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Sample records for commercial dairy products

  1. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.G.; Sutton, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  2. Studies of 90Sr presence in milk and commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, M.; Solecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present the studies of radiological level of some commercial dairy products in Mazovian, Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lublin regions. They were carried out for 27 commercial dairy products such as two specimens of lean cottage cheese, three specimens of cottage cheese containing a limited percentage of fat, three specimens of fat cottage cheese, three specimens of milk containing 3.2% of fat, three specimens of milk containing 2.0% of fat, two specimens of sour cream containing 12% of fat, three specimens of sour cream containing 18% of fat, one specimen of 30% whipping cream, two specimens of homogenized (strawberry and vanilla) cheese, three specimens of hard rennet cheese, one specimen of powdered milk, one specimen of goat milk. For the given commercial dairy products there were calculated effective doses (?Sv) obtained after consumption of 1 kg contaminated product for different age groups. (author)

  3. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  4. New commercial dairy products in the feeding of children aged 1 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Abramova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is of particular importance in young children who are characterized by exceptionally high growth rates in conjunction with scare resources of nutrients in their body. The physiological features of infants suggest that this active life period in the child requires adequate attitude towards his nutrition that largely differs from that during the first year of life. The paper considers the issues of organizing the nutrition of children aged 1 to 3 years, by using commercial infant dairy products — new combined products — sterilized milk- and fruit-milk-based desserts and milk cocktails for infant feeding. 

  5. Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from traditional and commercial dairy products marketed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate, enterotoxigenecity, and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from dairy products in Iran. From September 2010 to July 2011, a total of 347 samples from various dairy products, traditional and commercial, were collected from randomly selected retail stores. Overall, 20 samples (5.8% were found to be contaminated with S. aureus. The highest prevalence of S. aureus was found in traditional cheese (11.1%, followed by traditional ice-cream (5.9%, cream (5.6%, and butter (5.3%. The ability to synthesize classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA-E was determined in 7 of 20 (35% isolates by using ELISA. SE type C was the most common enterotoxin found in the isolated S. aureus (42.9%, followed by SE type A (28.6%, SEA+SEC and SE type D (14.3%. Of the 20 isolates, 16 (80.0% were positive for one or more entrotoxin genes and 8 different genotypes were observed. Susceptibilities of the isolates were determined for 14 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Most of the isolates (95.0% were resistant to one or more two antimicrobial agent and 45.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more of drugs. Resistance to ampicillin was the most common finding (55.0%, followed by tetracycline (40.0% and penicillin G (30.0%. The results of this study showed the wide spread of enterotoxigenic and multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in traditional dairy products in Iran and highlighted their public health hazards.

  6. The economics of optimal health and productivity in the commercial dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, D T

    1999-08-01

    Dairy production practices are changing; in order to remain viable, producers must optimise the health and productivity of dairy herds in economic terms. Health care is important in economic terms because disease can substantially reduce the productivity of individual animals. Preventive disease control programmes can thus result in economic gains for the dairy producer. The author describes new approaches to preventing postpartum diseases and dealing with fertility problems which can result from these diseases. Other aspects of dairy production are also changing, employing new technologies where these are judged to be profitable. Innovations include: the use of bovine somatotropin; systematic breeding/culling programmes; new mathematical modelling techniques to determine optimum feed composition and to define optimal growth levels for accelerated heifer-rearing programmes; the use of computers to collect, store and analyse data on animal production and health; and semen selection programmes. Increasing awareness of bio-security is also vital, not least because of the large investment present in dairy herds. Whatever practices are employed, they must offer economic returns to producers that compete with alternative uses of capital. Optimal levels of disease control must be determined for a particular production situation, taking into account not only the economic health of the producer, but also the well-being of the animals.

  7. Experimental effect of ozone upon the microbial flora of commercially produced dairy fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Kourkoutas, Y; Stefanis, C; Vavias, S; Voidarou, C; Mantzourani, I; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2017-04-04

    Ozone was used to control spoilage microorganisms during the manufacturing of dairy products. Ozone stream was applied onto the surface of freshly filled yoghurt cups just before storage for curd development in order to prevent cross contamination from spoilage airborne microorganisms. Accordingly, brine solution was bubbled with ozone for various periods of time and used for ripening of white (feta type) cheese. Both products were subjected to a continuous monitoring of microbial load and also tested for their sensorial properties. In ozonated yoghurt samples there was a reduction in mould counts of approximately 0.6Logcfu/g (25.1%) by the end of the monitoring period in relation to the control samples. In white cheese ripened with ozonated brine (1.3mg/L O 3 , NaCl 5%) it seems that ozone treatment during the two months of observation reduced some of the mould load but without offering any advantages over the use of traditional brine (NaCl 7%). However, some sensorial alterations were observed, probably due to the organic load in the brine which deactivates ozone in early stages of application. It is concluded that, if the factors of time and concentration of ozone are configured properly, ozonation could be a promising approach safeguarding the production of some dairy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS COMMERCIALIZED IN VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA - BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Pinto da Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the microbiological quality and prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk, cheese and butter. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in the city of da Conquista, Bahia Vitoria, whose samples were randomly selected in open market without inspection record in a dairy region and county supermarkets with state inspection record and federal. The samples were collected between the period May-August 2015 were determined physicochemical parameters temperature and acidity and performed microbiological testing for E. coli, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. A total of 42 samples was evaluated. The amounts recorded temperature and acidity of all samples were found above permitted by law. Microbiological analysis showed that 54.8% (23/42 of the samples showed up unfit for human consumption and were classified as "unacceptable". It was not detected the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms L. monocytogenes and Salmonella in any of the samples. 14.3% of the samples was found the presence of E. coli (curd cheese, butter and fresh cheese. The results of this work show critical hygienic conditions in milk and related products that can endanger the health of consumers. Good Manufacturing and Handling Practices play a key role in the quality of these products is ensured. Thus, the continuing education for producers and handlers milk products is necessary

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS COMMERCIALIZED IN VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA - BAHIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Cabral Pinto da Fonseca; Joice Neves Reis; Milena Soares dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the microbiological quality and prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk, cheese and butter. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in the city of da Conquista, Bahia Vitoria, whose samples were randomly selected in open market without inspection record in a dairy region and county supermarkets with state inspection record and federal. The samples were collected between ...

  10. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Quality characteristics of selected dairy products in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Djekic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess and compare the compliance of the chosen quality characteristics of commercially available dairy products with the requirements of the current Serbian legislation. A total of 706 samples of liquid milks (pasteurized and UHT-treated, fermented milks (liquid and solid yoghurt and milk powders (skimmed and whole milk powder were collected from the market and analysed for milk fat content, pH value, water content and protein content, depending on the type of product. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the dairy plants capacities in which the analysed dairy products were produced. Except the fermented milk samples with a declared milk fat content of 3.2 %, all other analysed compositional and quality parameters of the selected dairy products were in compliance with the current legislation. It was observed that dairy plants of smaller capacity had a higher variation of quality characteristics of dairy products.

  13. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIAL DAIRY FERMENTED BEVERAGES

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    KAMILLA SOARES MENDONÇA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Technical Regulation on Identity and Quality of Whey-based Drinks establish few parameters to dairy beverages, which may impair standardized product providing to the consumer. The ingathering of the physicochemical characteristics provides information that allow the standardization of the product and provide safety to the consumer, whereas the rheological characterization in important for the processing. Samples of five commercial brands of strawberry flavored dairy beverages, with ten to fourteen days of manufacture, from three different batches were analyzed in triplicate in order to study the percentage of protein, fat, pH, titratable acidity, total dry extract, fixed mineral residue and lactose. It was performed a colorimetric determination and verification of the presence of starch .The rheological tests were carried out in a rotational rheometer and the data was adjusted by Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The statistical analysis was executed by an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test with 5% significance. The analysis showed that the percentages of lipids of three brands were below the required by legislation. Furthermore, the presence of starch in the composition was detected for all analyzed beverages. Both for the physicochemical and rheological parameters the brands of dairy beverage examined differed between themselves in several parameters. These results indicated the need to establish well-defined identity and quality standards aiming at product quality control and consumer safety improvement.

  14. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  15. DAIRY PRODUCTION: A NUTRITION INTERVENTION IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAIRY PRODUCTION: A NUTRITION INTERVENTION IN A SUGARCANE GROWING AREA IN WESTERN KENYA. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The influence of dairy production and a select number of household characteristics on the children's nutritional status was evaluated.

  16. Relationships between milk mid-IR predicted gastro-enteric methane production and the technical and financial performance of commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhez, P; Wyzen, B; Dalcq, A-C; Colinet, F G; Reding, E; Vanlierde, A; Dehareng, F; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H

    2017-12-22

    Considering economic and environmental issues is important in ensuring the sustainability of dairy farms. The objective of this study was to investigate univariate relationships between lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric methane (CH4) production predicted from milk mid-IR (MIR) spectra and technico-economic variables by the use of large scale and on-farm data. A total of 525 697 individual CH4 predictions from milk MIR spectra (MIR-CH4 (g/day)) of milk samples collected on 206 farms during the Walloon milk recording scheme were used to create a MIR-CH4 prediction for each herd and year (HYMIR-CH4). These predictions were merged with dairy herd accounting data. This allowed a simultaneous study of HYMIR-CH4 and 42 technical and economic variables for 1024 herd and year records from 2007 to 2014. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess significant relationships (P<0.05). Low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with, amongst others, lower fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) yield (r=0.18), lower milk fat and protein content (r=0.38 and 0.33, respectively), lower quantity of milk produced from forages (r=0.12) and suboptimal reproduction and health performance (e.g. longer calving interval (r=-0.21) and higher culling rate (r=-0.15)). Concerning economic results, low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with lower gross margin per cow (r=0.19) and per litre FPCM (r=0.09). To conclude, this study suggested that low lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric CH4 production tended to be associated with more extensive or suboptimal management practices, which could lead to lower profitability. The observed low correlations suggest complex interactions between variables due to the use of on-farm data with large variability in technical and management practices.

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledenbach, Loralyn H.; Marshall, Robert T.

    The wide array of available dairy foods challenges the microbiologist, engineer, and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes, and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments. Troublesome spoilage microorganisms include aerobic psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, molds, heterofermentative lactobacilli, and spore-forming bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce large amounts of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and the extent of recontamination of pasteurized fluid milk products with these bacteria is a major determinant of their shelf life. Fungal spoilage of dairy foods is manifested by the presence of a wide variety of metabolic by-products, causing off-odors and flavors, in addition to visible changes in color or texture.

  18. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  19. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  20. Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René

    2014-05-01

    Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life.

  1. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  2. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  3. Food preference for milk and dairy products

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    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  4. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  5. Competitiveness regulation of dairy products production in the Crimea

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    Domozhilkina Zh. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the article outlines the results of studying the major problems concerning supporting competitiveness and quality of dairy products in the Crimea. The researchers compared the level of competitiveness of the dairy enterprise ltd. «Бег» with other brands of milk and suggested measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of competitiveness management of dairy products in this region.

  6. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  7. Biosecurity and mastitis in intensive dairy production

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    Boboš Stanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034

  8. 76 FR 34004 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... other year. During each visit, AMS reviews applicable sales transactions records for at least the 4 most recent weeks. In some cases, AMS may review sales records for periods of up to 2 years. AMS verifies that... products to report sales information for a mandatory dairy product reporting program. The amendment further...

  9. 77 FR 8717 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... such entity at least once every other year. During each visit, AMS reviews applicable sales transactions records for at least the 4 most recent weeks. In some cases, AMS may review sales records for up... products to report sales information for a mandatory dairy product reporting program. The amendment further...

  10. Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, De Cecile A.M.; Monaghan, Ross M.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Gourley, Cameron J.P.; Oenema, Oene; Mark Powell, J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is invaluable for maintaining agricultural production, but its use, and particularly inefficient use, can lead to environmental losses. This paper reviews N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus indicators for dairy production systems to assess their utility for optimising N use outcomes

  11. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  12. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  13. BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY THERMOPHILIC DAIRY STREPTOCOCCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; NEU, TR; VANDERMEI, HC

    Biosurfactant production of eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains, isolated from heat exchanger plates in the downstream side of the regenerator section of pasteurizers in the dairy industry has been measured using axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P). Strains were grown in M17

  14. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  15. 7 CFR 58.519 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Material § 58.519 Dairy products. (a) Raw skim milk. All raw skim milk obtained from a secondary source... above. Skim milk after being pasteurized and separated shall be cooled to 45 °F. or lower unless the... used, shall be prepared from raw milk or skim milk that meets the same quality requirements outlined...

  16. DAIRY DEREGULATION AND LOW-INPUT DAIRY PRODUCTION: A BIOECONOMIC EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could affect the utilization of resources by milk producers and the profitability of dairy production. In this study we examine the feed mix that dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, under partial and total deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability. The results of this research demonstrate that profitable low-input dairy is constrained by the most limiting resource,...

  17. Effect of different dry period lengths on milk production and somatic cell count in subsequent lactation on commercial Dutch dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Shortening the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance in early lactation. It is well known that both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactations. In most of these studies milk production data were

  18. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  19. Commercialization of DOE isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the business structure and operations of MAC Isotopes (MACI) L.L.C., a newly created business resulting from the commercialization of a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). MACI began its commercial operations on October 1, 1996, and is the first U.S. commercial isotope production business to result from the commercialization of DOE facilities or programs. The commercialization was the culmination of an -2-yr competitive procurement process by the DOE and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). MACI was selected from this competitive process as the commercial business of choice on the basis of providing the best value to the DOE/LMITCO and having the greatest potential for commercial success

  20. Productivity in small dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 10 years the IAEA has assisted the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Republica del Paraguay in the area of animal production, through technical cooperation projects and research programs with emphasis on milk production. This will got the laboratory equipment, provision of materials and chemical reagents, as well as the training of technicians Paraguayans in specialized centers abroad, which enabled techniques used in the RIA and Ultrasound, used to monitor the reproductive and officials artificial insemination of cattle, with the consequent improvement in milk production [es

  1. Selective and sensitive determination of lactose in low-lactose dairy products with HPAEC-PAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Scheppingen, Wibo B; van Hilten, Piet H; Vijverberg, Marieke P; Duchateau, Alexander L L

    2017-08-15

    The demand for low lactose dairy products is increasing and more different lactose free food is commercially available. The level of lactose in these products decreased during the last years and nowadays a concentration of lactose free". For the determination of the lactose concentrations in these dairy products a sensitive analysis method is needed. We developed a method for the determination of low concentrations of lactose in a wide range of dairy products. A simple sample preparation with dilution, centrifugation and ultrafiltration is efficient for the isolation of lactose from the sample matrix. In this paper, a new HPAEC-PAD analysis on a CarboPac PA100 column gives a good separation of lactose from the other saccharides. This separation in combination with the PAD detector yields a selective and sensitive method for the quantification at the desired concentrations of lactose in low lactose dairy products. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon-Delgadillo, M I; Lopez-Hernandez, A; Wijaya, I; Rankin, S A

    2012-03-01

    Starter distillates (SDL) are used as ingredients in the formulation of many food products such as cottage cheese, margarine, vegetable oil spreads, processed cheese, and sour cream to increase the levels of naturally occurring buttery aroma associated with fermentation. This buttery aroma results, in part, from the presence of the vicinal dicarbonyl, diacetyl, which imparts a high level of buttery flavor notes and is a key component of SDL. Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a volatile product of citrate metabolism produced by certain bacteria, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum. In the United States, SDL are regarded as generally recognized as safe ingredients, whereby usage in food products is limited by good manufacturing practices. Recently, diacetyl has been implicated as a causative agent in certain lung ailments in plant workers; however, little is published about the volatile composition of SDL and the levels of diacetyl or other flavoring components in finished dairy products. The objective of this work was to characterize the volatile compounds of commercial SDL and to quantitate levels of diacetyl and other Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association-designated high-priority flavoring components found in 18 SDL samples and 24 selected dairy products. Headspace volatiles were assessed using a solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition to diacetyl (ranging from 1.2 to 22,000 μg/g), 40 compounds including 8 organic acids, 4 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, 7 esters, 3 furans, 10 ketones, 2 lactones, 2 sulfur-containing compounds, and 1 terpene were detected in the SDL. A total of 22 food samples were found to contain diacetyl ranging from 4.5 to 2,700 μg/100g. Other volatile compounds, including acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, benzaldehyde, butyric acid, formic acid, furfural, 2,3-heptanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, and propanoic acid, were also identified and quantified in SDL

  3. Preliminary observations on influence of dairy products on biofilm removal from silicone rubber voice prostheses in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; Free, RH; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ; Van der Mei, HC

    We determined oropharyngeal biofilm removal from silicone rubber voice prostheses in an artificial throat after perfusion with different commercially available dairy products, including buttermilk, Lactobacillus casei Shirota fermented milk (Yakult, Yakult Netherlands BV, Almere, The Netherlands),

  4. Evaluation of Odor-Reducing Commercial Products for Animal Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Shuchi S.

    1997-01-01

    Six odor-reducing commercial products were tested for their efficacy in reducing odors from dairy and swine wastes. A sensory panel method was utilized for odor evaluations, in which the panel played an important part. Comparisons between products were made for agitated and unagitated conditions and effect of storage time (three weeks in which experiments were performed). Cotton pieces tied to the mouth of the sample jars were useful in absorbing the odors. Odor-treated jars were observed and...

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A M

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon ...... throughout the value chain – from cow to consumer.......Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...... footprint (CF) of milk and dairy products, namely; estimating CH4 and N2O emissions; accounting for land use change; co-product handling; and defining the functional unit. In addition, the CF is calculated for different types of dairy products, and suggestions on various mitigation measures are presented...

  8. Effects of biotin supplementation on performance and claw lesions on a commercial dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, C; Greenough, P R; Gay, J M; Seymour, W M; Gay, C C

    2003-12-01

    A controlled 14-mo field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of biotin supplementation on hoof lesions, milk production, and reproductive performance in a commercial dairy herd. One hundred seventy cows were studied and supplemented with either 0 or 20 mg/d of biotin by computer feeder. All were housed in the same free-stall facility with the same environment, base diet, and management. The feet of 99 cows were trimmed three times at 6-mo intervals, and hoof health was evaluated. Milk production and fertility data were captured monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. At the final hoof trimming, sole hemorrhages were significantly higher in control (50%) vs. biotin-supplemented animals (24%). The incidents of cows affected with double soles, hoof wall grooves, and heel horn erosion did not differ between control and biotin-supplemented animals. Biotin supplementation of trimmed cows resulted in 878 kg more milk than control cows when compared with previous lactation yield (n = 46 biotin supplemented, n = 48 control cows). At the end of the study, for both trimmed and untrimmed animals, biotin supplemented cows (n = 81) produced 481 kg more milk and 25 kg more fat than the controls (n = 81). There was no interaction between biotin supplementation and hoof trimming on milk production. There were variations in the response of fertility to biotin between age groups. First lactation heifers fed supplemental biotin had significantly fewer days from calving to conception and required fewer inseminations per pregnancy than controls of the same parity.

  9. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxaran, Virginie; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Chaul, Luíza Toubas; Corassin, Carlos Humberto; Barancelli, Giovana Verginia; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Gram, Lone; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease. In Brazil, despite very few reported cases of listeriosis, the pathogen has been repeatedly isolated from dairies. This has led the government to implement specific legislation to reduce the hazard. Here, we determined the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in dairies and retail products emphasize the need for continuous surveillance of this pathogen in the Brazilian dairy industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxaran, Virginie; In Lee, Sarah Hwa; Chaul, Luiza Toubas

    2017-01-01

    the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly...... reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being...... a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L...

  12. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  13. Policies and Strategies for Eco-Friendly Dairy Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Conte, F.; Del Nobile, M.A.; Faccia, M.; Zambrini, A.V.; Conte, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in, and market for, eco-friendly dairy production, a large-scale transition is not taking place. This is partly explained by the institutional context, since dairy production is organized in supply chains that generate interdependencies and, in turn, are subject to

  14. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...

  15. Invited review: Current production trends, farm structures, and economics of the dairy sheep and goat sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulina, G; Milán, M J; Lavín, M P; Theodoridis, A; Morin, E; Capote, J; Thomas, D L; Francesconi, A H D; Caja, G

    2018-05-30

    Dairy small ruminants account for approximately 21% of all sheep and goats in the world, produce around 3.5% of the world's milk, and are mainly located in subtropical-temperate areas of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Dairy sheep are concentrated around the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, where their dairy products are typical ingredients of the human diet. Dairy goats are concentrated in low-income, food-deficit countries of the Indian subcontinent, where their products are a key food source, but are also present in high-income, technologically developed countries. This review evaluates the status of the dairy sheep and goat sectors in the world, with special focus on the commercially and technically developed industries in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain (FGIS). Dairy small ruminants account for a minor part of the total agricultural output in France, Italy, and Spain (0.9 to 1.8%) and a larger part in Greece (8.8%). In FGIS, the dairy sheep industry is based on local breeds and crossbreeds raised under semi-intensive and intensive systems and is concentrated in a few regions in these countries. Average flock size varies from small to medium (140 to 333 ewes/farm), and milk yield from low to medium (85 to 216 L/ewe), showing substantial room for improvement. Most sheep milk is sold to industries and processed into traditional cheese types, many of which are Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses for gourmet and export markets (e.g., Pecorino, Manchego, and Roquefort). By comparing break-even milk price among FGIS countries, we observed the following: (1) most Greek and French dairy sheep farms were unprofitable, with the exception of the intensive Chios farms of Greece; (2) milk price was aligned with cost of production in Italy; and (3) profitable farms coexisted with unprofitable farms in Spain. In FGIS, dairy goat production is based on local breeds raised under more extensive systems than sheep. Compared with sheep, average dairy goat herds are

  16. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  17. Production and calving traits of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-05-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  19. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation of Quality of Cows' Raw Milk: A Case of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha Towns of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Keywords: Bacterial load Ethiopia Horro Guduru Peri-Urban Dairying Raw milk ...

  20. Potential of life cycle assessment to support environmental decision making at commercial dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meul, M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Passel, van S.; Fremaut, D.; Haesaert, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the potential of life cycle assessment (LCA) to support environmental decision making at commercial dairy farms. To achieve this, we follow a four-step method that allows converting environmental assessment results using LCA into case-specific advice for farmers. This is

  1. Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

  2. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater. The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89%, respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.

  3. Prevalence and molecular identification of Chlamydia abortus in commercial dairy goat farms in a hot region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Hernández, Eleuterio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Saltijeral-Oaxaca, Jorge Antonio; Escalante-Ochoa, Cristina; López-Heydeck, Sandra M; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and presence of Chlamydia abortus in Saanen breed female goats from commercial dairy goat farms under intensive production in the municipality of Guanajuato, Mexico. Sera were collected to determine the prevalence of anti-C. abortus IgG antibodies using recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and cell culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to prove the presence of the pathogen in swab samples collected from the vagina and rectum of selected animals. Additionally, foetal tissue samples from a sudden abortion were collected. C. abortus prevalence in female goats of commercial milking farms sampled in Guanajuato, Mexico, was 4.87% (n = 246). Seropositive animals were found in six out of nine (66.6%) dairy goat farms sampled, and prevalence among animals in individual farms ranged between 3.44 and 13.51%. C. abortus was detected using PCR in spleen tissue from the aborted foetus. PCR-based detection, as well as isolation from vaginal and rectal swabs, was not possible in the present study. Isolation through cell culture was also unsuccessful from aborted foetal tissue samples. In conclusion, the results from rELISA and PCR show that C. abortus is present in dairy goat farms in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

    2001-07-20

    Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  5. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  6. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

  7. Non-Invasive Assessment of Dairy Products Using SpatiallyResolved Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Kamran, Faisal; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2015-01-01

    of commercially available milk and yogurt products with three different levels of fat content are measured. These constitute a relevant range of products at a dairy plant. The measured reduced scattering properties of the samples are presented and show a clear discrimination between levels of fat contents as well...... as fermentation. The presented measurement technique and method of analysis is thus suitable for a rapid, noncontact, and non-invasive inspection that can deduce physically interpretable properties....

  8. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  9. Effects of Fermented Dairy Products on Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-07-01

    Fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, have been proposed as a natural source of probiotics to promote intestinal health. Growing evidence shows that modulation of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota can modulate skin disease as well. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of ingested fermented dairy products to modulate skin health and function. We also sought to review the effects of the topical application of dairy products. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans only that examined the relationship between fermented dairy products and skin health. A total of 312 articles were found and a total of 4 studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, while one evaluated the effects of topical application. All studies noted improvement with the use of fermented dairy. Overall, there is early and limited evidence that fermented dairy products, used both topically and orally, may provide benefits for skin health. However, existing studies are limited and further studies will be important to better assess efficacy and the mechanisms involved.

  10. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  11. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of lactation therapy on Staphylococcus aureus transmission dynamics in two commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Schukken, Ynte H

    2013-02-11

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis during lactation can have both direct (individual animal level) and indirect (population level) effects. With a few exceptions, prior research has focused on evaluating the direct effects of mastitis treatment, and to date no controlled field trials have been conducted to test whether beneficial indirect effects of lactation treatment strategies targeting subclinical mastitis can be demonstrated on commercial dairy farms. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge on the impact of such interventions on the population dynamics of specific bacterial strains. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lactation therapy targeting S. aureus subclinical intramammary infection reduces transmission of S. aureus strains within dairy herds. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to determine strain specific infection dynamics in treated and control groups in a split herd trial conducted on 2 commercial dairy farms. The direct effect of 8 days intramammary lactation therapy with pirlimycin hydrochloride was demonstrated by an increased proportion of cure and a reduction in duration of infection in quarters receiving treatment compared to untreated controls. The indirect effect of lactation therapy was demonstrated by reduction of new S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI) caused by the dominant strain type in both herds. Strain typing of representative isolates taken over the duration of all IMI, including pre- and post-treatment isolates, provided more precise estimates of new infection, cure, and re-infection rates. New S. aureus infections in recovered susceptible quarters and the emergence of a new strain type in one herd influenced incidence measures. In addition to demonstrating positive direct effects of lactation therapy, this study provides evidence that treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation can have indirect effects including preventing new IMI and

  13. Effect of lactation therapy on Staphylococcus aureus transmission dynamics in two commercial dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlow John W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of subclinical mastitis during lactation can have both direct (individual animal level and indirect (population level effects. With a few exceptions, prior research has focused on evaluating the direct effects of mastitis treatment, and to date no controlled field trials have been conducted to test whether beneficial indirect effects of lactation treatment strategies targeting subclinical mastitis can be demonstrated on commercial dairy farms. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge on the impact of such interventions on the population dynamics of specific bacterial strains. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lactation therapy targeting S. aureus subclinical intramammary infection reduces transmission of S. aureus strains within dairy herds. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST were used to determine strain specific infection dynamics in treated and control groups in a split herd trial conducted on 2 commercial dairy farms. Results The direct effect of 8 days intramammary lactation therapy with pirlimycin hydrochloride was demonstrated by an increased proportion of cure and a reduction in duration of infection in quarters receiving treatment compared to untreated controls. The indirect effect of lactation therapy was demonstrated by reduction of new S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI caused by the dominant strain type in both herds. Strain typing of representative isolates taken over the duration of all IMI, including pre- and post-treatment isolates, provided more precise estimates of new infection, cure, and re-infection rates. New S. aureus infections in recovered susceptible quarters and the emergence of a new strain type in one herd influenced incidence measures. Conclusion In addition to demonstrating positive direct effects of lactation therapy, this study provides evidence that treatment of subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation can

  14. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E.

    2013-01-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [tr

  15. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar...... to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...... result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent...

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  17. A 100-Year Review: Yogurt and other cultured dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryana, Kayanush J; Olson, Douglas W

    2017-12-01

    The history of the last 100 years of the science and technology of yogurt, sour cream, cultured butter, cultured buttermilk, kefir, and acidophilus milk has been one of continuous development and improvement. Yogurt leads the cultured dairy product category in terms of volume of production in the United States and recent research activity. Legal definitions of yogurt, sour cream and acidified sour cream, and cultured milk, including cultured buttermilk, are presented in the United States Code of Federal Regulations and summarized here. A tremendous amount of research has been done on traditional and novel ingredients, starter cultures and probiotics, mix processing, packaging, chemical aspects, physical and sensory properties, microstructure, specialized products, composition, quality and safety of yogurt and various manufacturing methods, addition of flavorings, viscosity measurements, and probiotic use for sour cream. Over time, there have arisen alternative manufacturing methods, flavor problems, addition of flavorings, and use of probiotics for cultured buttermilk. Many health benefits are provided by yogurt and other cultured dairy products. One hundred years of testing and development have led to wider uses of cultured dairy products and new processing methods for enhanced shelf life and safety. Future research directions will likely include investigating the effects of probiotic dairy products on gut microbiota and overall health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chilean consumers' perception about animal welfare in dairy production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Riveros, José Luis; Köbrich, Claus

    2017-01-01

    production systems and animal welfare, and the main aspects they considered when buying dairy products. A face-to-face interview was conducted on a sample of 501 persons from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The survey was conducted in major supermarkets from 15 different municipalities of Santiago...

  20. Organic Dairy Production Systems in Pennsylvania: A Case Study Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotz, C.A.; Kamphuis, G.H.; Karsten, H.D.; Weaver, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving the economic viability of their operations. Organic production systems vary widely in scale, in practices, and across

  1. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Use Efficiencies in Dairy Production in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.H.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Chen, Q.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk production has greatly increased in China recently, with significant impacts on the cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, nutrient flows within the changing dairy production system are not well quantified. The aim of this study was to increase the quantitative understanding of N

  2. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  3. Texture, not flavor, affects the expected satiation of dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Graaf, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ expectations about the satiating capacity of a food may differ markedly across a broad range of food products, but also between foods within one product category. Our objective is to investigate the role of sensory attributes and means of consumption in the expected satiation of dairy

  4. Texture, not flavor, determines expected satiation of dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ expectations about the satiating capacity of a food may differ markedly across a broad range of food products, but also between foods within one product category. Our objective is to investigate the role of sensory attributes and means of consumption in the expected satiation of dairy

  5. Performance in nondairy drinks of probiotic L. casei strains usually employed in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Mario; Cárdenas, Pamela; Staffolani, Martín; Ciappini, María C; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    The increase in vegetarianism as dietary habit and the increased allergy episodes against dairy proteins fuel the demand for probiotics in nondairy products. Lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content of dairy products can also be considered two additional reasons why some consumers are looking for probiotics in other foods. We aimed at determining cell viability in nondairy drinks and resistance to simulated gastric digestion of commercial probiotic lactobacilli commonly used in dairy products. Lactobacillus casei LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93 were added to different commercial nondairy drinks and viability and resistance to simulated gastric digestion (pH 2.5, 90 min, 37 °C) were monitored along storage (5 and 20 °C). For both strains, at least one nondairy drink was found to offer cell counts around 7 log orders until the end of the storage period. Changes in resistance to simulated gastric digestion were observed as well. Commercial probiotic cultures of L. casei can be added to commercial fruit juices after a carefull selection of the product that warrants cell viability. The resistance to simulated gastric digestion is an easy-to-apply in vitro tool that may contribute to product characterization and may help in the choice of the food matrix when no changes in cell viability are observed along storage. Sensorial evaluation is mandatory before marketing since the product type and storage conditions might influence the sensorial properties of the product due to the possibility of growth and lactic acid production by probiotic bacteria. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Dairy farm production strategy and nitrogen surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Carsten Hvelplund

    1996-01-01

    Via public legislation minimum standards for the utilization of manure have been introduced as an obligatory part of fertilization planning. And many Danish livestock farmers have improved the utilization of manure during the last five to ten years. There is, however, still not consensus concerning the question of whether the results are sufficient to reduce the loss of nitrogen to ground water and the Danish marine environment to acceptable levels. In an analysis of 30 dairy farms Halberg...

  7. IMPACT OF PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Świątkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chain and market-oriented dairy sustainability, nutritional and social objectives related to the promotion of behaviours aimed at the development are essential. At the same time, the signifi cance of the various forms of sales promotion, as a factor of consumer buying behaviour infl uence, increases. The study includes the use of the sales promotion instruments in commercial space, perceived by consumers and assessment of their impact on purchasing decisions. The study was carried out on the basis of a standardized authoring individual interview questionnaire on nationwide random-quota, registered trials, in 2007–2012, as a part of the study of consumer behaviour performed in the dairy market for KZSM (National Association of Dairy Cooperatives. The results confi rm that the effect of promotion activities is a high visibility by consumers and change of their purchasing decisions. The most important determinant of consumer purchasing behaviour are the price promotions. Most often supported by a complete set of sales promotion instruments have been modern dairy products – yoghurt, grainy and ripening cheese. Sales promotion is an important instrument of balancing the dairy market and shaping the desired behaviour of consumers.

  8. Development and use of tuf gene-based primers for the multiplex PCR detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei group, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Bifidobacterium longum in commercial dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Sen-Je; Hwang, Wen-zhe; Chen, Hsin-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2009-01-01

    PCR primers specific for the detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei group, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Bifidobacterium longum were designed based on the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf). The specificity of these four primer sets were confirmed by PCR with 88 bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, and other bacterial species. Results indicated that these primer sets generated predicted PCR products of 397, 230, 202, and 161 bp for L. acidophilus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei group, and B. longum, respectively. Bacterial species other than the target organisms tested did not generate false-positive results. When these four primer sets were combined for the simultaneous detection of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented milk products including yogurt, the LAB species listed on the labels of these products could be identified without the preenrichment step. The identification limit for each LAB strain with this multiplex PCR method was N X 10(3) CFU/ml in milk samples. The results of our multiplex PCR method were confirmed by PCR assay using primers based on the 16S rDNA or the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and by biochemical tests using the API 50 CHL kit. When this multiplex PCR method was used with the determination of counts of total viable LAB and bifidobacteria, the quality of commercial fermented milk products could be assured.

  9. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency of dairy production on a family farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Grgić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of economic efficiency of dairyproduction on a family farm with 14 dairy cows in the breeding stock, and with average production from 3.206 to 3.407 lit. of milk annually. On the basis of survey data for three-year period from 1998 to 2000, economic indicators were calculated, as well as the cost price of milk, income and the revenue of total production and per production head. In the family farm with an average annual sale from 2.827 to 2.972 lit. of milk per head, total revenue has been realized from 44.884 to 47.695 kuna and the profit from 606 to 8.515 kuna. Revenues per production head were from 5.655 to 6.495 kuna and the profitfrom 177 to 726 kuna. The milk cost price in the analyzed period was 1.71, 1.66 and 1.69 kn. per lit, and the profit per liter of milk was 0.06, and 0.21 kn. Basic economic indicators point out on efficiency of dairy production for the investigated farm on the stated production level. The biggest influence on the dairy production efficiency on the farm, regarding the cost price structure, has been registered from the costs of fodder production, while the favorable parity of the cost price and producer-sale price of milk determines the increase in dairy production efficiency and income from dairy production in the analyzed period.

  11. Effects of switching between production systems in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing intensification of dairy farming in Europe has sparked an interest in studying the economic consequences of this process. However, empirically classifying farms as extensive or intensive is not a straightforward task. In recent papers, Latent Class Models (LCM have been used to avoid an ad-hoc split of the sample into intensive and extensive dairy farms. A limitation of current specifications of LCM is that they do not allow farms to switch between different productive systems over time. This feature of the model is at odds with the process of intensification of the European dairy industry in recent decades. We allow for changes of production system over time by estimating a single LCM model but splitting the original panel into two periods, and find that the probability of using the intensive technology increases over time. Our estimation proposal opens up the possibility of studying the effects of intensification not only across farms but also over time.

  12. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  13. Ammonia emissions from dairy production in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, L A; Flesch, T K; Powell, J M; Coblentz, W K; Jokela, W E; Martin, N P

    2009-05-01

    Ammonia gas is the only significant basic gas that neutralizes atmospheric acid gases produced from combustion of fossil fuels. This reaction produces an aerosol that is a component of atmospheric haze, is implicated in nitrogen (N) deposition, and may be a potential human health hazard. Because of the potential impact of NH3 emissions, environmentally and economically, the objective of this study was to obtain representative and accurate NH3 emissions data from large dairy farms (>800 cows) in Wisconsin. Ammonia concentrations and climatic measurements were made on 3 dairy farms during winter, summer, and autumn to calculate emissions using an inverse-dispersion analysis technique. These study farms were confinement systems utilizing freestall housing with nearby sand separators and lagoons for waste management. Emissions were calculated from the whole farm including the barns and any waste management components (lagoons and sand separators), and from these components alone when possible. During winter, the lagoons' NH3 emissions were very low and not measurable. During autumn and summer, whole-farm emissions were significantly larger than during winter, with about two-thirds of the total emissions originating from the waste management systems. The mean whole-farm NH3 emissions in winter, autumn, and summer were 1.5, 7.5, and 13.7% of feed N inputs emitted as NH3-N, respectively. Average annual emission comparisons on a unit basis between the 3 farms were similar at 7.0, 7.5, and 8.4% of input feed N emitted as NH3-N, with an annual average for all 3 farms of 7.6 +/- 1.5%. These winter, summer, autumn, and average annual NH3 emissions are considerably smaller than currently used estimates for dairy farms, and smaller than emissions from other types of animal-feeding operations.

  14. Hot topic: apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities measured commercially using 120-hour in vitro indigestible neutral detergent fiber as a marker are related to commercial dairy cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, A; Meyer, L; Meyer, Z; Onetti, S; Schultz, A; Goeser, J

    2012-09-01

    Measuring individual feed nutrient concentration is common practice for field dairy nutritionists. However, accurately measuring nutrient digestibility and using digestion values in total digestible nutrients models is more challenging. Our objective was to determine if in vivo apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility measured with a practical approach was related to commercial milk production parameters. Total mixed ration and fecal samples were collected from high-producing cows in pens on 39 commercial dairies and analyzed at a commercial feed and forage testing laboratory for nutrient concentration and 120-h indigestible NDF (iNDF) content using the Combs-Goeser in vitro digestion technique. The 120-h iNDF was used as an internal marker to calculate in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities. Two samples were taken from each dairy and were separated in time by at least 3 wk. Samples were targeted to be taken within 7d of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herd testing. Approved DHI testers measured individual cow milk weights as well as fat and protein concentrations. Individual cow records were averaged by pen corresponding to the total mixed ration and fecal samples. Formulated diet and dry matter intake (DMI) records for each respective pen were also collected. Mixed model regression analysis with dairy specified as a random effect was used to relate explanatory variables (diet nutrient concentrations, formulated DMI, in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities, and fecal nutrient concentrations) to milk production measures. Dry matter intake, organic matter (OM) digestibility, fecal crude protein (CP) concentration, and fecal ether extract concentration were related to milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat yields. Milk protein concentration was related to CP digestibility, and milk protein yield was related to DMI, OM digestibility, CP digestibility, and ether extract digestibility. Although many studies have related DMI and OM digestibility to milk production

  15. Production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge production of bioplastics using dairy residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca; Chiampo, Fulvia

    2010-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable plastics, was studied using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge to define a suitable C/N ratio, the pre-treatments required to reduce the protein content, and the effect of pH correction. The results show good production of PHAs at a C/N=50 and without pH correction. The use of dairy wastewater activated sludge has the advantage of not requiring aseptic conditions. Copyright 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Yogurt and dairy product consumption to prevent cardiometabolic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    , such as cheese, do not exert the negative effects on blood lipids as predicted solely by the content of saturated fat. Calcium and other bioactive components may modify the effects on LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Apart from supplying valuable dairy nutrients, yogurt may also exert beneficial probiotic...... effects. The consumption of yogurt, and other dairy products, in observational studies is associated with a reduced risk of weight gain and obesity as well as of CVD, and these findings are, in part, supported by randomized trials....

  17. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  18. Herd health and production management in dairy practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on

  19. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  20. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  1. Phytase Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Dairy and Pharmaceutical Probiotic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Khodaii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytate, the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds, can form insoluble complexes with minerals such as iron, zinc and calcium thus reducing their bioavailability. Phytase enzymes are often used to upgrade the nutritional quality of phytate-rich foods and feeds such as grains. The phytate-degrading activity of 43 lactic acid bacteria including isolates from commercial probiotic preparations, dairy products and type strains were measured. The phytate-degrading activity of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus isolates from pharmaceutical probiotics, dairy products and type strains were determined. The enzyme activity of probotic bacteria ranged between 1.1-5.4 mU and was strain not species specific. Phytase activity may thus be a useful additional attribute of probiotics to be used as food supplements.

  2. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  3. Commercial production of chopped firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhiaho, A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the reseach project was to improve the competitiveness of chopped firewood by producing information that can help to reduce production and distribution costs as well as increase the quality of chopped firewood produced. The sub-project 'New logistics solutions for the chopped firewood production process' studied current production and distribution efficiency of commerical chopped firewood and tried to find cost saving methods. The sub-project 'The current situation of the firewood trade in Europe' surveyed firewood trade volumes, operational methods and the firewood production equipment found on sale in European countries. Information about the chopped firewood trade and chopping device market was for the most part an estimate. This is because there is no research and statistical information available. Indicative information was obtained from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Finland. The sub-project 'Productivity, costs and development targets of new chopped firewood machines' researched ten new firewood processing devices suitable for professional and domestic use by means of work-study methods. The research studied productivity and chopping costs, and analysed the quality of chopped firewood manufactured by the firewood processing devices. It also analysed the occupational safety and ergonomics of chopping work and suggestions were made for the device manufacturers on how to develop chopping devices. Sub-project 'The artificial drying and storage management for chopped firewood' carried out field tests on different types of cold and warm air dryers being used by chopped firewood entrepreneurs. The aim was to find the most promising dryer type according to its cost and operating efficiency. In addition, the suitability of resistance based electronic wood moisture meter for measuring the moisture content of single chopped firewood pieces was also studied. (orig.)

  4. A Survey of Reproductive Management Strategies on US Commercial Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Olynk, Nicole J.; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive performance on the dairy farm affects the dairy’s profit because it directly affects milk production, the availability of replacements, the amounts of voluntary and involuntary culling, breeding costs, and costs associated with veterinary care (Britt, 1985). Reproductive management programs selected for implementation differ across farms due to varying on-farm costs, such as labor costs, opportunity costs of management and labor, as well as facilities, farm goals and values, and ...

  5. Major commercial products from micro- and macroalgae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffiths, M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and microalgae are used in a variety of commercial products with many more in development. This chapter outlines the major products, species used, methods of production, extraction, and processing as well as market sizes and trends. Foods...

  6. Multi-criteria and econometric evaluation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Pažek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the multi-criteria assessment of four dairy products: “Pomursko mlejko” (Pomurje milk, “Lejko mleko” (light milk, “Fyto mleko” (Fyto milk and “Posneto mleko v prahu” (dried milk. The research was executed by using a multi-criteria methodology, DEX, which was complemented by an econometric analysis for light milk to estimate the trends in production and consumption before analyzed dairy products were implemented on the market. DEXi computer program results indicated that all analyzed milk products were ‘above average’. The econometric model was applied to examine changes in the demand for low-fat milk (light milk. Empirical results showed significant consumer re¬sponse to the increase in the prices of low-fat milk demonstrating income elasticity (1,15 unit.

  7. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.

  8. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfemariam Berhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent scientific studies confirm that it is a rich source of bioactive, antimicrobial, and antioxidant substances. The current literature concerning product design and functional potential of camel milk is fragmented in terms of time, place, and depth of the research. Therefore, it is essential to understand the fundamental features of camel milk and initiate detailed multidisciplinary research to fully explore and utilize its functional and technological properties.

  9. Short communication: Passive shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in commercial dairy goats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D G G; Lima, M C; Barros, M; Valente, F L; Scatamburlo, T M; Rosado, N; Oliveira, C T S A M; Oliveira, L L; Moreira, M A S

    2017-10-01

    Goat farming is a low-cost alternative to dairy production in developing countries. In Brazil, goat production has increased in recent years due in part to the implementation of programs encouraging this activity. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease that causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, but MAP transmission dynamics are still poorly understood in goats. In a previously published study of our research group, 10 dairy goat farms (467 animals) from Minas Gerais state were analyzed for MAP detection; 2 fecal cultures and 11 milk samples tested positive for MAP by conventional PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. Because no clinical signs were observed over 1 yr of monitoring, we hypothesized that these MAP-positive goats could be passive shedders. Thus, in the present study, 4 positive goats (4/13) from the previous study were purchased and feces and milk samples were collected for evaluation (twice, with an interval of 3 mo between tests) by culture of MAP, IS900 PCR, or both. All analyses were negative for MAP. At the last time point, blood samples were collected for ELISA, the animals were killed, and tissues collected for tissue culture and histopathology. At necropsy, no macroscopic lesions related to paratuberculosis were observed. Similarly, no histological changes were observed and MAP in samples stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was not detected. These animals were characterized as potential passive shedders with upward contamination of the teat canal by MAP. This is the first report of the passive shedding phenomenon in goats in Brazil and it highlights the importance of identifying these animals for control programs and to ensure the quality of dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; G. Fadel, J.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM...... yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several...... years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk...

  11. Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G

    2010-10-01

    Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (ΔTNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ΔTNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ΔTNR in each

  12. The role of whey in functional dairy food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern life style also enhances a need for creation of better dairyproducts, in comparison with traditional ones, possessing functionalcharacteristics. Whey is consisted primarily of lactose, proteins of high nutritive value, important minerals and imunoactive compounds, as well as vitamins of B group. It can be used for fermented probiotic drinks and albumin cheese production. Using new methods of pressure membrane filtration and demineralisation the economic manufacture of whey, as a valuable source of nutrients, is enabled. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the possibilities of sweet whey, especially whey protein concentrates, use in functional dairy products manufacture from cow’s and goat’s milk. The paper is based on the published scientific research performed in the Laboratory for Technology of Milk and Dairy Products of the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology University of Zagreb.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS UPON MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCT PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of milk production and dairy products in the USA during the period 2004-2006, based on USDA Statistics. The USA is a top produce of milk and dairy products in the world. Milk production accounted for 181,798 Millions Pounds in the year 2006. Its continuously increase during the last years has been positively influenced by the increasing number of dairy cows and average milk yield . The top states are California, Wisconsin, New York, Idaho and Pennsylvania, which all together achieve about 54 % of the country milk production. Over 99.37 % of Milk Production is marketed. Considering all milk marketings, Million USD 23,422 cash receiptscould be obtained from a dairy farm in the year 2006. The average return per Cwt was about USD 13 in 2006 . Milk is processed by about 1,000 manufacturing plants in a large variety of dairy products. Cheese production was about 9.5 Billion Pounds in the last analyzed years. The US also produces important amounts of butter , yogurt, ice cream etc. About 8.3 % of the US dairy products are exported, the most markets being Japan, Mexico and Canada.

  14. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Christensen, L. B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss >= 3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium...... to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk...... of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings....

  15. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  16. Comparison of a commercially available oral nutritional supplement and intravenous fluid therapy for dehydration in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared D; Rodenburg, Merel; Snider, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours. Twenty-four colostrum-fed suckling dairy calves were used in a modified crossover design. An osmotic diarrhea was induced by orally feeding commercial milk replacer modified with high level of sucrose to create a hypertonic milk solution, and administering oral hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone for 48 h. The intention was to create a challenge sufficient to result in moderately dehydrated, standing calves without producing severe depression or loss of suckle. The efficacy of i.v. fluid therapy and a commercial nutritional supplement were subsequently compared for reversing the effects of the diarrheal disease. Treatment A consisted of administering the nutritional supplement according to label directions (100 g in 1.9 L of warm water, 3 times a day), and treatment B consisted of i.v. LRS (2 L, once a day). Clinical signs and laboratory results were obtained once daily by a blinded observer. The induction method was effective in creating the desired effect, as demonstrated by weight loss and subjective health and hydration scores. Both treatment groups experienced increases in body weight, base excess, and bicarbonate, and decreases in total protein and packed cell volume following treatment. Both i.v. LRS and Diaque are effective methods to correct hypovolemia and control derangements in acid-base status in calves with diarrhea and dehydration. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the

  17. Understanding properties of commercial OSB products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqun Wang; Hongmei Gu; Trairat Neimsuwan

    2004-01-01

    Oriented strandboard (OSB) has gained increased market acceptance as a construction material in almost all geographical areas of Canada and United States. With its growing market, more and more research has been focused on the product’s manufacturing and performance. Commercial OSB products in U.S. and Canada are produced from different manufacturers with different...

  18. AUTOMATED PROCESSING OF DAIRY PRODUCT MICROPHOTOS USING IMAGEJ AND STATISTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bitiukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article discusses the construction of algorithms for automated processing of microphotos of dairy products. Automated processing of micro photos of dairy products relevant in the study of the degree of homogenization. Microphotos of dairy products contain information about the distribution of fat globules in the mass fractions. Today, there are some of software products, offering image processing and relieving researchers from routine operations manual data processing. But it need to be adapted for performing the processing of microphotos of dairy products. In this paper we propose to use for processing the application package ImageJ for processing image files taken with digital microscope, and to calculate the statistical characteristics of the proposed use of the software package Statistica. Processing algorithm consists of successive stages of conversion to gray scale, scaling, filtering, binarization, object recognition and statistical processing of the results of recognition. The result of the implemented data processing algorithms is the distribution function of the fat globules in terms of volume or mass fraction, as well as the statistical parameters of the distribution (the mathematical expectation, variance, skewness and kurtosis coefficients. For the inspection of the algorithm and its debugging experimental studieswere carried out. Carries out the homogenization of farm milk at different pressures of homogenization. For each sample were made microphoto sand image processing carried out in accordance with the proposed algorithm. Studies have shown the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm in the form of java script for ImageJ and then send the data to a file for the software package Statistica.

  19. Milk and dairy products in hotel daily menue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the portion of milk and dairyproducts as a source of macronutrients, energy, vitamins and minerals in average hotel menus for some category of hotel guests. For this purpose the evaluation of 66 whole day meals (breakfast, lunch and supper on daily menus was made. Meals were therefore mathematically and statistically analysed and compared with recommendations (RDA and DRI for middle aged and elderly guests, both genders. The obtained results indicated that the meals should be balanced according to nutritional principles, because of too high energy share derived from fats (average 47.95% while just about 37.57% of daily energy was from carbohydrates origin. The energy values were much higher than recommendations for both genders, respectively. The energy share from milk and dairy products origin was 11% of total energy what should be considered as a suitable. The most served dairy product was milk while the ice-cream took the second place. It is necessary to increase the yogurt and similar fermented products consumption, especially for the elderly guests. With milk and dairy products consumption males and females fulfill 92% RDA for calcium, and 61.80 % DRI for elderly, respectively.

  20. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  1. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-04

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation 0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Room for manoeuvre in time of the workforce in dairy production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Carneiro dos Santos Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and to analyze the room for manoeuvre in time in dairy production systems (DPS. Two interviews were conducted in twenty DPS in the Northern region of Paraná, Brazil, with the following objectives: to know the management and practices involving the herd, the land area and the commercialization; and to qualify and evaluate the work organization. In order to build the variables, the repertory grid method was used, and for the typology, the graphic methodology of Bertin adapted to small samples was used. The results showed that the room for manoeuvre in time of the DPS, quantified in hours available per year, varied between the farmers and was related to routine work and seasonal work durations, as well as the autonomy of farmers to perform both works. The routine work was related to the number of cows, but was also explained by the herd management, by the transport equipment for the feed and by the workforce composition. Four types of work organization were identified between sampled DPS, based on room for manoeuvre in time and how they were built. Knowing the room for manoeuvre time and its variables, it is possible to guide the farmers to adjust their dairy production system in order to have more time available for other activities or to develop the dairy production system.

  3. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Fadel, J G; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T; Gaillard, C; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    The idea of managing cows for extended lactations rather than lactations of the traditional length of 1 yr primarily arose from observations of increasing problems with infertility and cows being dried off with high milk yields. However, it is vital for the success of extended lactation practices that cows are able to maintain milk yield per feeding day when the length of the calving interval (CInt) is increased. Milk yield per feeding day is defined as the cumulated lactation milk yield divided by the sum of days between 2 consecutive calvings. The main objective of this study was to investigate the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk yield, and this effect interacted with parity for ECM per feeding day, ECM per lactating day and ECM per day during late lactation. The results showed that cows were at least able to produce equivalent ECM per feeding day with increasing CInt, and that first- and second-parity cows maintained ECM per lactating day. Cows with a CInt between 17 and 19 mo produced 476 kg of ECM more during the first 305 d compared with cows with a CInt of less than 13 mo. Furthermore, early

  4. Ergonomic evaluation of cheese production process in dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Brito Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work consisted of an analysis of work conditions aspects in small dairy industries from southwest region of Bahia state. The study considered the analysis of environmental variables and the organization of the work in the production process of cheeses. The analysis was performed by means of observations in loco and measurement of the environmental variables related to noise, illumination and temperature. The main problems are related to posture and inadequate illumination. The parameters were evaluated according to the norms and legislation available in order to propose suggestions for the identified problems, objectifying the comfort and safety of workers and the consequent improvement of activities developed in these industries. Keywords: Ergonomics, Dairy industries, Environmental comfort.

  5. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David L; Berger, Yves M; McKusick, Brett C; Mikolayunas, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  6. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  7. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  8. Progress in gamma processing of commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the global outlook for gamma radiation processing of commercial products is discussed. Canada's contribution to the development of the industry is presented. New developments in the applications of the process and its marketing are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Novel approach for the use of dairy industry wastes for bacterial growth media production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Elleuch, Lobna; Dahmeni, Ameni; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail; Snoussi, Mejdi

    2018-04-15

    This work proposes a novel approach for the reuse and the recovery of dairy wastes valuable components. Thermal coagulation was performed for dairy effluents and the main responsible fraction for the organic matter content (protein and fat) was separated. Dairy curds were prepared for the formulation of bacterial growth media. Protein, sugar, fat and fatty acids contents have been assessed. Samples treated at 100 °C exhibited marked improvement in terms of protein (25-50%) recovery compared to those treated at 80 °C. Fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid) that are essential to promote Lactobacillus growth. Previously isolated and identified bacterial strains from dairy wastes (Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus brevis) were investigated for their ability to grow on the formulated media. All the tested lactic acid bacteria exhibited greater bacterial growth on the formulated media supplemented with glucose only or with both glucose and yeast extract compared to the control media. By reference to the commercial growth medium, the productivity ratio of the supplemented bactofugate (B) and decreaming (D) formulated media exceeded 0.6 for L. paracasei culture. Whereas, the productivity ratio of the supplemented B medium was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for all the tested strains. As for the supplemented D medium, its productivity ratio was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for both L. paracasei and L. plantarum strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Galactomyces geotrichum - moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygier, Anna; Myszka, Kamila; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances and wastewater treatment. It has also been found to have potential for biofuel production. In addition to this, G. geotrichum can be applicable in two further major areas: agriculture and health protection.

  11. Power Ultrasound to Process Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Conventional methods of pasteurizing milk involve the use of heat regardless of treatment (batch, high temperature short time - HTST or ultra high temperature - UHT sterilization), and the quality of the milk is affected because of the use of high temperatures. Consequences of thermal treatment are a decrease in nutritional properties through the destruction of vitamins or denaturation of proteins, and sometimes the flavor of milk is undesirably changed. These changes are produced at the same time that the goal of the pasteurization process is achieved, which is to have a microbiological safe product, free of pathogenic bacteria, and to reduce the load of deteriorative microorganisms and enzymes, resulting in a product with a longer storage life.

  12. Countermeasures for dairy products in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M.; Kostiainen, E.; Salo, A.; Liskola, K.; Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J.

    2001-01-01

    This work was performed in order to plan countermeasures that, after an accidental release of radioactivity, could reduce the dose to the public due to the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. The attention was focused on whether there are justified and optimised actions below the international recommended concentration levels in foodstuffs. The analysis was conducted as a case study, i.e., it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had happened in a nuclear power plant leading to a release of radionuclides which severely contaminated a wide area of Ostrobothnia, one of Finland's most important milk production areas. The dose averted by actions, the' monetary costs and the feasibility of actions were assessed. It was also studied what information is needed by decision-makers and in which form this information should be presented. Finally, it was examined how planning of countermeasures could be enhanced by applying decision analysis in establishing actions strategies and valuing attributes considered in decision making. Preparative meetings and a concluding workshop was arranged and all authorities involved in food-related emergency management were invited to jointly analyse different options. According to the query made the participants considered the decision workshop and decision analysis very practicable in exercises. The exercise as a whole was also evaluated useful or very useful. The presented techniques in a real situation were considered applicable but not as useful as in exercises. Thus it can be deduced that the concluding workshop and decision analysis interviews augment well conventional emergency exercises. Realistic dose assessments proved out to be very difficult. The software used was able to calculate the maximum radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs processed from local raw materials. Radionuclide concentration in food or feedstuffs may, however, change quickly. Also, the production and processing of foodstuffs is a complex

  13. Milk and dairy product analyses at the Dairy Chemistry Division in Mauritius: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Neeliah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mauritius has continuously supported the dairy sector. In a 2011 speech, the Acting President pointed out that the implementation of schemes under the Food Security Fund strategic plan yielded satisfactory results such as an increase in milk production by 55%. One institution which has played a key role in boosting the sector is the Dairy Chemistry Division (DCD. DCD forms part of the Agricultural Services which fall under the aegis of the Ministry of Agro-Industry and Food Security (MOAFS. It has been at the forefront of milk test­ing, constantly innovating with respect to analytical methods and instrumentation use. It has thus evolved from a laboratory that had the responsibility of monitoring the quality of milk in Government dairies and, later on, of locally-produced fresh raw milk under the Pilot Milk Scheme, to an institution providing analytical, advisory and technical services in various fields of food science and technology. From 1999 to 2014, more than 116,000 samples have been tested. The fat and microbial con­tents, and percentage adulteration with water varied depending on the client. The laboratory was accredited in 2012 by Mauritas, the local accreditation body, for certain microbiological param­eters. The aim of this paper was to describe the evolution in DCD activities with a focus on milk testing. The paper is based on a review of DCD past annual reports and relevant technical documents pertaining to the local milk sector. Food testing started in the 1920s in the Agricultural Services of MOAFS. The main activities were the analysis of morning and evening milk samples from Government dairies for fat, solids non-fat and lactose. The milk was assessed as being of fairly good chemical quality. Table I provides a summary of results of analyses of milk collected from Government dairies. DCD was created in 1973 in line with the Government policy to support the dairy sector. Apart from testing activities DCD has

  14. Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollilainen, V; Heinonen, M; Linkola, E; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P

    1989-09-01

    As part of an overall composition study of Finnish foods, the carotenoid and retinoid content of 20 dairy product samples and eggs were determined by HPLC. The total beta-carotene (all-trans beta-carotene plus 15-cis beta-carotene) was quantitated for dairy products. For egg and egg yolk, lutein content was also determined. Only traces of lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene were present. All-trans retinol and 13-cis retinol were the major retinoids in dairy products. Small amounts of 9-cis, 11-cis, and 9,11-cis retinols were found. High values of both retinol and beta-carotene were found in full fat cheeses and whipping cream: from 179.0 (cheese, Edam-type) to 318.7 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) and from 86.7 (cheese, Edam-type) to 186.5 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) for all-trans retinol and total beta-carotene, respectively. The retinol content averaged 16.3, 32.6, and 52.2 and that of beta-carotene 9.6, 16.7, and 3.0 micrograms/100 g in milk (1.9% fat), milk (3.9% fat), and human milk, respectively. The major pigment in eggs and egg yolk was lutein, 619.5 micrograms/100 g in eggs and 1575.8 micrograms/100 g in egg yolk. According to this study, at the present level of consumption in Finland, milk, milk products (excluding butter), and eggs result in a daily intake of about 350 retinol equivalents, and consequently, are a major source of vitamin A.

  15. Culture versus PCR for Salmonella Species Identification in Some Dairy Products and Dairy Handlers with Special Concern to Its Zoonotic Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwida, Mayada M; Al-Ashmawy, Maha A M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 200 samples of milk and dairy products as well as 120 samples of dairy handlers were randomly collected from different dairy farms and supermarkets in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. The conventional cultural and serotyping methods for detection of Salmonella in dairy products were applied and the results were compared with those obtained by molecular screening assay using (ttr sequence). The obtained results revealed that 21% of milk and dairy products (42/200) were positive for Salmonella species using enrichment culture-based PCR method, while 12% of different dairy samples (24/200) were found to be positive for Salmonella species by using the conventional culture methods. Two stool specimens out of 40 apparently healthy dairy handlers were positive by the PCR method. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that 58.3% (14/24) from different dairy products were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium. We conclude that the enrichment culture-based PCR assay has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella species in dairy products and handlers. High incidence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the examined dairy samples highlights the important role played by milk and dairy products as a vehicle in disease prevalence. Great effort should be applied for reducing foodborne risk for consumers.

  16. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which is... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS...

  17. Prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from dairy farms and traditional dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Wuni, Alhassan; Akabanda, Fortune

    2017-01-01

    of B. cereus sensu lato isolated from cattle grazing soils and dairy products in Ghana. A total of 114 samples made up of 25 soil collected from cattle grazing farm land, 30 raw milk, 28 nunu (yoghurt-like product) and 31 woagashie (West African soft cheese). Ninety-six B. cereus sensu lato isolates......%), oxacillin (92%), penicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), and cefepime (100%) but susceptible to other antibiotics tested. Conclusions: Bacillus cereus s. l. is prevalent in soil, raw milk and dairy products in Ghana. However, loads are at levels considered to be safe for consumption. Various enterotoxin...

  18. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  19. SANITARY EVALUATION OF MILK PRODUCTS IN MOUNTAIN DAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available between 2006 and 2007 881 samples of “malga” (little mountain dairies milk products were analysed to estimate their hygienic characteristics. Several samples showed high counts for Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, while Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were absent in all of the samples; 0,9% of cheese samples, 4,1% of butter samples and 4,7% of “ricotta” samples were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, so as 14,7% of cheese samples for staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  20. Does Green Feed Result in Healthier Dairy Products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun

    Lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are a growing problem in the Western world. Consequently, attempts are made to prevent and reduce the complications of these diseases and one strategy is the use of bioactive agents in foods. Phytanic acid (PA), produced...... nutritional value. The objective of the second part of this PhD thesis was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and furthermore to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and, furthermore to estimate nutrient density in relation to climate impact for difference solid food items....

  1. Biogas production on dairy farms: A Croatia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bilandžija

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the differences in the production and composition of biogas as well as the quality of digested residue from anaerobic digestion of the raw materials generated by dairy farms in Croatia, investigations were undertaken in the biogas laboratory facility of the Faculty of Agriculture. The investigated raw materials were: dairy manure, corn silage, haylage and equal-measure mix (1/3 of all raw materials. For each substrate, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (40 days and temperature of digestion (35 °C in mesophilic conditions. The investigations found that the most efficient production of biogas was from corn silage. As for biogas composition, it was acceptable in all investigated samples both in energy and environmental terms. Digested residues, which are mildly alkaline, have low dry matter content. About 70 % of dry matter content is organic. On the basis of N:P:K analysis and the analysis of biogenic elements values and heavy metal values, it can be concluded that digested residues of all input raw materials can be used in agricultural production.

  2. Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Applying the theory of planned behavior to predict dairy product consumption by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungwon; Reicks, Marla; Sjoberg, Sara

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain intention to consume dairy products and consumption of dairy products by older adults using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The factors examined were attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered. Community centers with congregate dining programs, group classes, and recreational events for older adults. One hundred and sixty-two older adults (mean age 75 years) completed the questionnaire. Subjects were mostly women (76%) and white (65%), with about half having less than a high school education or completing high school. Variables based on the TPB were assessed through questionnaire items that were constructed to form scales measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to consume dairy products. Dairy product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression analyses were used to determine the association between the scales for the 3 variables proposed in the TPB and intention to consume and consumption of dairy products; the alpha level was set at.05 to determine the statistical significance of results. Attitudes toward eating dairy products and perceived behavioral control contributed to the model for predicting intention, whereas subjective norms did not. Attitudes toward eating dairy products were slightly more important than perceived behavioral control in predicting intention. In turn, intention was strongly related to dairy product consumption, and perceived behavioral control was independently associated with dairy product consumption. These results suggest the utility of the TPB in explaining dairy product consumption for older adults. Nutrition education should focus on improving attitudes and removing barriers to consumption of dairy products for older adults.

  4. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Mugunieri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

  6. Media for the isolation and enumeration of bifidobacteria in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, D

    2001-09-28

    Bifidobacteria are commonly used for the production of fermented milks, alone or in combination with other lactic acid bacteria. Bifidobacteria populations in fermented milks should be over 10(6) bifidobacteria/g at the time of consumption of strain added to the product. Hence, rapid and reliable methods are needed to routinely determine the initial inoculum and to estimate the storage time period bifidobacteria remain viable. Plate count methods are still preferable for quality control measurements in dairy products. It is, therefore, necessary to have a medium that selectively promotes the growth of bifidobacteria, whereas other bacteria are suppressed. The present paper is an overview of media and methods including summaries of published comparisons between different selective media. Culture media for bifidobacteria may be divided into basal, elective, differential and selective culture medium. Non-selective media are useful for routine enumeration of bifidobacteria when present in non-fermented milks. Reinforced Clostridial Agar and De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) supplemented with cysteine and agar available commercially are the media of choice for industrial quality control laboratories. Several media for selective or differential isolation have been described for enumeration of bifidobacteria from other lactic acid bacteria. From the large number of selective media available, it can be concluded that there is no standard medium for the detection of bifidobacteria. However, Columbia agar base media supplemented with lithium chloride and sodium propionate and MRS medium supplemented with neomycin, paromomycin, nalidixic acid and lithium chloride can be recommended for selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in dairy products.

  7. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  8. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  9. Dairy production systems in the United States: Nutrient budgets and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the diversity of US dairy production systems, nutrient management priorities range widely, from feeding regimes to manure handling, storage and application to crop systems. To assess nutrient management and environmental impacts of dairy production systems in the US, we evaluated nutrient bud...

  10. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  11. Factors affecting dairy production in peri-urban areas of Kampala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand for dairy products by the increasing urban population and the need to provide ... was therefore recommended that if milk production in the peri-urban areas of Kampala is to .... approximately 80% of the total labour use in dairy farming.

  12. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk : a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Lau, R.; Chan, D.S.M.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of the association between intake of dairy products and colorectal cancer risk have indicated an inverse association with milk, however, the evidence for cheese or other dairy products is inconsistent. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to

  13. The impact of biogas production on the circularity of nitrogen flows around a dairy farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Dairy farms require a significant amount of nitrogen to enter the production system via cattle fodder, which in intensive farming can be traced back to artificial fertilizers. As a by-product of dairy farms, cattle manure contains undigested nitrogen that allows the farmers to reuse it for their

  14. Letters: Milk and Mortality : Study used wrong assumption about galactose content of fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Michaëlsson and colleagues’ proposed mechanism for the effect of milk intake on the risk of mortality and fractures is based on the assumption that fermented dairy products (which had the opposite effects to those of non-fermented milk) are free of galactose.1 For most fermented dairy products,

  15. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  16. Identification and partial characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional dairy products produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, F L; Feng, X J; Chen, L L; Chen, S W

    2014-11-01

    Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from herders' traditional dairy products collected from Xinjiang, China. The species Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis and conventional observation. The strains' fermentation characteristics, including milk acidification, proteolysis, autolysis, antimicrobial activity and diacetyl production, were assayed and compared. Strains NL24 and NL31 showed the highest proteolytic activity-2·75 and 2·08 mmol Phe l(-1) milk, respectively. Strains C, NL41, SW2, Z3-11, NL42 and Z2-91 had high autolytic activity. In addition, most of the wild strains produced diacetyl, half of them to high levels. This study provides a clue to LAB biodiversity in traditional dairy foods produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains. High-performing strains should be further evaluated for practical application in value-added fermented dairy products. Our results reveal a certain variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in traditional dairy products from Xinjiang. Some of the LAB strains, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus NL24 and Lactobacillus paracasei SW2, possess excellent functional properties and have the potential for application in indigenous fermented dairy products. Performance of the newly isolated strains in cheese or yogurt manufacturing was further evaluated. Application of the high-performing strains to enrich the flavour of fermented dairy products is highly desirable and holds great commercial potential. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Consumers' Motivations and Dairy Production Beliefs Regarding Participation in an Educational Dairy Farm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Lindsay K.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Schutz, Michael M.; Brady, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the extent adult consumers' interest motivation to participate in a free educational dairy farm event and their beliefs of the dairy industry could correctly classify the respondents' predicted participation in a nonformal educational event. The most prominent conclusion of the study was that…

  18. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign. The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly about quality, image and product validity period. In contrast, low-income households consider mainly product price. The consumer was satisfied with Israeli products that meet his needs. On the other hand, local consumer highly considered price and personal knowledge when purchasing local dairy products. Advertising negatively affected the consumer purchasing behavior of Israeli and foreign dairy products, in contrast it positively affected his behavior when purchasing local dairy products. Period of validity was the most influential factor on the purchasing decision for domestic and imported dairy products. It has been found that consumer expenditures on Israeli dairy products were the highest followed by local and foreign products. Recommendations are as follows: i producers should develop products that could meet the needs and desires of consumers, ii draw effective marketing policies, depending on technologists specialized in dairy industry, iii take into account consumer awareness when developing advertising strategy, and iv quality control should be adjusted in accordance with product specifications and standards.

  19. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C and elevated temperatures (14°C within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product, as well as sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and consistency, along with microbiological safety, were investigated. The investigations were performed in accordance with national legislation. The results indicate that the products stored at 14°C showed significant acidity (lower pH value, changed sensory properties, and had an increased number of aerobic bacteria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Improvement and development of hygienic and technological procedures in production of foodstuffs of animal origin with the aim of producing high-quality and safe products competitive on the global market

  20. 41 CFR 101-29.213 - Commercial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial product. 101... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 29-FEDERAL PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.213 Commercial product. A commercial product is any item, component, or...

  1. 41 CFR 101-29.214 - Commercial-type product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial-type product... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 29-FEDERAL PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.214 Commercial-type product. A commercial-type product is defined as: (a...

  2. [Milk, Daily products and Bone health.Milk or dairy products and bone:Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Junko

    2018-01-01

    An assessment of the association between the intake of milk or dairy products and bone density or the risk of fractures on the basis of epidemiological studies revealed the following findings:(1)a sufficient prepubertal intake of milk or dairy products could contribute to the increased bone growth and maximized peal bone mass because the intake of calcium in the corresponding stage in Japan is inadequate;(2)adequate milk intake could contribute to the maintenance of peal bone mass among menstruating adult females and the decrease of bone loss in postmenopausal females. Adequate milk intake could contribute to the decrease of aging-induced bone loss in elderly males, though there is no sufficient scientific evidence;and(3)a meta-analysis indicated no correlation between the increased milk intake and decreased risks of hip fractures in the elderly. As the intake of milk or dairy products in the Japanese elderly is rather less than that reported by the meta-analysis, the minimal intake of milk or dairy products is anticipated to elevate the risk of fractures in middle-aged or elderly males and females although the scientific evidence is inadequate.

  3. Production and environmental impact of dairy cattle production in Denmark 1900–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2015-01-01

    Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level......, but that this requires a strong focus on nitrogen management at the farm level and production efficiency in the herd....... and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 – representing...

  4. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  5. Dairy cow breed interacts with stocking rate in temperate pasture-based dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2018-05-01

    Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per

  6. Ability of commercially available dairy ration programs to predict duodenal flows of protein and essential amino acids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, D; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Lapierre, H

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this analysis was to compare the rumen submodel predictions of 4 commonly used dairy ration programs to observed values of duodenal flows of crude protein (CP), protein fractions, and essential AA (EAA). The literature was searched and 40 studies, including 154 diets, were used to compare observed values with those predicted by AminoCow (AC), Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS), Cornell-Penn-Miner (CPM), and National Research Council 2001 (NRC) models. The models were evaluated based on their ability to predict the mean, their root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), error bias, and adequacy of regression equations for each protein fraction. The models predicted the mean duodenal CP flow within 5%, with more than 90% of the variation due to random disturbance. The models also predicted within 5% the mean microbial CP flow except CPM, which overestimated it by 27%. Only NRC, however, predicted mean rumen-undegraded protein (RUP) flows within 5%, whereas AC and AMTS underpredicted it by 8 to 9% and CPM by 24%. Regarding duodenal flows of individual AA, across all diets, CPM predicted substantially greater (>10%) mean flows of Arg, His, Ile, Met, and Lys; AMTS predicted greater flow for Arg and Met, whereas AC and NRC estimations were, on average, within 10% of observed values. Overpredictions by the CPM model were mainly related to mean bias, whereas the NRC model had the highest proportion of bias in random disturbance for flows of EAA. Models tended to predict mean flows of EAA more accurately on corn silage and alfalfa diets than on grass-based diets, more accurately on corn grain-based diets than on non-corn-based diets, and finally more accurately in the mid range of diet types. The 4 models were accurate at predicting mean dry matter intake. The AC, AMTS, and NRC models were all sufficiently accurate to be used for balancing EAA in dairy rations under field conditions. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association

  7. Heritability of methane emissions from dairy cows over a lactation measured on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, M; Rzewuska, K; Mucha, S; Strabel, T

    2017-11-01

    Methane emission is currently an important trait in studies on ruminants due to its environmental and economic impact. Recent studies were based on short-time measurements on individual cows. As methane emission is a longitudinal trait, it is important to investigate its changes over a full lactation. In this study, we aimed to estimate the heritability of the estimated methane emissions from dairy cows using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during milking in an automated milking system by implementing the random regression method. The methane measurements were taken on 485 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows at 2 commercial farms located in western Poland. The overall daily estimated methane emission was 279 g/d. Genetic variance fluctuated over the course of lactation around the average level of 1,509 (g/d), with the highest level, 1,866 (g/d), at the end of the lactation. The permanent environment variance values started at 2,865 (g/d) and then dropped to around 846 (g/d) at 100 d in milk (DIM) to reach the level of 2,444 (g/d) at the end of lactation. The residual variance was estimated at 2,620 (g/d). The average repeatability was 0.25. The heritability level fluctuated over the course of lactation, starting at 0.23 (SE 0.12) and then increasing to its maximum value of 0.3 (SE 0.08) at 212 DIM and ending at the level of 0.27 (SE 0.12). Average heritability was 0.27 (average SE 0.09). We have shown that estimated methane emission is a heritable trait and that the heritability level changes over the course of lactation. The observed changes and low genetic correlations between distant DIM suggest that it may be important to consider the period in which methane phenotypes are collected.

  8. Genetic parameters for production and fertility in spring-calving Irish dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk production and selected fertility traits in Irish dairy cattle. Data were derived from 74 seasonal spring-calving dairy herds with a potential cow population of 6,783 in the 1999 calving season. The average 305-day yields (kg)

  9. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  10. Household nutrition and income impacts of using dairy technologies in mixed crop-livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunte, Kebebe

    2017-01-01

    Technologies like improved breeds of dairy cows and improved forages have the potential to significantly increase dairy cow productivity and farmers' profits in developing countries. However, adoption of such technologies has been low in Ethiopia, despite numerous efforts to disseminate the

  11. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Natapol Thongplew

    Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in

  12. The contribution of dairy products to micronutrient intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Streppel, M.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of dairy products to the intake of various vitamins and minerals in several life stages in the Dutch population. Method: Data from 3 Dutch Food Consumption Surveys and the Leiden Longevity Study were used to estimate the contribution of dairy products—as

  13. Effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Breda, van S.; Vargas, B.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. Cows (n = 2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in Costa Rica were used in the study. The size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean =

  14. Microparticulated whey proteins for improving dairy product texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Use of microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was patented in 1988; since then much research has been conducted on use of MWP. This review provides an overview of the use and functionality of MWP in dairy applications and discusses how MWP interacts with other components in dairy matrices. For ferm......Use of microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was patented in 1988; since then much research has been conducted on use of MWP. This review provides an overview of the use and functionality of MWP in dairy applications and discusses how MWP interacts with other components in dairy matrices...

  15. High genetic diversity among strains of the unindustrialized lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium maltaromaticum in dairy products as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdur; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Bontemps, Cyril; Payot, Sophie; Chaillou, Stéphane; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Borges, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    Dairy products are colonized with three main classes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB): opportunistic bacteria, traditional starters, and industrial starters. Most of the population structure studies were previously performed with LAB species belonging to these three classes and give interesting knowledge about the population structure of LAB at the stage where they are already industrialized. However, these studies give little information about the population structure of LAB prior their use as an industrial starter. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a LAB colonizing diverse environments, including dairy products. Since this bacterium was discovered relatively recently, it is not yet commercialized as an industrial starter, which makes C. maltaromaticum an interesting model for the study of unindustrialized LAB population structure in dairy products. A multilocus sequence typing scheme based on an analysis of fragments of the genes dapE, ddlA, glpQ, ilvE, pyc, pyrE, and leuS was applied to a collection of 47 strains, including 28 strains isolated from dairy products. The scheme allowed detecting 36 sequence types with a discriminatory index of 0.98. The whole population was clustered in four deeply branched lineages, in which the dairy strains were spread. Moreover, the dairy strains could exhibit a high diversity within these lineages, leading to an overall dairy population with a diversity level as high as that of the nondairy population. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis according to which the industrialization of LAB leads to a diversity reduction in dairy products. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The Halal status of additives in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midhat Jašić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The market of halal products in the world keeps growing and there are more and more requests for certifying and proving the halal status of a food product. Halal in Islamic regulations means allowed for eating. Islamic laws related to the food, strictly forbid the use of food originating from pork, alcohol, blood and other products that are not in accordance with Islamic rules. In order to get the halal status, dairy products have to prove that they do not contain raw mater and additives that are forbidden. Level of allowance is related with their status which can be Halal (permitted, Haram (forbidden and Mashbuh (suspected. In establishing the system for Halal foodprocessing, proactive preventive process approach is used. In validation of the process there are analytical methods to prove the origin of the food. Specially difficult is to prove the presence of additives which during the process experience chemical transformations. The ELISA PCR, HLPC methods are used for the validation. This paper presents additives that are the most common in milk processing and can have Haram (forbidden by Islamic rules and Mashbuh (suspected origin.

  17. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J

    2017-12-01

    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  18. Commercial green electricity products; Zakelijke groenestroomproducten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielders, L.M.L.; Afman, M.R.

    2012-12-15

    The Dutch 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT campaign initiated by Hivos targets data centres, appealing to these companies to consider the environmental footprint of the electricity they use. Hivos is keen for a debate on greener alternatives and wanted a review of the sustainability of the various options available for buying 'green power' on the commercial market in the Netherlands, with a reasoned discussion of each. That review, laid down in this report, examines and discusses the various 'green power products' for the commercial market, providing a springboard for data centres to switch to a 'greener' product. To that end 'green power products' were categorized to highlight the differences between them. The highest score was given to renewable energy produced without any operating subsidy (the so-called SDE+ scheme), or with the higher price being paid for entirely by customers. Supply in these two categories is still fairly negligible, as this essentially represents an energy market in which renewables are cost-competitive with 'grey' electricity, or one in which customers are willing to pay (far) more for their electricity. The lowest scores were assigned to renewable power sourced in other countries and to 'grey' electricity [Dutch] De Hivos-bedrijvencampagne 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT richt zich op de datacenterbedrijven. De datacenterbedrijven worden aangesproken op de duurzaamheid van hun keuze voor de ingekochte elektriciteit. Hivos wil het gesprek aangaan over meer duurzame alternatieven. Hiervoor heeft Hivos behoefte aan een overzicht van de duurzaamheid van de verschillende opties voor de afname van duurzame elektriciteit (groene stroom) zoals die op de zakelijke markt in Nederland worden aangeboden, inclusief een onderbouwing. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht en inzicht in de verschillende groenestroomproducten voor de zakelijke markt zodat de datacenters kunnen overstappen op een

  19. Dairy product intake and bone properties in 70-year-old men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallkvist, Olle M; Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter; Hult, Andreas

    2018-01-29

    In the present population-based study including 70-year-old men and women, total dairy product intake was associated with a weak positive association with tibia trabecular and cortical cross-sectional areas. Milk consumption has recently been suggested to increase fracture risk. Therefore, we aimed to investigate associations between dairy product consumption and peripheral bone properties. Furthermore, we explored whether consumption of milk and fermented dairy products affected bone properties differently. The Healthy Aging Initiative is a population-based, cross-sectional study investigating the health of 70-year-old men and women. Out of the 2904 individuals who met the inclusion criteria, data on self-reported daily dairy product consumption (dl/day), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) examinations at the 4 and 66% scan sites of the tibia and radius, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were collected from 2040 participants. Associations between dairy product consumption and bone properties were examined using multiple linear regression models adjusted for sex, muscle area, meal size, dietary protein proportion, current smoking status, and objectively measured physical activity. Total dairy product intake was associated with larger trabecular (2.296 (95% CI, 0.552-4.039) mm 2 , per dl/day increase, p = 0.01) and cortical cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in the tibia (1.757 (95% CI, 0.683-2.830 mm 2 , p = 0.001) as measured by pQCT and higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the radius (3.231 (95% CI, 0.764-5.698) mg/cm 2 , p = 0.01) as measured by DXA. No other measurement in the tibia, radius, femoral neck, or lower spine was associated significantly with dairy product intake. Bone properties did not differ according to the type of dairy product consumed. No evidence of a negative association between dairy product consumption and bone health was found. Furthermore, total dairy product consumption was associated with

  20. Assessment of the probiotic potential of a dairy product fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Foligné, Benoît; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Massart, Sébastien; Parayre, Sandrine; Le Loir, Yves; Boudry, Gaëlle; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-08-15

    Dairy propionibacteria, including Propionibacterium freudenreichii , display promising probiotic properties, including immunomodulation. These properties are highly strain-dependent and rarely studied in a fermented dairy product. We screened 10 strains, grown in a newly developed fermented milk ultrafiltrate, for immunomodulatory properties in vitro. The most anti-inflammatory strain, P. freudenreichii BIA129, was further tested on piglets. P. freudenreichii -fermented product improved food intake and growth of piglets. Colonic mucosa explants of treated pigs secreted less interleukin 8 (-25%, P dairy propionibacteria-fermented products, which are promising for the prevention or healing of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  1. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  2. PRODUCTION AND USES OF MICROBIAL ENZYMES FOR DAIRY PROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KABBANY, H.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    The isolation and identification of fungal producer from various Egyptian dairy products samples was studied. Among fungi testes, only one out of the 48 isolates was found to be positive yielded a suitable enzyme substitute (rennet) and identified as Cryphonectria parasitica (C. parasitica) and was found to be negative for mycotoxins. The highest growth and production of the crude enzyme were obtained from barley medium after an incubation period for 6-8 days at 25 0 C and pH 5. It was found also to be sensitive to gamma rays, since 2.5 kGy completely inactivated the germination of the spores while very low doses up to 0.05 kGy did not affect the production of rennet like enzyme (RLE). Precipitation of the crude enzyme produced by C. parasitica using ammonium sulphate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 gave the highest milk clotting activity (MCA) at 50 0 C. Further purification was achieved by using Sephadex G-100 to give pure RLE. MCA of the fungal and animal rennin proved to be essentially identical in milk containing various concentrations of CaCl 2 . An addition of 160 ppm of CaCl 2 increased the enzyme activity. The optimum temperature was 60 0 C while pre-heating thermophiles at 15 0 C for 10 minutes complete inactivation. Both rennins manifested comparable clotting activities in milk at pH 6

  3. Technology and quality of Skorup - traditional Montenegrin dairy product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Mirecki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skorup is Montenegrin traditional dairy product. Its main characteristics are extremely high content of milk fat and centuries-old technology. Due to the specific technology, high nutritional value and its historical heritage, Skorup deserves to be labelled as product with protected designation of origin (PDO or protected geographical indication (PGI. The purpose of this study was to collect the most important data about Skorup technology and quality and to launch the process of protection. The chemical quality of raw milk was analysed using IR spectrophotometry, the number of somatic cells and total bacteria count by flow cytometry, and Skorup composition by FTIR spectrophotometry. The presence of Escherichia coli, coagulase positive staphylococci and aerobic mesophilic bacteria in Skorup was detected by standard broth base methods. All Skorup samples contained more than 80 % of fat in dry matter, more than 70 % dry matter, approximately 60 % milk fat and 6 % proteins. The sensory characteristics of all samples were excellent, and according to sensory classification, they belong to the highest classes (I and IA. However, five out of twenty samples did not meet requirements for hygienic quality, which implies the urgent need for improvement of hygiene conditions during its production.

  4. [Lactic acid bacteria proteinase and quality of fermented dairy products--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Lanwei; Han, Xue

    2015-12-04

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could synthesize cell envelope proteinase with weak activity, which primarily degrades casein. In addition to its crucial role in the rapid growth of LAB in milk, LAB proteinases are also of industrial importance due to their contribution to the formation of texture and flavor of many fermented dairy products. The proteolytic system, properties of proteinase, the degradation product of casein and its effect on the quality of fermented dairy products were reviewed in this manuscript.

  5. Psychrotrophic bacteria and their negative effects on milk and dairy products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of bacterial populations in raw milk at the time of processing has a significant influence on shelf-life, organoleptic quality, spoilage and yields of raw milk, processed milk as well as on the other dairy products. Unfortunately, cold and extended storage of raw milk, as a common practice in dairy sector today, favour the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. Therefore, their count in the refrigerated milk is more than the ideal limit of 10 % of the mesophilic count. Psychrotrophic bacteria are generally able to form extracellular or intracellular thermo-resistant enzymes (proteases, lipases, phospolipases which can contribute to milk and dairy products spoilage. In addition, besides exhibiting spoilage features, some species belonging to the psychrotrops are considered as emerging pathogens that carry innate resistance to antibiotics or produce toxins. In sense of quality, psychrotrophic bacteria have become major problem for today’s dairy industry as leading cause in spoilage of cold-storage milk and dairy products. This review article focuses on the impact of psychrotrops on quality problems associated with raw milk as well as on th final dairy products. Means of controlling the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for undesirable activities in milk and dairy products were also discussed.

  6. The effect of fermentation temperature on the functional dairy product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanurić Katarina G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of fermented dairy beverage production by the application of kombucha cultivated on thyme tea in combination with a probiotic starter and to evaluate the quality of the new functional product. Fermented dairy beverages are produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat at three fermentation temperatures: 37°C, 40ºC and 43ºC.Chemical quality, rheological properties and products of added starter cultures metabolism were determined in the fermented dairy beverages after production and after10 days of storage. Produced fermented dairy beverages have reduced milk fat content and good textural characteristics. Besides the highly valuable milk components, they contain numerous compounds which have pronounced therapeutic properties. These products could be used as functional food in the diet of different populations for health improvement.

  7. The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der I.; Forouhi, N.G.; Beulens, J.W.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different

  8. Evaluation of surveillance methods for monitoring house fly abundance and activity on large commercial dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Alec C; Higginbotham, G E; Periera, L N; Lam, A; Shelton, C R

    2011-06-01

    Relative house fly, Musca domestica L., activity at three large dairies in central California was monitored during the peak fly activity period from June to August 2005 by using spot cards, fly tapes, bait traps, and Alsynite traps. Counts for all monitoring methods were significantly related at two of three dairies; with spot card counts significantly related to fly tape counts recorded the same week, and both spot card counts and fly tape counts significantly related to bait trap counts 1-2 wk later. Mean fly counts differed significantly between dairies, but a significant interaction between dairies sampled and monitoring methods used demonstrates that between-dairy comparisons are unwise. Estimate precision was determined by the coefficient of variability (CV) (or SE/mean). Using a CV = 0.15 as a desired level of estimate precision and assuming an integrate pest management (IPM) action threshold near the peak house fly activity measured by each monitoring method, house fly monitoring at a large dairy would require 12 spot cards placed in midafternoon shaded fly resting sites near cattle or seven bait traps placed in open areas near cattle. Software (FlySpotter; http://ucanr.org/ sites/FlySpotter/download/) using computer vision technology was developed to count fly spots on a scanned image of a spot card to dramatically reduce time invested in monitoring house flies. Counts provided by the FlySpotter software were highly correlated to visual counts. The use of spot cards for monitoring house flies is recommended for dairy IPM programs.

  9. Exploring the causes of Low-Productivity in Dairy Supply Chain using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S Mor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is one of the essential global industries with considerably important implications for world economy where the dairy supply chains (DSC cover every stage of the food system starting from the milk production at farmer level to final consumption. For achieving success in the dairy supply chain, it is needed to focus on critical factors (CFs that are necessary for an organization to achieve its corporate goals with continually improving the operational performance. In this context, the current study is an attempt to identify the critical factors causing low-productivity in dairy supply chains. After comprehensive literature review and pilot studies in some dairy industries located in northern region of India, a total of 32 critical factors have been identified. A structured questionnaire consisting of 32 CFs have been circulated and the data has been collected from select cooperative dairy units. Further, only eight major critical factors have been carried forward for AHP analysis based on the data collected. The factor having higher weightage score is considered as major CF. The findings of this study indicate that the poor logistics and transportation facilities is the most critical factor as productivity barrier in the context of coop. milk processing units in northern India. This research study would be useful for the dairy professionals & managers of milk processing units to manage their production operations effectively by considering the identified CFs.

  10. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  11. Dairy products and physical stature: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The positive relationship between per capita availability of dairy products and average height found in historical studies (for instance in nineteenth century Bavaria, Prussia and France; Baten, 2009) does not necessarily indicate a causal relationship. Historical studies usually apply

  12. Determination of antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginkaya, Z; Turhan, E U; Tatlı, D

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the antibiotic resistance (AR) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products was investigated. Yogurt, white cheese, tulum cheese, cokelek, camız cream and kefir as dairy products were collected from various supermarkets. Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Enterecoccus spp. were isolated from these dairy products. Lactobacillus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (58%), erythromycin (10.8%), tetracycline (4.3%), gentamicin (28%), and ciprofloxacin (26%). Streptococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (40%), erythromycin (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (30%). Bifidobacterium spp. were resistant to vancomycin (60%), E 15 (6.6%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (33%). Enterococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (100%), erythromycin (100%), rifampin (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%). As a result, LAB islated from dairy products in this study showed mostly resistance to vancomycin.

  13. Study on commercial HTGR hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2000-07-01

    The Japanese energy demand in 2030 will increase up to 117% in comparison with one in 2000. We have to avoid a large consumption of fossil fuel that induces a large CO 2 emission from viewpoint of global warming. Furthermore new energy resources expected to resolve global warming have difficulty to be introduced more because of their low energy density. As a result, nuclear power still has a possibility of large introduction to meet the increasing energy demand. On the other hand, in Japan, 40% of fossil fuels in the primary energy are utilized for power generation, and the remaining are utilized as a heat source. New clean energy is required to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and hydrogen is expected as a alternative energy resource. Prediction of potential hydrogen demand in Japan is carried out and it is clarified that the demand will potentially increase up to 4% of total primary energy in 2050. In present, steam reforming method is the most economical among hydrogen generation processes and the cost of hydrogen production is about 7 to 8 yen/m 3 in Europe and the United States and about 13 yen/m 3 in Japan. JAERI has proposed for using the HTGR whose maximum core outlet temperature is at 950degC as a heat source in the steam reforming to reduced the consumption of fossil fuels and resulting CO 2 emission. Based on the survey of the production rate and the required thermal energy in conventional industry, it is clarified that a hydrogen production system by the steam reforming is the best process for the commercial HTGR nuclear heat utilization. The HTGR steam reforming system and other candidate nuclear heat utilization systems are considered from viewpoint of system layout and economy. From the results, the hydrogen production cost in the HTGR stream reforming system is expected to be about 13.5 yen/m 3 if the cost of nuclear heat of the HTGR is the same as one of the LWR. (author)

  14. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices.

  15. Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Shanshan; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yunguo; Yu, Miaohui; Ma, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Background Dairy product consumption may affect the risk of hip fracture, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to examine and quantify the potential association of dairy product consumption with risk of hip fracture. Methods We searched the databases of PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles from their inception through April 17, 2017. The final analysis included 10 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies. Random-effects models ...

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Dairy and Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador; Sadeghi Kalani; Valian; Irajian; Lotfollahi

    2015-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and a serious threat to the public health in the world. Consumption of traditional foods such as dairy and meat products can be a major reason for relative abundance and isolation of these bacteria. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy and meat products. ...

  17. A qualitative risk assessment approach for Swiss dairy products: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez González, S; Hartnack, S; Berger, T; Doherr, M; Breidenbach, E

    2011-05-01

    Switzerland implemented a risk-based monitoring of Swiss dairy products in 2002 based on a risk assessment (RA) that considered the probability of exceeding a microbiological limit value set by law. A new RA was launched in 2007 to review and further develop the previous assessment, and to make recommendations for future risk-based monitoring according to current risks. The resulting qualitative RA was designed to ascertain the risk to human health from the consumption of Swiss dairy products. The products and microbial hazards to be considered in the RA were determined based on a risk profile. The hazards included Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. The release assessment considered the prevalence of the hazards in bulk milk samples, the influence of the process parameters on the microorganisms, and the influence of the type of dairy. The exposure assessment was linked to the production volume. An overall probability was estimated combining the probabilities of release and exposure for each combination of hazard, dairy product and type of dairy. This overall probability represents the likelihood of a product from a certain type of dairy exceeding the microbiological limit value and being passed on to the consumer. The consequences could not be fully assessed due to lack of detailed information on the number of disease cases caused by the consumption of dairy products. The results were expressed as a ranking of overall probabilities. Finally, recommendations for the design of the risk-based monitoring programme and for filling the identified data gaps were given. The aims of this work were (i) to present the qualitative RA approach for Swiss dairy products, which could be adapted to other settings and (ii) to discuss the opportunities and limitations of the qualitative method. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J; Faulkner, Catherine L; Moorby, Jon M; Perdok, Hink B; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Prumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.

  19. Dairy product consumption is associated with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.M.; Sluik, D.; Singh-Povel, C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies show associations between dairy product consumption and type 2 diabetes, but only a few studies conducted detailed analyses for a variety of dairy subgroups. Therefore, we examined cross-sectional associations of a broad variety of dairy subgroups with pre-diabetes and newly

  20. Hair cortisol and progesterone detection in dairy cattle: interrelation with physiological status and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Carbajal, A; Monclús, L; Manteca, X; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2018-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) and hair progesterone concentrations (HPCs) allow monitoring long-term retrospective steroid levels. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms of steroid deposition in hair and its potential application in dairy cattle research. This study aimed to evaluate the potential uses of hair steroid determinations by studying the interrelations between HCC, HPC, physiological data from cows, and their milk production and quality. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed in hair from 101 milking Holstein Friesian cows in a commercial farm. Physiological data were obtained from the 60 d prior to hair collection. Moreover, productive data from the month when hair was collected and the previous one were also obtained as well as at 124 d after hair sampling. Significant but weak correlations were found between HCC and HPC (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001) and between HPC and age (r = 0.06, P = 0.0133). High HCC were associated with low milk yields from the 2 previous months to hair sampling (P = 0.0396) and during the whole lactation (P < 0.0001). High HCC were also related to high somatic cell count (P = 0.0241). No effect of HCC on fat or protein content was detected. No significant correlations were detected between hair steroid concentrations and pregnancy status, days of gestation, parturition category (primiparous vs multiparous), number of lactations or days in milk. The relationship between physiological variables and HCC or HPC could depend on the duration of the time period over which hair accumulates hormones. Steroid concentrations in hair present high variability between individuals but are a potential tool for dairy cattle welfare and production research by providing a useful and practical tool for long-term steroid monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Dairy Management Inc., 10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900, Rosemont, 60018, IL, USA. 2 Nutrition ... as consuming the recommended servings from each food group ...... database analyses for various food and beverage companies and.

  2. Milk and dairy products in adolescent diet according to sex and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the portion of the milk and dairy products as source of energy, macronutrients and calcium in average daily diet of adolescents according to sex and living area. A group of four hundred and forty one adolescents (46 % from rural, and 54 % from urban area in Croatia, both sexes, between 15 to 18 years of age, who attended high school represented the study subject. Weight and height were determined using standard techniques and following the norms of the WHO. Food frequencyquestionnaire (FFQ for mass and frequency as well as energy and nutritional components of dairy products intake were used. The results indicated that adolescents in urban area consumed statistically significant (p<0.05 higher amount of milk and dairy products. Higher intake of energy, protein and calcium from milk and dairy products among adolescents in urban area was also observed. Average intake of calcium according to recommendation (RDA is adequate for sex and age among subjects in urban are. Lower calcium intake was observed among the girls. In terms of food types, higher fat content dairy products were consumed among adolescents in both living areas, while according to sex, girls mostly consumed less fat milk and dairy products. According to body mass index (BMI adolescents in both living areas were nourished well.

  3. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  4. Utilization of bacteriocin-producing bacteria in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Patrovský

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been used since ancient times for food preparation and for bio-conservation by fermentation. Selected strains are capable of producing antimicrobial peptides - bacteriocins, which can be natural preservatives, especially in products with short shelf lives. The present study is focused on inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin-producing bacteria strains Enterococcus faecium, Pediococccus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum against Listeria innocua as an indicator microorganism. Freeze-dried preparations of bacterial strains producing particular bacteriocins were tested by agar well-diffusion assay and by the traditional spread plate method. Plantaricin exhibited the highest anti-listerial effect among the tested bacteriocins. Pediocin also demonstrated a distinct inhibitory effect, but enterocin appeared to be heat labile and its efficiency was also suppressed under cold storage conditions. Plantaricin reduced Listeria innocua counts by 1 log in dairy spread made from cheese and quark. The formation of bacteriocins by various Lactobacillus plantarum strains were substantially influenced by the cultivation conditions of the mother culture and by the microbial preparation process before freeze-drying. Bacteriocins introduced into foodstuffs via protective cultures in situ offer new perspectives on enhancing food quality and safety.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Racey MSc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.

  6. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; Bransfield, Jeanette; Capello, Kathryn; Field, David; Kulak, Verena; Machmueller, David; Preyde, Michèle; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.

  7. Participatory farm management adaptations to reduce environmental impact on commercial pilot dairy farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.; Schils, R.L.M.; Aarts, H.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations in the Netherlands with respect to nutrient use force dairy farmers to improve nutrient management at the whole-farm level. On experimental farm ‘De Marke’, a coherent set of simple measures at farm level has been implemented, which has resulted in a drastic reduction in input of

  8. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari, Bahar; Asgary, Sedigheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian′s junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in...

  9. Assessment of heat treatment of dairy products by MALDI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2009-12-01

    The formation of the Amadori product from lactose (protein lactosylation) is a major parameter to evaluate the quality of processed milk. Here, MALDI-TOF-MS was used for the relative quantification of lactose-adducts in heated milk. Milk was heated at a temperature of 70, 80, and 100 degrees C between 0 and 300 min, diluted, and subjected directly to MALDI-TOF-MS. The lactosylation rate of alpha-lactalbumin increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The results correlated well with established markers for heat treatment of milk (concentration of total soluble protein, soluble alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin at pH 4.6, and fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan index; r=0.969-0.997). The method was also applied to examine commercially available dairy products. In severely heated products, protein pre-purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography improved spectra quality. Relative quantification of protein lactosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS proved to be a very fast and reliable method to monitor early Maillard reaction during milk processing.

  10. 7 CFR 1430.605 - Proof of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establish the commercial marketing and production history of the dairy operation so that dairy production...) Adequate proof of production history of the dairy operation under paragraph (b) of this section must be based on milk marketing statements obtained from the dairy operation's milk handler or marketing...

  11. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struijk, E A; Heraclides, A; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2013-01-01

    and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA(1c), insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist......), cheese intake was inversely associated with 2hPG (β = -0.048, 95% CI -0.095; -0.001). Fermented dairy intake was inversely associated with FPG (β = -0.028, 95% CI -0.048; -0.008) and HbA(1c) (β = -0.016, 95% CI -0.030; -0.001). Total dairy intake and the dairy subgroups were not related to HOMA-IR...... and HOMA-B in the maximally-adjusted model. Furthermore, there was no significant association between intake of total dairy or any of the dairy subgroups and incidence of T2D. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a modest beneficial effect of cheese and fermented dairy on glucose regulation measures; however...

  12. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  13. Application of microsatellite markers as potential tools for traceability of Girgentana goat breed dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-08-01

    In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dairy product consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in an older mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrubés, Laura; Babio, Nancy; Mena-Sánchez, Guillermo; Toledo, Estefania; Ramírez-Sabio, Judith B; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, José Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Sorlí, José Vicente; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2018-04-16

    Prospective studies have reported an inverse association between the consumption of total dairy products and milk and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nonetheless, there is little and inconsistent evidence regarding subtypes of dairy product and CRC risk. We assessed the associations between the consumption of total dairy products, their different subtypes and CRC risk in older Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We analyzed data from 7,216 men and women (55-80 years) without CRC at baseline from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Individuals were recruited between 2003 and 2009 and followed up until December 2012. At baseline and yearly thereafter, consumption of total and specific dairy products was assessed using a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) of CRC incidence were estimated for tertiles of mean consumption of dairy products during the follow-up. During a median [interquartile range] follow-up of 6.0 [4.4-7.3] years, we documented 101 incident CRC cases. In the multivariable-adjusted models, HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC for the comparison of extreme tertiles of total dairy product and low-fat milk consumption were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31-0.99; p-trend = 0.037) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.32-0.92; p-trend = 0.022), respectively. No significant associations with other dairy products (whole-fat and low-fat dairy products; total, low-fat and whole-fat yogurt; cheese; total, low-fat and whole-fat milk; concentrated full-fat dairy products, sugar-enriched dairy products and fermented dairy products) were found. A high consumption of total dairy products and low-fat milk was significantly associated with a reduced CRC risk. © 2018 UICC.

  15. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders = De ontwikkeling van jongvee en melkproduktie met kleine boeren

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, de, R.

    1996-01-01


    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasingly in the course of time with the development of dairy stock as the basis for enhanced andlor expanded milk production. Dairy production, generally performed on more specialized farms in industri...

  16. Dairy foods and osteoporosis: an example of assessing the health-economic impact of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötters, F J B; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Fardellone, P; Rizzoli, R; Rocher, E; Poley, M J

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become a major health concern, carrying a substantial burden in terms of health outcomes and costs. We constructed a model to quantify the potential effect of an additional intake of calcium from dairy foods on the risk of osteoporotic fracture, taking a health economics perspective. This study seeks, first, to estimate the impact of an increased dairy consumption on reducing the burden of osteoporosis in terms of health outcomes and costs, and, second, to contribute to a generic methodology for assessing the health-economic outcomes of food products. We constructed a model that generated the number of hip fractures that potentially can be prevented with dairy foods intakes, and then calculated costs avoided, considering the healthcare costs of hip fractures and the costs of additional dairy foods, as well as the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures associated with low nutritional calcium intake. Separate analyses were done for The Netherlands, France, and Sweden, three countries with different levels of dairy products consumption. The number of hip fractures that may potentially be prevented each year with additional dairy products was highest in France (2,023), followed by Sweden (455) and The Netherlands (132). The yearly number of DALYs lost was 6,263 for France, 1,246 for Sweden, and 374 for The Netherlands. The corresponding total costs that might potentially be avoided are about 129 million, 34 million, and 6 million Euros, in these countries, respectively. This study quantified the potential nutrition economic impact of increased dairy consumption on osteoporotic fractures, building connections between the fields of nutrition and health economics. Future research should further collect longitudinal population data for documenting the net benefits of increasing dairy consumption on bone health and on the related utilization of healthcare resources.

  17. Relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.; Berends, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with

  18. Dairy products and colorectal cancer in middle eastern and north African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kinany, K; Deoula, M; Hatime, Z; Bennani, B; El Rhazi, K

    2018-03-01

    This systematic review was conducted to explain the association between dairy products and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Middle Eastern and North African countries (MENA). The database consulted were PubMed, Clinical Trials, and Cochrane to extract the relevant studies published till the 31stof December 2016, using inclusion and exclusion criteria according to Prisma Protocol. The characteristics of these studies comprised the consumption of all types of dairy products in relation to CRC risk. Seven studies were included in this review. For dairy products overall, no significant association was found. Regarding modern dairy products, included studies found controversial results with OR = 9.88 (95% CI: 3.80-24.65) and OR a  = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.02-0.71). A positive association was reported between traditional dairy products and CRC risk, to OR = 18.66 (95% CI: 3.06-113.86) to OR = 24 (95% CI: 1.74-330.82) to ORa = 1.42 (95% CI: 0.62-3.25), p trend  = 0.03. Calcium was inversely associated with the CRC risk with OR a  = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04-0.17). This is the first systematic review which illustrated the association between dairy consumption and CRC risk in MENA region. The results were inconsistent and not always homogeneous. Further specified studies may be warranted to address the questions about the association between CRC and dairy products in a specific context of MENA region.

  19. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others. Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  20. Impact on human health of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

    2015-01-01

    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  1. Influence of main dietary chemical constituents on the in vitro gas and methane production in diets for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarana, Laura; Cattani, Mirko; Tagliapietra, Franco; Bailoni, Lucia; Schiavon, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Modification of chemical composition of diets fed to dairy cows might be a good strategy to reduce methane (CH4) production in the rumen. Notable reductions of CH4 production compared to conventional high-roughages rations were more frequently observed for very concentrated diets or when fat supplements were used. In these cases, the reduction in the gas emission was mainly a consequence of an overall impairment of rumen function with a reduction of fiber digestibility. These strategies do not always comply with feeding standards used in intensive dairy farms and they are usually not applied owing to the risks of negative health and economic consequences. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of seven commercial diets with contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), protein and lipids ranging 325 to 435 g/kg DM, 115 to 194 g/kg DM, and 26 to 61 g/kg DM, respectively, on in vitro degradability, gas (GP), and CH4 production. In this experiment, changes in the dietary content of NDF, crude protein (CP) and lipids were always obtained at the expense or in favor of starch. A decreased of the dietary NDF content increased NDF (NDFd) and true DM (TDMd) degradability, and increased CH4 production per g of incubated DM (P production per g of TDMd was not affected. An increased dietary lipid content reduced NDFd, TDMd, and GP per g of incubated DM, but it had no consequence on CH4 production per g of TDMd. It was concluded that, under commercial conditions, changes in dietary composition would produce small or negligible alterations of CH4 production per unit of TDMd, but greater differences in GP and CH4 production would be expected when these amounts are expressed per unit of DM intake. The use of TDMd as a standardizing parameter is proposed to account for possible difference in DM intake and productivity.

  2. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine if dairy product consumption is detrimental, neutral, or beneficial to cardiovascular health and if the recommendation to consume reduced-fat as opposed to regular-fat dairy is evidence-based. A systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective population studies associating dairy consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Quality of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. High-quality evidence supports favorable associations between total dairy intake and hypertension risk and between low-fat dairy and yogurt intake and the risk of T2D. Moderate-quality evidence suggests favorable associations between intakes of total dairy, low-fat dairy, cheese, and fermented dairy and the risk of stroke; intakes of low-fat dairy and milk and the risk of hypertension; total dairy and milk consumption and the risk of MetS; and total dairy and cheese and the risk of T2D. High- to moderate-quality evidence supports neutral associations between the consumption of total dairy, cheese, and yogurt and CVD risk; the consumption of any form of dairy, except for fermented, and CAD risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and yogurt and stroke risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, cheese, yogurt, and fermented dairy and hypertension risk; and the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and fermented dairy and T2D risk. Data from this systematic review indicate that the consumption of various forms of dairy products shows either favorable or neutral associations with cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes. The review also emphasizes that further research is urgently needed to compare the impact of

  4. Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine if dairy product consumption is detrimental, neutral, or beneficial to cardiovascular health and if the recommendation to consume reduced-fat as opposed to regular-fat dairy is evidence-based. A systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective population studies associating dairy consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Quality of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. High-quality evidence supports favorable associations between total dairy intake and hypertension risk and between low-fat dairy and yogurt intake and the risk of T2D. Moderate-quality evidence suggests favorable associations between intakes of total dairy, low-fat dairy, cheese, and fermented dairy and the risk of stroke; intakes of low-fat dairy and milk and the risk of hypertension; total dairy and milk consumption and the risk of MetS; and total dairy and cheese and the risk of T2D. High- to moderate-quality evidence supports neutral associations between the consumption of total dairy, cheese, and yogurt and CVD risk; the consumption of any form of dairy, except for fermented, and CAD risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and yogurt and stroke risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, cheese, yogurt, and fermented dairy and hypertension risk; and the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and fermented dairy and T2D risk. Data from this systematic review indicate that the consumption of various forms of dairy products shows either favorable or neutral associations with cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes. The review also emphasizes that further research is urgently needed to compare the impact of

  5. Veterinary advisory practice and sustainable production on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Oenema, O.; Boersema, S.; Cannas da Silva, J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainable livestock production’ has greatly developed over the past decades. Currently, a certain degree of consensus has been reached. The concept comprises four major components: economy, ecology, society, and ethics. Dairy farmers, especially those with grassland-based

  6. Influence of Amino Acids in Dairy Products on Glucose Homeostasis: The Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Dominic; Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Dairy products have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes because of their high content of whey proteins, rich in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) - leucine, isoleucine and valine - and lysine, which may decrease postprandial glucose responses and stimulate insulin secretion. Paradoxically, epidemiologic studies also show that higher levels of plasma BCAAs have been linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the objective was to review the recent clinical evidence concerning the intake of amino acids found in dairy proteins so as to determine their impact on glucose homeostasis in healthy persons and in those with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have reported that the major dairy amino acids, namely, leucine, isoleucine, glutamine, phenylalanine, proline and lysine, have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Yet the reported doses of amino acids investigated are too elevated to be reached through adequate dairy product intake. The minor dairy amino acids, arginine and glycine, may improve glucose homeostasis by improving other risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Further, the combination of amino acids may also improve glucose-related outcomes, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Nevertheless, additional long-term studies in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are needed to ascertain the benefits for glucose homeostasis of amino acids found in dairy foods. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed

  8. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Dairy and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and a serious threat to the public health in the world. Consumption of traditional foods such as dairy and meat products can be a major reason for relative abundance and isolation of these bacteria. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy and meat products. Materials and Methods A total of 317 dairy products and meat-processed samples were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on each sample by the disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer. Five reference loci were used for typing of L. monocytogenes strains by MLVA (Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis Technique. Results A total of 24 L. monocytogenes isolates were collected from the dairy and meat products. Resistance of isolated L. monocytogenes strains to penicillin G were 54.54% (from dairy products and 46.15% (from processed meat. Genetic relatedness of isolates were assessed by MLVA. Out of 13 different types, type 2 with 6 strains and type 3 with 4 strains, were the most common types. Conclusions MLVA analysis showed that samples obtained from different sources could have similar genetic profile. As a result, administration of penicillin in patients with listeriosis (especially pregnant women and antibiotic susceptibility test are recommended. The fast and accurate methods such as MLVA for tracking of pollution sources of L. monocytogenes are recommended during outbreaks.

  9. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  10. Productive, economic and risk assessment of grazing dairy systems with supplemented cows milked once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Lyons, N; Hendrikse, L; Baudracco, J

    2018-05-01

    Milking cows once a day (OAD) is a herd management practice that may help to reduce working effort and labour demand in dairy farms. However, a decrease in milk yield per cow occurs in OAD systems compared with twice a day (TAD) systems and this may affect profitability of dairy systems. The objective of this study was to assess productive and economic impact and risk of reducing milking frequency from TAD to OAD for grazing dairy systems, using a whole-farm model. Five scenarios were evaluated by deterministic and stochastic simulations: one scenario under TAD milking (TADAR) and four scenarios under OAD milking. The OAD scenarios assumed that milk yield per cow decreased by 30% (OAD30), 24% (OAD24), 19% (OAD19) and 10% (OAD10), compared with TADAR scenario, based on experimental and commercial farms data. Stocking rate (SR) was increased in all OAD scenarios compared to TADAR and two levels of reduction in labour cost were tested, namely 15% and 30%. Milk and concentrate feeds prices, and pasture and crop yields, were allowed to behave stochastically to account for market and climate variations, respectively, to perform risk analyses. Scenario OAD10 showed similar milk yield per ha compared with TADAR, as the increased SR compensated for the reduction in milk yield per cow. For scenarios OAD30, OAD24 and OAD19 the greater number of cows per ha partially compensated for the reduction of milk yield per cow and milk yield per ha decreased 21%, 15% and 10%, respectively, compared with TADAR. Farm operating profit per ha per year also decreased in all OAD scenarios compared with TADAR, and were US$684, US$161, US$ 303, US$424 and US$598 for TADAR, OAD30, OAD24, OAD19, OAD10, respectively, when labour cost was reduced 15% in OAD scenarios. When labour cost was reduced 30% in OAD scenarios, only OAD10 showed higher profit (US$706) than TADAR. Stochastic simulations showed that exposure to risk would be higher in OAD scenarios compared with TADAR. Results showed that OAD

  11. Effect of Processing Methods on Cholesterol Contents and Cholesterol Oxides Formation in Some Dairy Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRowaily, Meshref A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pasteurization, boiling, microwaving, processing and storage of milk and some locally produced dairy products on cholesterol contents and cholesterol oxides formation were studied and evaluated. The 7-ketocholesterol were not detected (ND) in all raw milk samples. On the contrary, heating of milk led to formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), mostly, 7- ketocholesterol in different quantities. No significant effect of heating of milk on cholesterol level was observed with the exception of the ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk prepared from milk powder heated at 140 + - 1.0 degree C for 4 sec showed the highest value of 7-ketocholesterol (80.97 mgg-1), followed by microwave heated milk for 5 min (31.29 mgg-1), whereas the lowest value was in milk pasteurized at 85 + - 1.0 degree C for 16 sec (3.125 mgg-1). Commercial storage showed no significant effect on cholesterol and 7-ketocholestrol but lowered cholesterol concentration and increased 7-ketocholestrol level of UHT reconstituted milk. Cholesterol content of both yogurt and labaneh strained by centrifugal separator showed significant decrease while 7-ketochostrol level was increased significantly with refrigerated storage. The findings are discussed in the context with the results of previous similar studies. (author)

  12. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antibiotics, especially in veterinary treatments.

  13. Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies, low-fat dairy products (8 studies, cheese (7 studies and yogurt (7 studies and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97 and 0.88 (0.84-0.93 for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93 and 0.91 (0.82-1.00 for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake. CONCLUSION: A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.

  14. Freeware Versus Commercial Office Productivity Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    THREAT (SWOT) ANALYSIS Comparing multiple categories in a product selection process helps aid the DOD in choosing the correct productivity suite...DOD (Taylor, 2016). Because SWOT identifies both internal and external forces, the DOD’s product selection process needs to consider both. Once...search on alternate third party apps for things like hotels and restaurants instead of going to Google’s website. Google does not get paid if the users

  15. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  16. Isothiazolinones in commercial products at Danish workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, a steep increase in the frequency of occupational contact allergy to isothiazolinones has been reported from several European countries. OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent and occurrence of isothiazolinones in different types of product at Danish workplaces. METHODS......: Isothiazolinones are present in multiple products registered for use at workplaces, and may occur in high concentrations....

  17. Composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and their effect on tourism development of inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of dairy industry in Inner Mongolia has accelerated its economic growth, and its grassland culture has become appealing to the public. As an important support industry for the economic development in tourism area of Inner Mongolia, dairy industry can create economic value for the development of tourism. In view of the importance of dairy products-the habitat of lactic acid bacteria, this study aims to reveal the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and isolate lactic acid bacteria resources. Firstly, we selected 60 traditional dairy product samples (from the pasture in scenic area of Inner Mongolia as the research objects. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, lactic acid bacteria in the samples were isolated and identified; Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR technology was applied to the comparative analysis on the population of dominant bacteria in samples. It was found that there were significant differences in the numbers of dominant bacteria in different dairy products. With the advantages of improving nutritional value and extending storage time of dairy products, lactic acid bacteria is contributive to the development of dairy industry, which further promotes the prosperity of economy and tourism. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products.

  18. Defining and evaluating heat stress thresholds in different dairy cow production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brügemann, Kerstin; Gernand, Erhard; König von Borstel, Uta; König, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of heat stress in dairy cows on test-day records for production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. Three different production systems were defined: A production system characterized by intensive crop production (=indoor housing), a pasture based production system, and a maritime region. Heat stress was assessed by two temperature-humidity indices (THI) modelled as random regression coefficients in an analys...

  19. Research Gaps in the Use of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional interventions to help prevent stunting, particularly in the first 1000 days from conception to 2 years of a child's life, are a major focus of numerous food aid organizations worldwide. Dairy ingredients can play an important role in enhancing the nutritional value and effectiveness of food products used in food aid. This article addresses gaps in research on malnutrition from both a broad perspective and specific to dairy ingredients. Narrative review. From a broad perspective, there is a need for gaining a consensus by the research community and funders of research on best practices for protocol development, outcomes measured, and reporting of study outcomes. Identification of biomarkers and rapid screening methods and consistent application of their use would expedite future research. A better understanding of nutritional requirements for malnourished populations, including the effects of energy deficits and disease on those requirements, is needed. More specific to dairy ingredients, a key research question is: Does dairy protein or the package of nutrients provided by dairy ingredients have a unique impact on growth, and if so, how? Also, data on the optimal levels of dairy ingredients based on the effective cost of treatment are needed, particularly in the treatment and prevention of moderate acute malnutrition and during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. PRODUCTIVE IMPACT OF THE GREEN FORAGE SUPPLY USAGE AT THE DAIRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of the crop structure as a tool to maximize efficiency in the conceiving of the green forage supply scheme in a dairy farm. Several apects are necessary to consider for proper green forage utilization by the cattle, as follows: climatic conditions, proper field operations for each crop, optimal harvest date, and farm technical and economical resources. With a high degree of succulence, green forage and derived products (silage, haylage, present addvantages as compared to hay, having superior indices of nutritive value and palatability. A green forage supply scheme was applied on an area of 188 ha taking into account dairy cattle biological traits. Crop structure was as follows: forage maize, Sudan grass, Italian ryegrass, new lucern and old lucerne, and orchardgrass. Insuring the required superior green forage for the dairy cattle according to forage rations, represents one of the main techniques to maximize milk production and to minimize milk production cost.

  1. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  2. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  3. Method to assess the carbon footprint at product level in the dairy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Thrane, Mikkel; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    associated with raw milk are allocated based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.4). Data from the dairy company Arla Foods give 1.1, 8.1, 6.5, 7.4 and 1.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalents per kg of fresh dairy product, butter and butter blend, cheese, milk powder and whey based product, and other......A model to calculate the farm-to-customer carbon footprint (CF) for different dairy product groups is presented. As the largest share of the CF of dairy products occurs at farm level, it is decisive how the emissions from raw milk production are allocated between different products. Impacts......, respectively. One critical aspect is how the by-product ‘whey’ is dealt with. No emissions are allocated to the milk solid whey, which is why products containing whey have an apparent low impact. Underlying methodological assumptions are open to debate and further research is needed concerning the CF impact...

  4. Effects of climate change on food safety hazards in the dairy production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of climate change on emerging food safety hazards in the dairy production chain. For this purpose, a holistic approach was used to select critical factors from inside and outside the production chain that are affected by climatic factors. An expert

  5. Prediction of enteric methane production, yield, and intensity in dairy cattle using an intercontinental database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Mutian; Kebreab, Ermias; Hristov, Alexander N

    2018-01-01

    data from animals under different management systems worldwide. The objectives of this study were to (1) collate a global database of enteric CH4production from individual lactating dairy cattle; (2) determine the availability of key variables for predicting enteric CH4production (g/day per cow), yield...

  6. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  7. Milk and dairy products presence in boarding school meals in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritive quality and variety of food intake are the most important issues for young people growing and developing. Nutritional habits of each individual are also very important. High values of proteins, mineral matters and vitamins in milk show the importance of milk consumption in meals for children and young people.In order to gain a precise insight into nutritive status of young people in Croatian boarding schools, a "closed type group" was selected. The examined groups included girls and boys at the age of 14-18 years, accommodated in 39 boarding schools. The questionnaires, organised in order to determine preferences in consumption of different food groups including milk and dairy products, are conducted as well. From the meals analysed one can recommend the improvements in meal preferences. Average values per day showed that 52 % of girls and 63 % of boys consume milk and dairy products only if includedin boarding school meals. Only 27 % of girls and 21 % of boys consumed milk or dairy products on daily basis. Results of milk and dairy product preferences are different with regards to different regions of Croatia. Region 3, Lika and Gorski Kotar, shows the highest values of dairy products consumption. The aim of the work is to determine quality of the energy and nutritive intake by nutrition analysis, and to determine nutritional irregularities with a special reference to milk and dairy products consumption. Furthermore, nutritional improvements, by including the results of meal preferences in accordance with the needs and DRI recommendations considering gender and age, are proposed.

  8. Dairy Product Consumption Interacts with Glucokinase (GCK Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine S. Da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dairy product intake and a person’s genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified. Secondly, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 were grown in a high-glucose medium and incubated with either 1-dairy proteins: whey, caseins, and a mixture of whey and casein; and 2-four amino acids (AA or mixtures of AA. The expression of GCK-related genes insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and fatty acid synthase (FASN was increased with whey protein isolate or hydrolysate. Individually, leucine increased IRS-1 expression, whereas isoleucine and valine decreased FASN expression. A branched-chain AA mixture decreased IRS-1 and FASN expression. In conclusion, carriers of the A allele for rs1799884 in the GCK gene may benefit from a higher intake of dairy products to maintain optimal insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the results show that whey proteins affect the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism.

  9. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valence, Florence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio) preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially) new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods. PMID:28788096

  10. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille Garnier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods.

  11. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  12. Three issues in consumer quality perception and acceptance of dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bredahl, Lone

    2000-01-01

    in communication provided. Drawing on five different empirical studies on consumer quality perception of dairy products, three issues related to the communication on credence quality dimensions are discussed: providing credible information, the role of consumer attitudes, and inference processes in quality......It is argued that consumer quality perception of dairy products is characterised by four major dimensions: hedonic, health-related, convenience-related and process-related quality. Two of these, viz. health and process-related quality, are credence dimensions, ie, a matter of consumer trust...

  13. Genetic gain in dairy cattle populations is increased using sexed semen in commercial herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl

    2011-01-01

    Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were...... combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds...... with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase...

  14. Economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max

    2015-01-01

    of producing copepods for commercial application. This is the first empirical study to investigate the economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use. To this end, a standard cost-benefit analysis based on a prototype production facility of Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs at Roskilde University...... condition, reduces mal-pigmentation and allows breeding of ‘new’ marine finfish species. However, copepods are not yet commercially produced and therefore not widely used in the aquaculture industry. One of the bottlenecks for large-scale production has been lack of economic knowledge on the feasibility......, Denmark, is employed. The result reveals that commercial production of copepods is economically feasible considering the existing market prices on both copepods and competing live feed items such as rotifers. The study provides valuable information for businesses who consider investing in live feed...

  15. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  16. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from dairy and pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aimmo, Maria Rosaria; Modesto, Monica; Biavati, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    The outlines of antibiotic resistance of some probiotic microorganisms were studied. This study was conducted with the double purpose of verifying their ability to survive if they are taken simultaneously with an antibiotic therapy and to increase the selective properties of suitable media for the isolation of samples containing mixed bacterial populations. We isolated from commercial dairy and pharmaceutical products, 34 strains declared as probiotics, belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and 21 strains of starter culture bacteria. All the microorganisms have been compared by electrophoresis of the soluble proteins for the purpose of identifying them. A Multiplex-PCR with genus- and species-specific primers was used to detect for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis presence. All bifidobacteria were B. animalis subsp. lactis except one Bifidobacterium longum. Sometimes the identification showed that the used strain was not the one indicated on the label. The lactobacilli were Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The streptococci were all Streptococcus thermophilus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 24 common antibiotic substances has been valued by the broth microdilution method. All tested strains were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin, clindamycin, dicloxacillin, erytromycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, rifampicin (MIC(90) ranging from 0.01 to 4 microg/ml); resistant to aztreonam, cycloserin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B and spectinomycin (MIC(90) ranging from 64 to >1000 microg/ml). The susceptibility to cephalothin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, lincomycin, metronidazole, neomycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin was variable and depending on the species.

  17. Genomic diversity and immunomodulatory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M; Scaltriti, E; Bonvini, B; Fornasari, M E; Penna, G; Massimiliano, L; Carminati, D; Rescigno, M; Giraffa, G

    2017-08-24

    In this study, we aimed to investigate some functional characteristics and the immunomodulatory properties of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum of dairy origin which, in a previous screening, showed to be candidate probiotics. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics, which confirmed the presence of genes involved in folate and riboflavin production and in the immune response of dendritic cells (DCs), prompted us to investigate the ability of the three strains to accumulate the two vitamins and their immunomodulation properties. The ability of the three strains to release antioxidant components in milk was also investigated. Small amounts of folate and riboflavin were produced by the three strains, while they showed a good antioxidant capacity in milk with FRAP method. The immune response experiments well correlated with the presence of candidate genes influencing in DCs cytokine response to L. plantarum. Specifically, the amounts of secreted cytokins by DCs after stimulation with cells of Lp790, Lp813 and Lp998 resulted pro-inflammatory whereas stimulation with culture supernatants (postbiotics) inhibited the release of interleukin (IL)-12p70 and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. This study adds further evidence on the importance of L. plantarum in human health. Understanding how probiotics (or postbiotics) work in preclinical models can allow a rational choice of the different strains for clinical and/or commercial use.

  18. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  19. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Muminović; Željana Aljinović Barać

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most dev...

  20. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  1. Short communication: Associations between blood glucose concentration, onset of hyperketonemia, and milk production in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, J; Borchardt, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose concentration ≤2.2 mmol/L. Hyperketonemia was defined as a BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. The onset of HYK was described as early onset (first HYK event within the first 2 wk postpartum) and late onset (first HYK event in wk 3 to 6 postpartum). The effect of ketosis status on blood glucose within 42 DIM was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. No effect was observed of HYK on glucose concentration in primiparous cows. Multiparous cows with early-onset HYK had a lower glucose concentration (-0.21 mmol/L) compared with nonketotic cows. Overall, primiparous cows had a lower prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia than multiparous cows. Hypoglycemia in multiparous cows was associated with higher first test-day milk production and 100 DIM milk production. In conclusion, hypoglycemia mainly occurred in multiparous cows with early-onset HYK, whereas primiparous cows were at a lower risk for hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Construction of a dairy microbial genome catalog opens new perspectives for the metagenomic analysis of dairy fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mathieu; Hébert, Agnès; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Rasmussen, Simon; Monnet, Christophe; Pons, Nicolas; Delbès, Céline; Loux, Valentin; Batto, Jean-Michel; Leonard, Pierre; Kennedy, Sean; Ehrlich, Stanislas Dusko; Pop, Mihai; Montel, Marie-Christine; Irlinger, Françoise; Renault, Pierre

    2014-12-13

    Microbial communities of traditional cheeses are complex and insufficiently characterized. The origin, safety and functional role in cheese making of these microbial communities are still not well understood. Metagenomic analysis of these communities by high throughput shotgun sequencing is a promising approach to characterize their genomic and functional profiles. Such analyses, however, critically depend on the availability of appropriate reference genome databases against which the sequencing reads can be aligned. We built a reference genome catalog suitable for short read metagenomic analysis using a low-cost sequencing strategy. We selected 142 bacteria isolated from dairy products belonging to 137 different species and 67 genera, and succeeded to reconstruct the draft genome of 117 of them at a standard or high quality level, including isolates from the genera Kluyvera, Luteococcus and Marinilactibacillus, still missing from public database. To demonstrate the potential of this catalog, we analysed the microbial composition of the surface of two smear cheeses and one blue-veined cheese, and showed that a significant part of the microbiota of these traditional cheeses was composed of microorganisms newly sequenced in our study. Our study provides data, which combined with publicly available genome references, represents the most expansive catalog to date of cheese-associated bacteria. Using this extended dairy catalog, we revealed the presence in traditional cheese of dominant microorganisms not deliberately inoculated, mainly Gram-negative genera such as Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis or Psychrobacter immobilis, that may contribute to the characteristics of cheese produced through traditional methods.

  3. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 ...

  4. Procedure for the Management control with process approach at the Dairy Products Company Río Zaza Sancti Spiritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Herrera Carriles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research work we propose a procedure for the management control with process approaches to quality continuing improvement approaches at the Dairy Products Company Río Zaza Sancti Spíritus. Improvement opportunities were detected after measuring economical and productive parameters of commercialization process. The procedure includes techniques and tools such as Kendall coefficient, questionnaire, SWOT matrix (Weaknesses, Threats, Strengths, Opportunities, process management, process map, flow diagrams, process chip, Pareto diagram, strategic alignment matrix, balanced scorecard and the Deming cycle. The integration of strategic deployment, the process approaches; balanced scorecard in the procedure of management control contributed to the continuous improvement of quality evaluated by means of the indicators monitoring. It was possible to lower the billing cycle to 45 days and to have an increment of 2.2 MP from the total revenues.

  5. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  6. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  7. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rybak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence o f fatglobules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions.It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  8. IT support of commercial-production companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hroch, A.

    2004-01-01

    Slovak electricity sector was built from sixties like common entity what can use synergic effects. In the 2002 reorganisation was done, there were created independent joint stock company. There were published new legislative acts, which opened Slovak electricity market for competition. The companies have to change their mine because a business is priority No. 1. Slovenske elektrarne, joint-stock company is under transformation process to build procedural guided trade-production company. As joint project is prepared a new system to control business in to a trading floor, including a risk management, which have to be supported by technological and information tools together with planing, scheduling, directing and controlling of the operation. The all system includes standard modules that fulfil their specific functions. (author)

  9. Reliability of sampling strategies for measuring dairy cattle welfare on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Os, Jennifer M C; Winckler, Christoph; Trieb, Julia; Matarazzo, Soraia V; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Champagne, John D; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2018-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate how the proportion of high-producing lactating cows sampled on each farm and the selection method affect prevalence estimates for animal-based measures. We assessed the entire high-producing pen (days in milk size calculations from the Welfare Quality Protocol; and (4) selecting the first, middle, or final third of cows exiting the milking parlor. Estimates were compared with true values using regression analysis and were considered accurate if they met 3 criteria: the coefficient of determination was ≥0.9 and the slope and intercept did not differ significantly from 1 and 0, respectively. All estimates met the slope and intercept criteria, whereas the coefficient of determination increased when more cows were sampled. All estimates were accurate for neck alterations, ocular discharge (22.2 ± 27.4%), and carpal joint hair loss (14.1 ± 17.4%). Selecting a third of the milking order or using the Welfare Quality sample size calculations failed to accurately estimate all measures simultaneously. However, all estimates were accurate when selecting at least 2 of every 3 cows locked at the feed bunk. Using restraint position at the feed bunk did not differ systematically from computer-selecting the same proportion of cows randomly, and the former may be a simpler approach for welfare assessments. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  11. Management of Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle for Improved Production: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Hussain; Amjad Ul Islam; Surinder Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a well-recognized digestive disorder that is an increasing health problem in most dairy herds. Feeding diets high in grain and other highly fermentable carbohydrates to dairy cows increases milk production, but also increases the risk of SARA. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis is defined as periods of moderately depressed ruminal pH, from about 5.5 to 5.0. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis may be associated with laminitis and other health problems resulting in decreased...

  12. Chromatography in authenticity and traceability tests of vegetable oils and dairy products: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 183-190 ISSN 0269-3879 Grant - others:CZ-HU(CZ) Cooperation programme Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chromatography * dairy products * vegetable oils Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.218, year: 2005

  13. Trans fatty acids in dairy and meat products from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Antoine, J.M.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Reykdal, O.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dairy products and meat from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. In cow's milk, butter, and cheese the proportions oftransfatty acids ranged between 3.2 and 6.2% of fatty acids. C18:1 isomers comprised about 60% and C16:1 and

  14. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Piasentin, R.M.; Primavesi, O.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  15. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  16. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact of SCK

  17. Consumption of dairy products in youth, does it protect from cardio-metabolic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-07-12

    Introduction: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is considered as a major global health concern and involves the onset of other comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic infl ammation and hyperinsulinemia, which are also considered as cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Several studies have observed that consumption of dairy products has a protective role on the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, the scientific evidence on this topic is very limited among children and adolescents. Objectives: To investigate the association between dairy products consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in young populations. Material and methods: The most up-to-date literature was reviewed, including some data from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. A sample of adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities was considered for the analysis. Results: US data showed a decrease in both number of servings and portion sizes of milk consumption. Within the HELENA study, dairy products emerged as the food group that better distinguished those adolescents at lower cardiovascular diseases risk. Among the HELENA adolescents, higher consumption of milk, yogurt and milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for cardiovascular diseases, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions: More studies are needed to provide more evidence and to better understand the intrinsic mechanisms of the association between dairy products consumption, especially yogurt consumption, and obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases risk factors.

  18. Consumers’ acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Nardone, Gianluca; Devitiis, De Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional

  19. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria with High Biological Activity from Local Fermented Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    B. Munkhtsetseg; M. Margad-Erdene; B. Batjargal

    2009-01-01

    The thirty-two strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the Mongolian traditional fermented dairy products, among them 25 strains show antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms including Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Pseudom о nas aeruginosa . Protease sensitivity assay demonstrated that the antimicrobial substances produced by isolates А 23, Т 2 are bacterio...

  20. Characterization and Genetic Improvement of Lactobacilli for Application in Probiotic Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Elsayed

    2007-01-01

    Lactobacilli have a worldwide industrial use as starters in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products. Moreover, some Lactobacillus strains have probiotic characteristics leading to increasing the use of lactobacilli in fermented food products. Increasing of probiotic lactobacilli in food products and nutritional supplements underscores the need to evaluate and correctly identify these useful bacteria. The aims of this study were to evaluate putative probiotic lactobacilli isolated from d...

  1. Position of Serbia on the international market of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool

    OpenAIRE

    Đorović Milutin; Stevanović Simo; Lazić Verica

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both world and domestic markets of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. Namely, for the past 20 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis was used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading ex...

  2. Comparative analysis of four commercial on-farm culture methods to identify bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jair C; Gomes, Marilia S; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Canisso, Igor F; Garrett, Edgar F; Stewart, Jamie L; Zhou, Ziyao; Lima, Fabio S

    2018-01-01

    Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk samples from the affected quarter with clinical mastitis were aerobically cultured with the on-farm culture systems and by two additional reference laboratories. Agreeing results from both standard laboratories were denoted as the reference standard (RS). Accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) of on-farm plates were determined based on the RS culture of 211 milk samples. All four plate-systems correctly identified ≥ 84.9% of milk samples with no bacterial growth. Accumast had greater values for all overall predictive factors (Ac, Se, Sp, PPV and NPV) and a substantial agreement (k = 0.79) with RS. The inter-rater agreements of Minnesota, SSGN, and SSGNC with RS were moderate (0.45 ≤ k ≤ 0.55). The effectiveness to categorize bacterial colonies at the genus and species was numerically different amongst the commercial plates. Our findings suggest that Accumast was the most accurate on-farm culture system for identification of mastitis-associated pathogens of the four systems included in the analysis.

  3. Population structure of Lactobacillus helveticus isolates from naturally fermented dairy products based on multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an economically important lactic acid bacterium used in industrial dairy fermentation. In the present study, the population structure of 245 isolates of L. helveticus from different naturally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia were investigated using an multilocus sequence typing scheme with 11 housekeeping genes. A total of 108 sequence types were detected, which formed 8 clonal complexes and 27 singletons. Results from Structure, SplitsTree, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated the presence of 3 subpopulations in the L. helveticus isolates used in our study, namely koumiss, kurut-tarag, and panmictic lineages. Most L. helveticus isolates from particular ecological origins had specific population structures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Li, Xutong; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2016-02-27

    Many epidemiologic studies have explored the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but the results remain controversial. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant articles published up to October 2015. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. The dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. A total of 16 articles were eligible for this meta-analysis. The pooled RRs (95% CIs) of NHL for the highest vs. lowest category of the consumption of total dairy product, milk, butter, cheese, ice cream and yogurt were 1.20 (1.02, 1.42), 1.41 (1.08, 1.84), 1.31 (1.04, 1.65), 1.14 (0.96, 1.34), 1.57 (1.11, 2.20) and 0.78 (0.54, 1.12), respectively. In subgroup analyses, the positive association between total dairy product consumption and the risk of NHL was found among case-control studies (RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.70) but not among cohort studies (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.88-1.17). The pooled RRs (95% CIs) of NHL were 1.21 (1.01, 1.46) for milk consumption in studies conducted in North America, and 1.24 (1.09, 1.40) for cheese consumption in studies that adopted validated food frequency questionnaires. In further analysis of NHL subtypes, we found statistically significant associations between the consumption of total dairy product (RR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.22-2.45) and milk (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.06) and the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The dose-response analysis suggested that the risk of NHL increased by 5% (1.05 (1.00-1.10)) and 6% (1.06 (0.99-1.13)) for each 200 g/day increment of total dairy product and milk consumption, respectively. This meta-analysis suggested that dairy product consumption, but not yogurt, may increase the risk of NHL. More prospective cohort studies that investigate specific types of dairy product consumption are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  5. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  6. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  7. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Muminović

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most developed countries. Results obtained show that comprehensive measure of productivity EBITDA per employee has statistically significant positive impact on company’s profitability, the same as productivity management components labour cost competitiveness and capital productivity.

  8. Position of Serbia on the international market of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both world and domestic markets of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. Namely, for the past 20 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis was used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading exporters and importers of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool were defined, with special emphasis on importance of Serbia, i.e. its position in the global market for these products. Pursuant to the above, and importance of analyzed product groups for the domestic market, i.e. agroindustry and the economy as a whole, this paper specially studies balances, structure, dynamics and regional orientation of foreign trade in milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. In addition, the paper points to the needs, capabilities, measures and directions of further development of domestic production and export of products analyzed.

  9. Socio-economic issues in smallholder dairy production and the role of international support for achieving sustainable improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nell, A.J.; Schiere, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    In many developing countries urban and peri-urban agriculture is becoming increasingly important as a source of food for the city. A great variety of urban and peri-urban agriculture and livestock production systems are developing, ranging from large intensive market-oriented and factory type production units to small backyard family subsistence production; from landless farms exclusively based on external inputs to more land-based production in the city outskirts and peri-urban areas, partially or entirely based on farm grown inputs. The production systems also range from units established by wealthy business people looking for good investment and profit opportunities, and sometimes making use of their connections to circumvent some of the city regulations, to impoverished city dwellers who depend on their livestock as their main source of food and income. Urban and peri-urban livestock (including dairy) production systems exist with all possible variations and combinations between these extremes, in terms of scale, type, function etc. In looking at small and medium scale commercial dairy farms it is important to realise and understand the diversity of farms and farmers. Dutch research has identified 4 main farming styles in pig farming, the same type of farming styles could probably be identified in commercial farming in developing countries. Such a framework for different farming styles explains priorities and preferences of the farmer and the type of messages the farmer might be interested in. Maximisation of the (short-term or even long-term) economic result is by no means always the main aim of the farmer, sustainability, maintenance of family property and conservation of nature are also frequently guiding principles for interventions in farm management. Research into the opportunities and the sustainability of the commercial small to medium scale dairy production system should involve a careful and thorough analysis of the system. It should not only include

  10. Thermal conductivity as influenced by the temperature and apparent viscosity of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, B J; Pereira, C G; Lago, A M T; Gonçalves, C S; Giarola, T M O; Abreu, L R; Resende, J V

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rheological behavior and thermal conductivity of dairy products, composed of the same chemical components but with different formulations, as a function of temperature. Subsequently, thermal conductivity was related to the apparent viscosity of yogurt, fermented dairy beverage, and fermented milk. Thermal conductivity measures and rheological tests were performed at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C using linear probe heating and an oscillatory rheometer with concentric cylinder geometry, respectively. The results were compared with those calculated using the parallel, series, and Maxwell-Eucken models as a function of temperature, and the discrepancies in the results are discussed. Linear equations were fitted to evaluate the influence of temperature on the thermal conductivity of the dairy products. The rheological behavior, specifically apparent viscosity versus shear rate, was influenced by temperature. Herschel-Bulkley, power law, and Newton's law models were used to fit the experimental data. The Herschel-Bulkley model best described the adjustments for yogurt, the power law model did so for fermented dairy beverages, and Newton's law model did so for fermented milk and was then used to determine the rheological parameters. Fermented milk showed a Newtonian trend, whereas yogurt and fermented dairy beverage were shear thinning. Apparent viscosity was correlated with temperature by the Arrhenius equation. The formulation influenced the effective thermal conductivity. The relationship between the 2 properties was established by fixing the temperature and expressing conductivity as a function of apparent viscosity. Thermal conductivity increased with viscosity and decreased with increasing temperature. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 25 CFR 309.6 - When does a commercial product become an Indian product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 309.6 Section 309.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.6 When does a commercial product become an Indian product? In addressing Indian embellishments to originally commercial products, the Indian labor expended to add art or...

  12. In vitro evaluation of commercial probiotic products used for marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of commercial probiotic products used for marine shrimp cultivation in Thailand. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 22 (2011) > ... labels as regards the number and types of microorganisms and acceptability of the number of probiotic microorganisms at 10,sup>6 colony forming unit (CFU)/g in the products.

  13. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of R and D programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  14. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of RandD programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  15. Potentials for Sustainable Commercial Biofuels Production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is to underscore the major potentials for production of biofuels in Nigeria and the problems that may be encountered. It also examined those potentials and how they can be exploited for a sustainable commercial production in a way that brings benefits to the country both in the short and long term.

  16. Strategic orientations and new product commercialization : mediator, moderator, and interplay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, J.; Di Benedetto, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Why are some firms more successful at commercializing new products than others in emerging economies? It is possible that the strategic orientations, which firms adopt as a type of business strategy, lead at least partially to the superior performance of the new products they introduce to the

  17. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kongerslev Thorning

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Results: The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. Conclusion: The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most

  18. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have

  19. Factors affecting sustainable dairy production: A case study from Uva Province of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilaka, D.; De Silva, S.; Deshapriya, R. M. C.; Gunaratne, L. H. P.

    2018-05-01

    Dairy farming has been playing a key role by improving household incomes and food security for rural communities in Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, it has failed to meet the expected self-sufficiency. In 2015, Sri Lanka imported 51percent of the national milk requirement spending US 251 million from its debt-ridden economy. This paper aims to analyse socio-economic characteristics of dairy farmers and factors affecting dairy production efficiency in the Uva Province of Sri Lanka, a highly potential area comprising all the dairy value chain actors. Surveyed was conducted to farmers, key informants from input suppliers, collectors, transporters, processors, sellers and support service providers. Result revealed that intensive farmer’s milk yields per cow was only 7.97 L/day, which was 35% and 60% higher than the yields of semi-intensive and extensive farmers respectively. The highest profit of Rs. 53.30 per litre was earned by extensive farmers, whereas it was Rs. 47.63 for semi-intensive and Rs. 44.76 for intensive farmers respectively if family labour cost was not taken into the account. The Technical Efficiency Analysis revealed that 37.1% and 20% milk production of intensive farmers and semi-intensive is being loss due to inefficiency and could be increased without any additional inputs. The main factors affecting efficiency in milk production included farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and farm characteristics. Based on the results it can be concluded that sustainability dairy production depends on farmer training, collectivizing farmers into farmer societies, culling unproductive male animals, increasing the availability and access to AI/other breading programs and low-cost quality concentrate feed and other supplements, and, thus appropriate measures should be taken to provide these conditions if Sri Lanka aims to achieve self-sufficiency in milk production.

  20. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-04-20

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents.

  1. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  2. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the fut...

  3. Use of dairy products, lactose, and calcium and risk of ovarian cancer - results from a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose...

  4. Fermented Dairy Products in the Nutrition of Infants in the Russian Federation: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Borovik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products have a high nutritional and biological value and functional properties beneficial to human health; they are very diverse and have a long history. Fermentation of milk is a complex technological, physical and biochemical process that occurs under the influence of two enzymes of lactic acid bacteria — -galactosidase and lactate dehydrogenase. Requirements for biological properties of starter microorganisms and fermentation technology are strictly regulated. Based on the starter cultures used, we can single out fermented dairy products of lactic acid and mixed (lactic acid and alcohol fermentation. There are adapted, partially adapted and non-adapted cultured milk products for children, some of which are enriched with pro- and prebiotics to enhance functional properties. The article provides information about one of the first Russian non-adapted fermented milk products for infants enriched with inulin, fruit and cereals.

  5. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic and Managerial Analysis of Effective Managerial Strategies on Prevention from Ketosis in Transition Period in Shahroud Commercial Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfi, H.; Yazdani, A. R.; Latifi, M.; Shirani Bidabadi, F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study any effects of managerial strategies on prevention of ketosis metabolic disorder in transition period in Shahroud commercial dairy farms. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in order to obtain required information about the performance of these managerial strategies, performance costs, involvement situation with disorders relying upon clinical signs and treatment and health records, producing and economic situation, and fertility rate and its costs. The considered managerial guidelines include body condition score management or type evaluation in transition period, increase in dry matter intake close to parturition, using propylene glycol, using niacin, and high-quality feeding (the importance of feed quality) in transition period. Finally and upon arrangement of data, it was possible to study any effects of mentioned managerial strategies on related variants through multiple linear regressions. Furthermore, in order to study any relation among variables, we considered Pearson correlation coefficients as well. Finally, it was revealed that any application of managerial strategies for prevention from Ketosis in transition period has a significant effect in betterment of managerial and economic parameters. PMID:23738102

  7. The first dairy product exclusively fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii: a new vector to study probiotic potentialities in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Louesdon, Séverine; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Parayre, Sandrine; Falentin, Hélène; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Boudry, Gaëlle; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-10-01

    Dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties which require high populations of live and metabolically active propionibacteria in the colon. In this context, the probiotic vector determines probiotic efficiency. Fermented dairy products protect propionibacteria against digestive stresses and generally contain a complex mixture of lactic and propionic acid bacteria. This does not allow the identification of dairy propionibacteria specific beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to develop a dairy product exclusively fermented by dairy propionibacteria. As they grow poorly in milk, we determined their nutritional requirements concerning carbon and nitrogen by supplementing milk ultrafiltrate (UF) with different concentrations of lactate and casein hydrolysate. Milk or UF supplemented with 50 mM lactate and 5 g L(-1) casein hydrolysate allowed growth of all dairy propionibacteria studied. In these new fermented dairy products, dairy propionibacteria remained viable and stress-tolerant in vitro during minimum 15 days at 4 °C. The efficiency of milk fermented by the most tolerant Propionibacterium freudenreichii strain was evaluated in piglets. Viability and SCFA content in the colon evidenced survival and metabolic activity of P. freudenreichii. This work results in the design of a new food grade vector, which will allow preclinical and clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of Common Agricultural Policy on Dairy production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Šakić Bobić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 there was price jump at world milk market. In the middle of the year 2008 the market was temporarily stabilized, because European Commission introduced Common Agricultural Policy modernization suggestion to the members of the European Parliament as the answer to an increasing food demand. The main elements of this suggestion were to abolish obligation to keep some agricultural areas set aside, milk quota removal, and abolition of subvention rate - production quantity link. When East and Central European countries entered in the European Union, they faced agricultural tax and milk price decrease. Today in new member states, the protection taxes are lower then before entering the Union (exceptions are Poland and Romania. The production costs in new member states are higher then in the Union, so there is higher market pressure at milk producers to increase their capacity (Livestock unit, to increase capacity utilization (milk per animal, and to produce at lower cost price. One part of smaller producers could not react to this pressure, so they decided to leave the dairy business. The consequence is decreased export of milk and dairy products in the new member states. Today milk market production in Croatia is around 650 million liters. In the production, there are around 32 thousand producers with 177 thousand of dairy cows. In the last 5 years of Croatian dairy, there was important shift in the production and redemption. Help to dairy sector through annual high investments as state subsidies and credit loans, and dairy industry subsidies at basic price, made redemption increase of more then 150 million liters, but also milk producer’s decrease. To stay at present production and redemption level, the only one that counts as Quota I, with around 90 % standard milk, there is a need to increase standard milk for 119 million liters. This increase in production quality, in the negotiation period and just after planned Croatian

  9. Optimization PHAs production from dairy industry wastewater (cheese whey) by Azohydromonas lata DSMZ 1123

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sharifzadeh Baei; G.D. Najafpour; Z. Lasemi; F. Tabandeh; H. Younesi; H. Issazadeh; M. Khodabandeh

    2010-01-01

    In the present research, whey was used as useful substrate which retained from permeates of dairy industry. The obtained whey was hydrolyzed to cleave its main carbon source, lactose to glucose and galactose.The hydrolyzed products were chosen as carbon sources for the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Azohydromonas lata DSMZ 1123. The biosynthesis of PHA copolyesters containing 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) units from hydrolyzed whey permeate and valerat...

  10. Implicit Tariffs on Imported Dairy Product Components in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tellioglu, Isin; Bailey, Kenneth W.; Blandford, David

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the dairy products imported by the United States are intermediate products used in food processing. As such, they are demanded for their components such as milk fat and protein. The implications of the U.S. tariff structure for import demand must be viewed in terms of the tariff's effects upon the relative prices of imported milk components. In this article we examine the implications of the current tariff structure and proposed changes under the Doha Round of international tr...

  11. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noelle R. Noyes; Xiang Yang; Lyndsey M. Linke; Roberta J. Magnuson; Shaun R. Cook; Rahat Zaheer; Hua Yang; Dale R. Woerner; Ifigenia Geornaras; Jessica A. McArt; Sheryl P. Gow; Jaime Ruiz; Kenneth L. Jones; Christina A. Boucher; Tim A. McAllister

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly i...

  12. Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Productivity of U.S. Dairies

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Key; Stacy Sneeringer

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, climate change is likely to increase average daily temperatures and the frequency of heat waves, which can reduce meat and milk production in animals. Methods that livestock producers use to mitigate thermal stress-including modifications to animal management or housing-tend to increase production costs. We use operation-level economic data coupled with finely-scaled climate data to estimate how the local thermal environment affects the technical efficiency of dairies ac...

  13. Large-scale distribution of tritium in a commercial product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, F.; Doda, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium enters the environment from various sources including nuclear reactor operations, weapons testing, natural production, and from the manufacture, use and ultimate disposal of commercial products containing tritium. A recent commercial application of tritium in the United States of America involves the backlighting of liquid crystal displays (LCD) in digital electronic watches. These watches are distributed through normal commercial channels to the general public. One million curies (MCi) of tritium were distributed in 1977 in this product. This is a significant quantity of tritium compared with power reactor-produced tritium (3MCi yearly) or with naturally produced tritium (6MCi yearly). This is the single largest commercial application involving tritium to date. The final disposition of tritium from large quantities of this product, after its useful life, must be estimated by considering the means of disposal and the possibility of dispersal of tritium concurrent with disposal. The most likely method of final disposition of this product will be disposal in solid refuse; this includes burial in land fills and incineration. Burial in land fills will probably contain the tritium for its effective lifetime, whereas incineration will release all the tritium gas (as the oxide) to the atmosphere. The use and disposal of this product will be studied as part of an environmental study that is at present being prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (author)

  14. The perceived value of dairy product traceability in modern society: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Sylvain; Haratifar, Sanaz

    2015-05-01

    The current study assessed the perceived value of food traceability in modern society by young consumers. After experiencing numerous recalls and food safety-related incidences, consumers are increasingly aware of the tools available to mitigate risks. Food traceability has been associated with food safety procedures for many years, but recent high-profile cases of food fraud around the world have given traceability a different strategic purpose. Focusing solely on dairy products, our survey results offer a glimpse of consumer perceptions of traceability as a means to preserve food integrity and authenticity. This study explored the various influences that market-oriented traceability has had on dairy consumers. For example, results show that if the dairy sector could guarantee that their product is in fact organic, 53.8% of respondents who often purchase organic milk would consider always purchasing traceable organic milk. This research produced a quantitative set of information related to the perceived value of food traceability, which could be useful for the creation and development of improved guidelines and better education for consumers. We discuss limitations and suggest areas for new research. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypic, fermentation characterization, and resistance mechanism analysis of bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolated from traditional Chinese dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaibo; Fang, Wei; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; Huo, Guicheng

    2018-03-01

    Bacteriophage infection is a large factor in dairy industrial production failure on the basis of pure inoculation fermentation, and developing good commercial starter cultures from wild dairy products and improving the environmental vigor of starter cultures by enhancing their phage resistance are still the most effective solutions. Here we used a spontaneous isolation method to obtain bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains that are used in traditional Chinese fermented dairy products. We analyzed their phenotypes, fermentation characteristics, and resistance mechanisms. The results showed that bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIM) BIM8 and BIM12 had high bacteriophage resistance while exhibiting fermentation and coagulation attributes that were as satisfying as those of their respective parent strains KLDS1.1016 and KLDS1.1028. According to the attachment receptor detection, mutants BIM8 and BIM12 exhibited reduced absorption to bacteriophage phiLdb compared with their respective bacteriophage-sensitive parent strains because of changes to the polysaccharides or teichoic acids connected to their peptidoglycan layer. Additionally, genes, including HSDR, HSDM, and HSDS, encoding 3 subunits of a type I restriction-modification system were identified in their respective parent strains. We also discovered that HSDR and HSDM were highly conserved but that HSDS was variable because it is responsible for the DNA specificity of the complex. The late lysis that occurred only in strain KLDS1.1016 and not in strain KLDS1.1028 suggests that the former and its mutant BIM8 also may have an activatable restriction-modification mechanism. We conclude that the L. bulgaricus BIM8 and BIM12 mutants have great potential in the dairy industry as starter cultures, and their phage-resistance mechanism was effective mainly due to the adsorption interference and restriction-modification system. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science

  16. Mold-Ripened Soft Cheeses Fortified with Date Palm Fruit Product as Functional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M; Haddadin, Jamal S; Haddadin, Malik S Y

    2016-01-01

    Date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. Therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. This study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus, Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum. Date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture were added at the stage of curdling. Based on the kinetic growth of the microbial groups in all the treatments, there was no change in the growth of these in various date palm product. On the contrary It may be said that addition of the date fruit product supports their growth. After 35 days, the amounts of total poly phenols were 128.3 ± 1.01, 81.8 ± 1.11, 33.5 ± 2.19, 156.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g in the cheeses support with date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture, respectively. Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.13 IC50 (date syrup-2) to 82.23 IC50 (date syrup-1). Based on the chemical characteristics and sensory analysis, the study results showed the potential for innovative application of date products for developing new functional dairy products as an ideal medium for the delivery of biological active compounds with beneficial health effects over.

  17. Biotype characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products of private production in the western regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Kukhtyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of foodborne diseases is a priority for the world health system. In the process of manufacturing milk and dairy products, the most important factor compromising their safety is seeding with a conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria and other microorganisms that reproduce in dairy products without changing their organoleptic properties are a particular danger. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic, conditionally pathogenic microorganism that often contaminates raw milk and dairy products. The aim of the research presented in this article was to determine the dissemination of S. aureus in milk and milk products of household production in the western regions of Ukraine, to identify the biotypes of S. aureus, production of enterotoxins and the presence of methicillin-resistant strains. S. aureus was isolated on BD Baird-Parker Agar. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined according to Meer. The determination of MRSA was carried out on the chromogenic Agar chromID MRSA ("Biomerioux", Russia. The mecA gene was determined using the LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test with LightCycler 2.0 primer (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Germany. To determine staphylococcal enterotoxins, the test system RIDASCREENSET A, B, C, D, E (R-Biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany was used. We isolated saprophyte staphylococci from milk of raw and dairy products in western regions of Ukraine in 82.7–97.4% of samples. S. aureus is much more rarely isolated from these dairy products, so it was isolated from sour cream at 62.8 ± 0.9%, from milk at 35.5 ± 1.3% and cottage cheese at 23.0 ± 1.6%. Of the most well known biotypes of S. aureus present in milk of raw and dairy products of domestic production, two ecological types were distinguished: human and cattle. In this case S. aureus var. hominis was isolated more often than in S. aureus var. bovis. This gives grounds to believe that the main source of

  18. Maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in elderly hypertensive subjects following detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de; Santos, Neucilane Silveira Dos; Aguiar, Larissa Pereira; Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects after detraining. Twenty-eight elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise training program followed by 6 weeks of detraining, and were classified according to milk and dairy products intake as low milk (exercise training, there was a significant reduction (pexercise training benefits related to pressure levels, lower extremity strength and aerobic capacity, is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects following 6 weeks of detraining.

  19. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD{sup ™}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minot, Michael J., E-mail: mjm@incomusa.com [Incom Inc, 294 Southbridge Road, Charlton, MA 01507 (United States); Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; O' Mahony, Aileen; Renaud, Joseph M.; Stochaj, Michael E. [Incom Inc, 294 Southbridge Road, Charlton, MA 01507 (United States); Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.; Demarteau, Marcellinus W.; Wagner, Robert G. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439-4814 (United States); McPhate, Jason B.; Helmut Siegmund, Oswald [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry J.; Northrop, Richard; Wetstein, Matthew J. [University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm{sup 2}) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD{sup ™}). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD{sup ™} technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a “pathway toward commercialization”.

  20. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y

    2017-03-01

    The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60 years. We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of the recommended intake of dairy products in the general French population over 60 years for 1 year (2015). A validated microsimulation model was used to simulate three age cohorts for both women and men (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years). The incremental cost per QALY gained of vitamin D-fortified dairy products compared to the absence of appropriate intake was estimated in different populations, assuming the cost of two dairy products per day in base case. The total lifetime number of fractures decreased by 64,932 for the recommended intake of dairy products in the general population over 60 years, of which 46,472 and 18,460 occurred in women and men, respectively. In particular, 15,087 and 4413 hip fractures could be prevented in women and men. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products also resulted in 32,569 QALYs and 29,169 life years gained. The cost per QALY gained of appropriate dairy intake was estimated at €58,244 and fall below a threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained in women over 70 years and in men over 80 years. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products have the potential to substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in France and seem an economically beneficial strategy, especially in the general population aged above 70 years.

  1. Comparison of Microbiological and Probiotic Characteristics of Lactobacilli Isolates from Dairy Food Products and Animal Rumen Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Maria Jose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are employed in probiotic food preparations and as feed additives in poultry and livestock, due to health benefits associated with their consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the probiotic potential of ten lactobacilli strains isolated from commercial dairy food products and animal rumen contents in New Zealand. Genetic identification of the isolates revealed that all belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, specifically the species L. reuteri, L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum. All isolates did not show any haemolytic behaviour. Isolates of dairy origin showed better tolerance to low pH stress. On the other hand, rumen isolates exhibited a higher tolerance to presence of bile salts. All isolates exhibited resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, however most were sensitive to ampicillin. Isolates of rumen origin demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella menston. Bacterial adherence of all isolates increased with a decrease in pH. This screening study on lactobacilli isolates has assessed and identified potential probiotic candidates for further evaluation.

  2. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products. PMID:28396857

  3. Fast method and ultra fast screening for determination of 90Sr in milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, E.; Hornung, L.; Savkin, B.T.; Poppitz-Spuhler, A.; Hiersche, L.

    2011-01-01

    In emergency situation or in case of defence against nuclear hazards, the rapid analysis of radioisotopes in food products is essential. Radiostrontium is one of the most interesting isotopes in case of emergency. The determination of radiostrontium in milk and dairy products plays an important role especially for infants. The procedures described here were tested for fast determination of 90 Sr. The typical chemical recovery of the proposed fast procedure for determination of strontium from milk and dairy products was 90% and the time needed for analysis was one working day. The achieved detection limit for milk is 0.8 Bq/l. An ultra fast screening method allows the determination of radiostrontium with quantitative recovery within 1 hour. The minimum detectable activity in this case is 230 Bq/l.

  4. THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHT ON MILK PRODUCTION IN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 20 multiparous cows were utilized to investigate effect of supplemental light on milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=10: a 10- 13 hours of light and 14-11 hours of darkness/d natural light -NL group; b 17 hours of light (natural light + supplemental light -SL group. Supplemental lighting of 350 lx at eye level was provided by fluorescent lamps, controlled by an automatic timer. Multiparous cows in SL group produced more fat corected milk (FMC than multiparous cows in NL group. The efficiency of production in dairy cows can be enhanced by the photoperiod manipulation and thus provide another management tool for dairy producers to enhance productivity.

  5. Dairy product consumption is associated with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Lifelines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Sluik, Diewertje; Singh-Povel, Cecile M; Feskens, Edith J M

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies show associations between dairy product consumption and type 2 diabetes, but only a few studies conducted detailed analyses for a variety of dairy subgroups. Therefore, we examined cross-sectional associations of a broad variety of dairy subgroups with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (ND-T2DM) among Dutch adults. In total, 112 086 adults without diabetes completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and donated blood. Pre-diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 5·6 and 6·9 mmol/l or HbA1c% of 5·7-6·4 %. ND-T2DM was defined as FPG ≥7·0 mmol/l or HbA1c ≥6·5 %. Logistic regression analyses were conducted by 100 g or serving increase and dairy tertiles (T1ref), while adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary covariates. Median dairy product intake was 324 (interquartile range 227) g/d; 25 549 (23 %) participants had pre-diabetes; and 1305 (1 %) had ND-T2DM. After full adjustment, inverse associations were observed of skimmed dairy (OR100 g 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·00), fermented dairy (OR100 g 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99) and buttermilk (OR150 g 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00) with pre-diabetes. Positive associations were observed for full-fat dairy (OR100 g 1·003; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·06), non-fermented dairy products (OR100 g 1·01; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and custard (ORserving/150 g 1·13; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·24) with pre-diabetes. Moreover, full-fat dairy products (ORT3 1·16; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·35), non-fermented dairy products (OR100 g 1·05; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09) and milk (ORserving/150 g 1·08; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·15) were positively associated with ND-T2DM. In conclusion, our data showed inverse associations of skimmed and fermented dairy products with pre-diabetes. Positive associations were observed for full-fat and non-fermented dairy products with pre-diabetes and ND-T2DM.

  6. Secondary analysis of a marketing research database reveals patterns in dairy product purchases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wave, Timothy W; Decker, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Development of a method using marketing research data to assess food purchase behavior and consequent nutrient availability for purposes of nutrition surveillance, evaluation of intervention effects, and epidemiologic studies of diet-health relationships. Data collected on household food purchases accrued over a 13-week period were selected by using Universal Product Code numbers and household characteristics from a marketing research database. Universal Product Code numbers for 39,408 dairy product purchases were linked to a standard reference for food composition to estimate the nutrient content of foods purchased over time. Two thousand one hundred sixty-one households located in Victoria, Texas, and surrounding communities who were active members of a frequent shopper program. Demographic characteristics of sample households and the nutrient content of their dairy product purchases were analyzed using frequency distribution, cross tabulation, analysis of variance, and t test procedures. A method for using marketing research data was successfully used to estimate household purchases of specific foods and their nutrient content from a marketing database containing hundreds of thousands of records. Distribution of dairy product purchases and their concomitant nutrients between Hispanic and non-Hispanic households were significant (P<.01, P<.001, respectively) and sustained over time. Purchase records from large, nationally representative panels of shoppers, such as those maintained by major market research companies, might be used to accomplish detailed longitudinal epidemiologic studies or surveillance of national food- and nutrient-purchasing patterns within and between countries and segments of their respective populations.

  7. Pasteurization of milk: the heat inactivation kinetics of milk-borne dairy pathogens under commercial-type conditions of turbulent flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, L E; Smythe, B W; Crawford, R A; Oakley, E; Hathaway, S C; Shepherd, J M

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to report kinetic data on the survival of a range of significant milk-borne pathogens under commercial-type pasteurization conditions. The most heat-resistant strain of each of the milk-borne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii (formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii), Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella was selected to obtain the worst-case scenario in heat inactivation trials using a pilot-plant-scale pasteurizer. Initially, approximately 30 of each species were screened using a submerged coil unit. Then, UHT milk was inoculated with the most heat-resistant pathogens at ~10(7)/mL and heat treated in a pilot-plant-scale pasteurizer under commercial-type conditions of turbulent flow for 15s over a temperature range from 56 to 66°C and at 72°C. Survivors were enumerated on nonselective media chosen for the highest efficiency of plating of heat-damaged bacteria of each of the chosen strains. The mean log(10) reductions and temperatures of inactivation of the 6 pathogens during a 15-s treatment were Staph. aureus >6.7 at 66.5°C, Y. enterocolitica >6.8 at 62.5°C, pathogenic E. coli >6.8 at 65°C, C. sakazakii >6.7 at 67.5°C, L. monocytogenes >6.9 at 65.5°C, and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium >6.9 at 61.5°C. The kinetic data from these experiments will be used by the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to populate the quantitative risk assessment model being developed to investigate the risks to New Zealand consumers from pasteurized, compared with nonpasteurized, milk and milk products. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relating rheology and tribology of commercial dairy colloids to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Laura; Farrell, Grace; Bryant, Michael; Morina, Ardian; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2017-02-22

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 ○ C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire. Consumers significantly discriminated the fat-free/low fat from the full fat versions (p 0.05). Full fat and fat free yoghurts had similar yielding behaviour and elastic modulus (G'), even in simulated oral conditions. However, in case of soft cream cheese, the full fat version had a moderately higher G' than the low fat counterpart. Even in presence of artificial saliva, there was slight but significant difference in viscoelasticity between the cream cheese variants depending on fat content (p 0.05). Results suggest that sensory distinction between fat-free and full fat versions, particularly in semi-solid systems could be better predicted by lubrication data as compared to bulk rheology.

  9. Relationship between intramammary infection prevalence and somatic cell score in commercial dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shook, G.E.; Kirk, R.L.B.; Welcome, Frank L.; Schukken, Y.H.; Ruegg, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    We examined consistency of the relationship between intramammary infection (IMI) and somatic cell score (SCS) across several classes of cow, herd, and sampling time variables. Microbial cultures of composite milk samples were performed by New York Quality Milk Production Services from 1992 to

  10. Relationship between intramammary infection prevalence and somatic cell score in commercial dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shook, G. E.; Kirk, R. L.Bamber; Welcome, Frank L.; Schukken, Y. H.; Ruegg, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    We examined consistency of the relationship between intramammary infection (IMI) and somatic cell score (SCS) across several classes of cow, herd, and sampling time variables. Microbial cultures of composite milk samples were performed by New York Quality Milk Production Services from 1992 to 2004.

  11. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinshun; Liu, Mingmei; Su, Xiaoshuang; Zhan, Kang; Zhang, Chungang; Zhao, Guoqi

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW). The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (pcontent of milk reduced (p = 0.05) linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (pruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by AFE supplementation. Relative levels of the rumen microbe Ruminococcus flavefaciens tended to decrease (p = 0.09) quadratically, whereas those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a tendency to increase (p = 0.07) quadratically in response to AFE supplementation. The results of this study demonstrate that AFE supplementation can alter composition of milk, and may also have an increase tendency of nutrient digestion by regulating populations of microbes in the rumen, improve antioxidant properties by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, and affect immunity by altering the proportions of lymphocyte and neutrophil granulocytes in dairy cows. The addition of 60 mg/kg BW of AFE to the diet of dairy cows was shown to be beneficial in this study.

  12. Potentials for commercial production of biogas from domestic food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work reported in this paper investigated the potentials of commercial biogas production from biodegradable waste in Benin metropolis. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved characterization of solid waste generated and determination of the quantity of potential feed stock for biogas ...

  13. A survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production in Gombe metropolis, 2,121 poultry cases were presented at the Gombe State Veterinary Clinic between January 1995 and December 2004. Out of the total number of cases presented, Newcastle disease (ND) accounted for 14.66%, chronic respiratory ...

  14. Protein Engineering: Case Studies of Commercialized Engineered Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Programs in biochemistry invariably encompass the principles of protein engineering. Students often display increased understanding and enthusiasm when theoretical concepts are underpinned by practical example. Herein are presented five case studies, each focusing upon a commercial protein product engineered to enhance its application-relevant…

  15. Ten Niche Strategies To Commercialize New High-Tech Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J.R.; Langley, D.J.; Pals, N.

    2013-01-01

    There are serious gaps in the scientific literature relating to niche strategies as a means for commercializing new high-tech products. In particular, there is no clarity about what types of niche strategies can be distinguished, or how a niche strategy can be selected to suit a certain ituation. In

  16. Determinants of production level of commercial snail farmers in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the determinants of productivity level among commercial snail farmers in Oyo State. A systematic sampling technique was employed to select one-hundred and forty–two snail farmers from the membership list provided by the Snail Farmers Association of Nigeria (SFAN), Oyo State Chapter.

  17. Repellency of Dettol, a Commercial Cleaning Product, Against Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Dettol, a commercial cleaning product was tested for its repellent action against adults of Periplaneta americana (L.). Experimental cage was constructed with pieces of polypropylene plastic material to have a finished form measuring 30×30×60cm. Two cardboard shelters (for each trial) were assembled each ...

  18. Factors influencing investment in commercial pig production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a systematic sampling procedure, 124 households were interviewed to identify variables that influence their decisions on whether or not to invest in commercial pig production. Using a binary logistic regression model the analytical results revealed that the decisions are significantly influenced by gender of ...

  19. Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El Salvador - Phase II ... During the first phase of the project (104599), researchers reviewed the history ... titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions ... IDRC and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) signed a scientific ...

  20. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  1. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  2. Detection and prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in refrigerated and frozen dairy products by duplex PCR and dot hybridization targeting the virF and ail genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y W; Ling, N; Han, Y J; Wu, Q P

    2014-11-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is involved in yersiniosis through expression of chromosome-borne or plasmid-borne virulence factors. Yersinia enterocolitica is a cold-tolerant pathogen frequently isolated from refrigerated or frozen foods. However, little attention has been focused on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in refrigerated or frozen dairy samples in China. In this study, we developed a new duplex PCR targeting the plasmid-borne virF gene and chromosome-borne ail gene for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates. We established a detection limit for the duplex PCR of 6.5 × 10(2)cfu/mL in artificially contaminated dairy samples. In addition, the duplex PCR could detect directly 4.5 to 5.7 cfu of Y. enterocolitica in 5 mL of brain heart infusion broth after 6 h of enrichment at 28 °C. A newly developed dot hybridization assay further confirmed specificity of the duplex PCR for detection of virulent Y. enterocolitica. Furthermore, 13 Y. enterocolitica and 5 pathogenic strains, from 88 commercial frozen or refrigerated dairy products, were detected successfully by the China National Standard method (GB/T4789.8-2008) and the duplex PCR, respectively. Finally, biotypes and serotypes of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were further characterized. The duplex PCR developed here is reliable for large-scale screening, routine monitoring, and risk assessment of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in refrigerated or frozen dairy products. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMICAL MECHANISM BETWEEN SMALL AND LARGE COMPANIES IN THE PRODUCTION AND SALE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Dobrova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main directions to optimize the organizational and economical mechanism between small and large companies in the production and sale of dairy products sphere in the Russian practice.

  4. Data on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This data article reports on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products associated with the fish sauce taste and flavor. All products were analyzed in triplicate. Dried solid content was analyzed by moisture analyzer. Fish sauce salinity was determined by a salt meter. pH was measured using a pH meter. The acidity was determined using a titration assay. Amino nitrogen and total nitrogen were evaluated using a titration assay and Combustion-type nitrogen analyzer, respectively. The analyzed products originated from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Italy. Data on the chemical properties of the products are provided in table format in the current article.

  5. Blood lactose after dairy product intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Grégory; Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Freiburghaus, Carola; von Ah, Ueli; Münger, Linda H; Pralong, François P; Vionnet, Nathalie; Greub, Gilbert; Badertscher, René; Vergères, Guy

    2017-12-01

    The absence of a dedicated transport for disaccharides in the intestine implicates that the metabolic use of dietary lactose relies on its prior hydrolysis at the intestinal brush border. Consequently, lactose in blood or urine has mostly been associated with specific cases in which the gastrointestinal barrier is damaged. On the other hand, lactose appears in the blood of lactating women and has been detected in the blood and urine of healthy men, indicating that the presence of lactose in the circulation of healthy subjects is not incompatible with normal physiology. In this cross-over study we have characterised the postprandial kinetics of lactose, and its major constituent, galactose, in the serum of fourteen healthy men who consumed a unique dose of 800 g milk or yogurt. Genetic testing for lactase persistence and microbiota profiling of the subjects were also performed. Data revealed that lactose does appear in serum after dairy intake, although with delayed kinetics compared with galactose. Median serum concentrations of approximately 0·02 mmol/l lactose and approximately 0·2 mmol/l galactose were observed after the ingestion of milk and yogurt respectively. The serum concentrations of lactose were inversely correlated with the concentrations of galactose, and the variability observed between the subjects' responses could not be explained by the presence of the lactase persistence allele. Finally, lactose levels have been associated with the abundance of the Veillonella genus in faecal microbiota. The measurement of systemic lactose following dietary intake could provide information about lactose metabolism and nutrient transport processes under normal or pathological conditions.

  6. Molds contamination of raw milk and dairy products: Occurrence, diversity and contamination source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moshtaghi Maleki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the occurrence and diversity of mold species in raw milk and its products along with the identification of potential contamination sources. For this reason, a total of 260 samples consisting of 80 raw milk, 100 dairy products (i.e., pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese and buttermilk and 80 environmental (i.e. ingredients, packaging materials, surface of processing equipments and air specimens were collected. Using culture assay and microscopic observation, the occurrence as well as the diversity of mold species was investigated. According to the results, 82.3% of the samples were identified as positive for mold contamination. The percentage of mold contamination for raw milk was estimated as 97.5%. In the case of pasteurized milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, cheese and environmental samples, it was determined as 52%, 76%, 52%, 56% and 96.25%, respectively. Mold diversity among various samples consisted of Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Penicillium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.01 correlation between kind of mold species isolated from raw milk and dairy products. Similarly, a correlation was observed between dairy products and environmental sources. Regarding the high occurrence of mold contamination in raw milk and environmental sources, it seems that in some instances heat treatment was not effective enough to inactivate all molds; whereas in some other cases, cross contamination may have resulted in mold contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain hygienic conditions during raw milk handling as well as processing steps. These practices could efficiently reduce the occurrence of mold contaminations in dairy products.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahem Khoshbakht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38% isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%. The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

  8. In vitro prediction of methane production by lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macome, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the relationship (if any) between in vivo CH4 production obtained using climate controlled respiration chambers and in vitro CH4 production using the gas production technique. The in vitro techniques are routinely used to evaluate the nutritional quality of

  9. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists......The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction...... of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach...

  10. Commercial production of metal hafnium and hafnium-based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negodin, D.A.; Shtutsa, M.G.; Akhtonov, S.G.; Il'enko, E.V.; Kobyzev, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Hafnium possesses a unique complex of physical and chemical properties which allow the application of products on its basis in various industries. Joint Stock Company 'Chepetsky Mechanical Plant' is the single enterprise which produces hafnium on the territory of Russia. The manufacture of metal hafnium with the total content of zirconium and hafnium, at least, 99,8 % of weights is developed at the present time at Joint Stock Company CHMZ. The weight of melted hafnium ingots is up to 1 ton. Manufacture of wide range of products from hafnium is implemented. The plates from a hafnium with thickness of 0.60 mm which are used for emergency control cartridges of VVER-440 reactors are the most critical product. It is shown that ingots and products obtained from metal hafnium correspond to the Russian and international standards for reactor materials in chemical composition, mechanical and corrosion properties.

  11. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  12. Analytical methods in dairy cows nutrition and their application in creation of production health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vajda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of quantity of nutrients on rumen fermentation and the level of metabolic markers in blood serum were simultaneously analysed in groups of dairy cows 21 days before and 21 days after parturition with aim to diagnose disorders in milk production in the transition period of dairy cows. Results of analysis of health disorders confirmed the following: low energy concentration in the diet insufficiently saturated with fibrous carbohydrates, followed with rapid change to concentrate type of diet after delivery resulted in insufficient adaptation of the rumen metabolism before and after rapid transition to production feeding rations after calving; the level indicative of acidification of the rumen environment. Investigation of intermediary metabolism confirmed pre- and post-partum lipomobilization, with increased values of NEFA in 68 % and 54 % of animals respectively, with liver load manifestation in 37 % and 69 % of animals, respectively.

  13. Consumption of dairy products in the UAE: A comparison of nationals and expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaleldin Ali Bashir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The variables: age, income, education, number of children, and a dichotomous dummy variable for nationality were used to explain the consumption behavior of dairy products: fresh milk, butter, cheese, yoghurt, powdered milk, condensed milk, cream, and ice cream in the urban centers of Al-ain, Dubai, and Abu Dhabi. Results suggest different determinants for consumption behaviors of nationals and expatriates as well as different determinants along the income range of the sample. Estimates for the expenditure elasticity were relatively higher for lower income groups when unreported income is taken into consideration in interpreting the results. Differences in consumption behavior bear an important implication to marketing and promotion of dairy products: different strategies that incorporate the different consumption determinants are perhaps necessary for the different ethnic groups.

  14. Controversies Regarding the Role of Dairy Products in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour Mishkin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products may affect inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients who are either lactose intolerant or who are allergic to the proteins in these foods. The actual incidence of these conditions in IBD patients is not entirely clear. Whether either of these conditions results in benign symptomatic discomfort or can actually contribute to the relapse and/or clinical activity of IBD is also unclear. Physicians differ widely in the advice they give their patients; some dogmatically advise avoidance of dairy products when the diagnosis is made while others discount their possible role in the management of IBD. On the basis of the author’s and his group’s experience and review of the literature, a balanced and exploratory approach by patients, physicians and dieticians is advised.

  15. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Verardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed.

  16. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, M.; Burlet, N.; Fardellone, P.; Al-Daghri, N.; Reginster, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60?years. Introduction This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60?years. Methods We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life...

  17. A scoping review of the public health impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickael; Neuprez, Audrey; Buckinx, Fanny; Locquet, Médéa; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2017-12-01

    Dairy products are rich in nutrients that positively influence bone health and hence fracture risk, and have therefore been recommended and used for fracture prevention. To help decision makers to efficiently allocate scare resources, it is further important to assess the public health and economic impact of any health intervention. In recent years, several studies have been conducted to estimate the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products but no overview is currently available. This article aims therefore to summarize evidence and review articles that estimated the public health and/or economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention. A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify original studies that assessed the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products (or of calcium/vitamin D supplementation) for fracture prevention up to January 15, 2017. Seven articles were identified. Different strategies were used by the authors to model the economic/public health impact of dairy products. The four studies assessing the public health impact of dairy products revealed a substantial benefit in terms of fracture prevented, life years, disability-adjusted life years and/or quality-adjusted life years gained. Studies assessing the cost-effectiveness revealed that the use of dairy products is generally cost-effective in the general population aged above 70 years, and from the age of 60 years in populations at high risk of fractures. This systematic review suggests that the use of dairy products could substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seem to be an economically beneficial strategy.

  18. Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects.

  19. Production and Energy Partition of Lactating Dairy Goats Fed Rations Containing Date Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.

  20. Galactomyces geotrichum – moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Grygier; Kamila Myszka; Magdalena Rudzińska

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances a...

  1. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Maitah; Rami Hodrab; Karel Malec; Sawsan Abu Shanab

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign). The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly...

  2. Spectral characterisation of dairy products using photon time-of-flight spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Subash, Arman Ahamed; Nielsen, Frederik Donbæk

    2013-01-01

    in the sample provides important information on the chemical composition and micro-structural properties, which are not available with the traditional techniques used in dairy production. The instrument operates in the spectral range from 500 nm to 1030 nm. The reduced scattering coefficient varies from 5 cm(-1...... distinguishes milk and yoghurt with the same fat content and can offer a reliable way of monitoring structural formation during milk fermentation....

  3. Substitutions of dairy product intake and risk of stroke: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2018-02-01

    Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.

  4. Challenges About Determining The Amount Of Melamine In Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Freire dos Santos; Hélio Hiroshi Suguimoto

    2014-01-01

    Melamine (IUPAC= 2,4,6-triamine-1,3,5-triazine); C3 H6 N6 ; pKa = 5.1; MW= 126.12 g/mol; Fig 1) is a synthetic compound widely used in the manufacture of resins and plastics to increase thermal resistance, as well it is applied in manufacture of flame retardants, fertilizer, coatings, laminates, adhesives, glues and commercial filters [1-3]. For the first time in 2008, the world was “appalled” by the news that Chinese babies have developed kidney stones caused by consumption of adulterated mi...

  5. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, J M; White, K D; der Marderosian, A H

    1995-01-01

    The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe [K. Schumann] Pierre (Rubiaceae), long valued as an aphrodisiac in West Africa, recently has been promoted in the United States as a dietary supplement alternative to anabolic steroids for enhancement of athletic performance. As the number of yohimbe products on the retail market increases, concerns about their safety are raised because of the reported toxicity of yohimbine (the major alkaloid of the plant). Although plant materials are usually identified microscopically, we were unable to identify them in many of the products, because as their labels indicated, the products were mixtures of various botanicals or were bark extracts and contained little or no plant material. A method for extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation of the alkaloids of P. yohimbe was, therefore, developed and used to analyze a number of commercial yohimbe products. The method involved solvent extraction and partitioning in chloroform-water followed by separation on a methyl silicone capillary GC column (N-P detection). Comparisons of chromatograms of extracts of authentic bark with those of commercial products indicated that, although many products contained measurable quantities of the alkaloid yohimbine, they were largely devoid of the other alkaloids previously reported in this species. Concentrations of yohimbine in the commercial products ranged from < 0.1 to 489 ppm, compared with 7089 ppm in the authentic material. Authentic bark has been reported to contain up to 6% total alkaloids, 10-15% of which are yohimbine. The possible presence of undeclared diluents in the products was indicated by peaks in product chromatograms but not in those of authentic bark.

  6. Intake of dairy products and the prevalence of dental caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2010-07-01

    In vitro studies show that milk or milk components may have cariostatic properties. However, the results of epidemiological studies on the association between intake of dairy products and dental caries have been inconsistent. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between intake of dairy products and the prevalence of dental caries in young children. Study subjects were 2058 Japanese children aged 3 years. Information on diet was assessed with a self-administered brief diet history questionnaire for children. The consumption of dairy products was categorized into 3 levels in order to represent the tertiles as closely as possible. Dental caries was assessed by a visual examination. Adjustment was made for sex, toothbrushing frequency, use of fluoride, between-meal snack frequency, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home, and paternal and maternal educational levels. Compared with yogurt consumption at the lowest tertile ( or =4 times/week) was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries, showing a clear dose-response relationship (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.98, P for trend=0.04). There were no material associations between intake of cheese, bread and butter, or milk and the prevalence of dental caries. These data suggest that a high consumption of yogurt may be associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries in young children. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC. The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Ukraine for the period up to 2020. The existing tools are divided into direct and indirect action tools. As of 2016, the tasks that were relevant to the corresponding targeted programs have not been implemented on any item, except for the milk productivity of cows. Still the productivity indicator of 4500 kg/year of milk from a cow is low enough and does not correspond to the general world-wide tendencies. This suggests the need for further assessment of the existing list of tools with a view to adjusting them and defining priorities for the State support of the DPS of AIC.

  8. Production of enterocin A by Enterococcus faecium MMRA isolated from 'Rayeb', a traditional Tunisian dairy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehaiem, A; Martínez, B; Manai, M; Rodríguez, A

    2010-05-01

    Characterization and purification of a bacteriocin produced by a wild Enterococcus faecium strain, isolated from a Tunisian traditional fermented milk. Enterococcus faecium MMRA was selected on the basis of its strong anti-Listeria activity. The antibacterial activity was sensitive to proteases, confirming its proteinaceous nature. It was extremely heat stable (15 min at 121 degrees C), remained active over a wide pH range (2-12), and also after treatment with lipase, amylase, organic solvents, detergents, lyophilisation and long-term storage at -20 degrees C. Production of the bacteriocin occurred throughout the logarithmic growth phase, it did not adhere to the surface of the producer cells and the mode of action was bactericidal. After partial purification of the active supernatants, a 4-kDa band with antibacterial activity was revealed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and bioassay. Tryptic digestion followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identified the peptide as enterocin A. The inhibitory activity of Ent. faecium MMRA, a wild strain isolated from the artisan dairy beverage 'Rayeb', is due to the synthesis of an enterocin A. Traditional fresh Tunisian fermented dairy products are generally manufactured with raw milk that can be used as a source of uncharacterized wild lactic acid bacteria strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of an enterocin A producing Ent. faecium from 'Rayeb'. This bacteriocin or the producing strain might have a promising potential in biopreservation to enhance the hygienic quality of this dairy product.

  9. Non-dairy probiotic food products: An emerging group of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Bunt, Craig R; Mason, Susan L; Hussain, Malik A

    2018-04-09

    The functional food sector has shown tremendous growth in recent years with the application of probiotic bacteria as "food additives". The utilization of probiotic bacteria in food presents many challenges related to their growth, survival, viability, stability and functionality in food processing, storage and consumption as well as changes of sensory characteristics of probiotic foods. Although dairy foods are currently the most common food carrier to deliver probiotics, an increasing number of non-dairy food matrices exhibit potential for delivery of probiotics. This review provides more recent insight into the emergence of non-dairy probiotics products, the interactions between probiotics and different food matrices and the challenges in developing such products. Some of the technical issues are also reviewed and discussed. These issues include the efficacy of probiotic bacteria in non-chilled, low pH or high water activity foods; the potential loss of bacterial viability, additionally unwanted fermentation and changes of the sensory characteristics of food products which may result in poor microbiological quality and low acceptability to consumers.

  10. Screening, Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria From a Traditional Dairy Product of Sabzevar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rashid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a major group of probiotics. Isolation of these bacteria is difficult, because they have a complex ecosystem in fermented dairy products. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect Lactobacillus and Lactococcus in a conventional dairy product (Khameh and study their probiotic characteristics. Materials and Methods: To isolateLAB, samples were collected from four different villages. Afterwards, screening was performed in pH = 2.5. The selected strains were examined for their tolerance to acidic pH (3 and 0.3% bile salt. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the isolated strains against two pathogenic bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, was assessed using the disc plate method. Finally, the selected strains were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR screening and sequencing. Results: Among the isolated samples, two strains (Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were highly resistant to unfavorable conditions and the L1 strain showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: This study showed that the conventional dairy product (Khameh contained probiotic bacteria, which are capable of fighting against pathogenic bacteria and living in the digestive tract.

  11. A model of milk production in lactating dairy cows in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I R; France, J; Cullen, B R

    2016-02-01

    A generic daily time-step model of a dairy cow, designed to be included in whole-system pasture simulation models, is described that includes growth, milk production, and lactation in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics. It is a development of a previously described animal growth and metabolism model that describes animal body composition in terms of protein, water, and fat, and energy dynamics in relation to growth requirements, resynthesis of degraded protein, and animal activity. This is further developed to include lactation and fetal growth. Intake is calculated in relation to stage of lactation, pasture availability, supplementary feed, and feed quality. Energy costs associated with urine N excretion and methane fermentation are accounted for. Milk production and fetal growth are then calculated in relation to the overall energy and nitrogen dynamics. The general behavior of the model is consistent with expected characteristics. Simulations using the model as part of a whole-system pasture simulation model (DairyMod) are compared with experimental data where good agreement between pasture, concentrate and forage intake, as well as milk production over 3 consecutive lactation cycles, is observed. The model is shown to be well suited for inclusion in large-scale system simulation models. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Changes in the consumption of dairy products, sugary drinks and processed juices in the Chilean population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto, Mirta M; Uauy, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, Chilean population tends to replace or eat a lower amount of food with health protective properties and a higher proportion of unhealthy foodstuff. To describe and compare the intake of dairy products, sugary drinks and processed juices among Chileans. An analysis of data compiled from the Survey on Household Budget and Expenses carried out by the Chilean National Institute of Statistics (INE), using a representative sample of households. The sample was surveyed between 1987 and 2007. The analysis was performed for all households surveyed and for households belonging to the second (highest incomes) and fifth quintile (lowest incomes). The Chilean Food Guide and the international recommendations of the Institute of Medicine of the United States and the American Heart Association (in the case of sugars) were used as reference. Even though the intake of dairy products increased during the period of the survey, it was lower than the intake of sugary drinks and juices, which increased. Also, calcium recommendations were not covered. On the other hand, the intake of added sugars increased to figures over current recommendations. The intake of dairy products and calcium is below the recommended amounts established by international organisms, and added sugars intake is greater than the advisable levels recommended by international organisms.

  13. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  14. Reproductive and productive performance of crossbred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossbred cows are the main type of cattle used for milk production on smallholder and medium farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro Municipality. A study was undertaken on four medium-scale and forty five smallholder farms to investigate the reproductive and productive performance of crossbred maintained ...

  15. characterization of inland-valleys for smallholder dairy production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    production des races d'animaux et l'absence de technologies de production ... MATERIAL AND METHODS ... to guide the choice of the proper t-test to use ... Table 1 : Distribution of the group leaders in relation to location, distances and ..... children. Similar observations were made in both Korhogo and Bouaké regions in.

  16. 7 CFR 1430.305 - Proof of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commercial marketing and production history of the dairy operation so that production and spoilage losses can... dairy herd increases or decreases to the satisfaction of FSA. (c) Adequate proof of production history of the dairy operation under paragraph (b) of this section must be based on milk marketing statements...

  17. Milk and Dairy Products Consumers Behavior and Preferences in Vojvodina – Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current research was to evaluate milk and dairy derived consumer’s behaviour and preferences in Vojvodina (Central Banat District from the Republic of Serbia, in order to be able to further formulate advice and strategies to farmers, farm-advisors and policy makers, to help improve the overall farmer’s competiveness and increase the economic returns of dairy enterprises. Data was collected following questionnaire based-interviews, between January and June 2016. There were 76 persons who answered a face-to-face interview, and had to answer to a 15 questions based questionnaire, all respondents were from Vojvodina (Central Banat District, Republic of Serbia. The main five categories of products purchased were pasteurized milk (11.33%, yogurts (23.44%, sour cream (18.75%, butter (10.55% and cheeses (21.48%. The least dairy derived products categories purchased and consumed were UHT milk (4.30%, refrigerated milk (3.91%, raw milk (5.86% and frozen milk (0.00%. The most important selection criterions of the surveyed consumers were ‘freshness’ (21.72%, expiring date (13.64%, taste characteristics (10.10%, price/quality ratio (13.13% and nutritive value (16.16%.  Results of the current study should be taken into consideration by both farmers and dairy factories, in order to possible identify niche markets, in order to add value to the food chain and improve their economic returns by producing and selling products that have among higher demands from consumers.

  18. Soft Robotics Commercialization: Jamming Grippers from Research to Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nadia; Fakhouri, Sami; Culley, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent work in the growing field of soft robotics has demonstrated a number of very promising technologies. However, to make a significant impact in real-world applications, these new technologies must first transition out of the laboratory through successful commercialization. Commercialization is perhaps the most critical future milestone facing the field of soft robotics today, and this process will reveal whether the apparent impact we now perceive has been appropriately estimated. Since 2012, Empire Robotics has been one of the first companies to attempt to reach this milestone through our efforts to commercialize jamming-based robotic gripper technology in a product called VERSABALL®. However, in spring 2016 we are closing our doors, having not been able to develop a sustainable business around this technology. This article presents some of the key takeaways from the technical side of the commercialization process and lessons learned that may be valuable to others. We hope that sharing this information will provide a frame of reference for technology commercialization that can help others motivate research directions and maximize research impact. PMID:28078197

  19. Effects of dry period length on production, cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy herd: A dynamic stochastic simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akke Kok

    Full Text Available Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable for informed decision-making by farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate how shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows affects production and cash flows at the herd level, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk, using a dynamic stochastic simulation model. The effects of dry period length on milk yield and calving interval assumed in this model were derived from actual performance of commercial dairy cows over multiple lactations. The model simulated lactations, and calving and culling events of individual cows for herds of 100 cows. Herds were simulated for 5 years with a dry period of 56 (conventional, 28 or 0 days (n = 50 herds each. Partial cash flows were computed from revenues from sold milk, calves, and culled cows, and costs from feed and rearing youngstock. Greenhouse gas emissions were computed using a life cycle approach. A dry period of 28 days reduced milk production of the herd by 3.0% in years 2 through 5, compared with a dry period of 56 days. A dry period of 0 days reduced milk production by 3.5% in years 3 through 5, after a dip in milk production of 6.9% in year 2. On average, dry periods of 28 and 0 days reduced partial cash flows by €1,249 and €1,632 per herd per year, and increased greenhouse gas emissions by 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Considering the potential for enhancing cow welfare, these negative impacts of shortening or omitting the dry period seem justifiable, and they might even be offset by improved health.

  20. Functionalized gold nanorod-based labels for amplified electrochemical immunoassay of E. coli as indicator bacteria relevant to the quality of dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinai; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Hongyin; Shen, Jianzhong; Han, En; Dong, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report an amplified electrochemical immunoassay for Escherichia coli as indicator bacteria relevant to the quality of dairy product using the functionalized gold nanorod-based labels ({dAb-AuNR-FCA}). The {dAb-AuNR-FCA} labels were designed by exploiting silica-functionalized gold nanorods (AuNR@SiO2) as the carriers for immobilization of detection antibody (dAb) and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA), in which dAb was used for recognition of E. coli and FCA tags served as signal-generating molecule. Greatly amplified signal was achieved in the sandwich-type immunoassay when enormous FCA linked to AuNR@SiO2. Compared with the commercially available {dAb-FCA}, the {dAb-AuNR-FCA} labels exhibited a better performance for E. coli assay due to the advantages of AuNR@SiO2 as carriers. Under optimal experimental conditions, it showed a linear relationship between the peak current of FCA and the logarithmic value of E. coli concentration ranging from 1.0×10(2) to 5.0×10(4) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 60 cfu mL(-1) (S/N=3), and the electrochemical detection of E. coli could be achieved in 3h. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine E. coli in dairy product (pure fresh milk, yogurt in shelf-life, and expired yogurt), and the recoveries of standard additions were in the range of 95.1-106%. This proposed strategy exhibited rapid response, high sensitivity and specificity for E. coli assay in dairy product, and could become a promising technique to estimate the quality of dairy product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Whey based beverages - new generation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good

  2. GWA Analysis for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Sheep and Genetic Support for a QTN Influencing Milk Protein Percentage in the LALBA Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Gámez, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Sahana, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half...... identified was located within the coding gene sequence (LALBA_g.242T.C) and was predicted to cause an amino acid change in the protein (Val27Ala). Different approaches, including GWA analysis, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium study and a concordance test with the QTL segregating status...

  3. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... 59 cows and 7100 kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively. Based on cow data, 22 herd variables were defined. A factor analysis identified 10 first-order factors and 5 second-order factors. The latter factors were valid indicators of replacement intensity, variability of milk production, potential...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The derived...

  4. The role of dairy products and milk in adolescent obesity: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lin Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies, mainly from Western populations, suggest dairy consumption is inversely associated with adiposity. However, in these populations the intake range is limited and both diet and obesity may share social patterning. Evidence from non-Western developed settings with different social patterning, is valuable in distinguishing whether observed associations are biologically mediated or socially confounded. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of milk or other dairy product consumption with adolescent obesity. METHODS: We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the associations of milk or other dairy product consumption, obtained from a food frequency questionnaire, at 11 years with body mass index (BMI z-scores at 13 years and waist hip ratio (WHR at 11 years, in 5,968 adolescents from a Chinese birth cohort, comprising 88% of births in April and May 1997. We used multiple imputation for missing exposures and confounders. RESULTS: Only 65.7% regularly consumed milk and 72.4% other dairy products. Milk and other dairy product consumption was positively associated with socio-economic position but not with BMI z-score or WHR, with or without adjustment for sex, mother's birthplace, parental education, physical activity and other food consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of association of milk and other dairy product consumption with adiposity in a non-Western setting was not consistent with the majority of evidence from Western settings. Observed anti-obesigenic effects in Western settings may be due to socially patterned confounding.

  5. Consumption trend of modern dairy products and projections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Analyses of Dynamics in Dairy Products and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Population by Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytül Sofu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB with different ecological niches are widely seen in fermented meat, vegetables, dairy products and cereals as well as in fermented beverages. Lactic acid bacteria are the most important group of bacteria in dairy industry due to their probiotic characteristics and fermentation agents as starter culture. In the taxonomy of the lactic acid bacteria; by means of rep-PCR, which is the analysis of repetitive sequences that are based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequence, it is possible to conduct structural microbial community analyses such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP analysis of DNA fragments of different sizes cut with enzymes, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD polymorphic DNA amplified randomly at low temperatures and Amplified Fragment-Length Polymorphism (AFLP-PCR of cut genomic DNA. Besides, in the recent years, non-culture-based molecular methods such as Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE, and Fluorescence In-situ Hybridization (FISH have replaced classical methods once used for the identification of LAB. Identification of lactic acid bacteria culture independent regardless of the method will be one of the most important methods used in the future pyrosequencing as a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS techniques. This paper reviews molecular-method based studies conducted on the identification of LAB species in dairy products.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated from Lebanese dairy-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhairi, O; Saleh, I; Alwan, N; Toufeili, I; Barbour, E; Harakeh, S

    2012-12-04

    The study evaluated the antimicrobial resistance of molecularly characterized strains of Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus isolated from 3 Lebanese dairy-based food products that are sometimes consumed raw: kishk, shanklish and baladi cheese. Suspected Staphylococcus isolates were identified initially using standard biochemical tests, then strains that were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (29 S. aureus and 17 S. saprophyticus) were evaluated for their susceptibility to different antimicrobials. The highest levels of contamination with staphylococci were in baladi cheese. Resistance rates ranged from 67% to gentamicin to 94% to oxacillin and clindamycin. The results suggest that these locally made dairy-based foods may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

  8. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  9. Commercial Cleaning Products for Chemical Decontamination: A Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    and may injure human skin without dilution), although this approach is less favoured in a mass casualty decontamination situation than soap and water...commercial cleaning products, full strength K-O-K® liquid bleach (5.25% aqueous solution of NaOCl), dish-washing detergent Cascade® with Extra...Bleach Action Gel, OxiClean® Versatile Stain Remover Powder, and ZEP® Industrial Purple liquid cleaner (proprietary caustic cleaner containing

  10. Association of Milk and Dairy Products Consumption During Pregnancy with Fetal and Neonatal Head Circumferences: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Karimbeiki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Milk and dairy products consumed by mothers seem to be effective for fetal and neonatal anthropometric measurements, because they contain various nutrients. Objectives The aim of this study was to systematically review the influence of milk and dairy products consumption by mothers on fetal and neonatal head circumferences. Data Sources Systematic searches were conducted in electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI, Ovid, Embase, Medlib, Google Scholar, clinical trials and Cochrane central register of clinical trials. Study Selection All studies that assessed the relationship between milk and dairy products consumption in healthy females during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal head circumferences were included in our systematic review. Finally, seven studies were relevant that included five cohort studies, one cross-sectional study and one randomized clinical trial. Data Extraction This systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting item for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA statement recommendation, and for quality assessment, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS for cohort studies, the adapted NOS for a cross-sectional study and the Jadad quality assessment score for a randomized clinical trial, were used. Results Seven studies that comprised of more than 50000 pregnant females were included in this review. One cohort study, one cross-sectional study and one randomized controlled trial study showed that milk or dairy products consumption by pregnant mothers was not associated with neonatal birth head circumference, while three cohort studies reported that maternal milk or dairy products intake had a positive effect on neonatal birth head circumference. Two cohort studies showed that there was no relationship between maternal milk or dairy products consumption and fetal head circumference while a cross-sectional study reported that there was a positive relationship between milk or dairy products

  11. The Nutritional Labeling of the Dairy Products in Romania, Tendencies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Ramona Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present essay is to improve the degree of information through more efficient labeling of the alimentary products. The observation method has been used for the establishment of the offer of milk and dairy products class on the Romanian market during 2013, and the investigation stage consisted of data collection from labels and their graphical interpretation. The 3 concern groups regarding the classification of the chosen products have been: Any special storage conditions and/or conditions of use, % of Saturated fat specified on product and % of Salt specified on product. The label of the products has to offer the consumer the necessary, sufficient, veritable and easy to compare information, which will allow them to chose their alimentary product according to their exigency, financial possibilities, to know the eventual risks they may be subject to, so that they will not be mislead.

  12. Development of a rapid SNP-typing assay to differentiate Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis strains used in probiotic-supplemented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonaco, Sara; Furumoto, Emily J; Loquasto, Joseph R; Morra, Patrizia; Grassi, Ausilia; Roberts, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Identification at the genus, species, and strain levels is desirable when a probiotic microorganism is added to foods. Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BAL) are commonly used worldwide in dairy products supplemented with probiotic strains. However, strain discrimination is difficult because of the high degree of genome identity (99.975%) between different genomes of this subspecies. Typing of monomorphic species can be carried out efficiently by targeting informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Findings from a previous study analyzing both reference and commercial strains of BAL identified SNP that could be used to discriminate common strains into 8 groups. This paper describes development of a minisequencing assay based on the primer extension reaction (PER) targeting multiple SNP that can allow strain differentiation of BAL. Based on previous data, 6 informative SNP were selected for further testing, and a multiplex preliminary PCR was optimized to amplify the DNA regions containing the selected SNP. Extension primers (EP) annealing immediately adjacent to the selected SNP were developed and tested in simplex and multiplex PER to evaluate their performance. Twenty-five strains belonging to 9 distinct genomic clusters of B. animalis ssp. lactis were selected and analyzed using the developed minisequencing assay, simultaneously targeting the 6 selected SNP. Fragment analysis was subsequently carried out in duplicate and demonstrated that the assay yielded 8 specific profiles separating the most commonly used commercial strains. This novel multiplex PER approach provides a simple, rapid, flexible SNP-based subtyping method for proper characterization and identification of commercial probiotic strains of BAL from fermented dairy products. To assess the usefulness of this method, DNA was extracted from yogurt manufactured with and without the addition of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12. Extracted DNA was then subjected to the minisequencing

  13. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  14. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  15. Contribution of Lactobacillus plantarum in fermented dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum recently isolated from artisanal fermented milks and milk products include L. plantarum AMA-K, L. plantarum KLDS1.0391, L. plantarum ST27, L. plantarum LL441, L. plantarum ST8K and L. plantarum BR12. The isolates exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against saprophytic and ...

  16. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    , particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer...... of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have been reported.......BACKGROUND: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta...

  17. Logistics of the production and commercialization of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Delgado, Tamara; Guerrero Mudarra, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    In the work the different aspects of the logistical management of the productive processes and services of CENTIS, are characterized, as part of the quality system of the institution .The different topics of this activity , related with the support of the operation of the facilities, the realization of the production and its commercialization is also considered. A vision is given of how the logistic is integrated to the activity of CENTIS, generating benefits, and the importance of continuing its development. Some of the difficulties that confronts in the current stage are also pointed out. (author)

  18. Is rumination time an indicator of methane production in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Difford, Gareth; Lassen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    As long as large-scale recording of expensive to measure and labor-consuming traits, such as dry matter intake (DMI) and methane (CH4) production continues to be challenging in practical conditions, alternative traits that are already routinely recorded in dairy herds should be investigated...... RT and both CH4P and DMI were close to zero, regardless of lactation stage and dataset (PP or MP). However, CH4P and DMI were highly correlated, both across lactation stages and datasets. In conclusion, RT is unsuitable to be used as an indicator trait for either CH4 production or DMI. Our study...

  19. Metabotypes with properly functioning mitochondria and anti-inflammation predict extended productive life span in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K.; Dänicke, S.; Rehage, J.; Sauerwein, H.; Otto, W.; Rolle-Kampczyk, U.; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The failure to adapt metabolism to the homeorhetic demands of lactation is considered as a main factor in reducing the productive life span of dairy cows. The so far defined markers of production performance and metabolic health in dairy cows do not predict the length of productive life span satisfyingly. This study aimed to identify novel pathways and biomarkers related to productive life in dairy cows by means of (targeted) metabolomics. In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans. These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria. The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life. PMID:27089826

  20. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, E.A.; Heraclides, A.; Witte, D.R.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Toft, U.; Lau, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and

  1. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  3. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

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    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  4. Substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Daniel B; Laursen, Anne Sofie D; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations for specified substitutions between different subgroups of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes. We used data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort including 54 277 men and women aged 50-64 years at baseline. Information...... regarding intake of dairy products was obtained from a validated FFQ, and cases of type 2 diabetes were identified through the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate associations. During a median follow-up of 15·3 years, 7137 cases were identified. Low......-fat yogurt products in place of whole-fat yogurt products were associated with a higher rate of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1·17; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·29) per serving/d substituted. Whole-fat yogurt products in place of low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate of type 2...

  5. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL MILK PRODUCTION IN SMALL-SCALE DAIRY FARMING IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

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    Himawan Arif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm, which produces calf and milk jointly, is expected to raise household’s income in rural areas where potential resources are available. This study aims at examing the optimal production of milk and calf by estimating a relationship between both productions. The study was conducted in Sleman,Yogyakartawhere dairy farms exist. Theory used in this study is economies scope in joint production. The results of study indicate that the level of joint production is still low such that there is no degree in economies of scope. Consequently, household’s income generated from this farm has not been maximised. To increase the income, it can be conducted by two consecutive steps. First, is to increase the production milk and calf jointly until the degree of economies of scope reached. Second, is to produce milk and calf in the best combination after reaching economies of scope. Recently, the best way to maximise income is to produce calf as low as possible, and to increase the period of producing milk.  

  6. Different Analytical Approaches in Assessing Antibacterial Activity and the Purity of Commercial Lysozyme Preparations for Dairy Application

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    Luisa Pellegrino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hen egg-white lysozyme (LSZ is currently used in the food industry to limit the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria spoilage in the production of wine and beer, and to inhibit butyric acid fermentation in hard and extra hard cheeses (late blowing caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores. The aim of this work was to evaluate how the enzyme activity in commercial preparations correlates to the enzyme concentration and can be affected by the presence of process-related impurities. Different analytical approaches, including turbidimetric assay, SDS-PAGE and HPLC were used to analyse 17 commercial preparations of LSZ marketed in different countries. The HPLC method adopted by ISO allowed the true LSZ concentration to be determined with accuracy. The turbidimetric assay was the most suitable method to evaluate LSZ activity, whereas SDS-PAGE allowed the presence of other egg proteins, which are potential allergens, to be detected. The analytical results showed that the purity of commercially available enzyme preparations can vary significantly, and evidenced the effectiveness of combining different analytical approaches in this type of control.

  7. Diversity and evolution of Lactobacillus casei group isolated from fermented dairy products in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Jiang, Yujun; Li, Mingyu; Zhao, Siyu; Zhang, Yanming; Li, Xuesong; Wang, Hui; Lin, Guangen; Wang, Hao; Li, Tiejing; Man, Chaoxin

    2018-05-25

    Bacteria in Lactobacillus casei group, including Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) are important lactic acid bacteria in the production of fermented dairy products and are faced with the controversial nomenclatural status due to their close phylogenetic similarity. To probe the evolution and phylogeny of L. casei group, 100 isolates of lactic acid bacteria originated from naturally fermented dairy products in Tibet of China were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST scheme, based on analysis of the housekeeping genes fusA, ileS, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA and recG, revealed that all the isolates belonged to a group containing the L. paracasei reference strains and were clearly different from the strains of L. casei and L. rhamnosus. Although nucleotide diversity (π) was low for the seven genes (ranging from 0.00341 for fusA to 0.01307 for recG), high genetic diversity represented by 83 sequence types (STs) with a discriminatory index of 0.98 was detected. A network-like structure based on split decomposition analysis, and the high values of the relative effect of recombination and mutation in the diversification of the lineages (r/m = 4.76) and the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination and mutation (ρ/θ = 2.62) indicated that intra-species recombination occurred frequently and homologous recombination played a key role in generating genotypic diversity amongst L. paracasei strains in Tibet. The discovery of 51 new STs and the results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that the L. casei group in Tibet had an individual and particular population structure in comparison to European isolates. Overall, this research might be the first report about genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus populations isolated from naturally fermented dairy products in Tibet based on MLST scheme.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995-2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bruun Werner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. Objective: The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. Methods: We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995–2006. Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. Results: The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001 throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. Conclusions: When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences.

  10. Effect of complete rumen modifier (CRM and Calliandra calothyrus on productivity and enteric methane productions of PE dairy goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Suci Sukmawati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenesis in the rumen is thought to represent 2-12% loss of energy intake. The energy loss as methane can decrease animal productivity and feed efficiency. In addition, methane is potentially involves in global warming that affects the atmosphere adversely. A research to improve PE dairy goat productivity and reduce enteric methane emission by supplementation of calliandra and complete rumen modifier (CRM was conducted for 6 months. In this experiment 20 PE dairy goats were divided into five blocks according to body weight. The experimental design used was a randomized block design that consisted of four treatments, A. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 50% (control, B. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 40% + calliandra 20%, C. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 48% + CRM 2% and D. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 38% + calliandra 20% + CRM 2%. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test. The result showed that calliandra and CRM did not affect nutrient consumption, except that protein consumption increased (P < 0.05 in calliandra treatments (B and D. Nutrient digestibility increased in CRM (C treatment, while other treatments did not differ from control. CRM also increased total bacteria (36.84%, milk production (67.21%, milk fat (25.0%, and reduced enteric methane production (65.71%. The improvement of milk production in CRM treatment (C was followed by better feed efficiency than other treatments. In conclusion, CRM was more effective than calliandra in improving milk production of PE dairy goats and reduced enteric methane emission, but its effectivity was reduced in combination with calliandra.

  11. Allergen labelling in meat, dairy and cereal products from the Serbian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirić, D.; Nikolić, D.; Ćirić, J.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Janković, V.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    Allergens in food are a great health risk, because of the ratio of severity of problems compared to small amounts of ingested allergen. Since 2014, Serbian producers and importers of food have been obliged to declare allergens from the list of Codex Alimentarius on the product packaging. Surveillance of different meat, diary, and cereal product took place in 2016, with aim of checking if the Serbian regulatory requirements for labelling of allergens in food are being fulfilled. Out of 68 different meat products, 20 were not labelled for allergens. Thirty-six labels of various dairy products were examined revealing that allergen information was included on 27 of them. Only one of eight examined cereal products did not have allergen labelling.

  12. Feed Additives Production Out of Dairy Industry Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrikh, EV

    2017-05-01

    Application of macro- and microelements in animal feed is the most effective in the case of their industrial brining in mixed feeds, feed mixes, and protein-vitamin supplements in the form of various complex salts. Application of the product contributes to the body’s needs of broiler chickens in vitamins and minerals, normalization of metabolism, and ensures a high rate of growth and development. The composition of the premix can be adjusted depending on the actual proportion of biologically active substances in the feed used by a consumer. It is possible to include in the premix other biologically active substances. Assessing the slaughter qualities of experimental pigs, it was found (Table. 2) that the pigs of group II has a tendency toward greater weight of hot carcass (4.5 kg), of slaughter yelts (by 3.83%) and toward a smaller thickness of fat over the spinous processes of the 6-7th thoracic vertebrae (1.67 mm). The performed investigations have established that there is no significant difference between groups I and II in the content of certain amino acids, however, group I shows poorer results in the content of valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine by 0.16 g / 100 g of protein (P> 0.999) 0.2 (P> 0.90), 0.46 (P> 0.999) and 0.39 (P> 0.999) g / 100 g protein respectively.

  13. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional fermented dairy products in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Wang, W H; Menghe, B L G; Jiri, M T; Wang, H M; Liu, W J; Bao, Q H; Lu, Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, F; Xu, H Y; Sun, T S; Zhang, H P

    2011-07-01

    Spontaneous milk fermentation has a long history in Mongolia, and beneficial microorganisms have been handed down from one generation to the next for use in fermented dairy products. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities in fermented yak, mare, goat, and cow milk products by analyzing 189 samples collected from 13 different regions in Mongolia. The LAB counts in these samples varied from 3.41 to 9.03 log cfu/mL. Fermented yak and mare milks had almost identical mean numbers of LAB, which were significantly higher than those in fermented goat milk but slightly lower than those in fermented cow milk. In total, 668 isolates were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. Each isolate was considered to be presumptive LAB based on gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and was identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. All isolates from Mongolian dairy products were accurately identified as Enterococcus faecalis (1 strain), Enterococcus durans (3 strains), Lactobacillus brevis (3 strains), Lactobacillus buchneri (2 strains), Lactobacillus casei (16 strains), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (142 strains), Lactobacillus diolivorans (17 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (42 strains), Lactobacillus helveticus (183 strains), Lactobacillus kefiri (6 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum (7 strains), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (7 strains), Leuconostoc lactis (22 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (21 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (195 strains), and Weissella cibaria (1 strain). The predominant LAB were Strep. thermophilus and Lb. helveticus, which were isolated from all sampling sites. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Mongolia have complex compositions of LAB species. Such diversity of

  14. The opportunity cost of family labor in the economy of the dairy production in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Alexis Jiménez Jiménez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze associated factors with the variation of the profit margin and the influence of the opportunity cost of family labor in the economic profit of the family dairy in the municipality of Maravatio, Michoacan. Productive economic information was obtained through the use of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and direct observation, using the methodology of Participatory Action Research. The opportunity cost of workforce was established on the basis of the work options for the family members involved in the activity; the options were classified into three types: local, regional, and foreign, according to the location of the job opportunities. In order to determine the influence of family labor in earning, it was used a multiple regression model with inclusion of step-by-step variables. The livestock feed represented the highest index of determination of the profit margin variation with the 68 %. Family labor is one of the variables that have an adverse impact on the profitability of the production units, it represented 26% of the variation of economic gain, with a negative linear relation of -1.05 (P ≤0.001. The best labor alternatives for producers, when emigrating, show that family labor is not the productive factor allowing them to have earnings; however, the dairy activity provides productive and economic sustenance for people with a local and regional opportunity cost.

  15. Differences in response to heat stress due to production level and breed of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen

    2017-09-01

    The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of heat stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of heat stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for heat stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to heat stress due to production level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk production and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to heat stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk production in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate production level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the heat resistance?

  16. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E.; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M.; Whelton, Helen L.; Craig, Oliver E.; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities. PMID:27849595

  17. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M; Saña Segui, Maria; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Whelton, Helen L; Craig, Oliver E; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P

    2016-11-29

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities.

  18. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  19. The investigation of probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shiro; Yamasaki, Keiko; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yukiharu; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Dashnyam, Bumbein; Ahhmed, Abdulatef M; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products, and to estimate the probiotic potential of the isolated strains. We collected 66 samples of the traditional Mongolian dairy products tarag (n = 45), airag (n = 7), aaruul (n = 8), byasulag (n = 1) and eezgii (n = 5), from which 543 LAB strains were isolated and identified based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. The predominant species of those products were Lactobacillus (L.) delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, L. helveticus, L. fermentum, L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. However, we could not detect any LAB strains from eezgii. All LAB isolates were screened for tolerance to low pH and to bile acid, gas production from glucose, and adherence to Caco-2 cells. In vitro, we found 10 strains possess probiotic properties, and almost identified them as L. plantarum or L. paracasei subspecies, based on 16S ribosomal DNA and carbohydrate fermentation pattern. These strains were differentiated from each other individually by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Additionally, it was notable that 6/10 strains were isolated from camel milk tarag from the Dornogovi province. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Commercial production of specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The chemical substances utilized in consumer products, and for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses are generally referred to as specialty chemicals. These may be flavor or fragrance substances, intermediates for synthesis of drugs or agrochemicals or the drugs or agrochemicals themselves, insecticides or insect pheromones or antifeedants, plant growth regulators, etc. These are in contrast to chemicals which are utilized in large quantities for fuels or preparation of plastics, lubricants, etc., which are usually referred to as industrial chemicals. The specific utilization of specialty chemicals is associated with a specific important physiochemical or biological property. They may possess unique properties as lubricants or waxes or have a very desirable biological activity such as a drug, agrochemical or perfume ingredient. These unique properties convey significant economic value to the specific specialty chemical. The economic commercial production of specialty chemicals commonly requires the isolation of a precursor or the specialty chemical itself from a natural source. The discovery, development and commercialization of specialty chemicals is presented and reviewed. The economic and sustainable production of specialty chemicals is discussed.

  1. Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

  2. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2012-05-17

    Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41-50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose-response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend=0.01). The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend=0.07), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend=0.07), and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend=0.08), respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  3. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  4. Prevalence of Listeria species in raw milk and traditional dairy products in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shamloo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw milk and traditional non-pasteurized dairy products in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 292 samples of raw milk and traditional dairy were examined for the presence of Listeria spp. using a two-step selective enrichment recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. L. monocytogenes strains were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. Results: Of 292 samples, 21 (7.14% and 4 (1.47% were positive for Listeria spp. and pathogenic L. monocytogenes, respectively. The prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw milk, ice cream, cream, and freni were 5.91 (5.49%, 12.63 (19.04%, 3.27 (11.11% and 1.25 (4%, respectively. Listeria was not detected from yogurt, butter, Kashk, and cheese. Listeria innocua at 16.21 (5.44% was the most prevalent species isolated, followed by L. monocytogenes at 4.21 (19% and L. seeligeri at 1.21 (4.7%. All strains of L. monocytogenes identified by biochemical tests were also confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: The study shows the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk and traditional dairy products sold in the market. Consumption of raw milk with mild heat treatment or its usage in traditional dishes could pose serious health problems due to lack of appropriate control measures. The lack of knowledge on the risks of listeriosis transmission indicates the need for implementation of a food safety education program. In addition, the Iranian food safety authorities should urgently set up an effective standard to screen all susceptible food products for the presence of Listeria.

  5. Environmental performances of Sardinian dairy sheep production systems at different input levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, E; Franca, A; Breedveld, L; Porqueddu, C; Ferrara, R; Duce, P

    2015-01-01

    Although sheep milk production is a significant sector for the European Mediterranean countries, it shows serious competitiveness gaps. Minimizing the ecological impacts of dairy sheep farming systems could represent a key factor for farmers to bridging the gaps in competitiveness of such systems and also obtaining public incentives. However, scarce is the knowledge about the environmental performance of Mediterranean dairy sheep farms. The main objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three dairy farms in Sardinia (Italy), characterized by different input levels, and (ii) to identify the hotspots for improving the environmental performances of each farm, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was conducted using two different assessment methods: Carbon Footprint-IPCC and ReCiPe end-point. The analysis, conducted "from cradle to gate", was based on the functional unit 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The observed trends of the environmental performances of the studied farming systems were similar for both evaluation methods. The GHG emissions revealed a little range of variation (from 2.0 to 2.3 kg CO2-eq per kg of FPCM) with differences between farming systems being not significant. The ReCiPe end-point analysis showed a larger range of values and environmental performances of the low-input farm were significantly different compared to the medium- and high-input farms. In general, enteric methane emissions, field operations, electricity and production of agricultural machineries were the most relevant processes in determining the overall environmental performances of farms. Future research will be dedicated to (i) explore and better define the environmental implications of the land use impact category in the Mediterranean sheep farming systems, and (ii) contribute to revising and improving the existing LCA dataset for Mediterranean farming systems. Copyright © 2014

  6. Cholesterol Assimilation with Isolated lactobacilli Strains of Fars’ Local Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Cholesterol is an important compound in most of the biological reactions which the excess of it can be seen as a harmful compound of causing heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cholesterol removal property and also its pathway by dairy lactobacillus in in vitro condition under different bile salts concentration. Materials & Methods: After isolation of lactobacillus strains from dairy products, they were identified with chemical tests and their growths were evaluated under presence of cholesterol and bile salts. The method of action of the bacillus in cholesterol removal was assayed by spectrophotometer method. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: result of this study showed that any strains of the bacteria had the ability of cholesterol removal (7.82-34.69 µg/ml. L.casei had more competence for removal of cholesterol in compare to the rest of bacilli. The evaluation of cholesterol cell wall attachment revealed that most of removed cholesterols have been changed to the other products. Conclusion: Considering the result of this study, it can be concluded that cholesterol removal has a direct association with growth of bacteria where the L. casei with high growth rate had more capability of cholesterol removal. Whereas the Lactobacillus can remove the cholesterol with different methods, results of this study showed that dairy products, especially yogurt, can remove the harmful substances such as cholesterol using non chemical methods. The results of this study could be expanded on human use if more study and research could be carried out.

  7. CRADA Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Commercial Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.K.

    2002-01-31

    ORNL, through The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE), collaborated with The Village Botanica, Inc. (VB) on a project investigating carbon sequestration in soils and commercial products from a new sustainable crop developed from perennial Hibiscus spp. Over 500 pre-treated samples were analyzed for soil carbon content. ORNL helped design a sampling scheme for soils during the planting phase of the project. Samples were collected and prepared by VB and analyzed for carbon content by ORNL. The project did not progress to a Phase II proposal because VB declined to prepare the required proposal.

  8. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  9. Randomized noninferiority trial comparing 2 commercial intramammary antibiotics for the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A K; Nydam, D V; Capel, M B; Ceglowski, B; Rauch, B J; Thomas, M J; Tikofsky, L; Watters, R D; Zuidhof, S; Zurakowski, M J

    2016-10-01

    The purpose was to evaluate 2 intramammary treatments for mild-to-moderate cases of clinical mastitis in a noninferiority comparison. Noninferiority trials are intended to show whether a given treatment, hetacillin potassium, has at least comparable efficacy as the reference treatment, ceftiofur hydrochloride. Treatments can be deemed inferior to the reference treatment by an amount less than the margin of noninferiority, or inconclusive if the confidence interval crosses the margin of noninferiority. Cows with clinical mastitis from 6 farms were considered for enrollment. Using a randomized design, cows with mild or moderate mastitis in 1 quarter were assigned to on-label treatment with either ceftiofur or hetacillin. A total of 596 cows met the criteria needed for continued enrollment. Treatment distribution resulted in 309 cows in the ceftiofur group and 287 cows in the hetacillin group. Mixed regression analysis was performed for the following outcomes: bacteriological cure, pathogen cure, clinical cure, postevent milk production and linear score, and survival to d 30 and 60. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to describe treatment effect on survival and mastitis risks. Bacteriological cure, defined as absence of causative organism in samples retrieved at d 14 and 21 postmastitis, was similar between groups. No significant statistical differences were found in cure risk, and noninferiority of hetacillin relative to ceftiofur for bacteriological cure was conclusive (hetacillin=67%, ceftiofur=72%). Absence of a pathogen on both follow-up samples designated a cow as a pathogen cure. Pathogen cure was similar between treatment groups and noninferiority of hetacillin relative to ceftiofur was shown (hetacillin=35%, ceftiofur=32%). Clinical cure (hetacillin=68%, ceftiofur=64%), postevent milk production (hetacillin=37.0kg, ceftiofur=38.2kg), and linear scores (hetacillin=3.4, ceftiofur=3.1) were also not statistically different between treatment groups

  10. Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Susanne Bølling; Næs, Tormod; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-02-01

    Understanding consumers' motives for selecting calorie-reduced dairy products are important to provide targeted communication to different consumer segments. The aim of this study was to identify motives for consumption of calorie-reduced dairy products among young consumers, and to identify how these consumers perceive the healthiness of such products compared to other food products. Consumers, aged 18-30 years, from Norway (n=118), Denmark (n=125), and California (n=127) participated in this cross-cultural study. The respondents sorted 24 statements referring to motives for choosing calorie-reduced yoghurt and cheese. The study also assessed the aspect of perceived healthiness of these products in comparison with a selection of other food products using a two-step ranking procedure. The data were analysed using chi-square analysis, Friedman's test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show that fat content, healthiness and taste were the most important motivators for choice of the calorie-reduced dairy products. In all three countries salmon was perceived as the healthiest among the products presented. The calorie-reduced dairy products were ranked as relatively healthy, with yoghurt ranked as healthier than cheese. Although cross-cultural differences existed in motives for choice and perceived healthiness of the products, the similarities between the countries were evident in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Moving Technologies from the Test Tube to Commercial Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Successful technologies include objects, processes, and procedures that share a common theme; they are being used to generate new products that create economic growth. The foundation is the invention, but the invention is a small part of the overall effort. The pathway to success is understanding the competition, proper planning, record keeping, integrating a supply chain, understanding actual costs, intellectual property (IP), benchmarking, and timing. Additionally, there are obstacles that include financing, what to make, buy, and sell, and the division of labor i.e. recognizing who is best at what task. Over the past two decades, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several commercially available technologies. The approach to commercialization of three of these inventions; Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI, Imitec Inc.), the Thin Layer Unimorph Driver (THUNDER, FACE International), and the Macrofiber Composite (MFC, Smart Material Corp.) will be described, as well as some of the lessons learned from the process. What makes these three inventions interesting is that one was created in the laboratory; another was built using the previous invention as part of its process, and the last one was created by packaging commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) materials thereby creating a new component.

  12. Commercialization channels of organic products in Brazil: analysis at the first level of the production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rossi Scalco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specialized literature on organic production highlights the presence and concentration of retail, especially supermarkets, in the organic enhancement chain. This presents enormous obstacles for the entrance of small farmers in the production of organic products due to administrative barriers, in addition to pressure for lower prices by the supermarket retail network. This paper investigates the commercialization channels of organic production in Brazil. The survey was undertaken in 2013; questionnaires were sent to 900 out of approximately 11.200 farmers producing organic products; 216 answers were received. Analysis showed that approximately 90% of farmers provided for the internal market and 60% of the products were fresh fruits and vegetables. The distribution of organic products in Brazil is highly fragmented at the local, regional and national levels. The presence of supermarkets and intermediaries in the commercialization of fruits and vegetables is relevant, regardless of the size of the farm. There is a great dispersion of channels in the case of small farmers, although supermarkets rank second. However, direct commercialization (farmers markets is the main form of commercialization of the produce. Commercialization triggered by social programs has guaranteed a considerable part of the income on small production units or small farms. It seems that high involvement of retail networks and agents in the agribusiness segment causes low development rates in small agricultural units and in local development due to the latter’s low profit margins.

  13. Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shanshan; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yunguo; Yu, Miaohui; Ma, Jie

    2018-01-22

    Dairy product consumption may affect the risk of hip fracture, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to examine and quantify the potential association of dairy product consumption with risk of hip fracture. We searched the databases of PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles from their inception through April 17, 2017. The final analysis included 10 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies. Random-effects models were used to estimate the pooled risk. Subgroup and dose-response analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between the consumption of milk and the risk of hip fracture. After pooling the data from the included studies, the summary relative risk (RR) for hip fracture for highest versus lowest consumption were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.74-1.12), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.86), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.61-0. 77), 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93-1.12) for milk, yogurt, cheese, and total dairy products in cohort studies, respectively. Higher milk consumption [Odds ratio (OR), 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0. 91] was associated with lower risk of hip fracture for highest versus lowest consumption in case-control studies. After quantifying the specific dose of milk, the summary RR/OR for an increased milk consumption of 200 g/day was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.94-1.07), and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.64-1.24) with significant heterogeneity for cohort and case-control studies, respectively; There was a nonlinear association between milk consumption and hip fracture risk in cohort, and case-control studies. Our findings indicate that consumption of yogurt and cheese was associated with lower risk of hip fracture in cohort studies. However, the consumption of total dairy products and cream was not significantly associated with the risk of hip fracture. There was insufficient evidence to deduce the association between milk consumption and risk of hip fracture. A lower threshold of 200 g/day milk intake may have beneficial effects, whereas the effects of a higher

  14. Modeling of rheological characteristics of the fermented dairy products obtained by novel and traditional starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukić, Dajana V; Vukić, Vladimir R; Milanović, Spasenija D; Ilicić, Mirela D; Kanurić, Katarina G

    2018-06-01

    Tree different fermented dairy products obtained by conventional and non-conventional starter cultures were investigated in this paper. Textural and rheological characteristics as well as chemical composition during 21 days of storage were analysed and subsequent data processing was performed by principal component analysis. The analysis of samples` flow behaviour was focused on their time dependent properties. Parameters of Power law model described flow behaviour of samples depended on used starter culture and days of storage. The Power law model was applied successfully to describe the flow of the fermented milk, which had characteristics of shear thinning and non-Newtonian fluid behaviour.

  15. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing...

  16. Progress in nutritional and health profile of milk and dairy products: a novel drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemucci, Giovanni; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing focus on diet as a tool to maintain human health and prevent disease. Milk and milk products of ruminants are important source of fat and saturated fatty acids, which are not considered to be very favourable to human health, but are valuable sources of nutrients including bioactive fatty acids (FA), vitamins, and minerals, which can promote positive health effects. The nutritional characteristics of milk and dairy products are related to their composition, which depends on the source species, and varies due to numerous factors, among which the animal diet is the most important. An improvement in milk FA composition and other micronutrients can be reached through an animal feeding strategy. Natural pasture-based farming systems increase microconstituents that are beneficial to human health (CLA, PUFAs, n-3 FAs, antioxidants, vitamins A and E, and Se) and volatile compounds (flavour, and terpenes) in milk and cheese. There are still uncertainties about the health benefits of various milk FAs and other compounds; deep and extensive long-term clinical studies with humans are needed. The contamination of milk and dairy products by heavy metals or dioxins has dramatic negative consequences for human and livestock health and necessitates very urgent consideration and intervention.

  17. Community-based productivity veterinary service for smallholder dairy farmers in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin, M; Bhattacharjee, J; Talukdar, A.K., E-mail: m.shamsuddin@cdvf.org.b [Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); Goodger, W J; Momont, H [Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Frank, G [Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Akhteruzzaman, M [Department of Agricultural Economics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    2010-07-01

    The productivity veterinary services, which include disease control and management of reproduction, udder health and nutrition, are not practised in smallholder dairy farms although they are proven to increase milk production in large dairy herds. We introduced an on-farm service with the participation of farmer associations where individual veterinarians made a scheduled visit to perform preventive and emergency cattle health care, reproduction, and feed management. We examined 1 849 animals on 862 farms guided by specific forms, a breeding calendar and a herd summary generated from data of the initial visit by using a Microsoft Access based computer application. On average, 53% anoestrous heifers and 67% anoestrous cows resumed their oestrous cycle when treated with hormones, vitamin AD{sub 3}E or nutritional supplements. Forty percent of cows with uterine infections conceived when treated with intrauterine antibiotics or prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}} (PGF{sub 2{alpha}}) was injected intramuscularly before artificial insemination (AI) was done. When GnRH was injected at the time of AI, 73% repeat breeder cows conceived. About 78% of cows recovered from mastitis and 88% of sick animals recovered when treatment was given based on clinical diagnosis. A database on common cattle diseases was established. More than 75% of farms that received the service had an income increase ranging from US$1 to US$40.7/month/cow. Productivity veterinary services can increase farmers' incomes and the number of cows available for breeding. (author)

  18. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  19. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.

  20. Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria used for fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, C G; Mocchiutti, P; Reinheimer, J A

    2002-04-01

    Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria were investigated to establish adequate combinations of strains to manufacture probiotic dairy products. For this aim, a total of 48 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium spp. (eight of each) were used. The detection of bacterial interactions was carried out using the well-diffusion agar assay, and the interactions found were further characterized by growth kinetics. A variety of interactions was demonstrated. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was found to be able to inhibit S. thermophilus strains. Among probiotic cultures, Lb. acidophilus was the sole species that was inhibited by the others (Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium). In general, probiotic bacteria proved to be more inhibitory towards lactic acid bacteria than vice versa since the latter did not exert any effect on the growth of the former, with some exceptions. The study of interactions by growth kinetics allowed the setting of four different kinds of behaviors between species of lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria (stimulation, delay, complete inhibition of growth, and no effects among them). The possible interactions among the strains selected to manufacture a probiotic fermented dairy product should be taken into account when choosing the best combination/s to optimize their performance in the process and their survival in the products during cold storage.

  1. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2012-06-01

    Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The production of anaerobic bacteria and biogas from dairy cattle waste in various growth mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Y. A.; Kurnani, T. B. A.; Marlina, E. T.; Rahmah, K. N.; Harlia, E.; Joni, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    The growth of anaerobic bacteria except the ruminal fluid quailty is strongly influenced by the media formulations. Previous researchers have set a standard media formulation for anaerobic bacteria from rumen, however the use of standard media formulations require chemicals with high cost. Moreover, other constraint of using standard media formulations is requires large quantities of media for anaerobic bacteria to grow. Therefore, it is necessary to find media with a new culture media formulation. Media used in this research were minimalist media consist of Nutrient Agar (NA), Lactose broth and rumen fluid; enriched media Rumen Fluid-Glucose-Agar (RGCA); and enriched media 98-5. The dairy cattle waste is utilized as source of anaerobic bacteria. The obtained data was analyzed by descriptive approach. The results showed that minimalist media produced anaerobic bacteria 2148 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production: 1.06% CH4, 9.893% CO2; enriched media Rumen Fluid-Glucose-Agar (RGCA) produced anaerobic bacteria 1848 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production 4.644% CH4, 9.5356% CO2; enriched media 98-5 produced anaerobic bacteria growth 15400 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production 0.83% of CH4, 42.2% of CO2. It is conclude that the minimalist media was showed the best performance for the dairy cattle waste as source of anaerobic bacteria.

  3. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  4. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be

  5. The translation of product concept to bone products: a partnership of therapeutic effectiveness and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    The fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have the capacity to substantially impact clinical care through the introduction of new products that can address unmet clinical needs, or significantly improve on present therapies. These products will be developed through the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness, adequate safety, and meeting regulatory requirements. The technology used in the product will dictate the product development and manufacturing costs; the regulatory pathway; and the time taken to complete clinical trials, gain regulatory approval, and become commercialized. A comparison of the required investment of time and funds, with the potential revenue generated, allows for a determination of the likely commercialization opportunity. Ultimately, the long-term success of a product will be dependent on its clinical effectiveness and commercial viability. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  6. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  7. From university research to commercial product (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathuis, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Ovizio Imaging Systems, a quantitative microscopic imaging spin-off of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, was founded in the beginning of 2010 by Philip Mathuis, Serge Jooris, Prof. Frank Dubois and Dr. Catherine Yourassowky. The company has launched a range of specialized microscopy instruments for quantitative imaging mainly focused on the bioprocessing and diagnostics fields within the life sciences market. During my talk I will present the story of how an idea, emerged from the research labs of the University made it to a manufactured and sold product. The talk will look at many aspects of entrepreneurship and setting up a company, finding the funding for the project, attracting people, industrialization and product design and commercialization. It will also be focused on choices one has to make during the start-up phase and methodologies that can be applied in many different settings.

  8. The effects of pressed sugar beet pulp silage (PBPS and dairy whey on heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressed beet pulp silage (PBPS replacing barley for 10% and 20% (DM basis were studied on heavy pigs fed dairy whey-diluted diets. 60 Hypor pigs (average initial weight of 28 kg, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, were homogeneously allocated to three exper- imental groups: T1 (control in which pigs were fed a traditional sweet whey- diluted diet (the ratio between whey and dry matter was 4.5/1; T2 in which PBPS replaced barley for 10% (DM basis during a first period (from the beginning to the 133rd day of trial and thereafter for 20% (DM basis; T3 in which PBPS replaced barley for 20% (DM basis throughout the experimental period. In diets T2 and T3 feed was dairy whey-diluted as in group T1. No significant (P>0.05 differences were observed concerning growth parameters (ADG and FCR. Pigs on diets contain- ing PBPS showed significantly higher (P<0.05 percentages of lean cuts and lower percentages of fat cuts. On the whole, ham weight losses during seasoning were moderate but significantly (P<0.05 more marked for PBPS-fed pigs as a prob- able consequence of their lower adiposity degree. Fatty acid composition of ham fat was unaffected by diets. With regard to m. Semimembranosus colour, pigs receiving PBPS showed lower (P<0.05 “L”, “a” and “Chroma” values. From an economical point of view it can be concluded that the use of PBPS (partially replacing barley and dairy whey in heavy pig production could be of particular interest in areas where both these by products are readily available.

  9. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d, parity (2.88±0.91 and day in milk (204±46 d. The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control, 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00 was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07 for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10. Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10. Milk yield increased linearly (p0.10 was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses.

  10. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  11. Commercial Aspect of Research Reactor Fuel Element Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G; Suripto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects affecting the commercialization of the Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (RR FEPI) under a BUMN (state-owned company)have been studied. The break event point (BEP) value based on total production cost used is greatly depending upon the unit selling price of the fuel element. At a selling price of USD 43,500/fuel element, the results of analysis shows that the BEP will be reached at 51% of minimum available capacity. At a selling price of US$ 43.500/fuel element the total income (after tax) for 7 years ahead is US $ 4.620.191,- The net present value in this study has a positive value is equal to US $ 2.827.527,- the internal rate of return will be 18% which is higher than normal the bank interest rare (in US dollar) at this time. It is concluded therefore that the nuclear research reactor fuel element produced by state-owned company BUMN has a good prospect to be sold commercially

  12. Yeast Acid Phosphatases and Phytases: Production, Characterization and Commercial Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Satyanarayana, T.

    The element phosphorus is critical to all life forms as it forms the basic component of nucleic acids and ATP and has a number of indispensable biochemical roles. Unlike C or N, the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very slow, and thus making it the growth-limiting element in most soils and aquatic systems. Phosphohydrolases (e.g. acid phosphatases and phytases) are enzymes that break the C-O-P ester bonds and provide available inorganic phosphorus from various inassimilable organic forms of phosphorus like phytates. These enzymes are of significant value in effectively combating phosphorus pollution. Although phytases and acid phosphatases are produced by various plants, animals and micro organisms, microbial sources are more promising for the production on a commercial scale. Yeasts being the simplest eukaryotes are ideal candidates for phytase and phos-phatase research due to their mostly non-pathogenic and GRAS status. They have not, however, been utilized to their full potential. This chapter focuses attention on the present state of knowledge on the production, characterization and potential commercial prospects of yeast phytases and acid phosphatases.

  13. Development of Commercial-scale Fission Mo-99 Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Kon; Lee, Suseung; Hong, Soon-Bog; Jang, Kyung-Duk; Park, Ul Jael; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    These days, worldwide {sup 99} Mo supply is not only insufficient but also unstable. Because, most of the main {sup 99}Mo production reactors are more than years old and suffered from frequent and unscheduled shutdown. Therefore, movement to replace old reactors to keep stable supply is now active. Under these conditions, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing LEU-based fission {sup 99}Mo production process which is connected to the new research reactor (Kijang New Research Reactor, KJRR), which is being constructed in Gijang, Busan, Korea. Historically, the most fission {sup 99}Mo producers have been used highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets so far. However, to reduce the use of HEU in private sector for non-proliferation, {sup 99}Mo producers are forced to convert their HEU-based process to use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Economic impact of a target conversion from HEU to LEU is significant. In this study, fission {sup 99}Mo process with non-irradiated LEU targets was presented except separation and purification steps. Pre- and post-irradiation tests of the fission {sup 99}Mo target will be done in 4th quarter of 2016. For the fission Mo production process development, hot experiments with irradiated LEU targets will be done in 4th quarter of 2016. Then, verification of the production process with quality control will be followed until the commercial production of fission {sup 99}Mo scheduled in 2019.

  14. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi Olatoye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara, and 90 fermented milk (nono from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers

  15. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030).

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life of a dairy-like product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odueke, Oluwakemi B.; Chadd, Stephen A.; Baines, Richard N.; Farag, Karim W.; Jansson, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effect of irradiation on the shelf-life of pseudo-dairy food product consisting of different concentration levels of the structural and energy-giving caloric component macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrate). Gamma irradiated products (1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy) were compared to the current procedure used by the industry of non-irradiated dairy products. The study looked at the impact of different treatments on storage quality in respect to physicochemical (pH, acidity, macronutrients), and microbiological properties [total viable count (TVC)]. The products were aseptically packaged in plastic containers and analysed at regular weekly intervals up until 100 days during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The storage period did not bring about any significant change in physicochemical properties of the products throughout the period of study while the TVC displayed a linear regression for irradiated products stored at 4 ± 1 °C as well as the control (non-irradiated). At the end of the shelf-life trial (benchmarked at log 4.3 CFU/g), the total viable count did not exceed log 3.94 CFU/g for samples treated at 10 kGy after 100 days of analysis. These observations indicated that the product could be safely stored aerobically for > 100days (10 and 5 kGy), 56days at (3 kGy), 42 days at (1 kGy) for the irradiated samples' and 14-28 days for the non-irradiated samples without much change in physicochemical and microbiological properties using refrigerated storage.

  17. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  18. Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3

  19. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting

  20. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  1. 78 FR 15009 - Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of... its consideration of DOE withdrawal from the commercial production and distribution of germanium-68... Statement of Policy, referenced above. In summary, DOE's evaluation will include consideration of: a...

  2. Biofuels in Central America, a real potential for commercial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O.L. (Regional Coordinator Energy and Environmental Partnership with Central America EEP (El Salvador))

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the current capabilities of the Central American countries regarding the production of biofuels, and the real potential in increasing the volumes produced and the impacts that can be generated if a non sustainable policy is followed for achieving the targets of biofuel production. Due to the world oil price crisis, and the fact that Central American counties are fully dependant on oil imports (just Guatemala and Belize produce little amounts of oil), just to mention, in some countries the imports of oil is equivalent to the 40% of the total exports, the region started to look for massive production of biofuels, something that it is not new for us. The countries have started with programs for producing ethanol from sugar cane, because it is one of the most strongest industries in Central America and they have all the infrastructure and financial sources to develop this project. The ethanol is a biofuel that can be mixed with gasoline or a complete substitute. Another biofuel that is currently under develop, is the production of biodiesel, and the main source for it nowadays is the Palm oil, where Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala have already commercial productions of crude palm oil, but the principal use of it is for the food industry, but now it is under assessment for using part of it for biodiesel. EEP is now developing pilot programs for production of biodiesel from a native plant named Jatropha curcas, and up to now we have a commercial plantation in Guatemala, and we started as well in Honduras for start spreading this plantations. In El Salvador we installed a pilot processing plant for biodiesel that can be operated with multiple feed stock, such as Jatropha, palm oil, castor oil, vegetable used oil and others. Currently we have interesting and good results regarding the production of Jatropha, we have developed a methodology for its cropping, harvesting and processing. All the vehicles and equipment involved in the

  3. Sensory analysis of dairy products irradiated with cobalt-60 at -78 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisaka, A.E.; Einstein, M.A.; Rasco, B.A.; Hungate, F.P.; Dong, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Sensory evaluations by healthy individuals were conducted on cobalt-60 irradiated retail dairy products which were to be incorporated into the low microbial diets of immunosuppressed patients. Irradiation (40 kGy at -78 degrees C) caused little change in product color or texture, but generally there was a decrease in overall acceptability and an increase in off-flavor and aftertaste. Modified atmosphere packaging (nitrogen, helium, or air) or antioxidant addition (ascorbyl palmitate or a combination of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) prior to irradiation were effective in preserving specific sensory attributes, which in some cases resulted in improved overall acceptability (helium packed peppermint ice cream; ascorbyl palmitate treated strawberry yogurt bars) when compared to untreated irradiated products

  4. Immobilization of Cells and Enzymes for Fermented Dairy or Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda

    Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.

  5. Effect of oligosaccharides on the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains isolated from dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Tseteslava; Iliev, Ilia; Kirilov, Nikolai; Vassileva, Tonka; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Ivanova, Iskra

    2009-10-28

    Eighteen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from dairy products, all identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, were tested for their ability to grow on three different oligosaccharides: fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS). The growth of LAB on different oligosaccharides was very different. Study of the antimicrobial activities of these LAB indicated that the system of uptake of unusual sugars influenced in a specific way the production of antimicrobial substances (bacteriocins) specific against gram-negative bacteria. The added oligosaccharides induced LAB to form end-products of a typical mixed acid fermentation. The utilization of different types of oligosaccharides may help to explain the ability of Lactobacillus strains to compete with other bacteria in the ecosystem of the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  6. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Rajão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

  7. Medicinal and commercial uses of ostrich products in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magige, Flora; Røskaft, Eivin

    2017-08-23

    Traditional communities have been utilizing animal products for numerous purposes and have for a long time contributed to the accumulation of world knowledge. Local people in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa, have been using birds including ostriches as pets or their products such as meat, eggs as food; their body parts such as feathers, bones and hide for ornaments but more importantly have used such products in traditional medicine and rituals. Nevertheless, there is a general lack of information about the differences that exist between local people with different cultures, and the best use of such products to improve their livelihoods. This study aimed to determine the use of ostrich products among people residing around Serengeti National Park and explore the potential of improving livelihoods through game ranching. Use of the products was compared between that of agriculturalists with long hunting traditions in the Serengeti District to the west of Serengeti National Park (SNP) and the largely pastoral community in the Ngorongoro District to the east by using semistructured questionnaires in June 2006. A total of 115 respondents were interviewed, and the majority (74.5%) in the Serengeti district admitted that ostriches were mainly hunted for their products by snares, while in the Ngorongoro district, 98.2% of the respondents said that villagers only gathered products such as feathers and eggs. Ostriches were hunted for food, ornamentation, medical and economic purposes, and eggs and oil, which are believed to have medicinal properties, were used for the treatment of various ailments, including asthma. This indigenous knowledge of the medicinal value of ostrich products must be integrated with scientific knowledge to prove the supposed medical efficacy of the products. Ostrich products also had market value and were thus sold to the villagers. Since it has been found that ostrich products are commercially used, legal establishment of markets through game

  8. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be avoiding dairy products because of lactose intolerance. Or you might have other reasons. But dairy ... the major reasons people avoid dairy products is lactose intolerance. Lactose is a natural sugar found in milk ...

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) along the production chain of dairy products in north-western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Zdragas, Antonios; Papa, Anna; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Sergelidis, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the production chain of dairy products. Of 367 tested samples (36 bulk tank milk (BTM), 19 dairy products, 72 human, 185 animal, 55 equipment), 212 (57.8%) were found positive for S. aureus. Almost all isolates (99.6%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 13.3% were multi-drug resistant (MDR), exhibiting resistance to three or more antibiotic classes. Eleven samples (3%) were found contaminated by MRSA carrying the mecA gene. None of the MRSA isolates carried the mecC or the Pandon-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes. Four spa types were identified among the MRSA isolates: t127, t3586, t1773, t4038, with t127 being the most prevalent (7 out of 11). Two of them, t3586 and t1773, were isolated for the first time in Greece. Furthermore, Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis indicated clonal circulation through the dairy production chain. The presence of MDR S. aureus, and especially MRSA, in animals and dairy products represents a potential threat for the spread of this pathogen in the community. The results indicated that human, animal and environmental sources could be involved in the contamination of dairy products along their production chain and therefore further investigation of contamination sources is needed to control the dispersion of MRSA in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measures and metrics of sustainable diets with a focus on milk, yogurt, and dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2018-01-01

    The 4 domains of sustainable diets are nutrition, economics, society, and the environment. To be sustainable, foods and food patterns need to be nutrient-rich, affordable, culturally acceptable, and sparing of natural resources and the environment. Each sustainability domain has its own measures and metrics. Nutrient density of foods has been assessed through nutrient profiling models, such as the Nutrient-Rich Foods family of scores. The Food Affordability Index, applied to different food groups, has measured both calories and nutrients per penny (kcal/$). Cultural acceptance measures have been based on relative food consumption frequencies across population groups. Environmental impact of individual foods and composite food patterns has been measured in terms of land, water, and energy use. Greenhouse gas emissions assess the carbon footprint of agricultural food production, processing, and retail. Based on multiple sustainability metrics, milk, yogurt, and other dairy products can be described as nutrient-rich, affordable, acceptable, and appealing. The environmental impact of dairy farming needs to be weighed against the high nutrient density of milk, yogurt, and cheese as compared with some plant-based alternatives. PMID:29206982

  11. Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mateus Z; Baez, Giovanni M; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Lobos, Nelson E; Guenther, Jerry N; Trevisol, Eduardo; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 μM; P maintenance in multiparous cows. Further studies are needed to confirm these responses and understand the biological mechanisms that underlie these responses as well as the timing and concentrations of circulating Met that are needed to produce this effect.

  12. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersema JSC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  13. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, Jsc; Noordhuizen, Jptm; Vieira, A; Lievaart, Jj; Baumgartner, W

    2008-09-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  14. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almon, Ricardo; Patterson, Emma; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Engfeldt, Peter; Sjöström, Michael

    2010-06-16

    Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (pproducts than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents). We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy-based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve; Saleh, Imane; Zouhairi, Omar; Baydoun, Elias; Barbour, Elie; Alwan, Nisreen

    2009-06-15

    In this study Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) was isolated from three traditionally consumed Lebanese dairy-based food products. One hundred and sixty four samples (45 samples of Baladi cheese, 36 samples of Shankleesh and 83 of Kishk) were collected from the Bekaa Valley in the Northeast region of Lebanon. Suspected Listeria colonies were selected and initially identified by using standard biochemical tests. Initial identification of the positive L. monocytogenes colonies was confirmed at the molecular level by Polymerase Chain Reaction (n=30) and the confirmed isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to 10 commonly used antimicrobials. All of the 30 isolates were confirmed to be L. monocytogenes yielding a PCR product of approximately 660 base pairs (bp). L. monocytogenes was detected in 26.67%, 13.89% and 7.23% of the Baladi cheese, Shankleesh and Kishk samples, respectively. The highest resistance in L. monocytogenes isolates was noted against oxacillin (93.33%) followed by penicillin (90%). The results provide an indication of the contamination levels of dairy-based foods in Lebanon and highlight the emergence of multi-drug resistant Listeria in the environment.

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Italian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Morandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a known major cause of foodborne illnesses, and milk and dairy products are often contaminated by enterotoxigenic strains of this bacterium. In the present study, 122 S. aureus isolates collected from different dairy products were characterised by phenotypic properties, by the distribution of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej, and sel and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR. Moreover, strain resistance to vancomycin and methicillin (oxacillin was studied. The differences in the RAPD-PCR profiles obtained with the primers M13 and AP4 revealed the presence of a great genetic heterogeneity among the different S. aureus strains. Using the primer AP4 and M13, eight groups were distinguished by RAPD-PCR cluster analysis, although, except in few cases, it was not possible to correlate the isolates of different animal species (cow or ovine with the presence of se genes. None of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin or methicillin.

  17. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  18. Dry season forages for improving dairy production in smallholder systems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Kabirizi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically feasible strategies for year-round feed supply to dairy cattle are needed to improve feed resource availability, milk yield and household income for the smallholder dairy farming systems that predominate in the rural Eastern and Central African region. Currently, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum is the major forage in zero-grazing production systems, but dry-season production is often constrained. Our results from 24 farms show that sowing forage legumes, including Centrosema molle (formerly C. pubescens and Clitoria ternatea, with Napier grass and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato improved both yield of forage and protein concentration. Sowing of 0.5 ha Napier-Centro plus 0.5 ha of Mulato-Clitoria increased milk yield by 80% and household income by 52% over 0.5 ha Napier grass monoculture. Possible income foregone from the crops which could have been grown on the additional 0.5 ha must be considered in assessing the economic viability of the system.

  19. Monitoring the Evolution of Major Chemical Compound in Dairy Products During Shelf-Life by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Păucean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy is considered to be a comprehensive and sensitive method to characterize the chemical composition and for detection of molecular changes in different samples. In this study, FTIRspectroscopy  was employed as an rapid and low-cost technique in order to characterize the FTIR spectra and identify appropriate spectral regions for dairy product fermented by a lactic culture consisting by species of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. A second objective was to monitore the key chemical compounds (lactose, lactic acid, flavors during fermentation and refrigerated storage (1-21 days, at 4-6°C. By FT-IR fingerprint during fermentation we identified changes of the spectra pattern with specific increasing or decreasing peaks for lactose, lactic acid, esters, aromatic compounds, aminoacids, fatty acids. Also the technique was able to identify chemical compounds involved in the microbial activity such as phosphates and phosphorylated carbohydrates during fermentation and dairy product shelf-life. All the major chemical compounds recorded significant increaments during fermentation and refrigerated storage comparing with the raw milk.

  20. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Nazari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian′s junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. Results: In this study stearic acid (C18:0 and palmitic (C16:0 acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%. Conclusion: The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

  1. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Bahar; Asgary, Sedigheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-10-01

    Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products. Some common brands of Iranian's junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. In this study stearic acid (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA) is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t) with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t) has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%). The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

  2. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggun Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.

  3. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  4. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  5. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  6. Production low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matrix. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). By changing the composition of plastic Scintillators some features such as light yield, radiation hardening, decay time etc. can be controlled. Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Many research projects have concentrated on improving the fundamental properties of plastic scintillators, but little attention has focussed on their cost and easier manufacturing techniques. First plastic Scintillators were produced in 1950's. Activities for production of low cost Scintillators accelerated in second half of 1970's. In 1975 acrylic based Plexipop Scintillator was developed. Despite its low cost, since its structure was not aromatic the light yield of Plexipop was about one quarter of classical Scintillators. Problems arising from slow response time and weak mechanical properties in scintillators developed, has not been solved until 1980. Within the last decade extrusion method became very popular in preparation of low cost and high quality plastic scintillators. In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion plus compression method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared in June 2008 by use of the extruder and pres in SANAEM. Molds suitable for accoupling to extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and moulding pressure were obtained hence, PS Scintillator Blocks

  7. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of...

  8. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  9. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  10. Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Karcol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on nutrient utilization and production performance of dairy cows under field conditions. Balancing diets for crude protein without consideration of protein quality or rumen degradability often led to overfeeding of nitrogen and less than optimum production. High yielding dairy cows separated in two groups with 85 resp. 80 cows in each were set up for the trial. Groups were consistent according the stage of production and reproduction cycle as well as age structure. Both groups were fed concentrate mixture with the same composition with only difference in NPN/ microbial protein source, with same dosage of 100 g per cow and day. Field trial was performed for period of 3 subsequent months. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording. In both groups majority of cows were on first lactation. Significant differences in daily milk production were observed 2.87 kg (P<0.01 for group 2, in fat content 0.07 % for group 2 non-significant, whereas in protein content 0.18% for group 1 significant (P<0.01 in case of first lactations. If considering first tree lactations, group 2 produced 1.7 kg milk per day more (P<0.08, with 0.05% fat more and 0.002 % protein less than group 1. The space created in dry matter intake by a concentrated slow-release NPN can be filled with high quality forage that could reduce the cost of feeding while maintaining levels of production.

  11. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  14. 76 FR 26930 - Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...: AMS-DA-08-0050] Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and... to the Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983 (Dairy Act), as amended, and the Dairy Promotion... importer representation, initially two members, to the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (Dairy...

  15. Demographics-based differences in the relationship between perceived CSR and customer loyalty in the dairy products market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisescu Ovidiu-Ioan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the demographics-based differences in the relationship between customers’ perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR and their loyalty towards brands/companies in the dairy products market, considering the socio-cultural and economic particularities of one of the largest countries of Central-Eastern Europe. For this purpose, a survey was implemented among a sample of 1461 dairy products consumers from the urban area of Romania, investigating perceived CSR and customer loyalty by using 28, and, respectively, 6 Likert-type items. Results show that customers’ loyalty towards dairy brands/companies is positively and significantly influenced by how customers perceive companies’ responsibility towards their customers, in all investigated demographic segments. However, there are other facets of perceived CSR (community development, the environment, economic success, sponsorship, public authorities in which case the relationship with customer loyalty is only significant in certain demographics-based market segments

  16. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmus Piret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC (Yea-Sacc® 1026 on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46 were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4 measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US were performed and body condition scores (BCS and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively, but the production of milk fat (P P 4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on milk protein and fat production, but did not influence the milk yield. No effects on PP metabolic status, bacterial elimination from the uterus nor the resumption of ovarian activity were found.

  17. Commercial products that convey personal health information in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potini, Vishnu C; Weerasuriya, Dilani N; Lowery-North, Douglas W; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Describe commercially available products and services designed to convey personal health information in emergencies. The search engine Google®, supplemented by print ads, was used to identify companies and organizations that offer relevant products and services to the general market. Disease-specific, health system, and health plan-specific offerings were excluded. Vendor web sites were the primary sources of information, supplemented by telephone and e-mail queries to sales representatives. Perfect inter-rater agreement was achieved. Thirty-nine unique vendors were identified. Eight sell engraved jewelry. Three offer an embossed card or pamphlet. Twelve supply USB drives with various features. Eleven support password-protected web sites. Five maintain national call centers. Available media differed markedly with respect to capacity and accessibility. Quoted prices ranged from a one-time expenditure of $3.50 to an annual fee of $200. Associated features and annual fees varied widely. A wide range of products and services exist to help patients convey personal health information. Health care providers should be familiar with their features, so they can access the information in a disaster or emergency.

  18. Issues and concerns in nanotech product development and its commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Kakkar, Vandita; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Yadav, Monika; Singh, Mandeep; Sharma, Ikksheta

    2014-11-10

    The revolutionary and ubiquitous nature of nanotechnology has fetched it a considerable attention in the past few decades. Even though its enablement and application to various sectors including pharmaceutical drug development is increasing with the enormous government aided funding for nanotechnology-based products, however the parallel commercialization of these systems has not picked up a similar impetus. The technology however does address the unmet needs of pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their solubility, bioavailability or toxicity profiles as observed from the wide array of high-quality research publications appearing in various scientific journals and magazines. Based on our decade-long experience in the field of nanotech-based drug delivery systems and extensive literature survey, we perceive that the major hiccups to the marketing of these nanotechnology products can be categorized as 1) inadequate regulatory framework; 2) lack of support and acceptance by the public, practicing physician, and industry; 3) developmental considerations like scalability, reproducibility, characterization, quality control, and suitable translation; 4) toxicological issues and safety profiles; 5) lack of available multidisciplinary platforms; and, 6) poor intellectual property protection. The present review dwells on these issues elaborating the trends followed by the industry, regulatory role of the USFDA and their implication, and the challenges set forth for a successful translation of these products from the lab and different clinical phases to the market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of Fungal Biomass for Feed, Fatty Acids, and Glycerol by Aspergillus oryzae from Fat-Rich Dairy Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mahboubi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy waste is a complex mixture of nutrients requiring an integrated strategy for valorization into various products. The present work adds insights into the conversion of fat-rich dairy products into biomass, glycerol, and fatty acids via submerged cultivation with edible filamentous fungi. The pH influenced fat degradation, where Aspergillus oryzae lipase was more active at neutral than acidic pH (17 g/L vs. 0.5 g/L of released glycerol; the same trend was found during cultivation in crème fraiche (12 g/L vs. 1.7 g/L of released glycerol. In addition to glycerol, as a result of fat degradation, up to 3.6 and 4.5 g/L of myristic and palmitic acid, respectively, were released during A. oryzae growth in cream. The fungus was also able to grow in media containing 16 g/L of lactic acid, a common contaminant of dairy waste, being beneficial to naturally increase the initial acidic pH and trigger fat degradation. Considering that lactose consumption is suppressed in fat-rich media, a two-stage cultivation for conversion of dairy waste is also proposed in this work. Such an approach would provide biomass for possibly feed or human consumption, fatty acids, and an effluent of low organic matter tackling environmental and social problems associated with the dairy sector.

  20. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Methods The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con, 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW. Results The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the group receiving 100 mg/kg BW. Milk yields and the fat, protein and lactose of milk were unaffected by AFE, while the total solids content of milk reduced (p = 0.05 linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (p<0.