m radius of each school was scanned and advertisements coded according to pre-defined criteria, including: food or non-food product advertisement, distance from the school, size and location. Food advertisements were further categorised as core foods, non-core foods and miscellaneous drinks (tea and coffee). The number of advertisements identified was 9,151, of which 2,286 (25%) were for food. The number of non-core food advertisements was 1,834, this accounted for 80% of food advertisements. Soft drinks and alcoholic beverages were the food products most commonly advertised around primary schools (24% and 22% of food advertisements, respectively). Non-core food products were twice as likely to be advertised close to a primary school (95 non-core food advertisements per km(2) within 250 m vs. 46 advertisements per km(2) within 250-500 m). The density of non-core food advertisements within 500 m of primary schools, and the potential for repeated exposure of children to soft drink and alcoholic beverage advertisements in particular, highlights the need for outdoor food marketing policy intervention. Outdoor advertising is an important food marketing tool that should be considered in future debates on regulation of food marketing to children.

  14. Alimentação natural para cães e gatos Natural foods for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria de Oliveira Borges Saad

    2010-07-01

    was key to the current interest on new food alternatives for dogs and cats, the party to conventional commercial ration. The demand for exclusivity in the pet food industry, combined with a permanent trend of humanization in pet industry, increased the demand for differentiated food for pets. Among the types of alternative diets are called natural foods and organic, among others. However, no specific guidance on the approach to manufacturing and labeling of products containing raw meat, which could cause instability and risk the health of owners that by provide that type of food to their pets. Moreover, natural foods can be made of ingredients for food, seeking an approximation of the composition of the foods that animals (dogs and cats obtained from nature, with higher contribution of nutrients such as proteins and lipids in these animals. The effects they may cause in pets are different from parameters related to the emergence of diseases that affect the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and / or lipid factors related to the quality fecal and beyond, the question of safety food. Thus, the commercial foods are natural and potential market niches have emerged to meet the demand of owners increasingly demanding in relation to food and nutrition for their pets. However, it is important to a thorough and scientific assessment of this niche market, seeking to establish its upside and downside from the point of view of nutrition and food security.

  15. Experimental approaches to study the nutritional value of food ingredients for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Harmon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods that have been applied to study the nutrient value or quality of specific ingredients fed to dogs, cats and comparable species (i.e. foxes, minks, rats, etc.. Typically, the nutritional value or utilization of a specific ingredient is measured by total tract digestibility and has been expanded through the measurement of total nutrient balance (i.e. nitrogen or energy. However, to better understand digestion it is necessary to obtain a more accurate measurement of nutrients entering and leaving the small intestine. Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestion is crucial in dogs and cats because nutrient digestion and absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine. Measuring small intestinal digestibility requires access to digesta leaving the small intestine and can be obtained by placing a cannula at the terminal ileum. This approach also necessitates the use of markers (e.g. chromic oxide to monitor flow of digesta. Specifically, this approach has been used for the direct measurement of intestinal digestion of carbohydrates and amino acids. It also permits a separate measurement of large intestinal digestion which is particularly useful for the study of fiber fermentation. Passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract is also an important component of utilization and these methods are reviewed.

  16. Comparison of the cognitive palatability assessment protocol and the two-pan test for use in assessing palatability of two similar foods in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Joseph A; Studzinski, Christa M; Larson, Brian T; Milgram, Norton W

    2004-11-01

    To compare preferences of dogs for 2 similar foods by use of 2 distinct methods (the cognitive palatability assessment protocol [CPAP] and the 2-pan test). 13 Beagles. 6 dogs were trained in a 3-choice object-discrimination-learning task in which their nonpreferred objects were associated with a reward of a lamb-based or chicken-based food. The number of choices for each object was used to determine food preferences. Preference of the same foods was also assessed by use of a 2-pan test in which all 13 dogs were provided the 2 foods in identical bowls. The amount of each food consumed in 10 minutes was used to determine food preference. All dogs had a noticeable preference for the chicken-based food during the CPAP. Once established, preferences remained consistent and were not affected by satiety. The 2-pan test identified a preference for the chicken-based food in dogs with previous exposure to the food but only a weak and nonsignificant preference for the same food in dogs without previous exposure. Food preferences in the 2-pan test varied considerably. Total food consumption and the ability to detect a preference were reduced when dogs were fed prior to testing. The CPAP provides a reliable measure of food preference that requires few test subjects. The 2-pan test reveals similar preferences but with variability in data that requires larger numbers of subjects and is susceptible to effects from prior exposure and feeding of the test foods to the subjects.

  17. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.

  18. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (3): prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-02-15

    The prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats is not precisely known. This imprecision is likely due to the various populations that had been studied. Our objectives were to systematically review the literature to determine the prevalence of CAFRs among dogs and cats with pruritus and skin diseases. We searched two databases for pertinent references on August 18, 2016. Among 490 and 220 articles respectively found in the Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded) and CAB Abstract databases, we selected 22 and nine articles that reported data usable for CAFR prevalence determination in dogs and cats, respectively. The prevalence of CAFR in dogs and cats was found to vary depending upon the type of diagnoses made. Among dogs presented to their veterinarian for any diagnosis, the prevalence was 1 to 2% and among those with skin diseases, it ranged between 0 and 24%. The range of CAFR prevalence was similar in dogs with pruritus (9 to 40%), those with any type of allergic skin disease (8 to 62%) and in dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (9 to 50%). In cats presented to a university hospital, the prevalence of CAFR was less than 1% (0.2%), while it was fairly homogeneous in cats with skin diseases (range: 3 to 6%), but higher in cats with pruritus (12 to 21%) than in cats with allergic skin disease (5 to 13%). Among dogs and cats with pruritus and those suspected of allergic skin disease, the prevalence of CAFR is high enough to justify this syndrome to be ruled-out with a restriction (elimination)-provocation dietary trial. This must especially be considered in companion animals with nonseasonal pruritus or signs of allergic dermatitis.

  19. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2017-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference ( P 0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  20. Mathematical model for carbon dioxide evolution from the thermophilic composting of synthetic food wastes made of dog food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.I.; Tsai, J.J.; Wu, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of the aeration and the agitation on the composting process of synthetic food wastes made of dog food were studied in a laboratory-scale reactor. Two major peaks of CO 2 evolution rate were observed. Each peak represented an independent stage of composting associated with the activities of thermophilic bacteria. CO 2 evolutions known to correlate well with microbial activities and reactor temperatures were fitted successfully to a modified Gompertz equation, which incorporated three biokinetic parameters, namely, CO 2 evolution potential, specific CO 2 evolution rate, and lag phase time. No parameters that describe the impact of operating variables are involved. The model is only valid for the specified experimental conditions and may look different with others. The effects of operating parameters such as aeration and agitation were studied statistically with multivariate regression technique. Contour plots were constructed using regression equations for the examination of the dependence of CO 2 evolution potentials on aeration and agitation. In the first stage, a maximum CO 2 evolution potential was found when the aeration rate and the agitation parameter were set at 1.75 l/kg solids-min and 0.35, respectively. In the second stage, a maximum existed when the aeration rate and the agitation parameter were set at 1.8 l/kg solids-min and 0.5, respectively. The methods presented here can also be applied for the optimization of large-scale composting facilities that are operated differently and take longer time

  1. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    with respect to CP digestibility and AA composition and included lamb meal (LBM), poultry meal (PM), and fish meal (FM) with low, intermediate, and high protein quality, respectively. Nitrogen balance, BW gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were used as measures...... by the European Pet Food Industry Federation. It was concluded that growth studies with mink kits can provide valuable information in protein quality assessment of extruded dog foods. Furthermore, the study showed that to ensure nutritional adequacy of dog food and to be able to compare protein quality of dog...

  2. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  3. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-02-21

    Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular

  4. Commercial Television Exposure, Fast Food Toy Collecting, and Family Visits to Fast Food Restaurants among Families Living in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in close collaboration with U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention is monitoring the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. The main purpose of this manuscript is to prov...

  6. A cross-sectional study to estimate prevalence of periodontal disease in a population of dogs (Canis familiaris) in commercial breeding facilities in Indiana and Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Bauer, Amy E; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were: 1) to estimate the prevalence and characterize the severity of periodontal disease in a population of dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities; 2) to characterize PD preventive care utilized by facility owners; and 3) to assess inter-rater reliability of a visual scoring assessment tool. Adult dogs (N = 445) representing 42 breeds at 24 CB facilities in Indiana and Illinois were assessed. Periodontal disease was scored visually using the American Veterinary Dental Collage 0-IV scale. Inter-rater reliability was assessed on 198 dogs and facility owners were asked to provide information about the preventive care utilized. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease (Grades I-IV) was 86.3% (95% CI: 82.9, 89.3). An ordered logistic regression analysis found age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.24, 1.54; Pperiodontal disease increased with increasing age. Additionally, a trend toward decreasing risk with increasing weight was also found, although it was not statistically significant. The trends identified agree with studies that have evaluated periodontal disease in the companion dog population and do not support the assumption that the dental health of dogs in commercial breeding facilities is worse than that of the population as a whole. Although there were few cases of severe periodontal disease and all facilities employed some type of preventive care in this sample, the large number of dogs with some degree of disease (Grades I-IV) suggests that further investigation of preventive care is warranted.

  7. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (4): can we diagnose adverse food reactions in dogs and cats with in vivo or in vitro tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf S; Olivry, Thierry

    2017-08-30

    The gold standard to diagnose adverse food reactions (AFRs) in the dog and cat is currently an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials. However, those trials are inconvenient and client compliance can be low. Our objective was to systematically review the literature to evaluate in vivo and in vitro tests used to diagnose AFR in small animals. We searched three databases (CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE and Web of Science) for pertinent references on September 16, 2016. Among 71, 544 and 41 articles found in the CAB Abstract, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases, respectively, we selected 22 articles and abstracts from conference proceedings that reported data usable for evaluation of tests for AFR. Serum tests for food-specific IgE and IgG, intradermal testing with food antigens, lymphocyte proliferation tests, fecal food-specific IgE, patch, gastroscopic, and colonoscopic testing were evaluated. Testing for serum food-specific IgE and IgG showed low repeatability and, in dogs, a highly variable accuracy. In cats, the accuracy of testing for food-specific IgE was low. Lymphocyte proliferation tests were more frequently positive and more accurate in animals with AFR, but, as they are more difficult to perform, they remain currently a research tool. All other reported tests were only evaluated by individual studies with small numbers of animals. Negative patch test reactions have a very high negative predictability in dogs and could enable a choice of ingredients for the elimination diet in selected patients. Gastroscopic and colonoscopic testing as well as food-specific fecal IgE or food-specific serum IgG measurements appear less useful. Currently, the best diagnostic procedure to identify AFRs in small animals remains an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials.

  9. Evaluation of body composition and cartilage biomarkers in large-breed dogs fed two foods designed for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, William D; Macleay, Jennifer M; Yamka, Ryan M

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate cartilage and bone biomarkers and body composition in growing large-breed dogs consuming a diet designed for growth. 43 large-breed 2 month-old-puppies. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 foods until 18 months of age. Dogs were evaluated at 2, 5, 12, and 18 months of age via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), CBC, serum biochemical profile, and concentrations or activities of taurine, vitamin E, fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked fragment of type II collagen (CTXII), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, ghrelin, and growth hormone. Blood components largely reflected the composition of the foods. Dogs fed the food with a higher concentration of protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants had a lower percentage of body fat and greater percentage of lean body mass at 5, 12, and 18 months of age, and higher CPII:CTXII ratio and lower COMP at 18 months of age. The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration declined with age, whereas COMP concentration and CPII concentration were similar at all time points for both foods. The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration were greater during growth than at 18 months of age. The food that was proportionately higher in protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants increased lean body mass and may have positively affected cartilage turnover as maturity was attained. Whether the rate of cartilage turnover during growth affects development of orthopedic disease or arthritis in adulthood has yet to be determined.

  10. Anthropogenic Food Subsidy to a Commensal Carnivore: The Value and Supply of Human Faeces in the Diet of Free-Ranging Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. A. Butler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans, but anthropogenic food subsidies, particularly human faeces (i.e., coprophagy have not previously been fully quantified. In this study we assess the contributions of different food types to the diet, and their influences on the social behaviour of free-ranging dogs in communal lands of rural Zimbabwe, with a focus on coprophagy. Free-ranging dog diets, body condition, and sociology were studied amongst 72 dogs over 18 months using scat analysis and direct observations. Human faeces constituted the fourth most common item in scats (56% occurrence and contributed 21% by mass to the observed diet. Human faeces represented a valuable resource because relative to other food items it was consistently available, and of higher nutritional value than ‘sadza’ (maize porridge, the human staple and primary human-derived food, yielding 18.7% crude protein and 18.7 KJ/kg gross energy, compared to 8.3% and 18.5 KJ/kg for sadza, respectively. Human faeces had protein and energy values equivalent to mammal remains, another important food item. Dog condition was generally good, with 64% of adult females and 74% of adult males in the highest two body condition scores (on a five point scale, suggesting a plentiful and high quality food supply. Dogs largely fed alone, perhaps as a consequence of the small, inert, and spatially dispersed items that comprise their diet, and its abundance. We discuss the relationships between sanitation, human development, the supply of human faeces, female dog fertility, and population control.

  11. Consumer attitudes toward information displayed at food buffets in commercial restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barbieri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of consumers towards information about dishes in a commercial restaurant. This research was conducted from January to April 2009 in a restaurant in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Food information including the name of the dish, ingredients, health benefits and warnings, and calorie value was displayed. After providing this nutritional information, a questionnaire was applied to 300 consumers at the restaurant to observe their attitudes towards the food information. It was found that 10.57% of the respondents reported allergy or intolerance to some kinds of food and that 10.98% of the respondents reported having diseases that require moderate consumption and/or total restriction on the consumption of those foods. However, 84.96% of the respondents did not restrict consumption of any food, even though those foods may have posed a risk to their health, and 58.54% of the respondents consumed some food due to the potential benefits to their health. With regard to the respondents' level of satisfaction concerning the food information provided, 72.76% considered the information provided as very good. The respondents had a tendency to change their behavior towards consumption after having access to information about the dishes displayed.

  12. Trends in Food Research and Development: A Survey of the Commercial Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    top priority of research and development in the food industry; however, the consumer market has chanqed dramatically since the beginning of this decade...Canned & Preserved Fruits & Vegetables 45.6 204 Grain Mill Products 32.4 205 Bakery Products 33.8 206 Sugar & Confectionery Products 32.4 207 Fats & Oils...15.6 40.6 39.1 Aseptic Packaging of Particulates 0.0 0.0 14.5 36.0 49.5 Genetic Engineering 1.5 7.6 21.2 36.4 33.3 The market share of frozen foods is

  13. A blinded randomized controlled trial evaluating the usefulness of a novel diet (aminoprotect care) in dogs with spontaneous food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Kurata, Keigo; Paps, Judy S; Masuda, Kenichi

    2007-10-01

    Aminoprotect Care (APC) is a novel diet composed of aminoacids, potato proteins and corn starch. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Maltese-Beagle atopic (MBA) dogs hypersensitive to corn exhibited clinical signs and changes in immunological markers after being fed APC. The study was designed as a blinded randomized controlled crossover experiment. Ten MBA dogs with signs of allergy within five days of ingesting corn were selected. Dogs were randomized to be fed either their maintenance diet with corn or APC for five days. After a washout of two weeks, diets were switched. Before and daily during each intervention, skin lesions were graded by an investigator while pruritus was assessed by another. Before and at the end of each intervention, the percentage of circulating CD4+CCR4+, corn-activated CD4+ T-lymphocytes and serum corn-specific IgE levels were measured and ratios of post:pre values calculated. During this trial, pruritus and skin lesions increased significantly in MBA dogs when ingesting corn while no such increase occurred when fed APC. Total, median and maximal pruritus values were significantly higher in MBA dogs ingesting corn compared to APC. There were no significant differences between interventions in the immunological parameters assessed. In summary, even though APC contains corn starch to which corn-sensitive MBA dogs often react, the ingestion of APC did not lead to significant increases in skin lesions or pruritus. Aminoprotect Care might prove valuable for management of food allergies. These experimental observations must be validated in large field studies.

  14. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577{sup b} Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  15. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A.

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577 b Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  16. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Zhang, Sheng; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm larvae, black soldier fly larvae and pupae, six spot roach, death's head cockroach and Argentinean cockroach. Reference substrates were poultry meat meal, fish meal and soyabean meal. Substrates were analysed for DM, N, crude fat, ash and amino acid (AA) contents and for in vitro digestibility of organic matter (OM) and N. The nutrient composition, AA scores as well as in vitro OM and N digestibility varied considerably between insect substrates. For the AA score, the first limiting AA for most substrates was the combined requirement for Met and Cys. The pupae of the housefly and black soldier fly were high in protein and had high AA scores but were less digestible than other insect substrates. The protein content and AA score of house crickets were high and similar to that of fish meal; however, in vitro N digestibility was higher. The cockroaches were relatively high in protein but the indispensable AA contents, AA scores and the in vitro digestibility values were relatively low. In addition to the indices of protein quality, other aspects such as efficiency of conversion of organic side streams, feasibility of mass-production, product safety and pet owner perception are important for future dog and cat food application of insects as alternative protein source.

  17. Field validation of food service listings: a comparison of commercial and online geographic information system databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-08-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases.

  18. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  19. Types of fruits and vegetables used in commercial baby foods and their contribution to sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ada Lizbeth; McLean, Kimberley; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are often featured in names of commercial baby foods (CBFs). We aimed to survey all available CBFs in the UK market with F&V included in the food name in order to describe the amount and types of F&V used in CBF and their contribution to total sugar content. Food labels were used to identify F&V and total sugar content. Fruits were more common than vegetables in names of the 329 CBFs identified. The six most common F&V in the names were all relatively sweet: apple, banana, tomato, mango, carrot and sweet potato. The percentage of F&V in the foods ranged from a median of 94% for sweet-spoonable to 13% for dry-savoury products. Fruit content of sweet foods (n = 177) was higher than vegetable content of savoury foods (n = 152) with a median (IQR) of 64.0 g/100 g (33.0-100.0) vs. 46.0 g/100 g (33-56.7). Fruit juice was added to 18% of products. The proportion of F&V in CBF correlated significantly with sugar content for all the food types except dry-savoury food (sweet-spoonable r = 0.24, P = 0.006; savoury-spoonable r = 0.65, P vegetables which are unlikely to encourage preferences for bitter-tasting vegetables or other non-sweet foods. F&V contribute significantly to the total sugar content, particularly of savoury foods. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A comparative analysis of mycotoxin contamination of supermarket and premium brand pelleted dog food in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanil D; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2017-10-06

    Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes. Irrespective of the brand or marketing channel, all foods were contaminated with fungi (mainly Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus) and mycotoxins (most prevalent being aflatoxins and fumonisins). This was observed in all 20 samples irrespective of the marketing channel or perceived quality. Also, many samples within each marketing channel failed the 10 ppb limit for aflatoxin set by regulations in South Africa. Although fumonisin was detected in all samples, a single sample failed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limit of 100 ppb. Both OTA and ZEA were found at low concentrations and were absent in some samples. This study suggested that higher priced dog food does not ensure superior quality or that it is free from contamination with fungi or mycotoxins. However, analysis of the more expensive PBs did reveal contamination concentrations lower than those of the SBs.

  1. A comparative analysis of mycotoxin contamination of supermarket and premium brand pelleted dog food in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanil D. Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs] and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]. For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20. These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA] using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes. Irrespective of the brand or marketing channel, all foods were contaminated with fungi (mainly Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus and mycotoxins (most prevalent being aflatoxins and fumonisins. This was observed in all 20 samples irrespective of the marketing channel or perceived quality. Also, many samples within each marketing channel failed the 10 ppb limit for aflatoxin set by regulations in South Africa. Although fumonisin was detected in all samples, a single sample failed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA limit of 100 ppb. Both OTA and ZEA were found at low concentrations and were absent in some samples. This study suggested that higher priced dog food does not ensure superior quality or that it is free from contamination with fungi or mycotoxins. However, analysis of the more expensive PBs did reveal contamination concentrations lower than those of the SBs.

  2. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. Results D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Conclusion Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. PMID:22512874

  3. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Rimkus, Leah; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-18

    Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

  4. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Euna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. Results D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only. The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Conclusion Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

  5. Responses of Juvenile Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) to a Commercially Produced Oral Plague Vaccine Delivered at Two Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Canales, Elsa M; Wolfe, Lisa L; Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Abbott, Rachel C; Miller, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    We confirmed safety and immunogenicity of mass-produced vaccine baits carrying an experimental, commercial-source plague vaccine (RCN-F1/V307) expressing Yersinia pestis V and F1 antigens. Forty-five juvenile black-tailed prairie dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=15 animals/group). Animals in the first group received one standard-dose vaccine bait (5×10 7 plaque-forming units [pfu]; STD). The second group received a lower-dose bait (1×10 7 pfu; LOW). In the third group, five animals received two standard-dose baits and 10 were left untreated but in contact. Two vaccine-treated and one untreated prairie dogs died during the study, but laboratory analyses ruled out vaccine involvement. Overall, 17 of 33 (52%; 95% confidence interval for binomial proportion [bCI] 34-69%) prairie dogs receiving vaccine-laden bait showed a positive anti-V antibody response on at least one sampling occasion after bait consumption, and eight (24%; bCI 11-42%) showed sustained antibody responses. The STD and LOW groups did not differ (P≥0.78) in their proportions of overall or sustained antibody responses after vaccine bait consumption. Serum from one of the nine (11%; bCI 0.3-48%) surviving untreated, in-contact prairie dogs also had detectable antibody on one sampling occasion. We did not observe any adverse effects related to oral vaccination.

  6. Digestibility and behavior of dogs housed in kennels or metabolic cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabyta Tamara Sabchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the apparent digestibility coefficients of a commercial dog food, fecal consistency and behavior of dogs housed in kennels and metabolic cages. Six adult Beagle dogs were distributed in cross-over experimental design, with six replicates per treatment. Dogs were housed in two environments: metabolic cages and in masonry kennels with solarium. Dogs were fed for a five-day adaptation period, and the five following days were used for total feces collection. Dogs behavior was recorded during a 48-h period, with 10-min intervals. Apparent digestibility coefficients were not different between treatments. However, dogs housed in metabolic cages produced lower weight and more consistent feces as compared with dogs housed in kennels. Dogs spent most of the time sleeping in both housing systems; however, dogs housed in the metabolic cages slept more than those in kennels. Stress-related behaviors (barking, whimpering, stereotypies, etc were observed for no longer than 15 minutes per day, and were not different between dogs in kennels or in cages. There is no difference in food digestibility evaluated in dogs housed in metabolic cages or kennels; however, dogs kept in metabolic cages eliminate drier feces and spend more time inactive than those kept in kennels.

  7. Aflatoxin status of some commercial dry dog foods in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifeoluwa

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... ISSN 1684-5315 ©2012 Academic Journals. Full Length Research ... commonly found in corn, peanuts, cottonseed, milk and tree nuts which are ..... Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan for each commodity; genetic breeding of ...

  8. Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.

    2001-01-01

    Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

  9. The analysis of the causes influencing the development of food irradiation commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongcai

    1989-01-01

    The various causes and factors influencing the development of food irradiation into commercialization are fully analysed. These causes and factors, their associated manifestations as well as the effective methods for resolving the problems are discussed. The factors are the following: (1) Fsychological barrier of fearing radiation and nuclear things; (2) Force of habit; (3) Barriers set by laws and regulations; (4) Poor economic benefit; (5) Radiation accidents caused by the poor management and safety system; (6) Others factors. The paper points out that the main causes which influence the development of food irradiation in China are the following: No enough supply of proper irradiators, and poor economic benefit. A greater development in the food irradiation field will come after 10 years, which is undoubted from the author's point of view

  10. Functional suitability of commercially milled rice bran in India for use in different food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, K S; Dhillon, S S; Singh, N; Singh, B

    1997-01-01

    The effect of blending of commercially available full fat and defatted rice brans in India from modern multistage rice mills with parboiling/stabilizing facilities in different food products in comparison to those obtained from laboratory milling of rice is reported. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased but muffin volume increased with the addition of different types of bran to wheat flour, however, the cookie spread factor was not affected by addition of full fat rice bran. The yields of the extrudate were increased by the blending of full fat rice bran but were decreased by the addition of defatted rice bran. Rice brans could be added to different food products to the extent of 5-10%. However, the full fat rice bran could not be used for production of extruded snack food.

  11. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  12. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which

  13. A cross-sectional study to estimate prevalence of periodontal disease in a population of dogs (Canis familiaris in commercial breeding facilities in Indiana and Illinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L Stella

    Full Text Available The objectives of this cross-sectional study were: 1 to estimate the prevalence and characterize the severity of periodontal disease in a population of dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities; 2 to characterize PD preventive care utilized by facility owners; and 3 to assess inter-rater reliability of a visual scoring assessment tool. Adult dogs (N = 445 representing 42 breeds at 24 CB facilities in Indiana and Illinois were assessed. Periodontal disease was scored visually using the American Veterinary Dental Collage 0-IV scale. Inter-rater reliability was assessed on 198 dogs and facility owners were asked to provide information about the preventive care utilized. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease (Grades I-IV was 86.3% (95% CI: 82.9, 89.3. An ordered logistic regression analysis found age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.24, 1.54; P<0.0001, facility (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.09, 1.18; P<0.0001, sex (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.12, 2.65; P = 0.013, and non-professional dental scaling (OR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.34, 5.91; P = 0.006 to be statistically significant. Inter-rater reliability analysis found agreement to be 86.2%, with a weighted kappa of 0.4731 (95% CI 0.3847, 0.5615 indicating moderate agreement. Risk of periodontal disease increased with increasing age. Additionally, a trend toward decreasing risk with increasing weight was also found, although it was not statistically significant. The trends identified agree with studies that have evaluated periodontal disease in the companion dog population and do not support the assumption that the dental health of dogs in commercial breeding facilities is worse than that of the population as a whole. Although there were few cases of severe periodontal disease and all facilities employed some type of preventive care in this sample, the large number of dogs with some degree of disease (Grades I-IV suggests that further investigation of preventive care is warranted.

  14. ORGANIC FOOD IN THE COMMERCIAL OFFER AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES WHILE PURCHASING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Cichocka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly more interested in the issues associated with high-quality food (organic food; consequently, the number of organic farms and commercial establishments which off er organic products with quality certifi cates is growing. Podkarpackie voivodeship, thanks to certain advantages, is a favorable place for the development of organic farming. For the needs of this research, a survey was conducted in spring 2015 among 137 inhabitants of Rzeszów and the surrounding areas who declared to be consumers of organic food. An analysis of the results provides the conclusion that organic products are very positively evaluated by the respondents, since in their opinion they have a great impact on their health, which is the main reason for purchasing them. Sales and consumption growth of organic foods can be achieved by intensive advertising using the latest methods and techniques, as well as by educating society. These activities should be particularly targeted at the inhabitants of mediumsized towns, and a convincing argument should be made to draw attention to the ingredients in organic food.

  15. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  16. Contaminação por compostos organoclorados em salsichas hot-dog comercializadas na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil Contamination for organochlorine compounds in hot-dog sausages, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de monitorar os resíduos de compostos tóxicos em alimentos, verificou-se a freqüência e os níveis de praguicidas organoclorados (OC e bifenilas policloradas (PCBs em amostras de salsichas Hot-Dog, comercializadas na Cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e, compararam-se os valores com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a extração da gordura das amostras. A partir da purificação desta, obteve-se um extrato do qual se determinaram os resíduos organoclorados por cromatografia gasosa com detector de captura eletrônica (CG - µECD63Ni. Verificou-se que o lindano e o HCB foram os pesticidas que apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias (0,001798ppm e 0,001652ppm, respectivamente. O somatório dos níveis médios dos pesticidas organoclorados detectados foi de 0,015783ppm, sendo que deste total 0,011165ppm pertencia aos metabólitos do DDT. Quanto as bifenilas policloradas, as maiores concentrações médias corresponderam às PCBs 10 (0,001817ppm e 28 (0,000317ppm. O somatório das PCBs foi de 0,002172ppm. As concentrações de praguicidas organoclorados e PCBs encontradas nas amostras analisadas estavam abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos pela legislação.With the objective of monitoring toxic compounds residues in food, the frequency and levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were verified in sausage samples, hot dog type, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Values were compared with the ones established by Brazilian legislation. For the analyses the extraction of fat from the samples was done. From the purification of the fat, there was acquisition of an extract in which was determined the organochlorine contaminants residues by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (CG - µECD63Ni. It was learned that the lindane and HCB were the pesticides that presented the biggest concentration averages (0

  17. Commercial processed food may have endocrine-disrupting potential: soy-based ingredients making the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Kabiersch, Grit; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Processed and packaged food items as well as ready-to-eat snacks are neglected and poorly characterised sources of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study we investigated the presence of xenoestrogens in commercially processed and packaged Finnish foods, arising from substances deliberately added or inadvertently contaminating the food, substances formed as a result of food processing, or substances leaching from food packaging materials. Samples were obtained in three separate batches of equivalent products from both a supermarket and a local representative of a global chain of hamburger restaurants and extracted by a solid-phase extraction method. Their endocrine-disrupting potential was determined by yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. In this test system, the majority of samples (both foodstuffs and wrappers) analysed proved negative. However, all batches of industrially prepared hamburgers (but not those obtained from a hamburger restaurant) as well as pepper salami significantly induced luciferase activity in the BMAEREluc/ERα yeast strain indicating the presence of xenoestrogens, with estradiol equivalents of these products ranging from 0.2 to 443 pg g(-1). All three products contained soy-based ingredients, which apparently accounted for, or at least contributed to, their high estrogenic activity, since no signal in the assay was observed with extracts of the packaging material, while two different soy sauces tested yielded an intense signal (28 and 54 pg ml(-1) estradiol-equivalent). These findings imply that by and large chemicals arising in the processing or packaging of foodstuffs in Finland constitute an insignificant source of xenoestrogens to consumers. However, soy-derived ingredients in certain food items might render the entire products highly estrogenic. The estrogenic activity of soy is attributed to isoflavones whose

  18. Nutritionism, Commercialization and Food; Comment on “Buying Health: The Costs of Commercialism and an Alternative Philosophy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Barnhill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In “Buying Health: the Costs of Commercialization and an Alternative Philosophy”, Larry R. Churchill and Shelley C. Churchill discuss the commercialization of health and, in particular, the commercialization of nutrition. In this commentary on their article, I draw a connection between Churchill and Churchill’s account of the commercialization of nutrition and Michael Pollan’s critique of “nutritionism”. I also offer a friendly amendment to Churchill and Churchill’s account, suggesting that the commercialization of nutrition is not a monolithic experience but it is rather widely challenged.

  19. Evaluation of Food Allergy in Children by Skin Prick Tests with Commercial Extracts and Fresh Foods, Specific IgE and, Open Oral Food Challenge-Our Five Years Experience in Food Allergy Work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Mirjana; Atanasković-Marković, Marina; Medjo, Biljana; Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija; Smiljanić, Katarina; Tmušić, Vladimir; Djurić, Vojislav

    2017-04-01

    IgE- mediated food allergy affects 6-8% of children. Our study aimed to define the correlations between the results obtained with skin prick tests (SPTs) using commercial extracts and fresh foods, and the correlations between these result and those obtained with specific IgE (sIgE) and/ or challenge. Children aged from 2 months to 6 years were recruited prospectively. Overall 571 children were positive to one food. In all children we performed  SPT using commercial extracts of suspected food and fresh foods and sIgE. If SPT and sIgE test results did not correspond to the history, we performed open oral food challenge. Sensitivity of SPT with commercial extracts for all tested food was poor (3-35%), while  sensitivity of fresh food skin prick tests (FFSPT) was excellent (50-100%), and showed correlation with open oral food challenge (pfood extracts are more effective in detecting sensitization and with levels of sIgE greater than class 3 could predict clinical reactivity, without the need for potentially hazardous food challenges.

  20. Multivariate optimization of an analytical method for the analysis of dog and cat foods by ICP OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Pereira, Ana Cristina Lima; Passos, Elisangela Andrade; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2013-04-15

    Experimental design methodology was used to optimize an analytical method for determination of the mineral element composition (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ba, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Sr and Zn) of dog and cat foods. Two-level full factorial design was applied to define the optimal proportions of the reagents used for microwave-assisted sample digestion (2.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 and 6% m/v H2O2). A three-level factorial design for two variables was used to optimize the operational conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, employed for analysis of the extracts. A radiofrequency power of 1.2 kW and a nebulizer argon flow of 1.0 L min(-1) were selected. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.03 μg g(-1) (Cr, 267.716 nm) and 87 μg g(-1) (Ca, 373.690 nm). The trueness of the optimized method was evaluated by analysis of five certified reference materials (CRMs): wheat flour (NIST 1567a), bovine liver (NIST 1577), peach leaves (NIST 1547), oyster tissue (NIST 1566b), and fish protein (DORM-3). The recovery values obtained for the CRMs were between 80 ± 4% (Cr) and 117 ± 5% (Cd), with relative standard deviations (RSDs) better than 5%, demonstrating that the proposed method offered good trueness and precision. Ten samples of pet food (five each of cat and dog food) were acquired at supermarkets in Aracaju city (Sergipe State, Brazil). Concentrations in the dog food ranged between 7.1 mg kg(-1) (Ba) and 2.7 g kg(-1) (Ca), while for cat food the values were between 3.7 mg kg(-1) (Ba) and 3.0 g kg(-1) (Ca). The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the food were compared with the guidelines of the United States' Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento-MAPA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiological quality of food of animal origin commercialized in Minas Gerais

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    Bruno Ricardo de Castro Leite Júnior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk, Minas Frescal cheese (MFC, and bovine ground beef (BGB. A total of 74 samples were subjected to analyses of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Moreover, the MFC samples were subjected to analysis of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS and Listeria monocytogenes. All samples presented total coliforms, 81.6 % of the samples had values above the recommended for fecal coliform, and high incidence of E. coli. 75.0 % of the MFC samples were not in accordance with the legislation for CPS. All samples showed absence of Salmonella sp. and L. monocytogenes. These results showed that food of animal origin commercialized in the region of Minas Gerais is unfit for human consumption due to low microbiological quality. Therefore, there is need for adoption of good manufacturing practices and efficient sanitation to minimize the risk of transmission of foodborne pathogens by these foods.

  2. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary; Lobstein, Tim; Rigby, Neville; Baur, Louise A; Brownell, Kelly D; Gill, Tim; Seidell, Jaap; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2008-09-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on feedback received from a global consultation (November 2006 to April 2007) on the Principles. The Principles state that actions to reduce marketing to children should: (i) support the rights of children; (ii) afford substantial protection to children; (iii) be statutory in nature; (iv) take a wide definition of commercial promotions; (v) guarantee commercial-free childhood settings; (vi) include cross-border media; and (vii) be evaluated, monitored and enforced. The draft principles were widely disseminated and 220 responses were received from professional and scientific associations, consumer bodies, industry bodies, health professionals and others. There was virtually universal agreement on the need to have a set of principles to guide action in this contentious area of marketing to children. Apart from industry opposition to the third principle calling for a statutory approach and several comments about the implementation challenges, there was strong support for each of the Sydney Principles. Feedback on two specific issues of contention related to the age range to which restrictions should apply (most nominating age 16 or 18 years) and the types of products to be included (31% nominating all products, 24% all food and beverages, and 45% energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages). The Sydney Principles, which took a children's rights-based approach, should be used to benchmark action to reduce marketing to children. The age definition for a child and the types of products which should have marketing restrictions may better suit a risk-based approach at this stage. The Sydney Principles should guide the formation of an International Code on Food and Beverage

  4. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.

  5. Commercial processed soy-based food product contains glycated and glycoxidated lunasin proteoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Gallart-Palau, Xavier; See-Toh, Rachel Su-En; Hemu, Xinya; Tam, James P; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2016-05-18

    Nutraceuticals have been proposed to exert positive effects on human health and confer protection against many chronic diseases. A major bioactive component of soy-based foods is lunasin peptide, which has potential to exert a major impact on the health of human consumers worldwide, but the biochemical features of dietary lunasin still remain poorly characterized. In this study, lunasin was purified from a soy-based food product via strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and then subjected to top-down mass spectrometry analysis that revealed in detail the molecular diversity of lunasin in processed soybean foods. We detected multiple glycated proteoforms together with potentially toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from lunasin. In both cases, modification sites were Lys24 and Lys29 located at the helical region that shows structural homology with a conserved region of chromatin-binding proteins. The identified post-translational modifications may have an important repercussion on lunasin epigenetic regulatory capacity. Taking together, our results demonstrate the importance of proper chemical characterization of commercial processed food products to assess their impact on consumer's health and risk of chronic diseases.

  6. Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhsira, E; Fysikopoulos, A; Franc, M

    2009-08-01

    A controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effectiveness of pyriprole, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and fipronil-(S)-methoprene commercial spot-on products in preventing adult female Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Twenty-four beagle dogs were tested for their attractiveness to the mosquitoes and ranked accordingly to produce four groups of equivalent sensitivity to mosquitoes; six were treated with the pyriprole spot-on, six with the metaflumizone combined with amitraz spot-on, six with the fipronil-(S)-methoprene spot-on, and six were left untreated. All the dogs were challenged with 50 unfed adult female Culex in cages for one hour seven days before the treatment, and one and seven days after it. The mosquitoes were checked for blood feeding after one hour and for mortality 24 hours after they had been released into the cages. There was a significant reduction in the number of engorged mosquitoes only with the fipronil-(S)-methoprene product and there were significantly more dead mosquitoes with this product and the pyriprole product, but their effects were too small for them to be recommended for use in a dirofilariosis prevention programme.

  7. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie,

  8. Clinical, serological and echocardiographic examination of healthy field dogs before and after vaccination with a commercial tetravalent leptospirosis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiri, Andrea M; Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Matos, José M; Glaus, Tony M; Riond, Barbara; Reusch, Claudia E; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Willi, Barbara

    2017-05-25

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Severe disease has been reported in dogs in Europe despite vaccination with bivalent Leptospira vaccines. Recently, a tetravalent canine Leptospira vaccine (Nobivac® L4) was licenced in Europe. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical signs, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titres, haematology, blood biochemistry, cardiac (c) Troponin I levels and echocardiography before and after vaccination with this tetravalent vaccine. Forty-eight healthy dogs were prospectively enrolled and vaccinated twice, 3-4 weeks apart (T0 and T1). Before vaccination (T0) and 16-31 days after the second vaccination (T2), MAT (n = 48), haematology (n = 48), blood biochemistry (n = 36) and cTroponin I measurements (n = 29) were performed, and MAT was repeated 347-413 days after the second vaccination (T3, n = 44). Echocardiography was performed before the first and second vaccination (T0 and T1, n = 24). Mild and transient clinical signs within 5 days following the first and second vaccination occurred in 23% and 10% of the dogs, respectively. Before the first vaccination (T0), all dogs showed negative MAT titres for the tested serovars except for Canicola (50% with titres 100-400). At T2, positive MAT titres to the serovars Canicola (100%), Australis (89%), Grippotyphosa (86%), Bratislava (60%), Autumnalis (58%), Copenhageni (42%), Pomona (12%), Pyrogenes (8%) and Icterohaemorrhagiae (2%) were found. Median to high titres (≥ 400) were most common to the serovar Canicola (92%) and less common to the serovars Australis (41%), Grippotyphosa (21%), Bratislava (12%), Autumnalis (4%), Pyrogenes (4%) and Pomona (2%). At T3, positive MAT titres (titre range: 100-400) were found in 2-18% of the dogs to serovars of the vaccine serogroups and in 2-18% of the dogs to the non-vaccine serovars Pomona, Autumnalis, Pyrogenes and Ballum. Haematology, blood biochemistry, c

  9. Gut microbiota composition may relate to weight loss rate in obese pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieler, Ida Nordang; Bin Shamzir Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Vitger, Anne Désiré

    2017-01-01

    Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight......-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention. Faecal samples were...... collected and the dogs were weighed at week 0, week 6 and week 12. GM composition was determined using MiSeq-based tag-encoded 16S rRNA gene high-throughput amplicon sequencing, and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by gas-liquid chromatography. Total weight loss, food allowance and GM were...

  10. Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Teijón, Marisa Lopez; Alvarez, Juan G; Barceló, Damià

    2010-08-01

    In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible

  11. Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon-Delgadillo, M I; Lopez-Hernandez, A; Wijaya, I; Rankin, S A

    2012-03-01

    Starter distillates (SDL) are used as ingredients in the formulation of many food products such as cottage cheese, margarine, vegetable oil spreads, processed cheese, and sour cream to increase the levels of naturally occurring buttery aroma associated with fermentation. This buttery aroma results, in part, from the presence of the vicinal dicarbonyl, diacetyl, which imparts a high level of buttery flavor notes and is a key component of SDL. Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a volatile product of citrate metabolism produced by certain bacteria, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum. In the United States, SDL are regarded as generally recognized as safe ingredients, whereby usage in food products is limited by good manufacturing practices. Recently, diacetyl has been implicated as a causative agent in certain lung ailments in plant workers; however, little is published about the volatile composition of SDL and the levels of diacetyl or other flavoring components in finished dairy products. The objective of this work was to characterize the volatile compounds of commercial SDL and to quantitate levels of diacetyl and other Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association-designated high-priority flavoring components found in 18 SDL samples and 24 selected dairy products. Headspace volatiles were assessed using a solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition to diacetyl (ranging from 1.2 to 22,000 μg/g), 40 compounds including 8 organic acids, 4 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, 7 esters, 3 furans, 10 ketones, 2 lactones, 2 sulfur-containing compounds, and 1 terpene were detected in the SDL. A total of 22 food samples were found to contain diacetyl ranging from 4.5 to 2,700 μg/100g. Other volatile compounds, including acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, benzaldehyde, butyric acid, formic acid, furfural, 2,3-heptanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, and propanoic acid, were also identified and quantified in SDL

  12. Antioxidant activity of commercial food grade tannins exemplified in a wine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Arianna; Olejar, Kenneth J; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Mattioli, Alessia U; Teslić, Nemanja; Kilmartin, Paul A; Versari, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Although commercial tannins are widely used in foods and beverages, an improved understanding of the structure and composition of vegetable tannins is needed to promote the exploitation of agri-food by-products and waste and their valorisation in more sustainable industrial applications. This study aims to characterise the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of 13 food grade tannins using multiple analytical approaches, including spectrophotometry and HPLC-ECD to determine the amount of targeted polyphenolic compounds. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of tannins was assessed in terms of radical scavenging activity (DPPH• assay), reducing power (FRAP assay), and redox properties (cyclic voltammetry, CV). A statistical univariate and multivariate correlation analysis was performed on 17 parameters including tannin content (range: 0.71-1.62 mM), gallic acid, (+)-catechin, syringic acid and (‒)-epicatechin. The compositional profile of tannins was related to their chemical moiety, antioxidant activity and the botanical origin of the extracts. In particular, the CV signal at 500 mV was highly correlated with DPPH• value due to the catechol ring of flavonoids and trigalloyl moieties of gallic acid-based compounds. Practical examples of tannins application in winemaking are discussed.

  13. Nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wesley dos Santos Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5% men and 85 (54.5% women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and food intake of a subsample. Theadequacy of consumption was assessed by observing the recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and nutritional requirements of the Workers’ Food Program.Results: We observed high prevalence of overweight 49 (31.4% and obesity 18 (11.5%, high rate of physical inactivity 109 (69.9%. Alcohol is often consumed weekly by 27(17.4%. 111 (71.2% of individuals studied until high school; and 104 (66.7% belonged to socioeconomic class C. 136 (87,2% showed no personal history of chronic diseases, or practice of smoking. Dietary intake adequacy revealed adequacy for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fats and micronutrients, with excessive sodium intake. Conclusion: Nutritional status was characterized as high prevalence of overweight and obesity, associated with a high abdominal adiposity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and socioeconomicprofile predominantly C1 and C2. Although the present study shows an adequate intake of micronutrients and macronutrients, there are excessive caloric intake, based on profile of physical inactivity and overweight.

  14. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  15. Simultaneous determination of some common food dyes in commercial products by digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Sorouraddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and relatively fast image-analysis method using digital images, obtained with a flatbed scanner, has been described. The method was used for the simultaneous determination of four common food dyes, namely, carmoisine, brilliant blue, sunset yellow, and quinoline yellow, in binary mixtures in commercial products without a need for any prior separation steps. The results obtained were validated against a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method and a good agreement was obtained. The parameters affecting the experimental results were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method provided acceptable linear ranges (20–250 mg/L with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998, suitable precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 4.5%, and limits of detection between 4.82 and 8.05 mg/L.

  16. 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in commercial deep-fat fried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisseto, Adriana Pavesi; Marcolino, Priscila Francisca Corrêa; Vicente, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Levels of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters were evaluated in commercial deep-fat fried foods from the Brazilian market using a GC-MS method preceded by acid-catalysed methanolysis. A limit of detection of 0.04 mg kg(-1), a limit of quantitation of 0.08 mg kg(-1), mean recoveries varying from 82% to 92%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 2.5% to 5.0% for repeatability and from 3.6% to 6.5% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during in-house validation. The levels of the compounds in the evaluated samples, expressed as free 3-MCPD equivalent, ranged from not detected to 0.99 mg kg(-)(1), and the highest concentrations were observed in samples of chopped onion and garlic. A preliminary estimation of 3-MCPD intake using these occurrence data suggested low risks to human health, but a potential concern may arise in particular cases of consumers of fried food.

  17. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. METHODS: A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet...... with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity advance online...

  18. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Impact of faecal DM excretion on faecal calcium losses in dogs eating complete moist and dry pet foods - food digestibility is a major determinant of calcium requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Ellen; Brenten, Thomas; Dobenecker, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The recommendations for the Ca supply for maintenance of dogs have been reduced by about 75 % in the last decades. An important factor for Ca requirements is faecal Ca losses. In previous studies with experimental diets faecal Ca losses depended on Ca intake and on faecal DM excretion. A predictive equation for faecal Ca losses in mg/kg body weight (BW) developed in a fibre model is: faecal losses = -33·8 + (13·6 faecal DM excretion (g/kg BW)) + (0·78 Ca intake (mg/kg BW)). The present study aimed at testing this equation in pet food with material from trials carried out for other purposes. Digestion trials with twenty-five dry and fifteen moist foods (326 observations in total) were evaluated retrospectively. Faecal DM excretion and faecal Ca losses were significantly correlated ( r 2  0·86; P  losses in a practical feeding situation. In conclusion, Ca requirements for maintenance may vary with food DM intake and digestibility.

  20. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinoto, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  1. Influence of the availability of commercial infant foods on feeding practices in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morales, A; Larkin, F A

    1972-03-01

    A study was conducted into infant feeding regimens among 150 Jamaican women. The target population was limited to women living in the Kingston-St. Andrews Corporate area and attending hospitals or clinics where nutrition education was offered. Subjects were questioned as to obstetric history, socio-economic status, sources of information, and infant feeding habits. Nearly all infants in the study were weaned by 1 year of age with a nearly equal number being weaned in the 1st 6 months and the 2nd 6 months. Mothers who never breast fed their infants or weaned early did so for unavoidable reasons, e.g., maternal illness, infant prematurity or hospitalization, or insufficient milk. Most weaning due to these reasons occurred within the 1st 6 months of life. More than 1/2 of the women did not have clearly defined physiological reasons for discontinuing breast feeding. Income and place of residence were not related to the decision to cease breast feeding. Women attending private clinics and receiving information on infant nutrition from health personnel tended to breast feed for a longer time. 18 commercial infant food products were available. 15 of these were a form of processed cow's milk requiring a measure of skill in preparing. The rest were goat's milk, cow's milk, or gruel. 40% of the women in the study used more than 1 of these commercial preparations, indicating a general preference for formulas rather than for a particular brand name. There is a question as to whether the wide availability of these products actually influenced women's decisions to discontinue breast feeding.

  2. Microbiological Food Safety Status of Commercially Produced Tomatoes from Production to Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Brigitte N; de Bruin, Willeke; du Plessis, Erika M; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes have been implicated in various microbial disease outbreaks and are considered a potential vehicle for foodborne pathogens. Traceback studies mostly implicate contamination during production and/or processing. The microbiological quality of commercially produced tomatoes was thus investigated from the farm to market, focusing on the impact of contaminated irrigation and washing water, facility sanitation, and personal hygiene. A total of 905 samples were collected from three largescale commercial farms from 2012 through 2014. The farms differed in water sources used (surface versus well) and production methods (open field versus tunnel). Levels of total coliforms and Escherichia coli and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. Dominant coliforms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No pathogens or E. coli were detected on any of the tomatoes tested throughout the study despite the high levels of coliforms (4.2 to 6.2 log CFU/g) present on the tomatoes at the market. The dominant species associated with tomatoes belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. Water used on the farm for irrigation considered not fit for purpose according to national agricultural irrigation standards, with high E. coli levels resulting from either a highly contaminated source water (river water at 3.19 log most probable number [MPN]/100 ml) or improper storage of source water (stored well water at 1.72 log MPN/100 ml). Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on two occasions on a contact surface in the processing facility of the first farm in 2012. Contact surface coliform counts were 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/cm(2). Risk areas identified in this study were water used for irrigation and poor sanitation practices in the processing facility. Implementation of effective food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry is of the utmost importance to ensure product

  3. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  4. A commercially available immunoglobulin E-based test for food allergy gives inconsistent results in healthy ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S; De Spiegeleer, A; Liu, D J X; Lefère, L; van Doorn, D A; Hesta, M

    2016-01-01

    Commercial immunoglobulin E (IgE)-based tests are available for diagnosis of food allergies and are commonly used in equine practice. However, these tests have been proven unreliable as a screening method in man and other species, but not critically evaluated in equids. Therefore, a commercially available IgE-based test for horses was evaluated. To evaluate the consistency of the results obtained with a commercially available IgE-based test for food allergy diagnosis in ponies (Phase I) and to subject ponies to a provocation trial with the presumed allergens (Phase II). Allergen screening followed by experimental food provocation trials in healthy ponies. Blood samples of 17 healthy Shetland ponies were taken at 2 different time points, sent blinded to a commercial laboratory for screening of common food allergens and the results were evaluated for consistency (Phase I). Ponies that were positive for food allergens were consecutively challenged orally with each allergen separately for 14 days (Phase II). A washout period of one week was applied in ponies with multiple positive results. Clinical parameters and serum amyloid A were monitored during the provocation trial. Only 7/17 ponies were negative on the IgE-based test at the 2 time points, 3 had positive results twice but only one tested positive twice for the same food allergen. No abnormalities were noted during the provocation trials. This study demonstrated that this IgE-based test is not a reliable screening tool for food allergy in healthy equids. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Emotional and rational product appeals in televised food advertisements for children: analysis of commercials shown on US broadcast networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Brewster, Aaron

    2007-12-01

    The aggressive advertising and marketing of high caloric food products to children is implicated as a potential causative factor in the childhood obesity epidemic. This study analyzed 147 commercials appearing during children's programming on U.S. broadcast networks for a wide range of potential emotional and rational advertising appeals. The most prominent emotional appeals were fun/happiness and play followed by fantasy/ imagination, social enhancement/peer acceptance, and coolness/hipness. Many of the products used the term ;super-charged' or a similar adjective to describe the powerful taste or other physical properties of the product. More than one-third of all the commercials used a fruit appeal or association. Statements or depictions that a product was healthy or nutritious were quite rare among the commercials. This seems to imply that health and nutrition claims are understood by food marketers to not be salient concerns among children and as such are not a selling point to children. Commercials for high sugar cereal products and fast food restaurants differed in several respects. This study can serve to guide child health care professionals and other child advocates in designing measures that counter food advertising messages directed at children.

  6. A commercially available IgE-based test for food allergy gives inconsistent results in healthy ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, S; De Spiegeleer, A; Liu, D J X; Lefère, L; van Doorn, D A; Hesta, M

    2014-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Commercial IgE-based tests are available for diagnosis of food allergies and are commonly used in equine practice. However, these tests have been proven unreliable as a screening method in humans and other species, but not critically evaluated in equines. Therefore, a

  7. Biological evaluation of protein quality of two homemade cereal/legume mixtures and a commercial weaning food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Ahmari Tehran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delivery of low-cost, high-protein foods from local materials for weaning infants is a challenge for developing countries. The quality of nutritional protein of cereal/legume mixtures must be developed with an optimal nutrient profile. The current study was conducted to biologically evaluate (in rats the protein found in two homemade foods and a commercial weaning food.Methods: Biological evaluation of the formulations was conducted in 21-day-old weanling Wistar rats, compared with a control diet of casein. The nutrient quality of the weaning foods were monitored by measuring protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein ratio (NPR, relative net protein ratio (RNPR, true digestibility (TD, apparent digestibility (AD, and food efficiency ratio (FER.Results: The TD value of one kind of pasta (Sww1+ SBG was significantly less than casein (P0.05, but its PER was significantly less than Humana (P<0.05.Conclusions: Our findings showed that the second kind of homemade food (Sww2 + SBG, consisting of a ratio of 50 percent soy bean protein-granulate and 50 percent pasta based on wheat flour protein, has high protein quality and is similar to commercial weaning food. It can support the growth of infants in developing countries during the critical weaning period.

  8. [The perception of values in food commercials on the part of young people with and without eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Manchón, Lluís; Rodríguez-Bravo, Ángel; Montoya-Vilar, Norminanda; Morales-Morante, Fernando; Lopes, Elaine; Añaños, Elena; Peres, Rafaella; Martínez, María Eugenia; Grau, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Advertising uses stereotyped body images to promote physical ideals and unhealthy eating habits related to food products which are targeted especially at young people. The purpose of this study, carried out in Barcelona (Spain) in May 2013, was to test the perception of 139 young people of university age - with and without eating disorders - regarding 25 values in seven food commercials that did and did not use body image strategies. Results show that only the group of young people with eating disorders considered commercials using body image strategies to have a very negative influence on values such as health, well-being, family and effort. In contrast, the assessment of the two groups regarding the rest of the commercials greatly coincided. These results show that today’s university youth have accepted as normal a beauty canon based on the prevailing social and economic order, while young people in treatment for eating disorders have learned to denaturalize such messages.

  9. Comparison of emissions from selected commercial kitchen appliances and food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, T.H.; Gerstler, W.D.; Pui, D.Y.H.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Effluents have been measured from various grease-producing cooking processes in an attempt to quantify the emissions that enter typical commercial kitchen exhaust hoods. The appliances tested include gas and electric versions of single-sided griddles, open-vat deep fat fryers, under-fired broilers, full size convection ovens, and six burner ranges. Food products include hamburger, chicken breast, fries, sausage pizza, and a spaghetti meal. Emission data were obtained for particles, grease vapor, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. Velocity and temperature fields were measured in the plume above each appliance. Results show that a large fraction of the grease emission is typically in vapor form. The broilers emit significantly more particles less than 2.5 {micro}m in size (PM 2.5) than the other appliances tested. Combustion by-products were measured for all gas appliances. Both the gas and electric broilers emitted significant amounts of CO when hamburgers were cooked. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were below detectable limits in all tests.

  10. Discrepancy between the composition of some commercial cat foods and their package labelling and suitability for meeting nutritional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosper, E C; Raubenheimer, D; Machovsky-Capuska, G E; Chaves, A V

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if the label information and nutrient composition of commercial cat foods are accurate and compliant with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) and if they meet the nutritional requirements of an adult cat. A chemical analysis of 10 wet and 10 dry commercial cat foods labelled as 'nutritionally complete' for the adult cat was performed. The results were compared with the package composition values, the Australian Standard and the unique dietary requirements of the cat. In addition, the results of the chemical analysis were compared with the nutrient requirements published by the Association of the American Feed Control Officials and the National Research Council. When compared with the Australian Standard, 9 of the 20 cat foods did not adhere to their 'guaranteed analysis' and 8 did not adhere to the standards for nutrient composition. Also, various deficiencies and excesses of crude protein, crude fat, fatty acid and amino acid were observed in the majority of the cat foods. The results of this study highlight a need for an improved method of ensuring that label information and nutrient composition are accurate and comply with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) to ensure the adult cat's unique dietary requirements are being met by commercial adult cat food. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure amongst commercial food vendors in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokogwu, Ndubuisi; Agboghoroma, Orighomisan; Ahmed, Fahmi O.; Mortimer, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Background Exposure to biomass smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Commercial food vendors in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa are commonly exposed to biomass smoke from open fire cooking both at work and home. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of food vendors about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure in Nigeria. Methods We did a descriptive cross sectional survey of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of commercial food vendors in the cities of Benin and Calabar in Nigeria. We recruited respondents using a multi-stage approach. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Results We recruited 308 participants (164, 53.2% female). The majority 185(60.2%) were married and had post-primary education 206(67.4%). The average monthly income was electricity or gas fuels were associated with good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure whilst female gender and having good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke were associated with positive attitudes towards preventing exposure. Conclusion Commercial food vendors in our study had limited knowledge about the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure and negative attitudes towards preventing these adverse health effects. We suggest an educational intervention is needed to improve this knowledge. PMID:29377962

  12. Microbiological Status and Food Safety Compliance of Commercial Basil Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Willeke; Otto, Denise; Korsten, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Basil has been implicated in a number of microbe-associated foodborne illnesses across the world, and the source of contamination has often been traced back to the production and/or processing stages of the supply chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of fresh basil from the point of production to the retail outlet in the Gauteng and Northwest Provinces of South Africa. A total of 463 samples were collected over a 3-month period from two large-scale commercial herb producing and processing companies and three retail outlets. The microbiological quality of the samples was assessed based on the presence or absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium and the levels of the indicator bacteria E. coli and total coliforms. Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on four basil samples (0.9%) arriving at the processing facility and at dispatch, but no E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the study. Total coliform counts were 0.4 to 4.1 CFU/g for basil, 1.9 to 3.4 log CFU/ml for water, and 0.2 to 1.7 log CFU/cm(2) for contact surfaces, whereas E. coli was detected in the water samples and only once on basil. The Colilert-18 and membrane filter methods were used to analyze water samples, and a comparison of results revealed that the Colilert-18 method was more sensitive. Strong evidence suggests that high numbers of coliforms do not necessarily indicate the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium. The study results highlight the importance of effective implementation of food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry.

  13. Commercial TV exposure, fast-food toy collecting and family visits to fast food restaurants among families living in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations between children's exposure to TV networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. Study design One hundred parents of children 3–7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's television viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Results Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (adjusted odds ratio 2.84 for each one-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, prestaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. PMID:26526362

  14. A step-by-step approach to improve data quality when using commercial business lists to characterize retail food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly K; Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Powell, Lisa M; Matthews, Stephen A; Horoi, Irina

    2017-01-07

    Food environment characterization in health studies often requires data on the location of food stores and restaurants. While commercial business lists are commonly used as data sources for such studies, current literature provides little guidance on how to use validation study results to make decisions on which commercial business list to use and how to maximize the accuracy of those lists. Using data from a retrospective cohort study [Weight And Veterans' Environments Study (WAVES)], we (a) explain how validity and bias information from existing validation studies (count accuracy, classification accuracy, locational accuracy, as well as potential bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, economic characteristics, and urbanicity) were used to determine which commercial business listing to purchase for retail food outlet data and (b) describe the methods used to maximize the quality of the data and results of this approach. We developed data improvement methods based on existing validation studies. These methods included purchasing records from commercial business lists (InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet) based on store/restaurant names as well as standard industrial classification (SIC) codes, reclassifying records by store type, improving geographic accuracy of records, and deduplicating records. We examined the impact of these procedures on food outlet counts in US census tracts. After cleaning and deduplicating, our strategy resulted in a 17.5% reduction in the count of food stores that were valid from those purchased from InfoUSA and 5.6% reduction in valid counts of restaurants purchased from Dun and Bradstreet. Locational accuracy was improved for 7.5% of records by applying street addresses of subsequent years to records with post-office (PO) box addresses. In total, up to 83% of US census tracts annually experienced a change (either positive or negative) in the count of retail food outlets between the initial purchase and the final dataset. Our study

  15. Assessing Food Preferences in Dogs and Cats: A Review of the Current Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Tobie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Food is a major aspect of pet care; therefore, ensuring that pet foods are not only healthful but attractive to companion animals and their owners is essential. The petfood market remains active and requires ongoing evaluation of the adaptation and efficiency of the new products. Palatability—foods’ characteristics enticing animals and leading them to consumption—is therefore a key element to look at. Based on the type of information needed, different pet populations (expert or naïve can be tested to access their preference and acceptance for different food products. Classical techniques are the one-bowl and two-bowl tests, but complementary (i.e., operant conditioning and novel (i.e., exploratory behavior approaches are available to gather more information on the evaluation of petfood palatability.

  16. Frequency and Severity of Neutropenia Associated with Food and Drug Administration Approved and Compounded Formulations of Lomustine in Dogs with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, J.H.; Stanley, S.D.; Knych, H.K.; Rodriguez, C.O.; Skorupski, K.A.; Rebhun, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Compounded lomustine is used commonly in veterinary patients. However, the potential variability in these formulations is unknown and concern exists that compounded formulations of drugs may differ in potency from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)?approved products. Hypothesis/Objectives The initial objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of neutropenia in dogs treated with compounded or FDA?approved formulations of lomustine. Subsequent analyses aimed t...

  17. Rheological Characterization and Cluster Classification of Iranian Commercial Foods, Drinks and Desserts to Recommend for Esophageal Dysphagia Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaraan, Azizollaah; Omaraee, Yasaman; Rastmanesh, Reza; Taheri, Negin; Fadavi, Ghasem; Fadaei, Morteza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of dysphagia-oriented food products, rheological characterization of available food items is of importance for safe swallowing and adequate nutrient intake of dysphagic patients. In this way, introducing alternative items (with similar ease of swallow) is helpful to improve quality of life and nutritional intake of esophageal cancer dysphagia patients. The present study aimed at rheological characterization and cluster classification of potentially suitable foodstuffs marketed in Iran for their possible use in dysphagia diets. In this descriptive study, rheological data were obtained during January and February 2012 in Rheology Lab of National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute Tehran, Iran. Steady state and oscillatory shear parameters of 39 commercial samples were obtained using a Physica MCR 301 rheometer (Anton-Paar, GmbH, Graz, Austria). Matlab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (R2012 a) was utilized for cluster classification of the samples. Using an extended list of rheological parameters and fuzzy logic methods, 39 commercial samples (drinks, main courses and desserts) were divided to 5 clusters and degree of membership to each cluster was stated by a number between 0 and 0.99. Considering apparent viscosity of foodstuffs as a single criterion for classification of dysphagia-oriented food products is shortcoming of current guidelines in dysphagia diets. Authors proposed to some revisions in classification of dysphagia-oriented food products and including more rheological parameters (especially, viscoelastic parameters) in the classification.

  18. In vitro digestibility and fermentability of selected insects for dog foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Insects are considered as a sustainable protein source for future pet foods. Here we aimed to evaluate the protein quality of larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF), housefly (Musca domestica, HF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) and to evaluate the fermentation

  19. In vitro digestibility and fermentability of selected insects for dog foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Guido; Vervoort, J. J M; Hendriks, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Insects are considered as a sustainable protein source for future pet foods. Here we aimed to evaluate the protein quality of larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF), housefly (Musca domestica, HF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) and to evaluate the fermentation

  20. The effect of steam pelleting of a dry dog food on the Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Wierenga, P.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet foods, the Maillard reaction (MR) can occur, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids like lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). This study examined the effect of conditioning temperature (65 and 90 °C) and die

  1. Issues involved in food irradiation and its commercial application: a discussion paper prepared for the Primary and Allied Industries Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Department of Primary Industries and Energy's interest in food irradiation stems from its responsibilities under the Export Control Act (1982) and the Quarantine Act (1908) and the implications this process may have for Australian food exports and quarantine control. Food irradiation is regarded by the Department as a process which may provide an alternative to some existing conventional food treatments. It is not expected to replace completely other processes, but subject to the overseas acceptance of imported irradiated foods, it could offer Australian exporters an additional processing and/or quarantine treatment. The Department's position is that foods irradiated in approved facilities in Australia could be approved for export provided they comply with the regulatory requirements of the importing country and are appropriately labelled or identified. The Department maintains the view that the choice to use this technology is a commercial decision which will depend on many factors including: acceptability of the toxicological aspects, demand for benefits it provides, its cost and competitiveness with alternative treatments, approval by Australian and international regulatory authorities, and importantly, the willingness of consumers to buy irradiated foods

  2. Determination of 137Cs, 90Sr, 40K radionuclides in food grain and commercial food grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.; Kruk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Following up transfer of strontium from soil to plants requires determination of isotope in the surface layer of soil and a chosen plant. The most endangered food products are plants including commonly grown grain, which constitutes a basic feeding component for both people and animals. Indeed large amounts of 137 Cs, 90 Sr get into organisms of people and animals with the food, therefore determination of radioactivity of elements in food products and animal fodder is very essential. Choice of proper diet allows to limit the level of human organism denaturation. The aim of this paper was to study relocation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 40 K isotopes from soil to grain and then from grain to food products. There were investigated soil, wheat, barley, groats, flour, macaroni and breakfast flakes. Based on the obtained results there were calculated effective weighted doses [nSv] from consumption of 1 kg of a product for different age groups. (author)

  3. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding of locally advanced oro-pharygo-laryngeal cancer patients: Blenderized or commercial food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, Pyrros; Tsaousi, Georgia; Stavrou, George; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tsiropoulos, Gavriil; Rova, Constantina; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Michalopoulos, Antonios; Grosomanidis, Vasilios; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2017-11-01

    Head and neck cancer patients commonly suffer from severe malnutrition at the time of tentative diagnosis. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy [PEG] feeding is now considered as an efficient tool to reduce nutritional deterioration alongside concurrent treatment. We undertook the challenge to retrospectively evaluate the impact of a commercial, disease-specific, feeding formula [Supportan, Fresenius Kabi, Hellas] versus blenderized family food on nutritional outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected nutritional and anthropometric data at the time of PEG placement, at the 8th week [after treatment termination] and at 8 months [6mo of recovery from treatment]. All patients were prescribed a commercial feeding formula. The final dataset included 212 patients: 112 received the commercial formula, 69 voluntarily decided to switch into blenderized-tube-feeding, and 31 were prescribed to receive a home-made formula of standard ingredients. The commercial formula seemed to help patients to fight the catabolism of concurrent treatment, since, at the 8mo assessment, both Body Mass index and Fat Free Mass had almost recovered to the values at the time of first diagnosis. Neither group on blenderized or home-made formulas exhibited nutritional improvement, but experienced a significant deterioration throughout the study period, with the home-made formula group being the worst. These findings clearly indicate that home-made and blenderized foods do not adequately support the nutritional requirements of patients with HNC scheduled to receive concurrent CRT treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumer acceptance of insect-based foods in the Netherlands: Academic and commercial implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    Despite growing interest in the use of insects as food, uptake of insect-based foods in Europe is low. Existing research into Western consumer acceptance of insects as food tends to emphasise the role of individual cognition in food choice at the expense of social or contextual factors, and typically frames consumer acceptance as a general issue, rather than relevant only for relatively few early adopters. This paper outlines empirical work, theoretically and methodologically informed by a critical appraisal of previous research, with consumers of insect-based convenience foods in the Netherlands. Reported initial motivations for trying insect foods are shown to be substantially different from factors - such as price, taste, availability, and 'fit' with established eating practices - which affect repeat consumption. Such factors are congruent with those affecting routine consumption of more conventional foods, indicating that insect foods should be analysed according to similar criteria and should be designed with more practical considerations in mind. Further, a reorientation of consumer acceptance research is proposed. Research should shift from attempts to forecast acceptance and engage with 'actual' examples of insect consumption; social, practical and contextual factors affecting food consumption should be emphasised; and - following work on the establishment of other novel foods - early adopters, rather than general populations, should receive greater analytic attention. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Rimkus, Leah; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data corre...

  6. A nutrition/health mindset on commercial Big Data and drivers of food demand in modern and traditional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Labban, Alice; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Heslop, Gabriela; Ma, Yu; Paquet, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Building greater reciprocity between traditional and modern food systems and better convergence of human and economic development outcomes may enable the production and consumption of accessible, affordable, and appealing nutritious food for all. Information being key to such transformations, this roadmap paper offers a strategy that capitalizes on Big Data and advanced analytics, setting the foundation for an integrative intersectoral knowledge platform to better inform and monitor behavioral change and ecosystem transformation. Building upon the four P's of marketing (product, price, promotion, placement), we examine digital commercial marketing data through the lenses of the four A's of food security (availability, accessibility, affordability, appeal) using advanced consumer choice analytics for archetypal traditional (fresh fruits and vegetables) and modern (soft drinks) product categories. We demonstrate that business practices typically associated with the latter also have an important, if not more important, impact on purchases of the former category. Implications and limitations of the approach are discussed. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Comparative efficacy of four commercially available heartworm preventive products against the MP3 laboratory strain of Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagburn, B L; Dillon, A R; Arther, R G; Butler, J M; Newton, J C

    2011-03-10

    A controlled laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of four commercial products administered as a single treatment for the prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Forty-four commercially sourced Beagle dogs, 6-7 months of age, were received at the test site (Auburn University, Department of Pathobiology) on Study Day (SD) -72 to begin acclimation. On SD -30, each dog was inoculated subcutaneously with 100 infective, third-stage D. immitis larvae (MP3 strain, TRS Laboratories, Inc., Athens, GA). On SD -1, 40 dogs weighing 18.2-25.3 lbs were ranked by decreasing body weight and randomized to five groups of eight dogs each. On SD 0, the dogs assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with ivermectin/pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets, Group 2 dogs were treated orally with milbemycin oxime flavored tablets, Group 3 dogs were treated with selamectin topical solution, and Group 4 dogs were treated with imidacloprid/moxidectin topical solution. Group 5 dogs remained nontreated. Dosages for dogs in Groups 1-4 were based on the individual body weight of each dog and current labeled dose banding for each commercial product. All dogs were fasted overnight prior to treatment. Food was returned four hours after treatment. Animals were observed for abnormal clinical signs involving eyes, feces, respiration, behavioral attitude, locomotion/musculature, or skin conditions at prescribed intervals immediately after treatment and at twice daily intervals thereafter. On SD 90, whole blood was collected and tested for adult heartworm antigen. On SDs 119/120, the dogs were euthanized and subjected to necropsy examination for recovery of adult D. immitis and/or worm fragments. At necropsy, all 8 dogs in the nontreated group were infected with adult D. immitis (34-70 worms/dog, geometric mean (GM)=51.6 worms/dog). One or more adult D. immitis and/or worm fragments were recovered from 7 of 8 of the dogs each in Groups 1-3 (87.5% were heartworm

  8. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  9. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  10. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  11. Hydroponic food production: a definitive guidebook for the advanced home gardener and the commercial hydroponic grower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resh, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    .... Meant for hobby and commercial growers, the book shows readers how to set up a hydroponic operation with the options of using any of the many hydroponic cultures presently used in the industry to grow vegetable crops...

  12. Point‐of‐sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to assess the prevalence of point‐of‐sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point‐of‐sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one‐third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point‐of‐sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one‐third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu).Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores.Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS.Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure amongst commercial food vendors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, Ogonna N O; Mokogwu, Ndubuisi; Agboghoroma, Orighomisan; Ahmed, Fahmi O; Mortimer, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to biomass smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Commercial food vendors in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa are commonly exposed to biomass smoke from open fire cooking both at work and home. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of food vendors about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure in Nigeria. We did a descriptive cross sectional survey of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of commercial food vendors in the cities of Benin and Calabar in Nigeria. We recruited respondents using a multi-stage approach. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. We recruited 308 participants (164, 53.2% female). The majority 185(60.2%) were married and had post-primary education 206(67.4%). The average monthly income was biomass smoke exposure is harmful to human health. About three-quarters (221; 71.8%) were unconcerned as to the effect of exposure to fumes from biomass fuels on their health. Less than half of respondents (110, 41.6%) believed biomass smoke was harmful to health. Male gender, being single, having post-primary education and preferring electricity or gas fuels were associated with good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure whilst female gender and having good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke were associated with positive attitudes towards preventing exposure. Commercial food vendors in our study had limited knowledge about the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure and negative attitudes towards preventing these adverse health effects. We suggest an educational intervention is needed to improve this knowledge.

  14. Point-of-sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeny, Mary; Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of point-of-sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point-of-sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one-third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point-of-sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one-third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu). Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores. Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS. Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition

  15. Effect of feeding a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet on subsequent food intake and blood concentration of satiety-related hormones in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, S; Salas-Mani, A; Torre, C; Jimenez, E; Latorre, M A; Castrillo, C

    2018-02-01

    Although studies in rodents and humans have evidenced a weaker effect of fat in comparison to carbohydrates on the suppression of food intake, very few studies have been carried out in this field in dogs. This study investigates the effects of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and a high-fat (HF) diets on subsequent food intake and blood satiety-related hormones in dogs. Diets differed mainly in their starch (442 vs. 271 g/kg dry matter) and fat (99.3 vs. 214 g/kg dry matter) contents. Twelve Beagle dogs received the experimental diets at maintenance energy requirements in two experimental periods, following a cross-over arrangement. In week 7 of each period, blood concentrations of active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, insulin, and glucose were determined before and at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min post-feeding. The following week, intake of a challenge food offered 180 min after the HC and HF diets was recorded over two days. In comparison to the dogs on the HC diet, those on the HF diet had a higher basal concentration of GLP-1 (p = .010) and a higher total area under the curve over 180 min post-prandial (tAUC 0-180 ) (p = .031). Dogs on the HC diet showed a higher elevation of ghrelin at 180 min (p = .033) and of insulin at 360 min (p = .041), although ghrelin and insulin tAUC 0-180 did not differ between the two diets (p ˃ .10). Diet had no effect on challenge food intake (p ˃ .10), which correlated with the tAUC 0-180 of ghrelin (r = .514, p = .010), insulin (r = -.595, p = .002), and glucose (r = -.516, p = .010). Feeding a diet high in carbohydrate or fat at these inclusion levels does not affect the feeding response at 180 min post-prandial, suggesting a similar short-term satiating capacity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Comparison of Protein Value of Commercial Baby Food with Homemade Baby Food and Casein Standard in Rats as the Refference point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Asemi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesEvaluation of protein quality in food is of great importance due to the biological and economical impacts of food proteins. This study has been conducted with the aim of comparing the protein quality of homemade food (mixture of macaroni and soy bean with commercial baby food (Cerelac Wheat using Casein as the refference point.MethodsThis study was conducted on 64 twenty one day old male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups, and each group was put on a different diet regiments. The diet regiments were as follow: 2 homemade food+Cerelac test diet, 1 Ccasein+Methionine standard diet, 1 protien-free basal diet, 2 test diet, 1 standard diet and 1 basal diet. The purpose of protien-free diet was to evaluate True Protien Digestability (TPD. Net Protein Ratio (NPR and Protien Efficiency Ratios (PER were investigated by the basal diet. Protein intake and increasing of weight were determined for NPR and PER calculating. Nitrogen intake and fecal Nitrogen were determined to calculate TPD. Comparison of TPD, NPR and PER among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey methods.ResultsTPD values of Standard, Cerelac and homemade food diets were 92.8±4, 87±8 and 85.4±3.2; NPR values were 4.3±0.4, 4.3±0.9, 3.8±0.6; and PER values were 3±0.2, 2.5±0.4, 1.7±0.1 respectively. The statistical difference between TPD and PER values were significant (p 0.05. ConclusionThese results shows that TPD and PER of homemade foods are lower than Cerelac while their NPR are acceptable.Keywords: Protein; Cerelac; Macaroni; Soybeens.

  17. Simultaneous determination of riboflavin and pyridoxine by UHPLC/LC-MS in UK commercial infant meal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Nazanin; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Pullen, Frank S; Snowden, Martin J; Tetteh, John

    2012-12-15

    An assay for the simultaneous quantitative determination of riboflavin and pyridoxine in eight different complementary infant meal products has been developed in order to (1) estimate the daily intake of these vitamins from commercial infant food consumption, and (2) ascertain their nutritional suitability relative to dietary guidelines for the 6-9 months age group. The method involves mild hydrolysis of the foods, an extraction of the supernatant by centrifugation followed by quantitative determination using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Separation of the two water soluble vitamins is achieved within one minute and the resultant sample is also LC-MS compatible. Despite wide individual differences between brands (p=6.5e-12), no significant differences were observed in the level of pyridoxine between the meat and vegetable-based varieties (p=0.7) per 100g of commercial infant food. Riboflavin was not detected in any of the samples where the detection limit was below 0.07 μg/mL. In terms of the Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) of pyridoxine for 6-9 months old infants, the complementary infant meal products analysed herein provided less than 15% of the RNI values with mean (SD) values of 12.87 (± 4.46)% and 13.88 (± 4.97)% for the meat- and vegetable-based recipes, respectively. The estimated total daily intake of riboflavin and pyridoxine from the consumption of commercial complementary food was found to be satisfactory and in accordance with the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). The intake of both riboflavin and pyridoxine was estimated to be mainly derived from the consumption of formula milk which could be a cause of concern if the quality of an infant's milk diet is compromised by an inadequate or lack of supplemented milk intake. The results of this study suggest that the selected commercial complementary infant foods in the UK market may not contain the minimum levels of riboflavin and pyridoxine required for the labelling declaration of the

  18. Preventing and controlling foodborne disease in commercial and institutional food service settings: a systematic review of published intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine; Blitstein, Jonathan; Brophy, Jenna E; Fraser, Angela

    2015-02-01

    This study reviews the current literature on behavioral and environmental food safety interventions conducted in commercial and institutional food service settings. A systematic search of the published literature yielded 268 candidate articles, from which a set of 23 articles reporting intervention outcomes was retained for evaluation. A categorization of measured outcomes is reported; studies addressed multiple outcomes ranging from knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of personal hygiene and food safety to management practices and disease rates and outbreaks. This study also investigates the quality of reported research methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, using a nine-point quality index adapted by the authors. The observed scores suggest that there are opportunities to improve the design and reporting of research in the field of foodborne disease prevention as it applies to food safety interventions that target the food service industry. The aim is to aid researchers in this area to design higher quality studies and to produce clearer and more useful reports of their research. In turn, this can help to create a more complete evidence base that can be used to continually improve interventions in this domain.

  19. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extensive protein hydrolyzation is indispensable to prevent IgE-mediated poultry allergen recognition in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Bexley, Jennifer; Mougeot, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Background The central premise for the commercialization of diets with hydrolyzed ingredients is that the small-sized digested peptides would be unable to crosslink allergen-specific IgE at the surface of tissue mast cells and induce their degranulation. Evidence for the validity of this concept to diagnose food allergies in dogs and cats is limited, however. Our objectives were to study the recognition of standard and variably hydrolyzed poultry extracts by sera from dogs and cats with eleva...

  1. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drying is a common manufacturing process and CFD has been applied to drying of fruits ... continually over the years because such foodstuffs have demonstrated food quality and safety record. CFD has ..... O–130, (Mexico: Puebla). Langrih ...

  2. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  3. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  4. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  5. Evaluation of total dietary fiber concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Amy K; Larsen, Jennifer A; Owens, Tammy J; Nelson, Richard W; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2015-09-01

    To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Dry (n = 11) and canned (8) canine therapeutic diets. Insoluble and soluble dietary fiber (IDF and SDF), high-molecular-weight SDF (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight SDF (LMWSDF) concentrations were determined. Variables were compared among diets categorized by product guide indication, formulation (dry vs canned), and regulatory criteria for light and low-fat diets. SDF (HMWSDF and LMWSDF) comprised a median of 30.4% (range, 9.4% to 53.7%) of TDF; LMWSDF contributed a median of 11.5% (range, 2.7% to 33.8%) of TDF. Diets for diabetes management had higher concentrations of IDF and TDF with lower proportions of SDF and LMWSDF contributing to TDF, compared with diets for treatment of fat-responsive disease. Fiber concentrations varied within diet categories and between canned and dry versions of the same diet (same name and manufacturer) for all pairs evaluated. Diets classified as light contained higher TDF and IDF concentrations than did non-light diets. All canned diets were classified as low fat, despite providing up to 38% of calories as fat. Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations and compositions; veterinarians should request TDF data from manufacturers, if not otherwise available. Consistent responses to dry and canned versions of the same diet cannot necessarily be expected, and diets with the same indications may not perform similarly. Many diets may not provide adequate fat restriction for treatment of dietary fat-responsive disease.

  6. An outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in dogs associated with aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Casagrande, Renata Assis; Wouters, Flademir; Watanabe, Tatiane Terumi Negrão; Boabaid, Fabiana Marques; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias; Driemeier, David

    2013-03-01

    An aflatoxicosis outbreak affected 65 dogs from 9 different farms after they were fed diets with cooked corn meal as a common ingredient. Of the dogs, 60 died. Numerous dogs died on additional farms, but those dogs were not included in the study. The farmers acquired the contaminated maize products, in the form of whole corn grain or as corn meal, from the same supplier. The corn product was mixed with meat that was left over from home or commercial rations to form corn polenta, which was fed to the dogs. Necropsy was performed on 3 dogs. Two of the dogs died after a few days of refusing food, showing anorexia, polydipsia, icteric mucous membranes, hematemesis, hematochezia, or melena, and bleeding of the skin, eye, ear, and mouth. The primary necropsy findings included jaundice, hemorrhages in several organs, and yellowish enlarged liver with enhanced lobular pattern. The dog that experienced chronic ascites had a yellowish liver with reduced volume, irregular surface, and increased consistency. The main histological findings included hepatocyte fatty degeneration, biliary duct hyperplasia, cholestasis and, in the chronic case, hepatic fibrosis. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the corn meal from 2 affected farms revealed 1,640 ppb and 1,770 ppb of aflatoxin B1, respectively. The current study demonstrates an additional way that dogs can be exposed to, poisoned, and killed by aflatoxin.

  7. Commercial feasibility and evaluation of consumer acceptance for certain irradiated food products in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, Mohie Eldin Zohear; Karem, Hussein Abdel; El-Din, Nagwan Saad; El-Din Farag, Diaa; El-Khatib, Mervat; Mageed, Mahmoud Abdel

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out to assess consumer attitude towards food irradiation through questionnaires, sensory tests and market sale of irradiated products. The results showed that out of 1020 persons responded to the questionnaire, 62.43% accepted the irradiation technology while 70.45% were convinced with the advantages of irradiated food. About 73.97% of the respondents were willing to accept irradiation technology on a long term basis while 57.53% were willing to consume irradiated food if it was available in the market. Sensory tests on irradiated smoked fish, chicken, black pepper, coriander, Jew's mallow, broad bean and kidney beans using triangle test (difference test) and duo-trio test showed that the panelists consisting of 136 persons failed to indicate any difference between the irradiated and unirradiated food. About 92.2% of 144 persons participating in a lunch table of irradiated food opined that irradiated food was delicious and found no difference between the irradiated and unirradiated samples. Consumer comments recorded during the market sale of irradiated black pepper and broad beans indicated that 95.1% of the respondents found the irradiated (10kGy) black pepper of excellent or good quality while the percentage was 81.2% for irradiated (2 kGy) broad bean. The study also showed that 62.2% and 68.8% of the persons respectively would buy irradiated black pepper and broad bean again if they were available in the market. Studies on the economics of food irradiation showed that the cost of irradiation for one ton of frozen poultry as US $130.4; smoked fish US $78.2; spices US $260.1 and dried vegetable US $26. Economic evaluation of the study indicated that the average annual rate of return will be about 16.9% and the pay back period will be about 5.9 years. (author)

  8. Correction of hyperkalemia in dogs with chronic kidney disease consuming commercial renal therapeutic diets by a potassium-reduced home-prepared diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, G; Fascetti, A J; Weeth, L P; Cowgill, L D

    2010-01-01

    Hyperkalemia occurs in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (1) To determine the incidence of hyperkalemia in dogs with CKD, (2) to determine the proportion of hyperkalemic dogs that required modification of dietary potassium intake, (3) to evaluate the response to dietary modification. The hospital database was reviewed retrospectively to identify dogs with CKD and persistent (>5.3 mmol/L on at least 3 occasions) or severe (K > or = 6.5 mmol/L) hyperkalemia while consuming a therapeutic renal diet. Records of dogs with hyperkalemia that were prescribed a home-prepared, potassium-reduced diet were evaluated further. Response was evaluated by changes in body weight, BCS, and serum potassium concentration. One hundred and fifty-two dogs were diagnosed with CKD, of which 47% had > or =1 documented episode of hyperkalemia, 25% had > or = 3 episodes of hyperkalemia, and 16% had > or =1 episodes of severe hyperkalemia (K > 6.5 mmol/L). Twenty-six dogs (17.2%) with CKD and hyperkalemia were prescribed a potassium-reduced, home-prepared diet. The potassium concentration of all hyperkalemic dogs on therapeutic diets (potassium content, 1.6 +/- 0.23 g/1,000 kcal of metabolizable energy [ME]) was 6.5 +/- 0.5 mmol/L but decreased significantly to 5.1 +/- 0.5 mmol/L in 18 dogs available for follow-up in response to the dietary modification (0.91 +/- 0.14 g/1,000 kcal of ME, P diets and could restrict use of these diets. Appropriately formulated, potassium-reduced, diets are an effective alternative to correct hyperkalemia.

  9. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function

  10. Tandem mass spectrometry: a convenient approach in the dosage of steviol glycosides in Stevia sweetened commercial food beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donna, L; Mazzotti, F; Santoro, I; Sindona, G

    2017-05-01

    The use of sweeteners extracted from leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana is increasing worldwide. They are recognized as generally recognized as safe by the US-FDA and approved by EU-European Food Safety Authority, with some recommendation on the daily dosage that should not interfere with glucose metabolism. The results presented here introduce an easy analytical approach for the identification and assay of Stevia sweeteners in commercially available soft drink, based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using a natural statin-like molecule, Brutieridin, as internal standard. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Cinnarizine food-effects in beagle dogs can be avoided by administration in a Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Kristensen, Jakob; Kreilgaard, Mads; Jacobsen, Jette; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-06-16

    To elucidate if a SNEDDS approach can eliminate the food-effect on cinnarizine absorption and to, investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin energy, could mimic food effect in dogs for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine. A conventional tablet, a SNEDDS capsule or a SNEDDS tablet, containing cinnarizine, were dosed to beagles dogs in fed or fasted state (n=5), with a one week wash-out period between dosing. Dogs were pre-treated with pentagastrin. Fed state was induced by a nutritional drink (Fresubin Energy®). The food-effect was evaluated by comparing Tmax, Cmax and Bioavailability (F) for the different formulations. Food effect was observed on all three parameters for the conventional tablet; Tmax was delayed 2.5times and bioavailability increased in fed state (from 20.9±5.7 to 53.8±30.1). Apart from an extended Tmax (2.5 and 3.3 times longer in fed state compared to fasted state for the SNEDDS tablets and SNEDDS capsules respectively), food effect on absorption for the SNEDDS capsules and SNEDDS tablets was not observed. The SNEDDS capsules had a higher bioavailability in both fed and fasted state compared to SNEDDS tablets (Ffasted=58.1±16.7, vs. 32.7±11.5), (Ffed=79.3±14.7 vs. 43.7±6.7) There were no significant differences in bioavailability between the conventional tablet in fed state and the SNEDDS capsules. Food effect was observed when dosing cinnarizine with ingestion of the nutritional drink Fresubin Energy. Food effect on cinnarizine could be significantly reduced by dosing either as a SNEEDS capsule or a SNEDDS tablet, however, the SNEDDS tablet resulted in an overall lower absorption than the SNEDDS capsules in both fed and fasted state. The delay in fed state absorption could not be changed by dosing with SNEDDS formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Periodontal Health vs. Various Preventive Means in Toy Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Capík

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used six toy Chihuahua dogs in relationship. They underwent four 8 week periods differing in type of food (dry, soft, dental diet and preventive means of periodontitis (tooth-brushing and enzymatic chewing strips. The results showed nonsignificant influence of food consistency on dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores. Dental diet nonsignificantly decreased dental calculus deposition in comparison to common commercial food. The best results were achieved with toothbrushing. The enzymatic chewing strips significantly decreased dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores only on carnassial teeth. These results confirm that there are no absolute preventive measures of periodontitis.

  14. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinburn, B.; Sacks, G.; Lobstein, T.; Rigby, N.; Baur, L.A.; Brownell, K.D.; Gill, T.; Seidell, J.C.; Kumanyika, S.

    2008-01-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on

  15. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  17. An Internet-based survey of risk factors for surgical gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, Marko; Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Battaglia, Carmelo L; Otto, Cynthia M

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a large number of privately owned dogs across a wide geographic area. Internet-based, cross-sectional study. 2,551 privately owned dogs. A questionnaire addressed dog-specific, management, environmental, and personality-associated risk factors for GDV in dogs. Respondents were recruited through the posting of the electronic link to the questionnaire on websites for dog owners; the information was also disseminated at meetings of dog owners and via newsletters, e-mail lists for dog owners and breeders, owner-oriented dog publications, and e-mails forwarded by participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were being fed dry kibble, anxiety, residence in the United Kingdom, being born in the 1990s, being a family pet, and spending at least 5 hours a day with the owner. Factors associated with a decreased risk of GDV were playing with other dogs and running the fence after meals, fish and egg dietary supplements, and spending equal time indoors and outdoors. A significant interaction between sex and neuter status was observed, with sexually intact females having the highest risk for GDV. In dogs with a high risk of GDV, regular moderate daily and postprandial activity appeared to be beneficial. Feeding only commercial dry dog food may not be the best choice for dogs at risk; however, supplements with fish or eggs may reduced this risk. The effect of neuter status on GDV risk requires further characterization.

  18. Comparison of Protein Value of Commercial Baby Food with Homemade Baby Food and Casein Standard in Rats as the Refference point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Asemi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Evaluation of protein quality in food is of great importance due to the  biological and economical impacts of food proteins. This study has been conducted with the aim of comparing the protein quality of  homemade food (mixture of macaroni and soy bean with commercial baby food (Cerelac Wheat using Casein as the refference point.

     

    Methods

    This study was conducted on 64 twenty one day old male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups, and each group was put on a different diet regiments. The diet regiments were as follow: 2 homemade food+Cerelac test diet, 1 Ccasein+Methionine standard diet, 1 protien-free basal diet, 2 test diet, 1 standard diet and 1 basal diet. The purpose of protien-free diet was  to evaluate True Protien Digestability (TPD. Net Protein Ratio (NPR and Protien Efficiency Ratios (PER were investigated by the basal diet. Protein intake and increasing of weight were determined for NPR and PER calculating. Nitrogen intake and fecal Nitrogen were determined to calculate TPD. Comparison of TPD, NPR and PER among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey methods.

     

    Results

    TPD values of Standard, Cerelac and homemade food diets were 92.8±4, 87±8 and 85.4±3.2; NPR values were 4.3±0.4, 4.3±0.9, 3.8±0.6; and PER values were 3±0.2, 2.5±0.4, 1.7±0.1 respectively. The statistical difference between TPD and PER values were significant (p < 0.05, whereas NPR differences were insignificant ( p > 0.05.

     

    Conclusion

    These results shows that TPD and PER of homemade foods are lower than Cerelac while their NPR are acceptable

  19. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question

  20. If we offer it, will children buy it? Sales of healthy foods mirrored their availability in a community sport, commercial setting in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D

    2015-04-01

    Community sports settings are often sources of unhealthy foods for children. Many managers in these settings are reluctant to increase availability of healthy food options because they perceive that healthy foods are not profitable. This study assessed the independent contribution of increased availability of healthy foods to their sales in a community sport, commercial context. Change in revenues per patron was also examined. The availability of healthy items was increased from 9.1% at baseline (35 days) to 25.0% during the intervention period (40 days), returning to 9.1% postintervention (6 days). Purchases of all patrons who bought foods/beverages (n=17,262 items sold) from two concessions at an outdoor community pool were assessed from baseline to postintervention. Chi-square analyses assessed differences in the proportion of healthy and unhealthy items sold, as well as in the proportion of total revenues per patron across periods. A trained observer also recorded qualitative observations pertaining to a subset of patrons' (n=221) dietary behaviors and activities. Healthy items represented 7.7%, 22.7%, and 9.8% of sales during the preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods, respectively (ppatron did not differ by period. Food availability was an important environmental determinant of food purchasing behaviors in this community commercial context, given that sales of healthy foods closely mirrored their availability. Increased availability of healthy foods in community and commercial settings is important because concurrent changes within multiple environments will be required to improve children's dietary behaviors.

  1. Evaluation of the Content of Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Selenium, Tellurium and Their Inorganic Forms in Commercially Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-de-Cenzano, M; Rochina-Marco, A; Cervera, M L; de la Guardia, M

    2017-12-01

    Baby foods, from the Spanish market and prepared from meat, fish, vegetables, cereals, legumes, and fruits, were analyzed to obtain the concentration of antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), and tellurium (Te) as toxic elements and selenium (Se) as essential element. An analytical procedure was employed based on atomic fluorescence spectroscopy which allowed to obtain accurate data at low levels of concentration. Values of 14 commercial samples, expressed in nanograms per gram fresh weight, ranged for Sb 0.66-6.9, As 4.5-242, Te 1.35-2.94, Bi 2.18-4.79, and Se 5.4-109. Additionally, speciation studies were performed based on data from a non-chromatographic screening method. It was concluded that tellurium and bismuth were mainly present as inorganic forms and selenium as organic form, and antimony and arsenic species depend on the ingredients of each baby food. Risk assessment considerations were made by comparing dietary intake of the aforementioned elements through the consumption of one baby food portion a day and recommended or tolerable guideline values.

  2. Accuracy of localizing radiopaque markers by abdominal radiography and correlation between their gastric emptying rate and that of a canned food in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.G.; Lawoko, C.R.O.; Allen, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To determine accuracy of abdominal radiography in locating radiopaque markers in the gastrointestinal tract and to assess correlation between gastric emptying rate of radiopaque markers and that of canned food. Animals: 17 healthy dogs. Procedure: Dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm markers and ten 5-mm markers mixed in sufficient food to meet 25% of their daily caloric intake. They were then euthanatized by administration of an overdose of barbiturate at 1, 2, 5, 8, or 12 hours after eating and the abdomen was radiographed. The stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were then separated and radiographed in isolation. The wet and dry weights of the stomach contents were determined. The apparent and actual locations of the markers and the gastric emptying rates of markers, wet matter, and dry matter were compared, using rank correlation. Results: All comparisons indicated significant (P 0.92). The mean difference between the apparent and actual locations of the markers was < 3% for all comparisons. The mean difference between the percentage of small markers and large markers retained in the stomach and that of dry matter was 7.8 (SD, 6.2; range, 0 to 18)% and 11.9 (SD, 12.5; range, 0 to 44)%, respectively. Conclusions: The gastric emptying and orocolic transit rates of the markers were accurately predicted by abdominal radiography. The gastric emptying rate of the diet and the small markers and, to a lesser extent, the large markers was closely correlated. Clinical Relevance: When fed with a special canned food diet, radiopaque markers can be used to assess the gastric emptying rate of food with sufficient accuracy for clinical purposes

  3. Determinants attributes in purchase decision: a study in establishments commercialize street food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Nicchio Loriato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The attributes of a product can vary greatly in the importance they have for different consumers, and from the idea that there are different degrees of importance in relation to the attributes and importance that influence the buying decision. The purpose of this study is to identify which attributes are crucial for consumers in making buying decisions in establishments that sell street food. It is a study of both qualitative and quantitative nature. In the qualitative phase was conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 customers and analyzed using content analysis.It was carried out one survey, applying 200 questionnaires, to survey data for quantitative phase . The analysis of this quantitative phase was carried out using Excel and SPSS, with the use of multivariate statistical techniques. The results indicated that the service offered is the construct considered crucial to the customers' buying decision. In addition, this study enables the spread of this research scope in the country and contributes to the entrepreneurs in the street food sector seeking strategies to keep themselves firmly in the market.

  4. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  5. Differences in activity concentrations and doses between domestic and commercial food production in England and Wales. Implications for nuclear emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, S.; Brown, J.; Smith, J.

    1999-10-01

    In the event of an accidental release of radionuclides into the environment, MAFF has a statutory responsibility to ensure that a wholesome and safe food supply is maintained to the population of England. MAFF also provides scientific advice on contamination of food by radioactivity to the Welsh Assembly and the Scottish Executive. This responsibility will apply whatever the source of radioactive contamination. Where foods are produced domestically by individuals, i.e. in private gardens and allotments, MAFF has no statutory powers to prevent their harvest or consumption. MAFF must therefore rely solely upon the provision of appropriate advice to protect those domestic producers potentially at risk. Advice which has been issued to such individuals and households during past nuclear emergency exercises has been based on assessments carried out for commercially produced foods. Under contract to MAFF, NRPB has undertaken a desk-top study to review the adequacy of the current MAFF emergency procedures for protecting consumers of foods produced domestically. In particular, the study has examined the validity of basing advice for domestic consumers on commercial food production and consumption, rather than by explicitly considering the domestic situation. As part of the study, reviews have been carried out of the level and types of domestic food production and consumption in the UK. In addition, comparisons have been made between agricultural practices in commercial and domestic situations. The data from these reviews have subsequently been used to compare the doses received by individuals from consuming contaminated foods from commercial and domestic sources. The study has concluded that, in general, the current MAFF emergency procedures for protecting the domestic consumer are adequate. In the event of an accident occurring some factors may need more consideration, however. These include differences in growing periods and harvesting dates between commercial and

  6. Commercial kitchens - Feasibility study of energy consumption and food wastage; Storkoek - Foerstudie av energifoerbrukning och livsmedelssvinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfsman, Lennart; Pettersson, Ulrik; Barr, Ulla-Karin; Sund, Veronica

    2010-07-01

    A pre project aiming at the end to create demonstration examples of full scale professional kitchens is reported. To create a big impact school meals were chosen for the investigation. In Sweden all children are during the day given a cooked lunch. For that reason large kitchens exist in all schools. There are two main different organizations. A central kitchen delivers hot meals to each school where the meals are served to the children. The other model is local kitchens in each school. There are more non technical differences between different communities making the need to analyze more than one kitchen of each type. The two parameters in the study are energy and wasted food

  7. PCR Based Detection of Genetically Modified Soy in Processed Foods Commercially Available in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Alaraidh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, PCR (polymerase chain reaction technique was applied to detect the presence of GMO sold in the Saudi Arabian market. This method was applied to detect genetically modified soy (GM-soy in particular the roundup ready soy (RRS. To confirm the presence of soy, samples were first tested for the existence of the soy specific lectin gene.  A total of eighty samples were tested out of which two samples tested positive as GM-soy. Not surprisingly, the findings showed the existence of GM-soy in food products in Saudi. This supports the necessity of developing precise quantitative and qualitative ways for routine analyses and detection of GMO products in the Saudi Arabian market. With the discovery of GM products in the Saudi Arabian market it would be of no surprise that other Middle Eastern nations also knowingly or unknowingly import GM crops.

  8. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs. PMID:28386389

  9. Study of essential and non essential elements in cereal - based weaning foods for infants commercially available on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawol, S.

    2013-07-01

    Cereal-based weaning foods, which abound on the Ghanaian markets are nutritionally vital in the growth and developments of infants. Recent report in scientific literature however indicates that rice and other cereals used in the manufacturing of the weaning foods contribute significantly to the intake of arsenic (As) cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by infants. In view of this, frequent monitoring of the cereal -based weaning foods has become imperative. The study assessed the beneficial health effects and risks posed by consumption of cereal - based weaning foods commercially available on the Ghanaian market with respect to the essential elements (Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, V and Zn) and, non-essential, potentially toxic elements (As, Br, Hg, Pb,and Sn). Twenty (20) different brands of weaning foods were purchased from various retail outlets in Accra and used for the study. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry [with flame atomisation (FAAS) and hydride generation (HGAAS)] were used in analysing the samples. Determination of Pb using FAAS was done following its extraction with dithizone. The analytical methods were validated using certified reference materials NIST 1568a (Rice flour) and NIST 1547 (Peach leaves). The levels (μg/g, in ranges) obtained for the elements were: As (<0.025), Br (<0.17-402), Ca (405-2002), Cl (158-5521), and Cr (<0.03-1.23). Others are Cu(0.83-55.80), Fe (1.07-11.78), Hg (<0.025), and K (49-3845) Mg (20-280) and Mn (0.84-38.94). The rest include: Na (13-1588), Pb (0.025-0.093), Se (0.145-0.317), Sn (35.8-91.8), V (<0.01-0.990) and Zn (0.50-7.17). The daily intakes of the essential elements were also estimated, and generally found to be lower than recommended values set either by the FAO/WHO, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the US Food and Nutrition Board, or the Joint Societies for Nutrition of Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The estimated intake levels of the non

  10. The Short-Lived Epidemic of Botulism From Commercially Canned Foods in the United States, 1919 to 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Powel

    2018-04-17

    In 1919, three deadly outbreaks of botulism caused by consumption of canned olives packed in California captured national headlines. In all of the outbreaks, which occurred in separate locales, unsuspecting people died after consuming tainted food during a banquet or family meal. The press's sensational portrayal of canned food as hazardous aroused alarm among consumers at a time when commercial canning was becoming more common. Intent on restoring the image of their product as safe and wholesome, canning industry leaders funded a "botulism commission" of scientific experts in 1919 to investigate how to systematically eliminate the threat of botulism that had imperiled their business. The commissioners identified the scientific reasons for the outbreaks, and on the basis of their findings, the California Department of Public Health issued explicit recommendations for sterilization procedures intended to ensure safety. However, the department did not mandate inspections for all canneries. When commercially packed fruits and vegetables continued to cause botulism, industry leaders voluntarily backed a cannery inspection act to legally require all California canners to possess appropriate equipment and follow scientifically validated sterilization procedures. After the California legislature approved the act in 1925, canneries were inspected, regulations were enforced, and no further outbreaks occurred. This botulism epidemic is an example of a disease outbreak that was controlled when business interests became aligned with public health goals. The press's portrayal of afflicted persons as innocent victims and worthy citizens galvanized businessmen to implement safeguards to protect consumers from botulism intoxication. To preserve their customer base and salvage their corporations, leaders of the canning industry acknowledged the public health threat of their unregulated procedures and acted on the recommendations of scientists.

  11. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural and artificial radioactivity in commercial food for domestic animals; Avaliação da radioatividade natural e artificial em rações comerciais para animais domésticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda

    2017-07-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity throughout the planet and their eventual consequences are studied by Environmental Radioprotection. Over the past years, the international agencies concerned with radiation protection have debated over the practices conducted so far, regarding the protection of the fauna and ora, which believed that the recommendations implemented for human beings assured that other species were also protected. Thus, assessments of the activity concentration of different radionuclides in the environment, as well as the absorbed doses for species from different ecosystems, due to internal and external exposures, are needed. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world and annually produces over 2 million tons of feed. The present work has investigated the radioactivity levels in commercial brands of dry dog and cat food, using high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results have shown activity concentrations for artificial radionuclides below the detector's Minimum Detectable Activity and also, low concentration levels for the natural radionuclides, varying from 0,9 ± 0,3 Bq/kg up to 5,1 ± 0,7 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, from 1,2 ± 0,4 Bq/kg up to 11,1 ± 1,0 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and from 156 ± 7 Bq/kg up to 410± 19 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. In order to verify the mineral content in pet food, EDXRF technique was applied and, using multivariate statistics, correlations between the mineral and radionuclide content were verified. The good correlation observed between concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and calcium could be associated with meat and bone our used in feed manufacturing. The internal dose for some organs were inferred by Monte Carlo method and the results were no higher than 1 μGy/day. In summary, results have shown that the activity levels found in the pet food are low enough to conclude that the brands evaluated carry no radiological risks for the animals that consume them. (author)

  13. Energy compensation in the real world. Good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Katherine; McKeown, P.P.; Woodside, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods with which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of ei...

  14. Development of young toco toucas fed with dry dog food and toucan pellets Desenvolvimento de tucanos-toco jovens alimentados com ração canina e ração para tucanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Castro Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of this study was to compare the effects of two commercial diets, one consisting of dry dog food and another one of pelletized feed for toucans, in the growth of young toco toucans. The development of 14 specimens was observed, being four and five months of age, and divided randomly into two groups. Once a week, the fasted birds were weighted and evaluated in relation to the following biometrics parameters, with the help of a caliper: wings (right and left; head and beak (length, width and height, wingspan and total body length. To evaluate the presence of difference in body gain between the two groups, the U test of Mann-Whitney was used as statistical analysis, with significance level of 0.05 in a bilateral test. Birds of both groups showed no changes in behavior such as depression or aggression. The diets were well accepted, no waste was observed and all the animals remained healthy during the research. In respect to biometrics, toucans fed with dog food had a better development for the length of right and left wings, head width, height and length of the beak and weight gain, when compared with those treated with feed for toucans. This fact enables the use of dry dog food with 23% of crude protein and 71,15mg/Kg of iron for feeding of toco toucans in captivity.Propôs-se comparar os efeitos de duas dietas comerciais, uma composta por ração canina e outra por ração para tucanos no desenvolvimento de tucanos-toco jovens. Avaliou-se 14 espécimes, com idades entre quatro e cinco meses, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos. Uma vez por semana realizou-se a pesagem das aves em jejum e biometria individual dos parâmetros: asas esquerda e direita (comprimento; cabeça e bico (comprimento, largura e altura; envergadura e comprimento total do corpo, com o auxílio de um paquímetro. Para avaliar a existência ou não de diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre o peso e os dados biométricos obtidos nos dois grupos

  15. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (PLDL-cholesterol (Pcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  16. Analysis of advertisements of infant food commercialized in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovana Binder Pagnoncelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The advertising about maternal milk substitutes has been pointed as one of the factors responsible for the breastfeeding low rates. In this way, legal support was created to assure that the use of such products would not interfere on the healthy breastfeeding habit of the population. This study, developed between June 2006 and May 2008 in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, analyzed the food advertisements divulged under the validity of Law # 11.265/2006, which controls in Brazil the food commercialization and the publicity addressed to parents or keepers of nursling and children in the first childhood. 220 advertisements, being 141 of technical-scientific nature, and 79 for strictly commercial promotion, were collected and evaluated according to legal requirements. The results from this analysis showed that 100% of the advertisements of technical-scientific nature overstepped the clause V; 18.4% the clause IV and 14.2% the clauses I, II and III of article 19th of Law # 11265/2006. In 42% of the advertisements strictly for commercial promotion, the mandatory information mentioned at clauses I and II of the article 5th were not shown. In 8.7% of the advertisements containing such information, it was placed in an area that embarrassed its identification and reading, due to used fonts size and/or color; similarly as occurred with the information required by article 19th, in the advertisements of technical-scientific nature.A propaganda de substitutos do leite materno tem sido apontada como um dos fatores responsáveis pelos baixos índices da amamentação. Neste sentido, dispositivos legais foram criados para assegurar o uso desses produtos, sem que haja interferência no aleitamento materno. Este estudo objetivou analisar propagandas de alimentos abrangidos pela Lei nº 11.265/2006, que regulamenta a comercialização e publicidade de alimentos para lactentes e crianças de primeira infância no Brasil, no período de junho 2006 a

  17. Home - DOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsroom Services Information Why Alaska? DOG 101 Director & Deputy Bios Division Experts Applications — Give Feedback Thanks for giving feedback! The captcha entered is not valid. Send Close DOG DOA DNR

  18. A novel cognitive palatability assessment protocol for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2004-07-01

    Assessment of canine palatability is important for both the pet food and pharmaceutical industries; however, the current palatability assessment protocols are limited in their utility. The most common technique, the two-pan test, does not control for the satiating effects of food and may not be useful for long-term palatability analysis because nutritional or caloric characteristics of the diets may interfere with the results. Furthermore, the large quantities of foods consumed may be detrimental to the health of animals that do not self-limit their food intake. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a cognitive protocol could be used to determine food palatability in dogs. Five beagle dogs were trained on a three-choice object-discrimination learning task. After establishing object preferences, the preferred object was associated with no reward, a second object was associated with the dog's normal laboratory diet (Purina Agribrands Canine Lab Chow No. 5006; Agribrands Purina Canada, Inc., Woodstock, ON, Canada), and the third object was associated with a commercial (Hill's P/D; Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc., Topeka, KS) diet. In the discrimination-training phase, dogs were trained until they learned to avoid the no-reward object. They were subsequently given an additional 20 test sessions, which were used to determine food preference. In the reversal phase, which involved reversal learning, the object-food associations were modified, such that the object that was previously associated with Hill's P/D diet was now associated with the normal laboratory diet and vice versa. Once the dogs learned to avoid the no-reward object, they were tested for an additional 20 sessions. All subjects learned to avoid the no-reward object during the initial learning, and the number of choices to the object associated with the Hill's P/D diet was greater than the number of choices to the objects associated with the dry laboratory diet (P food-choice associations were reversed

  19. Presence of nanosilica (E551) in commercial food products: TNF-mediated oxidative stress and altered cell cycle progression in human lung fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman A; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2014-04-01

    Silica (E551) is commonly used as an anti-caking agent in food products. The morphology and the dimension of the added silica particles are not, however, usually stated on the food product label. The food industry has adapted nanotechnology using engineered nanoparticles to improve the quality of their products. However, there has been increased debate regarding the health and safety concerns related to the use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products. In this study, we investigated the morphology and dimensions of silica (E551) particles in food. The silica content of commercial food products was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The result indicates that 2.74-14. 45 μg/g silica was found in commercial food products; however, the daily dietary intake in increase causes adverse effects on human health. E551 was isolated from food products and the morphology, particle size, crystalline nature, and purity of the silica particles were analyzed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, EDX and DLS. The results of these analyses confirmed the presence of spherical silica nanoparticles (of amorphous nature) in food, approximately 10-50 nm in size. The effects of E551 on human lung fibroblast cell viability, intracellular ROS levels, cell cycle phase, and the expression levels of metabolic stress-responsive genes (CAT, GSTA4, TNF, CYP1A, POR, SOD1, GSTM3, GPX1, and GSR1) were studied. The results suggest that E551 induces a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and changes in ROS levels and alters the gene expression and cell cycle. Treatment with a high concentration of E551 caused significant cytotoxic effects on WI-38 cells. These findings have implications for the use of these nanoparticles in the food industry.

  20. A methodology for combining multiple commercial data sources to improve measurement of the food and alcohol environment: applications of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial data sources have been increasingly used to measure and locate community resources. We describe a methodology for combining and comparing the differences in commercial data of the food and alcohol environment. We used commercial data from two commercial databases (InfoUSA and Dun&Bradstreet for 2003 and 2009 to obtain infor- mation on food and alcohol establishments and developed a matching process using computer algorithms and manual review by applying ArcGIS to geocode addresses, standard industrial classification and North American industry classification tax- onomy for type of establishment and establishment name. We constructed population and area-based density measures (e.g. grocery stores and assessed differences across data sources and used ArcGIS to map the densities. The matching process resulted in 8,705 and 7,078 unique establishments for 2003 and 2009, respectively. There were more establishments cap- tured in the combined dataset than relying on one data source alone, and the additional establishments captured ranged from 1,255 to 2,752 in 2009. The correlations for the density measures between the two data sources was highest for alcohol out- lets (r = 0.75 and 0.79 for per capita and area, respectively and lowest for grocery stores/supermarkets (r = 0.32 for both. This process for applying geographical information systems to combine multiple commercial data sources and develop meas- ures of the food and alcohol environment captured more establishments than relying on one data source alone. This replic- able methodology was found to be useful for understanding the food and alcohol environment when local or public data are limited.

  1. Parabens and Their Metabolites in Pet Food and Urine from New York State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, Rajendiran; Borkar, Sonali; Lee, Sunmi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2018-03-20

    The exposure of pets, such as dogs and cats, to a wide range of chemicals present in the indoor environment and the concomitant increase in noninfectious diseases in these companion animals are a concern. Nevertheless, little is known about the sources and pathways of exposure to chemicals in pets. In this study, we determined the concentrations of parabens in commercially available cat and dog foods as well as in urine samples from these pets collected from the Albany area of the state of New York in the United States. Parabens, especially methyl paraben (MeP), and their metabolites were found in all pet food and urine samples. The mean concentrations of total parabens (i.e., sum of parabens and their metabolites) in dog ( n = 23) and cat ( n = 35) food were 1350 and 1550 ng/g fresh wt, respectively. Dry food contained higher concentrations of parabens and their metabolites than did wet food, and cat food contained higher concentrations of target chemicals than did dog food. The mean concentrations of total parabens found in dog ( n = 30) and cat ( n = 30) urine were 7230 and 1040 ng/mL, respectively. In both pet food and urine, MeP (among parabens) and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB) (among metabolites) were the dominant compounds. The metabolites of parabens accounted for ∼99% (∼99.1% in food and ∼98.9% in urine) of the total concentrations in both food and urine. The profiles of parabens and their metabolites in the urine of dogs and cats varied. In addition to diet, other sources of paraben exposures were found for dogs, whereas, for cats, the majority of exposures was identified as related to diet.

  2. Clinically and radiological aspects of alterations in humeroradiulnar and hip joints in fila brasileiro dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Roberto B. de.

    1995-01-01

    Humeroradiulnar and hip joints of 100 fila brasileiro dogs were clinically and radiological studied. the objective was the demonstration of pathologies and their frequency in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The animals were 47 females and 53 males, aged between 9 and 120 months, although 74% of them had less than 36 months and were investigated according their city region and kind of food. Most of the animals came from region III (37%) and used to eat commercial food (32%) and mixed diet composed by commercial food meat and domestic food (26%). Diets with higher density and protein concentrations were more frequent in regions I and III and domestic food in region V. the alterations frequency in the humeroredioulnar joint was 33%. The most frequent pathologies observed were the fragmentation of the coronoid process (39.4%), osteochondrosis dissecans of the medial humeral condyle (31.8%) and ununited anconeal process (28.8%). It was observed significant difference in the frequency of hip dysplasia between the female group (46.5%) and male group (66.7%). For the entire group this frequency was 58%. No significant difference was found in the average inclination angle for normal dogs (149.73 deg ± 1.55 deg) and dysplastic dogs dysplasia. Control measures must be applied aiming the reduction of the joint alterations, as the fila brasileiro is a relative new breed. (author)

  3. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  4. Attraction of Pollinators to Atemoya (Annona squamosa × Annona cherimola) in Puerto Rico Using Commercial Lures and Food Attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Millan-Hernandez, Christian; Cline, Andrew R; McElrath, Thomas C; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa L. and Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) and has potential to be an important fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically, by beetles in the family Nitidulidae. We used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures in combination with various food attractants, including raw bread dough, apple juice, and malta beverage, a soft drink by-product of the brewing process. The most commonly trapped beetles were, in order of decreasing frequency, Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.), Brachypeplus mutilatus Erichson, Urophorus humeralis (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), and Europs fervidus Blatchley (Coleoptera: Monotomidae). All traps, except the unbaited control traps, caught beetles. In a previous study, we found that combining two commercial lures had a synergistic effect on the attraction of these beetle species. In this study, the addition of food attractants increased the number of beetles trapped compared with traps baited with only the commercial lures. Also, food attractants appear to be key in attracting U. humeralis; only one U. humeralis individual of the 206 caught during the experiment was trapped without a food attractant. The variation between the number of beetles caught in traps containing the same treatments was high and may explain the erratic results reported in other studies of pollination in Annona spp. The results are discussed with respect to the use of nitidulid lures and food attractants to increase fruit set in atemoya and other Annonaceae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Comparison of global nutrient profiling systems for restricting the commercial marketing of foods and beverages of low nutritional quality to children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Marie-Ève; Poon, Theresa; Mulligan, Christine; Bernstein, Jodi T; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-12-01

    Background: The Canadian government recently committed to introduce legislation to restrict the commercial marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. Objective: We compared the degree of strictness and agreement between nutrient profile (NP) models relevant to marketing restrictions by applying them in the Canadian context. Design: With the use of data from the University of Toronto 2013 Food Label Information Program ( n = 15,342 prepackaged foods), 4 NP models were evaluated: the Food Standards Australia New Zealand-Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC), the WHO Regional Office for Europe (EURO) model, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) model, and a modified version of the PAHO model (Modified-PAHO), which did not consider the extent of food processing because the application of this characteristic was prone to ambiguity. The number and proportion of foods that would be eligible for marketing to children was calculated with the use of each model, overall and by food category. Results: The Modified-PAHO and PAHO models would permit only 9.8% (95% CI: 9.4%, 10.3%) and 15.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 16.4%) of foods, respectively, followed by the EURO model [29.8% (95% CI: 29.0%, 30.5%)]. In contrast, the FSANZ-NPSC would consider almost half of prepackaged foods as eligible for marketing to children [49.0% (95% CI: 48.2%, 49.8%)]. Cross-classification analyses showed that only 8.1% of foods would be eligible based on all models (e.g., most pastas without sauce). Subanalyses showed that each model would be more stringent when evaluating food items that specifically target children on their package ( n = 747; from 1.9% of foods eligible under Modified-PAHO to 24.2% under FSANZ-NPSC). Conclusions: The degree of strictness and agreement vary greatly between NP models applicable to marketing restrictions. The discrepancies between models highlight the importance for policy makers to carefully evaluate the characteristics underlying such models

  6. Nutritional Composition and Label Evaluation of Some Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... concentrations of several nutrients among the dog food brands analyzed. While tighter regulations are being advocated for the pet food industry, it will be necessary to perform digestibility and growth studies of these foods in order to establish baseline data on nutritional composition of dog foods marketed in the country.

  7. Nutritional And Health Information Released To Consumers By Commercial Fast Food And Full Service Restaurants [informações Nutricionais E De Saúde Disponibilizadas Aos Consumidores Por Restaurantes Comerciais, Tipo Fast Food E Full Service

    OpenAIRE

    Maestro V.; Salay E.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize nutritional and health information made available in commercial restaurants in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to interview twenty managers of fast food and ninety-four of full service restaurants, between October and December of 2005, located in the five administrative regions of Campinas. After collecting the information, a databank was created using Microsoft Excel software. The chi-squa...

  8. Effect of graded inclusion of dietary soybean meal on nutrient digestibility, health, and metabolic indices of adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menniti, M F; Davenport, G M; Shoveller, A K; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R

    2014-05-01

    Two studies were conducted using adult dogs to evaluate the effect of increasing the inclusion of soybean meal (SBM) in an adult dog food on body composition, hematological and biochemical blood analyses, and total tract nutrient digestibility. Nutritionally complete and balanced diets were formulated with commercial-grade SBM (48% CP) to replace 0, 10, 20, or 30% of the protein provided by dried chicken protein resulting in final SBM inclusion of 0, 6.0, 11.5, and 17.0% (as-fed basis), respectively. In study 1, diets were fed during a 24-wk feeding trial using 36 female (spayed), adult hounds to evaluate food intake, BW, body composition, and blood measurements. There were no diet-related differences in food intake or BW. Body composition responded in a quadratic manner to increased dietary SBM inclusion with the percentage (%) of lean mass responding positively (P dogs. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and IGF-1 were similar among diets. In study 2, diets were evaluated in a digestibility study using 12 adult dogs in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Increased SBM inclusion was associated with linear increases in the digestibility of CP (P dogs.

  9. Detection of Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 in Commercially Processed Foods using a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Abdus; Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Jinyoung

    2018-06-12

    Background : The peanut protein Arachis hypogaea (Ara h) 6 is one ofthe most serious food allergens that contributes to food-related, life-threatening problems worldwide. The extremely low allergic dose demands for more selective and rapid methods for detecting Ara h 6. Objective : The goal of this study was to develop a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based biosensor for the rapid detection of Ara h 6 in commercial food products. Methods : The detection principle of this biosensor was based on the binding of Ara h 6 to the anti-Ara h 6 antibody (pAb) through 1-pyrenibutanoic acid succinimidyl ester. The resistance difference (ΔR) was calculated via linear sweep voltammetry using a potentiostat. Results : The ∆R increased as the Ara h 6 concentrations increased above the range of 10 0 -10 7 pg/L. A specificity analysis showed that the anti-Ara h 6 pAb selectively interacted with Ara h 6 molecules in the buffer solution (pH 7.4). Conclusions : This research proposes that an SWCNT-based biosensor in self-assembly with antibodies could be an effective tool for the rapid detection of allergen proteins in food. Highlights : The developed biosensor exhibited higher sensitivity and selectivity. Application studies resulted in precise Ara h 6 detection in peanut-containing processed food.

  10. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus Serosurvey among Pet Dogs and Cats in Several Developed Cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

    2014-01-01

    Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257

  12. Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-06-01

    Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P food service packaged bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ≥ 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ≥ 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. Bacon can be packaged and managed several different ways before it reaches the consumer. This research simulated food service (frozen) and retail packaged (refrigerated) bacon over a range of storage times after slicing. Off-flavor and oxidized odor increased as storage time after processing increased in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased as storage time after slicing increased to a greater extent in food service packaging. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Identification of nanoscale ingredients in commercial food products and their induction of mitochondrially mediated cytotoxic effects on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri S; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman A

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (E171) and silicon dioxide (E551) are common additives found in food products, personal-care products, and many other consumer products used in daily life. Recent studies have reported that these food additives (manufactured E171 and E551) contain nanosized particles of less than 100 nm. However, the particle size distribution and morphology of added TiO2 and SiO2 particles are not typically stated on the package label. Furthermore, there is an increasing debate regarding health and safety concerns related to the use of synthetic food additives containing nanosized ingredients in consumer products. In this study, we identified the size and morphology of TiO2 and SiO2 particles in commercially available food products by using transmission electron microscope (TEM). In addition, the in vitro toxicological effects of E171 and E551 on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), an adult stem cell-based model, were assessed using the MTT assay and a flow cytometry-based JC-1 assay. Our TEM results confirmed the presence of nanoscale ingredients in food products, and the in vitro toxicology results indicated that the nanoscale E171 and E551 ingredients induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity, changes in cellular morphology, and the loss of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential in hMSCs. These preliminary results clearly demonstrated that the nanoscale E171 and E551 particles had adverse effects on hMSCs by inducing oxidative stress-mediated cell death. Accordingly, further studies are needed to identify the specific pathway involved, with an emphasis on differential gene expression in hMSCs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  15. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V.A.; Sabapathy, S.N.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity

  16. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Johnsy [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)]. E-mail: g.johnsy@gmail.com; Kumar, R. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sajeevkumar, V.A. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sabapathy, S.N. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Vaijapurkar, S.G. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kumar, D. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kchawahha, A. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Bawa, A.S. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)

    2007-07-15

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of {gamma}-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  17. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  18. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  19. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  20. Use of a Granulocyte Immunofluorescence Assay Designed for Humans for Detection of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florey, J; Viall, A; Streu, S; DiMuro, V; Riddle, A; Kirk, J; Perazzotti, L; Affeldt, K; Wagner, R; Vaden, S; Harris, T; Allenspach, K

    2017-07-01

    Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) previously have been shown to be serum markers in dogs with chronic enteropathies, with dogs that have food-responsive disease (FRD) having higher frequencies of seropositivity than dogs with steroid-responsive disease (SRD). The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay used in previous publications is time-consuming to perform, with low interobserver agreement. We hypothesized that a commercially available granulocyte IIF assay designed for humans could be used to detect perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in dogs. Forty-four dogs with FRD, 20 dogs with SRD, 20 control dogs, and 38 soft-coated wheaten terrier (SCWT) or SCWT-cross dogs. A granulocyte assay designed for humans was used to detect pANCA, cANCA, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA), as well as antibodies against proteinase-3 protein (PR-3) and myeloperoxidase protein (MPO) in archived serum samples. Sensitivity of the granulocyte assay to predict FRD in dogs was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45, 0.75), and specificity was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.91, 1.00). A significant association was identified between positive pANCA or cANCA result and diagnosis of FRD (P < 0.0001). Agreement between the two assays to detect ANCA in the same serum samples from SCWT with protein-losing enteropathy/protein-losing nephropathy (PLE/PLN) was substantial (kappa, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.53, 1.00). Eight ANCA-positive cases were positive for MPO or PR-3 antibodies. The granulocyte immunofluorescence assay used in our pilot study was easy and quick to perform. Agreement with the previously published method was good. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  2. Isolation, molecular and phenotypic characterization of Cronobacter spp. in ready-to-eat salads and foods from Japanese cuisine commercialized in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Luiza; Carvalho, Carla Trece; Tavares, Rodrigo Overas; de Mello Medeiros, Valéria; de Oliveira Rosas, Carla; Silva, Júlia Nunes; Dos Reis Lopes, Silvia Maria; Forsythe, Stephen James; Brandão, Marcelo Luiz Lima

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to detect Cronobacter from 30 samples of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads and 30 foods from Japanese cuisine as commercially available in Brazil. The detection of Cronobacter was as according to the ISO standard 22964:2017. The isolates were phenotypically characterized by Vitek 2.0 and the antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined using the standardized agar disc diffusion method. Molecular characterization was accomplished by real-time PCR targeting dnaG gene, multiplex-PCR targeting cgcA gene, and fusA allele sequencing. Twenty-seven samples (45.0%) contained Cronobacter, 14 (23.3%) samples of foods from Japanese cuisine and 13 (21.7%) samples of RTE salads. Twenty-nine unique Cronobacter isolates were selected from the 27 positive samples and were identified as C. sakazakii (n = 18), C. malonaticus (n = 8), and C. dublinensis (n = 3). A high genetic diversity was observed, with 29 Cronobacter strains being assigned to 11 different fusA alleles, a ratio of 2.6 strains by fusA allele was found. The cgcA multiplex-PCR failed to identify many of the Cronobacter isolates at the species level. Four (13.8%) Cronobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested (n = 12). The presence of Cronobacter in RTE foods could be a potential threat to human health and highlights the need for high levels of hygiene, particularly when preparing food for elderly, immunosuppressed persons or adults with prior underlying pathology. Epidemiological surveillance agencies should be aware of the risk that these RTE foods may represent, for these groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Compelled commercial speech: the Food and Drug Administration's effort to smoke out the tobacco industry through graphic warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Bryan M; Andrews, Anne Hampton; Jacob, C Reade

    2013-01-01

    FDA's proposed graphic warning labels for cigarette packages have been scrutinized for potentially violating the First Amendment's free speech clause. This article addresses the distinction between the commercial speech and compelled speech doctrines and their applicability in analyzing the constitutionality of the labels. The government's position is that the labels evoke an emotional response and educate consumers, while tobacco companies argue that the labels forcibly promote the government's message. Two federal appellate courts, applying different legal standards, have arrived at different conclusions. This article advocates that the Supreme Court, if faced with review of the labels, should apply strict scrutiny and declare the labels unconstitutional.

  4. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents.

  5. Nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial and homemade blenderized whole food enteral diets for home-based enteral nutritional therapy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maricy Machado Cavalca; Santos, Valdirene Francisca Neves; Bottoni, Andrea; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2018-02-01

    Serious nutritional and contamination risks may be involved in the preparation of blenderized tube-feeding diets and in the handling of commercial diets. Their nutritional and microbiological quality in home settings is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial enteral and homemade blenderized whole foods diets intended to adult patients in home nutritional therapy. In a cross sectional study, 66 samples of commercial (CD) and noncommercial (NCD) enteral diets were collected at the homes of patients in home enteral nutritional therapy, 33 of each type. Commercial diets were either powder (PCD; n = 13) or liquid (LCD; n = 20). The samples were analyzed in laboratory to assess their nutritional and microbiological quality. Anthropometric data of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold (TST) thickness were obtained from the patients' medical records. NCD presented significantly lower values for protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate and energy while water content was significantly higher. PCD and LCD did not show any statistically significant differences between them. In the NCD, the values measured for macronutrients and energy corresponded to less than 50% of the prescribed values (except for fat). In CD, protein value was about 20% more than the prescribed value; fat and energy values corresponded to approximately 100% of the prescription, while carbohydrate corresponded to 92%. Regardless the type of the diet, prevalence of undernutrition was high in both groups though patients of the NCD presented a higher percentage. Samples of NCD complied significantly less with the microbiological standards; only 6.0% complied with the standard for coliform bacteria. Escherichia coli was detected in 10, 2, and 2 samples of NCD, PCD and LCD, respectively. Homemade blenderized enteral diets showed low values of energy and macronutrients, delivered less than 50% of the prescribed values and had

  6. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, Kriya L; Reynolds, Arleigh J; Duffy, Lawrence K; Gerlach, S Craig

    2011-01-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  7. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  8. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Raw meat based diet influences faecal microbiome and end products of fermentation in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Misa; Dal Monego, Simeone; Conte, Giuseppe; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

    2017-02-28

    Dietary intervention studies are required to deeper understand the variability of gut microbial ecosystem in healthy dogs under different feeding conditions and to improve diet formulations. The aim of the study was to investigate in dogs the influence of a raw based diet supplemented with vegetable foods on faecal microbiome in comparison with extruded food. Eight healthy adult Boxer dogs were recruited and randomly divided in two experimental blocks of 4 individuals. Dogs were regularly fed a commercial extruded diet (RD) and starting from the beginning of the trial, one group received the raw based diet (MD) and the other group continued to be fed with the RD diet (CD) for a fortnight. After 14 days, the two groups were inverted, the CD group shifted to the MD and the MD shifted to the CD, for the next 14 days. Faeces were collected at the beginning of the study (T0), after 14 days (T14) before the change of diet and at the end of experimental period (T28) for DNA extraction and analysis of metagenome by sequencing 16SrRNA V3 and V4 regions, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate and faecal score. A decreased proportion of Lactobacillus, Paralactobacillus (P diet significantly (P diet composition modifies faecal microbial composition and end products of fermentation. The administration of MD diet promoted a more balanced growth of bacterial communities and a positive change in the readouts of healthy gut functions in comparison to RD diet.

  10. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either 10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on commercial food packaging films--study of changes in UV/VIS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, E.A.B.; Ortiz, A.V.; Wiebeck, H.; Paula, A.B.A.; Silva, A.L.A.; Silva, L.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses up to 100 kGy on the optical properties of different commercial packaging films were studied in this paper. The packaging films analyzed were: polyethylene 'LDPE', amide 6-amide 6.6 copolymer 'PA6-PA6.6' and poly(ethylene terephthalate) 'PET'. An investigation on film samples before and after irradiation was performed by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The results showed that, in the absorption spectra of irradiated LDPE and PA6-PA6.6 films, a red-shift in the wavelength of the UV cutoff and a marked reduction in % transmittance (at low wavelengths) occur with increasing radiation dose. With respect to PET samples, no significant changes were observed in either light absorption or transmittance

  12. Photodynamic inactivation of Listeria innocua biofilms with food-grade photosensitizers: a curcumin-rich extract of Curcuma longa vs commercial curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, D; Martins, C; David, B; Lemos, C; Neves, M G P M S; Almeida, A; Pinto, D C G A; Faustino, M A F; Cunha, Â

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this work is to assess the potential of curcumin in the photosensitization of biofilms of Listeria. Biofilms of Listeria innocua, were irradiated with blue light in the presence of a curcumin-rich extract of Curcuma longa or commercial curcumin. Similar experiments were conducted with planktonic cells, for comparison. A reduction of 4·9 log in the concentration of viable biofilm cells was obtained with 3·7 mg l -1 of commercial curcumin. Planktonic cells were much more susceptible (6·1 log reduction). A tetracationic porphyrin, used as a reference photosensitizer (PS), caused a very modest inactivation of the biofilm (1·1 log) and complete inactivation of the planktonic form (>8 log). Curcumin is an effective PS for the photodynamic control of Listeria biofilms and the inactivation efficiency attained with this natural compound is higher than with the porphyrin. This result may point to a better performance of type I PSs against bacterial biofilms by circumventing the limitations to singlet-oxygen diffusion imposed by the extracellular matrix. Curcumin represents a promising alternative to the control of bacteria and bacterial biofilms in food products particularly in the case of meat products in which turmeric is used as spice. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) clamshell for food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J.; Meléndrez, R.; González-García, Gerardo; Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biodegradable polymer with strong potential application in food packaging industry. In this paper, samples of PLA clamshell for tomatoes packaging were exposed with 60 CO γ-ray's source (1.33 MeV) at different dose levels (0, 10, 60, 150, 300, and 600 kGy), at room temperature and in presence of air. The physicochemical properties of neat PLA and sample exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurements. Results show as the dose increases, the molecular weight (M w ), melting temperature (T m ), tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. However, the tensile modulus increased with increasing doses. The surface of PLA clamshells was degraded (scratches and minor cracks) when samples were exposed to doses greater than 60 kGy. - Highlights: • The gamma irradiation effects on PLA clamshells were studied. • DSC, XRD, NMR and FTIR analysis were used for PLA clamshell characterization. • The M w , T m , strength and elongation of the irradiated PLA clamshells decreased. • The tensile modulus increased with increasing gamma doses. • The Surface of PLA clamshell showed scratches and minor cracks.

  14. A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-04-01

    Rich in micronutrients and considered to contain high iodine levels, seaweeds have multiple applications as food/supplements and nutraceuticals with potential health implications. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new analytical method to quantify iodine as iodide (I(-)) using an isocratic HPLC system with UV detection; algal iodine was converted to I(-) via dry alkaline incineration. The method was successfully applied to 19 macroalgal species from three taxonomic groups and five commercially available seaweed food products. Fesh kelps contained highest levels, reaching >1.0% per dry weight (DW), but concentrations differed amongst thallus parts. In addition to kelps, other brown (Fucales: ∼ 0.05% DW) and some red species (∼ 0.05% DW) can also serve as a rich source of iodine; lowest iodine concentrations were detected in green macroalgae (∼ 0.005% DW), implying that quantities recommended for seaweed consumption may require species-specific re-evaluation to reach adequate daily intake levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards commercial aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Harry W.; Knaus, Ulrich; Appelbaum, Samuel; Goddek, Simon; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Vermeulen, Tycho; Haїssam Jijakli, M.; Kotzen, Benz

    2018-01-01

    Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a

  16. Functional MRI in awake unrestrained dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Berns

    Full Text Available Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward.

  17. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry; Determinacao dos elementos essenciais e toxicos em alimentos comerciais infantis por analise por ativacao com neutrons e espectrometria de absorcao atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  18. Official monitoring of the Brazilian Norm for Commercialization of Food for Nursling and Children of First Infancy, Rubber Nipples, Pacifiers, and Nursing Bottles - NBCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luiz Silva Bartolini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate advertisement of baby food, rubber nipples, pacifiers and nursing bottles through newspapers as well as on TV, radio, and the internet, in order to check whether the 'Brazilian Norm for Commercialization of Food for Nursling and Children of First Infancy, Rubber Nipples, Pacifiers and Nursing Bottles' (Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância, Bicos, Chupetas e Mamadeiras - NBCAL has been complied. Samples of all the items above were acquired at discount and department stores to check whether labeling was in compliance with the NBCAL. The development of this research as well as the analyses of commercial promotion were carried out in Juiz de Fora - state of Minas Gerais, from May to July 2006, using convenient, non-representative sampling composed of 680 pieces of advertisement. The results obtained through descriptive statistics showed that 564 of the 680 samples analyzed, or 83.0%, did not meet the NBCAL. Irregularities were detected in 100% of the samples advertised on the media and found in hospitals and drugstores; in 70.1% of the samples purchased at supermarkets, in 37% of those from medical clinics and in 86.6% of those found on the internet. The evidences showed that monitoring must be carried out continuously and educational campaigns on the importance of breast-feeding for the full development of children must be addressed to mothers, the food industry and commercial establishments.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar propagandas e publicidades impressas de alimentos infantis, bicos, chupetas e mamadeiras, além das veiculadas em rádio, TV e internet, para verificar o cumprimento da Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância (NBCAL. Também foi realizada a aquisição de bicos, mamadeiras e chupetas em "lojas de 1,99" e de departamento, para a verificação de rotulagem de acordo

  19. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  20. Relation between IgG antibodies to foods and IgE antibodies to milk, egg, cat, dog and/or mite in a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysink, P. E.; de Jong, M. H.; Bindels, P. J.; Scharp-van der Linden, V. T.; de Groot, C. J.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Because IgG antibodies to foods can be detected before IgE antibodies to inhalants, increased levels of IgG antibodies to foods might be used as a predictor of IgE-mediated allergy in initially nonatopic children. To examine the cross-sectional relation between IgG to foods (i.e. mixture of wheat

  1. Repair of a mandibular defect with a free vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, L S; Hou, S M

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral mandibular defects in a male mongrel dog were repaired. On the left side, a free vascularized coccygeal bone graft that included the median caudal artery and caudal vein was used to correct the defect. On the right side, the defect was bridged with a bone plate and screws. For further immobilization, the muzzle was temporarily taped for 3 weeks and a pharyngostomy tube was used for nutritional support. The dog was able to eat dry commercial food satisfactorily within 2 months of surgery despite mild malocclusion. Radiographs taken 2 months and 18 months postoperatively showed bony union with graft hypertrophy in the left mandible, whereas the right mandibular defect showed protracted nonunion. The results indicate that vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer provides an alternative for the management of canine mandibular defects.

  2. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  4. [Effect of activation and blockade of the GABA-ergic system of the substantia nigra in the midbrain on the realization of conditioned food reflexes in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F

    1988-01-01

    Bilateral injection of 45 mcg of GABA into substantia nigra pars compacta produced in dogs a manifested improvement of parameters of the conditioned differentiation inhibition but failed to influence the positive Pavlovian alimentary conditioned reflex. Injection of GABA synaptic antagonist--picrotoxin impaired conditioned alimentary behaviour. Numerous injections of the GABAergic pharmacological agents resulted in motor disturbance--rotatory movements--and skin trophic deviations. The data obtained and literature references give ground for discussion of the role of striato-nigral and internal GABAergic substantia nigra systems in the positive modulation of adaptive alimentary behaviour and conditioned stimuli differentiation.

  5. Effect of enzyme supplements on macronutrient digestibility by healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Cecilia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Molina, Jenifer; Larsen, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Some enzyme supplement products claim benefits for healthy dogs to compensate for alleged suboptimal production of endogenous enzymes and the loss of enzymes in commercial pet foods secondary to processing. The objective of the current study was to determine macronutrient and energy digestibility by healthy adult dogs fed a commercial maintenance diet with or without supplementation with plant- and animal-origin enzyme products at the dosage recommended by their respective manufacturers. A group of fourteen healthy neutered adult Beagle dogs (average age 8 years) was divided into two equal groups and fed the basal diet alone and then with either the plant- or animal-origin enzyme supplement in three consecutive 10-d periods; the treatment groups received the opposite enzyme supplement in the third period. Digestibility in each period was performed by the total faecal collection method. Serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) was measured at the end of each trial. Data were analysed by repeated measures and the α level of significance was set at 0·05. There were no differences in energy and nutrient digestibility between enzyme treatments. When comparing basal with enzyme supplementation, fat digestibility was higher for the basal diet compared with the animal-origin enzyme treatment, which could be a period effect and was not biologically significant (94·7 v . 93·5 %). Serum TLI was not affected by supplementation with either enzyme product. Exogenous enzyme supplementation did not significantly increase digestibility of a typical commercial dry diet in healthy adult dogs and routine use of such products is not recommended.

  6. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  7. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  8. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  9. Avaliação do gasto e Consumo voluntário de rações balanceadas e semente de girassol para papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Voluntary intake of commercial foods and sunflower seed for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se de 12 papagaios adultos, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em seis tratamentos (Ração extrusada para psitacídeos, Ração peletizada para psitacídeos, Ração comercial extrusada para psitacídeos, Ração extrusada para cães linha prêmio; Ração extrusada para cães linha econômica e Semente de Girassol, durante três períodos de cinco dias de colheita, com 7 dias de adaptação entre colheitas, totalizando seis repetições por tratamento, em que foram avaliados o gasto total (matéria seca - MS e matéria natural - MN e o consumo total de MN, MS, proteína bruta (PB, energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira corrigidas pelo N (EMAn e EMVn, cálcio (Ca e fósforo (P, por ave e por quilograma de peso metabólico. As médias obtidas foram comparadas pelo teste SNK. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1- os consumos médios de MS foram influenciados negativamente pelo teor de energia metabolizável da dieta; 2- o alto consumo das aves recebendo semente de girassol sugere que, além da densidade energética, a palatabilidade da dieta tem grande influência no consumo voluntário; 3- todas as dietas testadas atenderam as necessidades diárias de proteína bruta; 4- o consumo de cálcio da semente de girassol não atendeu a necessidade diária do elemento. 5- o tamanho do grânulo parece interferir no gasto e desperdício de ração pelas aves.Were used 12 adult parrots, distributed in blocks in six treatments (Extruded food for psittacines, Pelleted food for psittacines, Extruded commercial food for psittacines, Extruded dogs food premium line; Extruded dogs food economic line and Sunflower Seed. during three periods, in six repetitions for treatment. The total expense (dry matter evaporates - DM and natural matter - NM and intake of NM, DM, crude protein (CP apparent and true metabolizable energy N corrected (AME n and TMEn, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, was evaluated for bird and for kilogram of metabolic size

  10. Clinically and radiological aspects of alterations in humeroradiulnar and hip joints in fila brasileiro dogs.; Aspectos clinicos e radiologicos das alteracoes degenerativas das articulacoes umero-radio-ulnar e coxo-femoral de caes da raca fila brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Roberto B. de

    1995-12-31

    Humeroradiulnar and hip joints of 100 fila brasileiro dogs were clinically and radiological studied. the objective was the demonstration of pathologies and their frequency in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The animals were 47 females and 53 males, aged between 9 and 120 months, although 74% of them had less than 36 months and were investigated according their city region and kind of food. Most of the animals came from region III (37%) and used to eat commercial food (32%) and mixed diet composed by commercial food meat and domestic food (26%). Diets with higher density and protein concentrations were more frequent in regions I and III and domestic food in region V. the alterations frequency in the humeroredioulnar joint was 33%. The most frequent pathologies observed were the fragmentation of the coronoid process (39.4%), osteochondrosis dissecans of the medial humeral condyle (31.8%) and ununited anconeal process (28.8%). It was observed significant difference in the frequency of hip dysplasia between the female group (46.5%) and male group (66.7%). For the entire group this frequency was 58%. No significant difference was found in the average inclination angle for normal dogs (149.73 deg {+-} 1.55 deg) and dysplastic dogs dysplasia. Control measures must be applied aiming the reduction of the joint alterations, as the fila brasileiro is a relative new breed. (author). 68 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  12. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  13. Do domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) perceive the Delboeuf illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo; Agrillo, Christian

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade, visual illusions have been repeatedly used as a tool to compare visual perception among species. Several studies have investigated whether non-human primates perceive visual illusions in a human-like fashion, but little attention has been paid to other mammals, and sensitivity to visual illusions has been never investigated in the dog. Here, we studied whether domestic dogs perceive the Delboeuf illusion. In human and non-human primates, this illusion creates a misperception of item size as a function of its surrounding context. To examine this effect in dogs, we adapted the spontaneous preference paradigm recently used with chimpanzees. Subjects were presented with two plates containing food. In control trials, two different amounts of food were presented in two identical plates. In this circumstance, dogs were expected to select the larger amount. In test trials, equal food portion sizes were presented in two plates differing in size: if dogs perceived the illusion as primates do, they were expected to select the amount of food presented in the smaller plate. Dogs significantly discriminated the two alternatives in control trials, whereas their performance did not differ from chance in test trials with the illusory pattern. The fact that dogs do not seem to be susceptible to the Delboeuf illusion suggests a potential discontinuity in the perceptual biases affecting size judgments between primates and dogs.

  14. prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs from umuahia city of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR MRS NWOHA

    adults) breeds of dogs were collected from the city of Umuahia, Abia state. Samples were examined ... parasites that are zoonotic to humans especially to children ... Study area. Umuahia is the ..... dog owners feed them prepared food free from contamination. ... goat or sheep visceral harbouring the third stage larva of the ...

  15. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs presented as veterinary patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherni, Judith A; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the control of fleas on dogs was evaluated in a randomized, controlled clinical study conducted in 19 general veterinary practices throughout the United States. Four hundred and seventy nine (479) dogs from 293 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner oral tablets (Simparica™, Zoetis) at the proposed label dose or an approved comparator product at the label dose (spinosad, Comfortis(®), Elanco). Dogs were dosed by their owners at home on Day 0 and on approximately Days 30 and 60. Dogs were examined at the clinics for general health, flea and tick infestation, and clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) at the initial visit and Days 14, 30, 60 and 90. Blood was collected for clinical pathology at screening and Day 90. Sarolaner was well-accepted by dogs with the majority of flavored chewable tablets (91.5%) accepted free choice, by hand or in food. Geometric mean live flea counts were reduced by >99% at the first time measured (14 days) after initiation of treatment and continued to reduce through the study. Treatment success (proportion of dogs with ≥90% reduction in fleas) for the sarolaner-treated dogs was superior to that for spinosad-treated dogs at Days 14 and 30 and non-inferior on Days 60 and 90 (P≤0.025) The rapid reduction in flea infestations resulted in a similar rapid resolution of the clinical signs associated with FAD. Sarolaner chewable tablets were well tolerated with no treatment related adverse reactions. Most of the clinical signs reported were consistent with allergies and dermatitis or sporadic occurrences of conditions commonly observed in the general dog population. A wide variety of concomitant medications, including many commercially available heartworm preventatives and other anthelmintic drugs, were administered to study dogs and all were well tolerated. Sarolaner administered

  16. QUALITY OF NATIVE EJACULATE IN DOG OUT AND DURING SEXUAL SEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan Podžo; Nazif Varatanović; Mustafa Podžo; Tarik Mutevelić; Benjamin Čengić

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal influence, i.e. the influence of climatic changes on the dog semen was investigated. Dog age varied between 2-4. German-shepard-type dog body weight was about 25 kg, and the other mixed breed dogs about 9 kg. All were kept in good zoo-hygienic conditions (sunny, ventilated and dry rooms). Dogs were served ready-made pellet food with the daily meals adjusted to their body mass. Experimental researches were mainly performed before and during the sexual season. Sperm from the dogs w...

  17. Avanços na norma brasileira de comercialização de alimentos para idade infantil Advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Moura de Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os avanços na Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes no período de 1988 a 2002, comparando seus diferentes textos entre si e com o Código Internacional de Comercialização de Substitutos do Leite Materno. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos em documentos, relatórios, portarias e resoluções do Ministério da Saúde. As versões utilizadas na comparação foram a de 1992 e a de 2002. RESULTADOS: A análise comparativa permitiu identificar importantes avanços na legislação. Em 1992, foram incluídos os leites fluídos, em pó, as chupetas e frases de advertência na propaganda e na rotulagem dos produtos. Em 2002, a regulamentação dos produtos foi publicada pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, fortalecendo a ação de fiscalização e incluindo a regulamentação dos alimentos para crianças de primeira infância, fórmulas de nutrientes indicadas para recém-nascido de alto risco e protetores de mamilo. As frases utilizadas na promoção comercial e na rotulagem dos produtos, inclusive de chupetas e mamadeiras, passaram a ser de advertência do Ministério da Saúde. A rotulagem foi definida para cada tipo de produto, baseada em regras mais restritas. CONCLUSÕES: Foram identificadas importantes modificações no controle do marketing dos produtos dirigidos à mãe no período de lactação. No entanto, ainda há questões legislativas que possibilitariam o aprimoramento da norma brasileira, visando à proteção do aleitamento materno. É necessário também que o governo implante rotinas de monitoramento sistemático de fiscalização dessa legislação.OBJECTIVE: To assess the advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods from 1988 to 2002, comparing the different texts with each other and with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on data collected

  18. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  20. Informações nutricionais e de saúde disponibilizadas aos consumidores por restaurantes comerciais, tipo fast food e full service Nutritional and health information released to consumers by commercial fast food and full service restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Maestro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo foi identificar e caracterizar o oferecimento de informação nutricional e de saúde em restaurantes comerciais do município de Campinas-SP. Com a utilização de questionários previamente testados, foram entrevistados, entre outubro e dezembro de 2005, 20 gerentes de restaurantes do tipo fast food e 94 do tipo full service, localizados nas cinco regiões de Campinas. Após a coleta das informações, foi construído um banco de dados utilizando o software Excel. Para o tratamento estatístico, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e o teste T de Student. O software estatístico utilizado nas análises foi o MINITAB versão 14.2. Entre os principais resultados, destaca-se que 25,4% dos restaurantes fazem uso de informação nutricional e/ou de saúde. O tipo de informação nutricional mais empregado é a "declaração de nutrientes", com relevância para a informação do valor energético e de macronutrientes de alguns pratos. A fonte mais citada para a disposição da informação nutricional foi o cardápio, com 48,3% das citações. A freqüência de oferecimento dessas informações é significativamente maior entre as redes de fast food do que entre os restaurantes full service. Aponta-se a necessidade de se estudar formas de regulamentação dessas informações pelo poder público.The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize nutritional and health information made available in commercial restaurants in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to interview twenty managers of fast food and ninety-four of full service restaurants, between October and December of 2005, located in the five administrative regions of Campinas. After collecting the information, a databank was created using Microsoft Excel software. The chi-square and t Student tests and the statistical software MINITAB version 14.2 were used for the statistical treatment of the data. Among the

  1. Food advertising on Australian television: Frequency, duration and monthly pattern of advertising from a commercial network (four channels) for the entire 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Haag, Dandara G; Agnew, Benjamin; Lynch, John; Sorell, Matthew

    2018-04-16

    To estimate the frequency, duration and monthly pattern of discretionary food advertising on Australian free-to-air television. We logged 30 000 h of television collected in Adelaide during 2016 from one network that has four channels. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating was used to identify discretionary foods. Data were examined according to all times, to children's peak viewing times (PVTs) and to when C-(children's) rated programmes may be broadcast. Of the >800 000 advertisements logged during 2016, 11% were for foods (n = 97 837). The most frequently advertised products were: snack foods (e.g. crisps), crumbed/battered meats, fast foods/take away meals and sweetened beverages. The frequency and duration of discretionary food advertising was 1.7 times/h and 0.5 min/h respectively at all times. During children's PVTs, the frequency and duration of discretionary food advertising was 2.3 times/h and 0.7 min/h, respectively. When C-rated programmes can be broadcast, the frequency and duration of discretionary food advertising was 1.8 times/h and 0.6 min/h, respectively. Across the year, discretionary foods ranged between 41% (August) and 71% (January) of all food advertising. Discretionary foods dominate food advertising. On average, discretionary food advertising was higher during PVTs for children and during the summer school holidays (January). © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Beagle Dog as Substitute for Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, Ranbaxy Research ... Keywords: Cetirizine, Beagle dog, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, Pharmacokinetics, Non- .... validated method based on the Food and Drug ... determined using high-performance liquid .... Sequence effect, if any, was tested at the 10 %.

  3. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral challenge study to evaluate the allergenicity of commercial, food-grade fish gelatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine K; Poulsen, Lars K.; Stahl Skov, Per

    2004-01-01

    Recent interest in the labeling of foods and food proteins derived from allergenic sources necessitates determination of the potential allergenicity of such food ingredients. Fish gelatin is extracted from the skin of fish species known to elicit allergic reactions in sensitized individuals....

  4. [Food promotion and food preferences in Chilean school age children from different socioeconomic levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To determine the attitude towards marketing of food and beverages a sample of 1,048 school children ages 8 to 13 from three cities of Chile (north, center and south of the country) were interviewed. The instrument applied was a validated questionnaire used in previous studies. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and differences were determined by region, socioeconomic level (SEL) and gender using Chi2 test. Differences per SEL were higher in Santiago. A greater proportion of school children of medium-low SEL watched more than 2 hours of TV during weekdays and weekends (p food and beverage commercials was greater in medium-low SEL in Santiago (66%) (p foods at supermarkets, on the streets, shopping centers and on the Internet. The preferred commercials were those for beverages, chocolates, ice-creams and cereals. Most common foods taken from home to school were cookies, fruits and yogurt. Most of the children had money available to buy food and the products more frequently preferred were cookies, sweets, French fries, beverages with sugar, chocolates, ice-creams and hot-dogs. marketing of food and beverages is recognized and remembered by school age children, influencing what they buy and consume regularly at school.

  5. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Nutritional Management of Overweight and Obesity in Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Teodora MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most common nutritional disorders are overweight and obesity, a proportion of approximately 59% of dogs and cats being affected. A permanent challenge for vets is weight management, including the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. Corporeal score and body-weight loss in dogs and cats have been monitored by feeding various diets. The study was conducted on a total of 10 animals (6 dogs and 4 cats, monitoring the effect of three types of food for dogs and two types for cats suffering from overweight and obesity.  Cooked food, dry food diet and premium dry food were investigated. We determined the quality and gross chemical composition of food and we measured corporeal score, weekly weight loss percentage and the number of calories consumed daily. We also appreciated the quality of life and activity level of the animals at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Nutritional management of investigated diets for overweight and obesity in dogs and cats revealed that through the smallest caloric restriction, dry food diet presented the highest efficiency, dogs and cats loosing weight steadily without losing muscle mass. Although the satiety effect occurs when the animals reach their ideal weight, the Rebound effect was not present.

  7. Be your dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Be Your Dog is about establishing relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner. This saw participants and their dogs attend workshops over two consecutive weekends to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection. This included learning strategies for dog and human to ‘be’ equals with each other. A concluding public event was staged at KARST (Plymouth) following the workshops on 6 November 2016 where all participants, human and dog, performed as collaborators. This proj...

  8. Introduction to Commercial Cooking Equipment. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 4.1. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 4: Equipment Handling, Operation and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the workings of and equipment found in commercial kitchens. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on each of the following…

  9. Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Federico; Nitzschner, Marie; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs are particularly skilled at using human visual signals to locate hidden food. This is, to our knowledge, the first series of studies that investigates the ability of dogs to use only auditory communicative acts to locate hidden food. In a first study, from behind a barrier, a human expressed excitement towards a baited box on either the right or left side, while sitting closer to the unbaited box. Dogs were successful in following the human's voice direction and locating the food. In the two following control studies, we excluded the possibility that dogs could locate the box containing food just by relying on smell, and we showed that they would interpret a human's voice direction in a referential manner only when they could locate a possible referent (i.e. one of the boxes) in the environment. Finally, in a fourth study, we tested 8-14-week-old puppies in the main experimental test and found that those with a reasonable amount of human experience performed overall even better than the adult dogs. These results suggest that domestic dogs' skills in comprehending human communication are not based on visual cues alone, but are instead multi-modal and highly flexible. Moreover, the similarity between young and adult dogs' performances has important implications for the domestication hypothesis.

  10. "Is It Okay to Eat a Dog in Korea...like China?" Assumptions of National Food-Eating Practices in Intercultural Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam; Jenks, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested…

  11. Mapping of cat albumin using monoclonal antibodies: identification of determinants common to cat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J; Vrancken, E R; Mourad, W

    1989-01-01

    Cat and dog albumins from commercial extracts were used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Anti-cat albumin MoAb recognized both cat and dog albumin equally, as did anti-dog albumin MoAb; this confirms cross-reactivity between cat and dog. The MoAb were separated into two groups according to their epitopic specificity; they recognized two overlapping epitopes of cat albumin. Furthermore, by competitive inhibition of radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), it was shown that one MoAb group inhibited significantly the binding of human IgE antibodies (from a pool of 13 patients allergic to both cats and dogs) to insolubilized cat or dog extracts. These observations suggest that murine anti-cat or anti-dog MoAb and human IgE antibodies recognize identical or closely related determinants on cat and dog albumin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2478325

  12. Gut microbiota composition may relate to weight loss rate in obese pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieler, Ida Nordang; Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Vitger, Anne Désiré

    2017-01-01

    Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight-loss and the composi......Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight......-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention. Faecal samples were...

  13. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  14. Farmer–African wild dog (Lycaon pictus relations in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli-Laurente Fraser-Celin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05. Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on

  15. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Diet-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs of high-risk breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Malathi; Glickman, Nita; McCabe, George; Lantz, Gary; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2004-01-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among 1634 dogs with complete diet information in a 5-year prospective study to determine diet-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Cases included 106 dogs that developed GDV; controls included 212 dogs without GDV that were frequency matched to cases by year of GDV onset. Proportionate energy consumed from major food types and from carbohydrates was determined. Dogs were categorized as consuming either a low volume or high volume of food based on the median number of cups of food fed per kg of body weight per meal. Dogs fed a larger volume of food per meal were at a significantly (Pdogs, the risk of GDV was highest for dogs fed a larger volume of food once daily.

  17. Detection of undeclared animal by-products in commercial canine canned foods: Comparative analyses by ELISA and PCR-RFLP coupled with slab gel electrophoresis or capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Shih, Pei-Yin; Wei, Chia-Fong; Vickroy, Thomas W; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2016-03-30

    The potential presence of undeclared animal by-products in pet foods is not subject to routine examination. Previously published methods for species-based identification of animal by-products have not been used routinely owing to inconsistent results. The present study evaluated the utility of several approaches for accurate identification of animal by-products in 11 commercial brands of canine canned foods. Canine canned foods from several countries were analysed by ELISA, PCR-RFLP coupled with slab-gel electrophoresis (SGE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) to test for evidence of by-products derived from cattle, chicken, sheep or pig. While CGE-based analysis detected all (24) animal-derived by-products that were reported for the 11 test samples, SGE and ELISA detected only 22/24 (92%) and 14/24 (58%) of labelled by-products, respectively. In addition, undeclared animal by-products were found using all three analytical approaches with CGE detecting more positives (19) than SGE (17) or ELISA (5). Significant disparities were evident between the labelled contents and the detected content of animal by-products. CGE-based testing for PCR products appears to provide greater sensitivity and accuracy than either SGE or ELISA-based methods. As testing of commercial products becomes more reliable and mainstream, manufacturers will need to develop more thorough and accurate labelling protocols. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  19. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany); Holzhauser, Thomas, E-mail: holth@pei.de [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany)

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg{sup -1}. We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a

  20. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman(®) real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg(-1) almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg(-1). We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman(®) probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg(-1). Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman(®) real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n=5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  1. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg -1 almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg -1 . We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg -1 almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg -1 . Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg -1 spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  2. Identification of mast cells in buffy coat preparations from dogs with inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayatte, S M; McManus, P M; Miller, W H; Scott, D W

    1995-02-01

    In 100 dogs with 4 inflammatory dermatologic diseases, buffy coat preparations from EDTA-treated blood samples were examined cytologically. Fifty-four dogs had atopy, 26 had flea-bite hypersensitivity, 17 had sarcoptic mange, and 3 had food allergy. Twenty-eight dogs had 2 or more concurrent skin diseases; most of these had secondary pyoderma. Dogs did not have mast cell tumors. Thirteen samples contained 1 or more mast cells/4 slides reviewed. This study revealed that dogs with inflammatory skin diseases can have a few to many mast cells evident on cytologic examination of buffy coat preparations.

  3. Levels of heavy metals in liver and kidney of dogs from urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esposito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead, cadmium and mercury were detected in liver and kidney tissue of dogs from an urban habitat. Samples were digested in a microwave system and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results of the current study showed that at least one of the three heavy metals was detected in tissues of all examined dogs. These findings make us suppose that humans are exposed to the same heavy metals similar to those of dogs that are exposed since they share the same environment. Mercury concentrations detected in kidney of household dogs were higher than stray dogs, therefore the involvement of pet food in exposure to mercury can be supposed.

  4. Analysis of legal arrangements concerning the control and monitoring of the contamination of soils, food products and commercial products in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, C.; Crouail, P.

    2005-01-01

    After having recalled the management of emergency from April to May 1986, this report describes some aspects of the post-accident management in Soviet Union from June 1986 to 1991: dose limits and zoning, farming practices, consumption standards, commercialization standards. It describes the legal context implemented in Belarus from 1991 (two laws addressed the legal status of contaminated areas and the protection of people affected by the Chernobyl accident), and the evolutions since 1991 in terms of soil contamination and zoning, consumption and commercialization standards

  5. Commercial nonindustrial production of pastries and ice cream in Naples, Italy: results from the inspection of 34 food businesses during a 2-year surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tanucci Nannini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Ice cream and cream-based pastries are an excellent media for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Foods that are prepared without due respect to the rules of food hygiene can carry microorganisms and/or toxins and could be responsible of toxinfections. The main objective of this study was to obtain an overall picture of the hygiene/sanitation conditions found in businesses that produce hand-made pastries and/or ice cream in Naples, Italy.

    Methods: We inspected 34 businesses to assess the following aspects: hygiene/sanitation conditions of the work area and equipment, implementation of good food hygiene principles, evaluation of HACCP plans, licensing/authorization, quality control and sampling protocols, as well as systems for ensuring food traceability. In 28 of the businesses, samples (environment, foods, workers were collected for microbiological analysis.

    Results: Sanctions were issued for nonconformities in 8 businesses (23.5%, and 25 businesses (73.5% received warnings with orders to correct minor nonconformities (inadequate documentation of compliance with current regulations, incorrect implementation of the quality-control protocol within specified time periods. Microbiological analyses revealed irregularities in 24/28 businesses (85.7%, and 138 of the 280 samples collected displayed contamination levels exceeding the limits adopted for this study (49.3%. In particular, 80% of the surfaces sampled and 23.8% of the hand swabs collected were shown to be contaminated. All food samples collected met the process-hygiene and food-safety standards prescribed by the European Community. Results obtained were statistically significant (p < 0.05.

    Conclusions: Our experience of food safety surveillance system indicates that Neapolitan food business operators involved in the production of hand-made ice cream or pastries do not

  6. Two-dimensional grayscale ultrasound and spectral Doppler waveform evaluation of dogs with chronic enteropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Kircher, Patrick

    2007-08-01

    Sonography is an important diagnostic tool to examine the gastrointestinal tract of dogs with chronic diarrhea. Two-dimensional grayscale ultrasound parameters to assess for various enteropathies primarily focus on wall thickness and layering. Mild, generalized thickening of the intestinal wall with maintenance of the wall layering is common in inflammatory bowel disease. Quantitative and semi-quantitative spectral Doppler arterial waveform analysis can be utilized for various enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease and food allergies. Dogs with inflammatory bowel disease have inadequate hemodynamic responses during digestion of food. Dogs with food allergies have prolonged vasodilation and lower resistive and pulsatility indices after eating allergen-inducing foods.

  7. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the gods": Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Almeida, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most

  8. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  9. Laterality and performance of agility-trained dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Bertino, Daniele; Quaranta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between lateralised behaviour and performance were investigated in 19 agility-trained dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to performance during typical agility obstacles (jump/A-frame and weave poles). In addition, because recent behavioural studies reported that visual stimuli of emotional valence presented to one visual hemifield at a time affect visually guided motor responses in dogs, the possibility that the position of the owner respectively in the left and in the right canine visual hemifield might be associated with quality of performance during agility was considered. Dogs' temperament was also measured by an owner-rated questionnaire. The most relevant finding was that agility-trained dogs displayed longer latencies to complete the obstacles with the owner located in their left visual hemifield compared to the right. Interestingly, the results showed that this phenomenon was significantly linked to both dogs' trainability and the strength of paw preference.

  10. Old Dog New Tricks: Use of Point-based Crop Models in Grid-based Regional Assessment of Crop Management Technologies Impact on Future Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, J.; Wood, S.; Cenacchi, N.; Fisher, M.; Cox, C.

    2012-12-01

    HarvestChoice (harvestchoice.org) generates knowledge products to guide strategic investments to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A keynote component of the HarvestChoice analytical framework is a grid-based overlay of SSA - a cropping simulation platform powered by process-based, crop models. Calibrated around the best available representation of cropping production systems in SSA, the simulation platform engages the DSSAT Crop Systems Model with the CENTURY Soil Organic Matter model (DSSAT-CENTURY) and provides a virtual experimentation module with which to explore the impact of a range of technological, managerial and environmental metrics on future crop productivity and profitability, as well as input use. For each of 5 (or 30) arc-minute grid cells in SSA, a stack of model input underlies it: datasets that cover soil properties and fertility, historic and future climate scenarios and farmers' management practices; all compiled from analyses of existing global and regional databases and consultations with other CGIAR centers. Running a simulation model is not always straightforward, especially when certain cropping systems or management practices are not even practiced by resource-poor farmers yet (e.g., precision agriculture) or they were never included in the existing simulation framework (e.g., water harvesting). In such cases, we used DSSAT-CENTURY as a function to iteratively estimate relative responses of cropping systems to technology-driven changes in water and nutrient balances compared to zero-adoption by farmers, while adjusting model input parameters to best mimic farmers' implementation of technologies in the field. We then fed the results of the simulation into to the economic and food trade model framework, IMPACT, to assess the potential implications on future food security. The outputs of the overall simulation analyses are packaged as a web-accessible database and published

  11. Dogs' (Canis familiaris) attention to human perception: Influence of breed groups and life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Turner, Dennis C; Manser, Marta B

    2017-02-01

    Attending to the perception of others may help individuals gaining information from conspecifics, or help in competitive situations. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are attentive to humans' signals and their attentional state. We investigated whether dogs of different breed groups differ in their ability to pay attention to human's perception, first according to the genetic relatedness between dog breeds, and second according to working style differences. Once dogs had learned to leave forbidden food on the floor, they were confronted with 2 food items to which only they had unrestricted visual access. The owners saw either none or 1 food item through a transparent barrier. Our results showed that dogs pay attention to the perception of humans, whereby differences between breed groups became obvious. Within different genetic groups, ancient and hunting type dogs performed similarly, they were more attentive to their owners' perception than shepherd and the mastiff type dogs. When comparing dogs classified according to their working style, independent workers and family dogs were attentive to the owner's perception, while cooperative workers seemed not. The dogs' choice could not be explained by a general or training induced preference for eating behind an opaque screen, or by an influence of the owner's possible intention to prevent the dog from taking the food item he could see. Our study confirms that dogs are attentive/sensitive to human's perception, but genetic and working style differences among the breeds, as well as dog sport experiences explain part of the variation seen in their performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Efficacy of four commercially available heartworm preventive products against the JYD-34 laboratory strain of Dirofilaria immitis

    OpenAIRE

    Blagburn, Byron L.; Arther, Robert G.; Dillon, Allen R.; Butler, Jamie M.; Bowles, Joy V.; von Simson, Cristiano; Zolynas, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Heartworm disease in dogs can be severe and life threatening. Resistance to available heartworm preventives was considered among potential causes of increased reports of failed heartworm prevention in dogs. The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of four commercially available heartworm disease preventives against the JYD-34 strain of D. immitis. Methods Forty laboratory-reared dogs approximately 6 months old were used. Each dog was infected with fifty, third...

  13. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  14. A comparison of physical properties, screening procedures and a human efficacy trial for predicting the bioavailability of commercial elemental iron powders used for food fortification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Lynch, S.R.; Bothwell, T.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify staple foods. This paper summarizes physical and chemical measurements that were conducted to assess the bioavailability of these iron powders relative to ferrous sulfate, along with validation of these assessments from a study with human subjects.

  15. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  16. Domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) choices in reference to information provided by human and artificial hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundey, Shannon M A; Delise, Justin; De Los Reyes, Andres; Ford, Kathy; Starnes, Blair; Dennen, Weston

    2014-03-01

    Even young humans show sensitivity to the accuracy and reliability of informants' reports. Children are selective in soliciting information and in accepting claims. Recent research has also investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) sensitivity to agreement among human informants. Such research utilizing a common human pointing gesture to which dogs are sensitive in a food retrieval paradigm suggests that dogs might choose among informants according to the number of points exhibited, rather than the number of individuals indicating a particular location. Here, we further investigated dogs' use of information from human informants using a stationary pointing gesture, as well as the conditions under which dogs would utilize a stationary point. First, we explored whether the number of points or the number of individuals more strongly influenced dogs' choices. To this end, dogs encountered a choice situation in which the number of points exhibited toward a particular location and the number of individuals exhibiting those points conflicted. Results indicated that dogs chose in accordance with the number of points exhibited toward a particular location. In a second experiment, we explored the possibility that previously learned associations drove dogs' responses to the stationary pointing gesture. In this experiment, dogs encountered a choice situation in which artificial hands exhibited a stationary pointing gesture toward or away from choice locations in the absence of humans. Dogs chose the location to which the artificial hand pointed. These results are consistent with the notion that dogs may respond to a human pointing gesture due to their past-learning history.

  17. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were ...

  18. Splenitis in 33 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F; Zini, E; Auriemma, E; Castagnaro, M; Coppola, L M; Peano, A; Martella, V; Decaro, N; Kuhnert, P; Ferro, S

    2017-01-01

    Splenitis is uncommonly reported in dogs. Herein, the authors describe its prevalence, clinical findings and outcomes, histologic patterns, and causes. Splenic samples of dogs diagnosed with splenitis between 2005 and 2013 were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, green-Gram, Giemsa, periodic acid-Schiff, and Ziehl-Neelsen. Samples were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteria, fungi, and protozoa ( Leishmania infantum, Hepatozoon canis). Thirty-three of 660 splenic samples (5%) had splenitis. Clinical findings and outcomes were available in 19 dogs (58%); 49% had weakness, 33% had fever, and 84% survived. The most frequent inflammatory patterns included purulent splenitis (27%), pyogranulomatous splenitis (24%), and neutrophilic perisplenitis (15%). One dog had a putative diagnosis of primary splenitis; in 8 dogs, microorganisms were identified histologically or by PCR in the spleen without obvious comorbidities. Twenty-four dogs (73%) had concurrent diseases; a permissive role in the development of splenitis was suspected in 21 of these cases. Histologic examination identified the cause of splenitis in 10 dogs. Bacteria were identified by PCR in 23 cases, but the bacteria were confirmed histologically in only 6 of these. Leishmania was detected with PCR in 6 dogs. Leishmania was identified in 1 dog and H. canis in another histologically, but both were PCR negative. Fungi were identified in 8 spleens by PCR and in 1 by histology. This study suggests that splenitis is uncommon in dogs and is frequently associated with systemic diseases. Prognosis is favorable in most cases. Identification of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa in the spleens of affected dogs with PCR should be interpreted cautiously, because the findings are not confirmed histologically in many cases.

  19. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Raffan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs.Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management.Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test–retest reliability.Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test–retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food, four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health. Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise were associated with

  20. Natural pet food: a review of natural diets and their impact on canine and feline physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, P R; Carter, R A; Bauer, J E; Kersey, J H

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to clarify the definition of "natural" as it pertains to commercial pet food and to summarize the scientific findings related to natural ingredients in pet foods and natural diets on the impact of pet health and physiology. The term "natural," when used to market commercial pet foods or pet food ingredients in the United States, has been defined by the Association of American Feed Control Officials and requires, at minimum, that the pet food be preserved with natural preservatives. However, pet owners may consider natural as something different than the regulatory definition. The natural pet food trend has focused on the inclusion of whole ingredients, including meats, fruits, and vegetables; avoiding ingredients perceived as heavily processed, including refined grains, fiber sources, and byproducts; and feeding according to ancestral or instinctual nutritional philosophies. Current scientific evidence supporting nutritional benefits of natural pet food products is limited to evaluations of dietary macronutrient profiles, fractionation of ingredients, and the processing of ingredients and final product. Domestic cats select a macronutrient profile (52% of ME from protein) similar to the diet of wild cats. Dogs have evolved much differently in their ability to metabolize carbohydrates and select a diet lower in protein (30% of ME from protein) than the diet of wild wolves. The inclusion of whole food ingredients in natural pet foods as opposed to fractionated ingredients may result in higher nutrient concentrations, including phytonutrients. Additionally, the processing of commercial pet food can impact digestibility, nutrient bioavailability, and safety, which are particularly important considerations with new product formats in the natural pet food category. Future opportunities exist to better understand the effect of natural diets on health and nutrition outcomes and to better integrate sustainable practices in the production of

  1. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  3. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis—in perpetuity—, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination...

  4. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  5. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  6. WIDESPREAD OF STRAY DOGS: METHODS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM IN CERTAIN REGIONS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamed Katica; Nedzad Gradascevic; Nejra Hadzimusic; Zarema Obradovic; Ramo Mujkanovic; Esad Mestric; Senad Coloman; Muhamed Dupovac

    2017-01-01

    Stray dogs are the ones not microchipped, which live across the streets and other public surfaces unattended, and so represent a serious public-health problem. Lack of human support for the stray dogs causes a range of problems - from territorial status to ensuring food. Such conditions force them to activate a self-preservation mechanism and return to natural behavioral patterns. Regarding the fact that several thousands of stray dogs were recorded in observed regions of Bosnia and Herze...

  7. Sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa L.) by gamma irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    With the aim of verifying the possibilities and circumstances of sprout inhibition and storage life extension of onion and garlic by gamma irradiation, onion bulbs of variety Valenciana Sintetica 14 and garlic bulbs of a coloured locally grown variety were subjected to irradiation with 3 Krad of 60 Co gamma rays. The dose rate was 2440 rad/min; the irradiation conditions warranted a Dsub(max)/Dsub(min) ratio of 1.25. The irradiated bulbs and control samples of non-irradiated bulbs were investigated for a period of 270 to 330 days. Weight loss, external and internal sprouting, signs of decay, and the percentage of commercial bulbs were observed with the following results. Weight loss was found to be less in irradiated bulbs than in controls - 22% against 40% for onion and 33% against 65% for garlic. The dose of gamma radiation employed was proved to be sufficient for sprout inhibition in both species and for partial inhibition of decay and softening. The aroma of garlic was not impaired by irradiation. For both products, gamma irradiation was found to prolong the period of commercial utilizability

  8. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2011-09-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain.

  9. Dogs Entering the United States from Rabies-Endemic Countries, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J R; Washburn, F; Fox, S; Lankau, E W

    2015-08-01

    International dog imports pose a risk because of the potential movement of disease agents, including the canine rabies virus variant which has been eliminated from the United States since 2007. US regulations require a rabies vaccination certificate for dogs arriving from rabies-endemic countries, but permit the importation of dogs that have not been adequately immunized against rabies, provided that the dogs are confined under conditions that restrict their contact with humans and other animals until they have been immunized. CDC Form 75.37, 'Notice to Owners and Importers of Dogs', explains the confinement requirements and serves as a binding confinement agreement with the importer. In this evaluation, we describe the characteristics of unimmunized dogs imported into the United States over a 1-year period based upon dog confinement agreements recorded at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) quarantine stations. Confinement agreements were issued for nearly 2800 unimmunized dogs that entered the United States during 1 June 2011-31 May 2012, the majority of which travelled to the United States by air and without any seasonal pattern in import volume. Over 60% of these animals were puppies dogs arrived from 81 countries, with the majority arriving from North America or Europe. Dogs placed on confinement agreements had final destinations in 49 states. California, New York, Texas, Washington and Florida received the largest number of dogs on confinement agreements. These results (which do not reflect human travel or US dog ownership data) suggest that a large portion of unimmunized dogs arrive from rabies-endemic countries for commercial, shelter and rescue purposes. Further evaluation and key stakeholder involvement are needed to assess whether the current dog importation regulations are an adequate compromise between the benefits and risks of dog importation. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The epidemiology of rabies in Zimbabwe. 1. Rabies in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, J; Foggin, C M; Wandeler, A I; Hill, F W

    1999-03-01

    The epidemiology of rabies in dogs in Zimbabwe is described using data from 1950, when rabies was re-introduced after a 37-year absence, to 1996. Dogs constituted 45.7% of all laboratory-confirmed rabies cases and were the species most frequently diagnosed with the disease. Slightly more cases were diagnosed from June to November than in other months. From 1950 to the early 1980s, most dog cases were recorded from commercial farming areas, but since the early 1980s most have been recorded from communal (subsistence farming) areas. This change appears to be due to improved surveillance in communal areas and not to any change in the prevalence of rabies. Dog rabies therefore appears to be maintained mainly in communal area dog populations, particularly the large communal area blocks. Urban rabies was not important except in the city of Mutare. Where dog rabies prevalence was high, the disease was cyclic with periods between peak prevalence ranging from 4-7 years. Dog rabies cases were, on the whole, independent of jackal rabies and rabies in other carnivores. There was a significant negative relationship between the annual number of rabies vaccine doses administered nationally to dogs and the annual number of dog rabies cases lagged by one year, indicating that the past levels of immunisation coverage have had a significant effect on the number of rabies cases. However, dog vaccination coverage has clearly not been adequate to prevent the regular occurrence of rabies in dogs.

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  13. Association between increased behavioral persistence and stereotypy in the pet dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopova, Alexandra; Hall, Nathaniel J; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether dogs that exhibit stereotypy also show higher behavioral persistence in an extinction-learning task. Thirteen pet dogs with stereotypy and 13 breed-matched control dogs were assessed on a resistance to extinction test. Each dog was trained for 40 trials using a food reinforcer to nose-touch the experimenter's hand on a continuous reinforcement schedule. After acquisition, the dogs entered an extinction phase, during which food was no longer delivered. The numbers of nose-touches as well as inter-response times during this phase were recorded. A linear regression found that stereotypy status (t=-2.46, P=.027) and breed type (t=2.44, P=.023) were significant predictors of the number of responses in extinction. Dogs with stereotypy responded more in extinction than control dogs. The mean number of responses was 13.4 (SD=14.7) in the control group and 26.0 (SD=15.3) in the stereotypy group. These results suggest a link between previous laboratory and zoo animal findings on the neurophysiology of stereotypy and the pet dog population. They also have implications for the use of extinction procedures to reduce stereotypic behaviors in pet dogs, as these dogs show enhanced resistance to extinction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral health benefits of a daily dental chew in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Bradley W

    2013-01-01

    An independent study was conducted to determine and quantify the oral care benefits of a daily edible dental chew in dogs as measured by plaque and calculus control, gingival indices, and oral malodor. A "clean mouth" test model was used comparing a commercial dry diet and a commercial dry diet plus one dental chew per day. The dental chew tested was representative of a retail canine dental chew. The test dental chew was a green-colored dental dog chew with a flexible texture that can be readily chewed by dogs. They are made with a knuckle bone shape on one end and a toothbrush shape on the other end. Sixty adult dogs were allocated in either control or test groups based on plaque stratification and studied for 28-days. The test group (30 dogs) received a dry diet and 1 dental chew each day. The control group (30 dogs) received the same dry diet only. At the end of the study, measurements of plaque and calculus accumulation and evaluations of oral malodor and gingival heath were performed. Adding a dental chew to the diet resulted in statistically significant reductions in plaque and calculus accumulation, and oral malodor while improving gingival indices.

  15. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ≥10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (≥2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P contamination in samples taken from an undistributed lot of commercial dried dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible.

  16. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  17. Dogs do not show pro-social preferences towards humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Quervel-Chaumette

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species’ propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context since it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners. In a recent study, using a food delivery paradigm, dogs were shown to preferentially express pro-social choices towards familiar compared to unfamiliar conspecifics. Using the same set-up and methods in the current study, we investigated dogs’ pro-social preferences towards familiar and unfamiliar human partners. We found that dogs’ pro-social tendencies did not extend to humans and the identity of the human partners did not influence the rate of food delivery. Interestingly, dogs tested with their human partners spent more time gazing at humans, and did so for longer after food consumption had ended than dogs tested with conspecific partners in the initial study. To allow comparability between results from dogs tested with a conspecific and a human partner, the latter were asked not to communicate with dogs in any way. However, this lack of communication from the human may have been aversive to dogs, leading them to cease performing the task earlier compared to the dogs paired with familiar conspecifics in the prior study. This is in line with previous findings suggesting that human communication in such contexts highly affects dogs’ responses. Consequently, we encourage further studies to examine dogs’ pro-social behavior towards humans taking into consideration their

  18. Efficacy of nitroscanate against naturally acquired infection with Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Trichuris vulpis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T M; Mercer, S H; Wade, C G; Lynn, R C

    1991-04-01

    Eighteen dogs with naturally acquired helminth infections were used to evaluate the efficacy of nitroscanate against Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Trichuris vulpis. Approximately 15 minutes before treatment, the dogs were given 100 to 200 g of canned dog food. Ten dogs were treated with nitroscanate (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO), and 8 dogs were given placebo tablets PO. The dogs were euthanatized and necropsied 10 days after treatment and helminths were recovered from the small intestine and cecum. On the basis of the number of worms recovered from treated dogs vs the number recovered from control dogs, we determined the efficacy of nitroscanate to be 99.6% against A caninum, 99.8% against D caninum, and 0% against T vulpis.

  19. DETECTION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS ANTIGEN IN DOGS IN KUMASI, GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folitse, R D; Kodie, D O; Amemor, E; Dei, D; Tasiame, W; Burimuah, V; Emikpe, B O

    2018-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT ® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α 0.05 . We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection.

  20. DETECTION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS ANTIGEN IN DOGS IN KUMASI, GHANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folitse, R. D; Kodie, D.O; Amemor, E.; Dei, D.; Tasiame, W.; Burimuah, V.; Emikpe, B.O

    2018-01-01

    Background: Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α0.05 Results: We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. Conclusion: The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection. PMID:29302647

  1. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) variants circulating in Nigerian dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaa, T. T.; Daly, J. M.; Tarlinton, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious viral disease with three variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) currently circulating in dogs worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalent CPV-2 variant in faecal samples from 53 dogs presenting with acute gastroenteritis suspected to be and consistent with CPV-2 to Nigerian Veterinary Clinics in 2013–2014. Seventy-five per cent of these dogs tested positive for CPV-2 in a commercial antigen test and/or by PCR. Partial sequencing of the VP2 gene of six of these demonstrated them to be CPV-2a. Most of the dogs (60 per cent) were vaccinated, with 74 per cent of them puppies less than six months old. PMID:27933190

  2. Gazing toward humans: a study on water rescue dogs using the impossible task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have assessed the role of life experiences, including learning opportunities, living conditions and the quality of dog-human relationships, in the use of human cues and problem-solving ability. The current study investigates how and to what extent training affects the behaviour of dogs and the communication of dogs with humans by comparing dogs trained for a water rescue service and untrained pet dogs in the impossible task paradigm. Twenty-three certified water rescue dogs (the water rescue group) and 17 dogs with no training experience (the untrained group) were tested using a modified version of the impossible task described by Marshall-Pescini et al. in 2009. The results demonstrated that the water rescue dogs directed their first gaze significantly more often towards the owner and spent more time gazing toward two people compared to the untrained pet dogs. There was no difference between the dogs of the two groups as far as in the amount of time spent gazing at the owner or the stranger; neither in the interaction with the apparatus attempting to obtain food. The specific training regime, aimed at promoting cooperation during the performance of water rescue, could account for the longer gazing behaviour shown toward people by the water rescue dogs and the priority of gazing toward the owner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man,

  4. What Color Is Your Dog? Taking a Cue from Artist George Rodrigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, June

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson he created for his second-grade classes which was inspired by the children's book, "Why is Blue Dog Blue?", by George Rodrigue. In this lesson, the students make associations between places, food and events to determine the color of their dogs. (Contains 3 resources.)

  5. Domestic Dogs Use Contextual Information and Tone of Voice when following a Human Pointing Gesture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheider, Linda; Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found

  6. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  7. Rações comerciais e o rendimento de carcaça e subprodutos de rã-touro Commercial food and the carcass yield and by-products of bullfrog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Poeta Casali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do sexo e do uso de quatro rações comerciais extrusadas (R1, R2, R3 e R4 e uma ração peletizada (R5 sobre o rendimento de carcaça e aproveitamento de subprodutos da ranicultura, após 56 dias de experimentação. As rações comerciais eram recomendadas para diferentes espécies e fases de desenvolvimento animal, a saber: R1 = para rãs (na fase inicial, imagos; R2 = para peixes onívoros (em fase inicial; R3 = para trutas (peixe carnívoro na fase de crescimento; e R4 = para trutas (na fase inicial. Foram analisados os teores (% de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra bruta (FB e matéria mineral (MM das rações. Foram utilizadas 80 rãs-touro com peso médio inicial de 51,57g distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (cinco rações X dois sexos com oito repetições de uma rã por unidade experimental. Não houve significância na interação entre os fatores para todas as variáveis analisadas. Os menores valores de rendimento de carcaça foram observados nos animais que receberam a ração R3, sendo as demais iguais. No aproveitamento de subprodutos, destacou-se a ração R1, que proporcionou maior peso de fígado e descartes, e a ração R4, com maior peso de fígado e corpo gorduroso. O sexo dos animais apenas influenciou no aproveitamento de descartes, sendo que os machos proporcionaram maiores médias.The objective was to evaluate the effect of the sex and the use of four commercial extruded foods (R1, R2, R3, and R4 and a pelleted food (R5 on the carcass yield and the by-product utilization of the bullfrog culture, after 56 days of experimentation. The commercial foods were recommended to different species or phases of growth: R1 = for frogs in the initial phase; R2 = for omnivorous fish in the initial phase; R3 = for trout (carnivorous fish in phase of growth; and R4 = for trout in initial phase. The chemical composition (DM, CP, EE, CF

  8. Development of a sedation protocol using orally administered tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine in free-roaming dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Chun; Huang, Shih-Wei; Yu, Kuan-Hua; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the sedative effects in dogs of tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine (TZA) or ketamine-flunitrazepam (KF) administered orally and to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulated TZA for capturing free-roaming dogs. Experimental study followed by a field trial. Six research dogs and 27 free-roaming dogs. In a pilot study, six research dogs were administered liquid TZA (20 mg kg -1 tiletamine-zolazepam and 2 mg kg -1 acepromazine) or liquid KF (50 mg kg -1 ketamine and 2 mg kg -1 flunitrazepam) orally: treatment 1, forcefully squirting liquid medication into the mouth; treatment 2, encapsulating liquid medication for administration in canned food; treatment 3, administering liquid medication mixed with gravy. Sedation was scored. A follow-up field trial attempted capture of 27 free-roaming dogs. In the pilot study, the median time (range) to lateral recumbency (% dogs) after TZA administration was: treatment 1, 47.5 (35-80) minutes (67%); treatment 2, 30 (15-65) minutes (83%); and treatment 3, 75 (45-110) minutes (100%). No dogs in KF treatment 2 or 3 achieved lateral recumbency. Based on these results, 20 free-roaming dogs were offered encapsulated TZA in canned food: TZ (20 mg kg -1 ) and acepromazine (2 mg kg -1 ). Of these, no further drugs to four dogs (one dog captured), 10 dogs were administered a second dose within 30 minutes (five dogs captured) and six dogs were administered TZ (5 mg kg -1 ) and xylazine (1.1-2.2 mg kg -1 ) intramuscularly by blow dart (six dogs captured). Seven dogs were initially offered twice the TZA dose (five dogs captured). In total, 63% free-roaming dogs were captured after administration of encapsulated TZA in canned food. Oral administration of encapsulated TZA in canned dog food can aid in the capture of free-roaming dogs, but additional drugs may be required. The sedation onset time and medication palatability influenced the capture rate. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) of food origin: A comparison of agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzón-Durán, Laura; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive). It is worth stressing that 16 isolates (53.33%) exhibited an extensively drug-resistant phenotype (XDR). The average number of resistances per strain was 4.67. These results suggest that retail meat and poultry preparations are a likely vehicle for the transmission of multi-drug resistant MRS. Resistance to erythromycin was the commonest finding (76.67% of strains), followed by tobramycin, ceftazidime (66.67%), ciprofloxacin (56.67%) and fosfomycin (53.33%). An agreement (kappa coefficient) of 0.64 was found between the two testing methods. Using the agar disc diffusion as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the miniaturized test were 98.44%, 69.44% and 83.33%, respectively. Most discrepancies between the two methods were due to isolates that were susceptible according to the disc diffusion method but resistant according to the miniaturized test (false positives). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Métodos para estudo das respostas metabólicas de cães e gatos a diferentes alimentos Methods of study of metabolic responses of dogs and cats to different foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi

    2007-07-01

    , nefropatias, osteodistrofias e urolitíases. A relação entre os macro-elementos é estabelecida em mmol/kg de matéria seca da dieta, calculando-se seu balanço cátion-ânion (excesso de bases ou ânions dietéticos não determinados. Suas repostas orgânicas são medidas, dentre outros métodos, pela hemogasimetria, balanço hídrico, mensuração do volume dos espaços extracelular e vascular, supersaturação e pH urinários.During the assimilation and use of food process, the animals' organism can develop different metabolic responses. These responses results of complex integration mechanisms, involving the neuro-endocrine systems and organs activity, were being influenced, besides the diet, for the animal species, age, physiologic condition and corporal composition. In this paper will be discussed the physiologic importance and study methods of carbohydrates post-prandial responses, as well as the physiologic alterations induced by diet electrolytic balance. Amount, chemical composition and industrial processing of starch determine treat part of post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in dogs. In cats other mechanisms seem to be more important, including the ingestion of aminoacids. Besides of starch, the dietary fiber also alters the post-prandial response to food. For fiber, it should be considered its amount, solubility and fermentability in development of the diets. Study methods of these responses include glycemic and insulinic meal response test, and intra-venous glucose and arginine tolerance teste. Euglycemic clamp comes, also, as a study tool, however this information says more about the animal than the diet. The understanding of carbohydrates metabolic alterations is important in the study of satiation control, corporal composition and in several degenerative and endocrine diseases. The concentration and relationship among the macro-elements of diet (Na, Cl, K, P, Ca, Mg and S and of sulfurated aminoacids (metionine, cistine and taurine interfere in many

  11. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  12. Eye Contact Is Crucial for Referential Communication in Pet Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Carine; Resende, Briseida; Gaunet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Dogs discriminate human direction of attention cues, such as body, gaze, head and eye orientation, in several circumstances. Eye contact particularly seems to provide information on human readiness to communicate; when there is such an ostensive cue, dogs tend to follow human communicative gestures more often. However, little is known about how such cues influence the production of communicative signals (e.g. gaze alternation and sustained gaze) in dogs. In the current study, in order to get an unreachable food, dogs needed to communicate with their owners in several conditions that differ according to the direction of owners' visual cues, namely gaze, head, eyes, and availability to make eye contact. Results provided evidence that pet dogs did not rely on details of owners' direction of visual attention. Instead, they relied on the whole combination of visual cues and especially on the owners' availability to make eye contact. Dogs increased visual communicative behaviors when they established eye contact with their owners, a different strategy compared to apes and baboons, that intensify vocalizations and gestures when human is not visually attending. The difference in strategy is possibly due to distinct status: domesticated vs wild. Results are discussed taking into account the ecological relevance of the task since pet dogs live in human environment and face similar situations on a daily basis during their lives.

  13. Brief communication: DNA from early Holocene American dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Raul Y; Belknap, Samuel L; Sobolik, Kristin D; Ingraham, Robert C; Cleeland, Lauren M; Lewis, Cecil M

    2011-08-01

    We present the oldest genetically identified dog in the Americas, directly dated to 9,260 ± 170 Cal. B.P. The DNA was extracted from an occipital condyle imbedded in a human paleofecal sample from Hinds Cave in southwest Texas. A 368 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial genome control region was sequenced. These data were analyzed with comparable data, which included other ancient dogs and extant dogs, wolves and coyotes from around the world. Compiled with published data, our results characterize ancient American dogs within clades rooted by Eurasian wolves. In the Americas, these data provide no evidence of local interbreeding with wolves. This is a departure from the genetic pattern in other areas of the world where interbreeding with local wolf populations is apparent. Our discovery of domestic dog bone in a human paleofecal sample provides the earliest direct evidence for human consumption of dogs in the New World. These data support the hypothesis that dogs were a food source for early Paleoamericans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R; Dorey, Nicole R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2010-05-01

    Over the last two decades increasing evidence for an acute sensitivity to human gestures and attentional states in domestic dogs has led to a burgeoning of research into the social cognition of this highly familiar yet previously under-studied animal. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) have been shown to be more successful than their closest relative (and wild progenitor) the wolf, and than man's closest relative, the chimpanzee, on tests of sensitivity to human social cues, such as following points to a container holding hidden food. The "Domestication Hypothesis" asserts that during domestication dogs evolved an inherent sensitivity to human gestures that their non-domesticated counterparts do not share. According to this view, sensitivity to human cues is present in dogs at an early age and shows little evidence of acquisition during ontogeny. A closer look at the findings of research on canine domestication, socialization, and conditioning, brings the assumptions of this hypothesis into question. We propose the Two Stage Hypothesis, according to which the sensitivity of an individual animal to human actions depends on acceptance of humans as social companions, and conditioning to follow human limbs. This offers a more parsimonious explanation for the domestic dog's sensitivity to human gestures, without requiring the use of additional mechanisms. We outline how tests of this new hypothesis open directions for future study that offer promise of a deeper understanding of mankind's oldest companion.

  15. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  16. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Dolan, Emily D.; Reid, Pamela; Slater, Margaret R.; Mulligan, Hugh; Weiss, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Recent research has called into question the value of the food guarding assessment as a predictive tool for determining the safety of shelter dogs. This study examined the effect of eliminating the food guarding assessment in nine U.S. animal shelters. It was found that when the food guarding assessment was removed, bites or other injuries to staff or adopters did not increase. However, dogs exhibiting food guarding behavior were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized than dogs in the general population. Based on previous research and this study’s findings, the authors recommend that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. Abstract Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs) and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. PMID:29419746

  17. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity in healthy and diseased dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Background: In people, increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen has been associated with increased risk of thrombosis, and decreased TAFI may contribute to bleeding diathesis. TAFI activity in dogs has been described in experimental models, but not in dogs...... with spontaneous disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare TAFI activity in healthy dogs with TAFI activity in dogs with spontaneous disease. Methods: Plasma samples from 20 clinically healthy Beagles and from 35 dogs with various diseases were analyzed using a commercial chromogenic assay...... that measured TAFI activity relative to activity in standardized pooled human plasma. Results: Median TAFI activity for the 20 Beagles was 46.1% (range 32.2-70.8%) compared with 62.6% (29.1-250%) for the 35 diseased dogs, and 14/35 (40%) had TAFI activities >the upper limit for controls. The highest individual...

  18. Jealousy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  19. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  20. Sniffer dogs unleashed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-07

    A 10-year conservation project to restore the native bird populations of South Georgia has involved eradicating invasive rodent species. As Daniel Gillett explains, specially trained sniffer dogs are an important part of 'team rat'. British Veterinary Association.

  1. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  2. Is radurisation commercially feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 an international expert committee, convened by the three organisations sponsoring the International Food Irradiation Project, viz the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, declared all radurised foods irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) as unconditionally safe and nutritionally adequate (ie wholesome) for humans. However, the application of this new food-processing technique on a full commercial scale will undoubtedly be determined by factors such as the efficacy of the process in comparison with existing techniques, cost of operation, and finally, acceptance by the food handler and consumer. Studies in various countries, including South Africa, during the past decade have demonstrated that radiation in most cases in combination with pre-irradiation heat treatment or post irradiation cold storage, could play an important role in improving the quality of fresh produce by extension of shelf life (sometimes dramatic), by hygienisation (eg the elimination of harmful pathogens or a reduction of potentially harmful chemical residues) and lastly by improved quarantine control. Cost and energy-comsumption analyses indicate that radurisation is an energy-saving process in comparison with both heating and cooling and, even though the process is capital intensive, that substantial cost benefits can accrue when large quantities of certain foodstuffs are processed. Consumer acceptance trials, both locally and abroad, have shown that if the consumer is properly informed, he can be convinced of the advantages which radurised foods could offer. A National Steering Committee was recently consituted. This committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and co-ordinates all aspects of the test marketing of radurised food on a national level

  3. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of continuous (22 hr/day), whole-body γ-irradiation in the pure-bred beagle dog. Dogs were exposed continuously until death at one of four different exposure rates ranging from 5 to 35 R/day. The study is still 2441 days (approximately 6.7 yr) of irradiation. The experiment has narrowed to the dogs receiving 5 R/day and the controls. A group of dogs receiving one of these relatively low daily exposure rates may exhibit remarkably varied responses, both in survival times in the γ field and in ultimate causes of death. The basis for these large differences in responses of individual dogs remains mostly unexplained, but is presumed to reside in their genetic composition. The composite result in the study, however, demonstrates an orderly, step-wise appearance of clinical end points resulting from radiation-induced damage to the blood-forming tissues. About one-half the dogs exposed continuously to 10 R/day develop bone marrow aplasia and die of anemia, while the other one-half develop bone marrow hyperplasias and die of malignancies, usually myelogenous leukemias. In dogs exposed at rates greater than 10 R/day, aplastic bone marrows predominate; while hyperplastic responses are the dominant cause of death at 5 R/day. Only among the most recent deaths of dogs exposed continuously to either 10 or 5 R/day, have there appeared terminal causes of death unrelated to hematopoietic injury. These causes (degenerative and/or inflammatory disease and cancers of tissue other than bone marrow) suggest that we are now beginning to define the combinations of exposure rate and time of exposure that allow expressions of damage by tissues outside the hematopoietic system. (U.S.)

  4. Efficacy of Enrofloxacin in the Treatment of Recurrent Pyoderma in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with a history of more than three episodes of skin infections in a period of one year were selected for a study on recurrent pyoderma. Oral enrofloxacin along with appropriate simultaneous medication for the underlying associated conditions were chosen as therapy for recurrent pyoderma in dogs. Response to therapy was excellent in all the cases. Improvement was noticed by 12 to 20 days and 20 to 26 days in recurrent superficial and deep pyoderma respectively. Relapse occurred in one dog by 45 days due to re-introduction of allergic food. Enrofloxacin proved to be an effective, safe and convenient antibiotic for the treatment of recurrent pyoderma in dogs.

  5. Specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for analysis of residual allergenic food proteins in commercial bottled wine fined with egg white, milk, and nongrape-derived tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jennifer M; Apostolou, Effie; de Leon, Maria P; Stockley, Creina S; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-01-23

    Regulations introduced by the Food Standards Australia New Zealand in December 2002 require all wine and wine product labels in Australia to identify the presence of a processing aid, additive or other ingredient, which is known to be a potential allergen. The objective of this study was to establish sensitive assays to detect and measure allergenic proteins from commonly used processing aids in final bottled wine. Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed and established for the proteins casein, ovalbumin, and peanut. Lower limits of detection of these proteins were 8, 1, and 8 ng/mL, respectively. A panel of 153 commercially available bottled Australian wines were tested by these ELISA, and except for two red wines known to contain added whole eggs, residuals of these food allergens were not detected in any wine. These findings are consistent with a lack of residual potentially allergenic egg-, milk-, or nut-derived processing aids in final bottled wine produced in Australia according to good manufacturing practice at a concentration that could cause an adverse reaction in egg, milk, or peanut/tree-nut allergic adult consumers.

  6. Evaluation of a commercial kit of chromatographic immunoassay for detection of canine distemper antigen in dogs with systemic or neurologic signs of the diseaseAvaliação de um kit de imunoensaio cromatográfico para detecção do antígeno do vírus da cinomose em cães com sinais sistêmicos ou neurológicos da doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Cézar Curti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The canine distemper is a multisystemic disease highly contagious which can lead to serious consequences and even to death. Different types of tests can be used for the ante mortem diagnosis of canine distemper, however, due to unpredictable course of the disease, the final diagnosis remains uncertain in some cases. We evaluated in 33 dogs with suspected canine distemper, the effectiveness of a commercial test for detection of antigen (Ag of canine distemper, still comparing the frequency of clinical and neurological signs among positive and negative dogs. In 27/33 dogs the material was collected from the ocular mucosa, in 5/33 dogs the test was performed with CSF and in one animal material was collected from the ocular mucosa and CSF. In 14 dogs was performed also the RT-PCR technique. The Ag test was positive in 7/13 confirmed cases of canine distemper, all of them with systemic signs, but in dogs that had only neurologic signs, the antigen test was negative. In six dogs the antigen test was negative, however the RT-PCR was positive. The results of this study showed that the antigen test did not help for the canine distemper diagnosis in many cases with systemic and neurologic signs, still allowing that several cases had false-negative results. A cinomose é uma doença multisistêmica altamente contagiosa, que pode levar a graves sequelas e até ao óbito. Diferentes tipos de exames podem ser usados para o diagnóstico ante mortem da cinomose, entretanto, devido ao curso imprevisível da doença, o diagnóstico final permanece incerto em alguns casos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do teste comercial de imunoensaio cromatográfico para detecção de antígeno (Ag da cinomose em 33 cães com suspeita de cinomose canina, comparandose ainda a frequência dos sinais clínicos e neurológicos entre cães positivos e negativos. Em 27/33 o material foi coletado da mucosa ocular, em 5/33 foi coletado do LCR e em um animal o

  7. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in dog with chronic enteropathies: double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Simona; Fracassi, Federico; Bresciani, Francesca; Galuppi, Roberta; Diana, Alessia; Linta, Nikolina; Bettini, Giuliano; Morini, Maria; Pietra, Marco

    2018-03-03

    Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat acute and chronic enteropathies in humans, but to date, no studies have evaluated the use of this yeast in dogs. The current study, a prospective non-randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, evaluated the effects of S boulardii in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE). Four healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CE were included. In healthy dogs, S boulardii was administered for 10 days. Possible short-term adverse effects were recorded, and quantitative stool cultures for yeasts were performed. In dogs with CE, S boulardii or a placebo was administered in addition to standard treatment protocols. Canine Chronic Enteropathy Clinical Activity Index, abdominal ultrasonography, gastroenteroscopy and histology were performed at the time of diagnosis and after 60 days of treatment. In healthy dogs, S boulardii reached a steady state in five days and was completely eliminated on day 4 after administration. No short-term side effects were seen. Clinical activity index, stool frequency, stool consistency and body condition score improved significantly in dogs with CE receiving S boulardii versus the placebo. In conclusion, S boulardii can be safely used in dogs with CE and seems to achieve better control of clinical signs than standard therapy alone. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Cystic meningiomas in 2 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, R.S.; Kornegay, J.N.; Lane, S.B.; Thrall, D.L.; Page, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Two dogs with signs of forebrain disease had hypodense lesions on computed tomography evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the first dog showed a hypointense lesion on the T1-weighted scan and a hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted scanning. At surgery, both dogs had a primary cystic intracranial lesion, and the abnormal tissue adjacent to the cyst had histological features of meningioma. Each dog underwent whole brain irradiation after surgery, and 1 dog lived for 3 years after treatment. While uncommon, meningioma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with cystic intracranial lesions

  9. Dogs account for body orientation but not visual barriers when responding to pointing gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L.; Krupenye, Christopher; Hare, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In a series of 4 experiments we investigated whether dogs use information about a human’s visual perspective when responding to pointing gestures. While there is evidence that dogs may know what humans can and cannot see, and that they flexibly use human communicative gestures, it is unknown if they can integrate these two skills. In Experiment 1 we first determined that dogs were capable of using basic information about a human’s body orientation (indicative of her visual perspective) in a point following context. Subjects were familiarized with experimenters who either faced the dog and accurately indicated the location of hidden food, or faced away from the dog and (falsely) indicated the un-baited container. In test trials these cues were pitted against one another and dogs tended to follow the gesture from the individual who faced them while pointing. In Experiments 2–4 the experimenter pointed ambiguously toward two possible locations where food could be hidden. On test trials a visual barrier occluded the pointer’s view of one container, while dogs could always see both containers. We predicted that if dogs could take the pointer’s visual perspective they should search in the only container visible to the pointer. This hypothesis was supported only in Experiment 2. We conclude that while dogs are skilled both at following human gestures, and exploiting information about others’ visual perspectives, they may not integrate these skills in the manner characteristic of human children. PMID:24611643

  10. An Invasive Vector of Zoonotic Disease Sustained by Anthropogenic Resources: The Raccoon Dog in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were ...

  11. Food irradiation: global aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinning, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a commercial activity, food irradiation is twenty years old, but is backed by nearly eighty years of research on gamma irradiation and sixty years knowledge of application of the technology to food. An overview is given of the global boom and then the hiatus in its legislative and commercial applications. It is emphasised that in Australia, the overseas experience provides a number of models for proceeding further for food manufacturers, consumers and Government. 13 refs

  12. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p dogs to various types of endoparasitism while the variables breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), gender, and type of food were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall endoparasitism revealed that dogs >1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during

  13. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Mafumi; Abe, Takao; Nakatsu, Susumu; Kawauchi, Sakio; Sano, Akihiko; Horii, Akira; Kano, Yasumasa; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats

  14. Dietary Variation and Evolution of Gene Copy Number among Dog Breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Reiter

    Full Text Available Prolonged human interactions and artificial selection have influenced the genotypic and phenotypic diversity among dog breeds. Because humans and dogs occupy diverse habitats, ecological contexts have likely contributed to breed-specific positive selection. Prior to the advent of modern dog-feeding practices, there was likely substantial variation in dietary landscapes among disparate dog breeds. As such, we investigated one type of genetic variant, copy number variation, in three metabolic genes: glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR, phytanol-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PHYH, and pancreatic α-amylase 2B (AMY2B. These genes code for proteins that are responsible for metabolizing dietary products that originate from distinctly different food types: sugar, meat, and starch, respectively. After surveying copy number variation among dogs with diverse dietary histories, we found no correlation between diet and positive selection in either GCKR or PHYH. Although it has been previously demonstrated that dogs experienced a copy number increase in AMY2B relative to wolves during or after the dog domestication process, we demonstrate that positive selection continued to act on amylase copy number in dog breeds that consumed starch-rich diets in time periods after domestication. Furthermore, we found that introgression with wolves is not responsible for deterioration of positive selection on AMY2B among diverse dog breeds. Together, this supports the hypothesis that the amylase copy number expansion is found universally in dogs.

  15. Oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing prevent gastrooesophageal reflux disease in dogs after oesophageal anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ji-Gang; Liu, Quan-Xing; Den, Xu-Feng; Min, Jia-Xin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficiency of oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique in decreasing the rate of postoperative gastrooesophageal reflux disease in a dog model. METHODS: We operated on 10 dogs in this study. First, we resected a 5-cm portion of the distal oesophagus and then restored the continuity of the oesophageal and gastric walls by end-to-end anastomosis. A group of five dogs was subjected to the oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique, whereas another group (control) of five dogs was subjected to the stapling technique after oesophagectomy. The symptom of gastrooesophageal reflux was recorded by 24-h pH oesophageal monitoring. Endoscopy and barium swallow examination were performed on all dogs. Anastomotic leakage was observed by X-ray imaging, whereas benign anastomotic stricture and mucosal damage were observed by endoscopy. RESULTS: None of the 10 dogs experienced anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy. Four dogs in the new technology group resumed regular feeding, whereas only two of the dogs in the control group tolerated solid food intake. pH monitoring demonstrated that 25% of the dogs in the experimental group exhibited reflux and that none had mucosal damage consistent with reflux. Conversely, both reflux and mucosal damage were observed in all dogs in the control group. CONCLUSION: The oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique can improve the postoperative quality of life through the long-term elimination of reflux oesophagitis and decreased stricture formation after primary oesophageal anastomosis. PMID:25516655

  16. Free-ranging dogs show age related plasticity in their ability to follow human pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; N, Nikhil Dev; Gupta, Shreya; Sau, Shubhra; Sarkar, Rohan; Biswas, Arpita; Banerjee, Arunita; Babu, Daisy; Mehta, Diksha; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance. Humans can act both as food providers and as threats to these dogs, and thus understanding human gestures can be a survival need for the free-ranging dogs. We tested the responsiveness of such dogs in urban areas toward simple human pointing cues using dynamic proximal points. Our experiment showed that pups readily follow proximal pointing and exhibit weaker avoidance to humans, but stop doing so at the later stages of development. While juveniles showed frequent and prolonged gaze alternations, only adults adjusted their behaviour based on the reliability of the human experimenter after being rewarded. Thus free-ranging dogs show a tendency to respond to human pointing gestures, with a certain level of behavioural plasticity that allows learning from ontogenic experience.

  17. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  18. Improving guide dog team play with accessible dog toys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauser, S.; Wakkary, R.L.; Neustaedter, C.

    2014-01-01

    People with vision impairment have been a longstanding well-recognized user group addressed in HCI. Despite the recent interest in studying sighted dog owners and their pets in HCI, there is a noticeable gap in the field with regards to research on visually impaired owners and their dogs (guide dog

  19. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... FDA Consumer Health Information Your 9-year old dog has been drinking a lot more lately and ...

  20. Augmented collar for assistance dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Lucidarme , Philippe; Pesty , Sylvie; Duhaut , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present briefly our reflexion on how to communicate with a dog using embedded devices. We also present the prototype collar we made in order to improve the communication between an assistance dog and his disabled master.

  1. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs.

  2. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  3. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs: effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, A; Bjørnvad, C R

    2016-12-01

    In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet), flaxseed mucilage or flaxseed mucilage and calcium. Feces from the past 2 days of each period were collected for analysis. Owners recorded fecal score (1-7: 1=very hard/dry feces, 2-3=ideal and 7=diarrhea). Apparent digestibility of fat was lower in both flaxseed mucilage diet (94.5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Pdigestibility in flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet being significantly lower than the diet supplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, Pdigestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  6. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Beynen, A.C.; Borg, van der J.A.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation

  7. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  9. Aging of Attentiveness in Border Collies and Other Pet Dog Breeds: The Protective Benefits of Lifelong Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Durga; Virányi, Zsófia; Wallis, Lisa J; Huber, Ludwig; Serra, Jessica; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Aging of attentiveness affects cognitive functions like perception and working memory, which can seriously impact communication between dogs and humans, potentially hindering training and cooperation. Previous studies have revealed that aged laboratory beagles and pet Border collies (BC) show a decline in selective attention. However, much less is known about the aging of attentiveness in pet dogs in general rather than in specific breeds. Using 185 pet dogs (75 BC and 110 dogs of other breeds) divided into three age groups [late adulthood (6- attentional capture, sustained and selective attention in older dogs in order to explore if prior results in BC are generalizable and to evaluate the influence of lifelong training on measures of attention. Each dog's lifelong training score (ranging from 0 to 52) was calculated from a questionnaire filled in by the owners listing what kinds of training the dog participated in during its entire life. Dogs were tested in two tasks; the first, measuring attentional capture and sustained attention toward two stimuli (toy and human); and the second, measuring selective attention by means of clicker training for eye contact and finding food on the floor. In the first task, results revealed a significant effect of age but no effect of lifelong training on latency to orient to the stimuli. Duration of looking decreased with age and increased with lifelong training. In the second task, while lifelong training decreased the latency of dogs to form eye contact, aged dogs needed longer to find food. BC did not differ from other dogs in any measures of attention except latency to find food. In conclusion, aged dogs showed a decline in attentional capture and sustained attention demonstrating that these tests are sensitive to detect aging of attentiveness in older pet dogs. Importantly, selective attention remained unchanged with age and lifelong training seemed to delay or reduce the aging of attentiveness, further highlighting the

  10. Strategies in marketing new food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    It is critical to the successful commercialization of the irradiated food process to secure either a full-time marketing person or a consulting organization to aid food industries in the successful world-wide commercialization of new irradiated food products. Expert advice/guidance is needed to help attain the goals on commercialization of this new product

  11. Description of a dynamic in vitro model of the dog gastrointestinal tract and an evaluation of various transit times for protein and calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets-Peeters, M.J.E.; Minekus, M.; Havenaar, R.; Schaafsma, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to manufacture complete and balanced dog diets, it is important to know the nutrient requirements of dogs and the availability of these nutrients from food. As pet food manufacturers are restricted in their options for (invasive) animal studies, due to ethical constraints, it is important

  12. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs,