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Sample records for commercial brazilian coffee

  1. Exploratory and discriminative studies of commercial processed Brazilian coffees with different degrees of roasting and decaffeinated

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    Juliano Souza Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprints of the volatile compounds of 21 commercial Brazilian coffee samples submitted to different industrial processing i.e. decaffeinated or different roasting degrees (traditional and dark were studied. The volatiles were collected by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The chromatographic data matrices (fingerprints obtained were explored by the principal component analysis (PCA and partial least squares - discriminative analysis (PLS-DA. Initially the chromatographic profiles were aligned by the algorithm correlation optimized warping (COW. The PCA showed the discrimination of the decaffeinated coffees from the others with both the SPME fibres used. This separation probably occurred due to the loss of some volatile precursors during the decaffeination process, such as sucrose. For both the fibres tested, PDMS/DVB and CX / PDMS SPME, the PLS-DA models correctly classified 100% of the samples according to their roasting degree: (medium and dark, the main differences being the concentrations of some of the volatile compounds such as 2-methyl furan, 2-methylbutanal, 2,3-pentanedione, pyrazine, 2-carboxyaldehyde pyrrole, furfural and 2-furanmethanol.

  2. TEOR DE CAFEÍNA EM CAFÉS BRASILEIROS CAFFEINE CONTENT OF COMMERCIAL BRAZILIAN COFFEE

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    M.C.R. CAMARGO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes marcas de café em pó e instantâneo, disponíveis no comércio local da cidade de Campinas, foram analisadas com o objetivo de determinar o teor de cafeína nesses produtos. A metodologia utilizada envolveu as etapas de extração com água, limpeza da amostra com acetato de chumbo básico, determinação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e detector de UV-vísivel a 254 nm. Para a separação da cafeína foi utilizada uma coluna Merck C18 (ODS, de 5µm, e fase móvel isocrática composta de metanol-água (25:75, v/v. Os teores de cafeína variaram tanto entre as diferentes marcas e tipos de café analisados quanto em função da técnica de preparo da bebida. Os valores determinados situaram-se na faixa de 0,43 a 0,85 mg/ml para as bebidas preparadas com cafés em pó e de 0,61 a 0,82 mg/ml para o café instantâneo.Different brands and batches of brazilian regular and instant coffee were purchased in supermarkets of Campinas’ city and analysed for caffeine content. The method used involved extraction with boiling water, clarification with saturated basic acetate and determination by high performance liquid cromatography. Analysis was carried out using a Model 6000 A solvent delivery system (Waters associates, and a Model 7125 sample injector system (Reodyne, Inc. with a 5µl sample loop. The system was also equipped with a Waters Model M440 absorbance detector set at 254 nm. A Merck ODS 5µm column (15 cm x 4.6 mm i.d. was used to separate the caffeine. The mobile phase was methanol:water (25:75, v/v. The caffeine content varied for different brands and types of coffee and according to the beverage preparation technique. Values in the range of 0.43 to 0.85 mg/ml and 0.61 to 0.82 mg/ml were determined in regular and instant coffee, respectively.

  3. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

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    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  4. MODEL FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT DEGREE IN BRAZILIAN COFFEE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Bliska, Antonio; Ferraz, Antonio; LEAL,PAULO; Bliska, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, coffee is one of the most important crops, particularly regarding job creation and foreign exchange. Since its introduction in the country in 1727, in the North region, the coffee cultivation is spread over much of the Brazilian territory. Over nearly 300 years, coffee production has developed with different costs and competitiveness, resulting mainly from soil and climatic conditions and different levels of technology, international competition and pricing, government incentives, ...

  5. Content of 4(5-methylimidazole, caffeine and chlorogenic acid in commercial coffee brands

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    Thi Thanh Dieu Phan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Content of 4(5-methylimidazole (4-MeI, caffeine and chlorogenic acid in commercial coffee brands were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV DAD and MS detectors. Positive ion ESI mass spectra of the 4-MeI standard yielded intense signals corresponding to [M+H]+ (83.0604 and [2M+H]+ ions (165.1115. Also, adducts of 4-MeI with acetonitrile from mobile were detected - [M+ACN]+ ions (124.0849. The LOD of 2.5 ng mL-1 and LOQ of 8.4 ng.mL-1 were calculated according to the following formulas: LOD = 3.SD/S, and LOQ = 10.SD/S, where S is the slope of the calibration curve and SD is the standard deviation of the noise. The caffeine content was compared to the results of the standard addition, 1st derivative and liquid-liquid extraction spectrophotometry. 4-MeI was in tens µg g-1 in the Vietnamese coffees while in units µg.g-1 in all Czech and Brazilian coffees (<2.4 µg.g-1 and <4.9 µg.g-1, respectively. The results for caffeine were within the documented range (0.31 - 2.20% in all coffee samples. The lower content of caffeine and chlorogenic acid was observed in Vietnamese coffees. All the methods used for determination of caffeine in the Czech and Brazilian coffees gave acceptable precision and accuracy. However, there were significant differences in the results in Vietnamese coffees. The caffeine extractability (100 °C, 3 min brewing almost reached 100% in Czech and Brazilian coffees, while it was less than 90% in Vietnamese coffees. The Czech and Brazilian coffees tend to produce more caffeine in brews than the Vietnamese coffee because of the different composition of blends and the particle size degree.  

  6. Brazilian Coffee Production as Function of Global Warming.

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    Avila, A. M. H. D.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Pereira, V. R.

    2016-12-01

    According to the Brazilian Government the actual area of coffee production in the country is close to 2.25 million hectares. The sector involves 290.000 of farmers with a production of 44 million of 60 Kg bags in 2015. The Arabica Coffee specie is cultivated in the country where the climate condition are characterized by a year mean temperatures between 18°C and 22°C. Temperatures higher than 33°C can cause abortion of flowers during the spring season and reduce the production while lower than 18°C can be affected by frost during winter when the minimum temperature can be lower than 2°C in the shelter. For a better quality of the final product the winter, between July and August, must be dry with rainfall lower than 50 mm/month. The Ministry of Agriculture defines those conditions for the Official Coffee Climatic Risk Zoning. In 2002, a partnership with the British Embassy and 2 Brazilian institutions, i. e. the State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa, published the study "Global Warming and the New Geography of Agricultural Production in Brazil" (Pinto and Assad, 2002). This study was based on the PRECIS/Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model future projections. The crop simulations indicated a decrease in the grain production due to temperature rise. Later in 2012, a new study was developed in cooperation with the World Bank to evaluate the future of nine main commodities in Brazil under climate change, including the Arabica coffee. The worst scenario considering any mitigation and adaptation action indicated that the two most affected crops would be the soybean and coffee, with a reduction of 22% and 6.7 % in the yield respectively. Field surveys to evaluate the historical spatial dynamic and migration of Arabica coffee cultivated areas confirmed the results of the previous studies and indicated a recent increase in the search for cooler altitude areas to plant coffee. Also the field observations

  7. The inclusion of coffee in commercial layer diets

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    LR Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on the performance and internal and external egg quality of commercial layers. One hundred and twenty 25-week-old Hy-line Brown layers, with 1575 ± 91 average body weight, were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (control, 1.2% caffeinated coffee, or 1.2% decaffeinated coffee of five replicates of eight birds each. The inclusion of 1.2% caffeinated coffee was calculated to supply 6mg caffeine per kg body weight, which is considered a moderate dose. The applied treatments did not influence (p>0.05 feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, Haugh units, yolk color or albumen and yolk percentages. The eggs of hens fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee presented lower (p<0.05 eggshell thickness and egg specific density. The eggs of layers fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee tended (p=0.0637 to present lower eggshell percentage. It was concluded that feeding caffeinated coffee to commercial layers does not affect their performance or internal egg quality; however, eggshell quality is impaired.

  8. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

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    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  9. Flutriafol and pyraclostrobin residues in Brazilian green coffees.

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    de Oliveira, Luiz Alberto Bandeira; Pacheco, Henrique Poltronieri; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor flutriafol and pyraclostrobin residues in Brazilian green coffees. More than 10,000 samples were analyzed. The pesticides were extracted using the QuEChERS method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The validated method is fast, with 5 min runs, and efficient, as precision and accuracy showed RSD no greater than 5% and recoveries within the 88-119% range. LOQ for flutriafol and pyraclostrobin were 0.005 mg/kg. The results of the analyzed samples showed that the percentage of nonconformities regarding flutriafol increased throughout the years, with over 1200 samples (11.8%). On the other hand, just 15 samples (0.15%) presented residues above 10 μg/kg for pyraclostrobin. Considering that flutriafol is a toxic and carcinogenic pesticide, as well as the increase in the number of irregularities throughout the years, it becomes important to implement public actions to assure consumer safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

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    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

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    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  11. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

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    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a

  12. Key Success Factors in the Brazilian Coffee Agrichain: Present and Future Challenges

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    Luciana Florêncio de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee production has grown 100% in volume over the past 30 years, accounting for 144 million coffee bags produced in 2015. Brazil responded to 42% of this production, along with Vietnam (19%, Colombia (9%, Indonesia (8%, and Ethiopia (4% (OIC, 2016. Following this pace, the consumption expanded not only in such traditional markets as the United States (4.2 kg/year, Germany (6.9 kg/year, and France (5.7 kg/year but also in tea-driven markets, such as Japan, Korea, Russia, and China (CECAFE, 2013. In 2015, Brazil harvested 43.2 million 60-kg bags of green coffee, 32 million of which were of Arabica coffee and 11.2 million of a Conilon species (CONAB, 2016. The planted area in Brazil is 2.3 million hectares, and there are about 287,000 producers, predominantly mini- and small farmers. Having continental dimensions, the country presents a variety of climates, reliefs, altitudes, and latitudes that allow the production of a wide range of types and qualities of coffee (MAPA, 2016. This research aimed to clarify present and future challenges for the Brazilian coffee agrichain, considering the growing demand and also competitiveness between the coffee countries’ producers. To capture the vivid perception of the actors in the coffee chain, a qualitative approach was employed. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 10 coffee specialists were interviewed to identify the coffee sector’s main milestones for Brazil over the next 30 years. The findings culminated in eight key success factors for coffee-farming management. Finally, in the second phase, the results of phase two were submitted for analysis by 39 coffee farmers through three discussion panels held in the major producing regions: Sul de Minas (corresponding to 25% of the national production, Cerrado Mineiro (with 10%, and Matas de Minas (with 16% (MAPA, 2016. The third phase comprised the data analysis, aggregating the patterns by regions and by critical factors. The

  13. Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians

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    Eduardo F. Da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD, including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440. A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day. After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04 prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.

  14. Potential antioxidant of brazilian coffee from the region of Cerrado

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    Richtier Gonçalves da CRUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Its chemical composition may have varied according to the planting site, degree of roasting, and method of preparation. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of coffee from the region of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The evaluation was performed with samples roasted at two different levels (traditional and extra dark and using two different preparation methods (decoction and infusion that reflect the conditions of preparing coffee. In vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH radical methods and the concentration of total phenolic compounds and caffeine were determined. Samples made by decoction showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and no significant difference was observed between the degrees of roasting. However, the antioxidant activity and caffeine concentration of the extra dark samples were higher than those of the traditional samples for both preparation methods. The decoction preparation method was better for extracting phenolic compounds and the extra dark roast showed a higher concentration of caffeine and antioxidant activity. The samples showed a high antioxidant activity, indicating the coffee from Cerrado is an important source of antioxidants.

  15. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

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    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

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    Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and São Paulo. Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v, pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. RESULTS: When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v to 0.16% (m/v. One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. CONCLUSION: 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence.

  17. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study

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    Rackel Aguiar Mendes de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010 from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74, based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption “never or almost never”, “≤1 cup/day”, “2–3 cups/day”, “≥3 cups/day”, and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. Results: The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.1, and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Conclusion: Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  18. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study.

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    de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2017-07-13

    Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption "never or almost never", "≤1 cup/day", "2-3 cups/day", "≥3 cups/day", and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  19. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee Ocratoxina A em café verde brasileiro

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    Luís A.B. LEONI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.Ocratoxina A é um composto nefrotóxico, teratogênico e imunotóxico produzido por espécies de Aspergillus e Penicillium. Foi demonstrado ser carcinogênico para ratos e é possivelmente carcinogênico para humanos. Recentemente a toxina despertou atenção por ter sido encontrada em café e ter sido objeto de regulamentação por países importadores. O Brasil é o maior produtor de café no mundo e também seu maior consumidor. Para conduzir uma avaliação inicial da situação do café produzido no país e oferecido à sua popula

  20. [Advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods].

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    de Fátima Moura de Araújo, Maria; Rea, Marina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Karina Aragão; de Abreu Soares Schmitz, Bethsáida

    2006-06-01

    To assess the advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods from 1988 to 2002, comparing the different texts with each other and with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. This was a descriptive study based on data collected from documents, reports, ordinances and resolutions from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The versions utilized in the comparison were from 1992 and 2002. Comparative analysis made it possible to identify important advances in the legislation. In 1992, liquid and powdered milk were included in the scope, along with teats and dummies (pacifiers), and also warning phrases in advertising and on product labeling. In 2002, regulations for products were published by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance, thereby strengthening supervisory actions and including regulations for baby foods, nutrient formulae for high-risk newborns, and nipple protectors. The phrases used in commercial advertising and on product labeling, including dummies, teats and bottles, became Ministry of Health warnings. The labeling was defined according to product types, on the basis of more restrictive rules. Significant modifications in the control over the marketing of products aimed at mothers during the lactation period. However, there are still some legislative questions that would make it possible to improve the Brazilian norm, in order to protect breastfeeding. There is also a need for the government to implement systematic monitoring routines to supervise this legislation.

  1. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

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    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  2. Tea, Coffee, Curare, and Tropical Climate in the Experiments of the Brazilian Experimental Physiology in late Nineteenth-Century

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    Ana Carolina Vimieiro Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this work deals with the development of the Brazilian experimental physiology in late nineteenth-century. Content: it analyzes some experiments on toxic plants, the nutritional effects of coffee, herb mate, dried meat and the food consumption in hot and cold environments, held at the Laboratory of Experimental Physiology in the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro, created in 1880. This laboratory was financed by the Imperial Government, Ministry of Agriculture, and personally supported by the emperor Pedro II. It was created and headed by the Brazilian Physician João Baptista Lacerda and the French physiologist Louis Couty. Conclusions: While its organization was based on the European physiology, its researches privileged national themes. The physiologists were interested not only on the classical issues of physiology, but on the plants and natural products that played a role on the Brazilian economy. They even created their own experimental apparatuses, such as a cold chamber for climatic studies. In order to legitimate the Brazilian physiology, in Brazil and abroad, the researchers associated scientific and practical in­terests in their studies. The chance of social-economical use of their studies could explain the interests of the Brazilian elite and the support of the Ministry of Agriculture.

  3. Flight Activity and Field Infestation Relationships for Coffee Berry Borer in Commercial Coffee Plantations in Kona and Kau Districts, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Arthurs, Steven

    2017-12-05

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a recent invader to Hawaii. To date, limited information regarding the seasonal phenology of this pest on the islands limits the implementation of integrated control strategies. As part of a coffee farmer training program, we monitored CBB flight activity in 15 coffee plantations (Kona and Kau Districts) over 10 mo with methanol-ethanol (3:1 ratio) baited traps. Concurrently, we quantified CBB infestation and penetration rates inside developing coffee berries through the end of harvest. Approximately 1 million CBB were captured, with the highest activity (e.g., >500 CBB/trap/wk) in December through February, coinciding with end of main regional harvesting periods. Relatively high activity (>250 CBB/trap/wk) was also observed during berry development, in May and June (Kona) and June and July (Kau). Field infestation rates were higher overall in Kau (9.6 ± 1.1%) compared with coffee plantations in Kona (4.7 ± 0.4%). Linear regression investigated relationships between CBB trap data and berry infestation rates. Trap catch data generally correlated better with the proportion of shallow entries (AB position) compared with deeper penetrations (CD position) or total infestation. Pearson correlation coefficients based on different parameters (i.e., region, altitude, and berry phenology) revealed positive and mostly significant correlations between these variables (R values 0.410 to 0.837). Timing peak flight activity of CBB with insecticide applications will help coffee growers improve pest control. The ability of trap data to calculate reliable economic (action) thresholds for the CBB is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Antioxidant activity and estimation of melanoidin content in commercial roasted coffeeAtividade antioxidante e estimativa do teor de melanoidinas em cafés torrados comerciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo Benassi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee contains several bioactive compounds, highlighting the antioxidants, whose consumption has been correlated with reduced incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. Among 100 known species of the genus Coffea the most important economically in the international trade are Coffea arabica (arabica coffee and Coffea canephora (robusta coffee, usually found as blends in commercial products. Arabica coffees present a higher sensory quality. The components associated with the antioxidant activity (AA of coffee beverages included the class of phenolic compounds (especially 5-CQA and caffeine, which have been most commonly studied, and melanoidins produced in the roasting process, for whom no data are available in the literature. Different methods are used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of foods, but there is no efficient and universal methodology of measurement. In this paper, roast and ground Brazilian coffees, commercialized under different designations (37 samples were analyzed for the level of melanoidins, by spectrophotometry, and the antioxidant activity, by ABTS and total phenolics (Folin- Ciocalteau. All the products evaluated showed significant antioxidant activity. Differences observed in the estimation of the content of melanoidins indicated different roasting processes. Considering the different categories, the Gourmet coffees were characterized for lower values of AA, indicating that besides the degree of roasting, the coffee species used influenced the functionality of the product.O café contém vários componentes bioativos, em destaque os antioxidantes, cujo consumo tem sido correlacionado a redução da incidência de doenças crônicas e degenerativas. Dentre aproximadamente 100 espécies conhecidas do gênero Coffea as mais importantes economicamente no mercado internacional são Coffea arabica (café arábica e Coffea canephora (café conilon, usualmente encontradas como blends em produtos comerciais. O café ar

  5. Quali- and quantitative analysis of commercial coffee by NMR; Analises quali- e quantitativa de cafes comerciais via ressonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Leila Aley; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: giba_04@yahoo.com.br

    2006-09-15

    Coffee is one of the beverages most widely consumed in the world and the 'cafezinho' is normally prepared from a blend of roasted powder of two species, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Each one exhibits differences in their taste and in the chemical composition, especially in the caffeine percentage. There are several procedures proposed in the literature for caffeine determination in different samples like soft drinks, coffee, medicines, etc but most of them need a sample workup which involves at least one step of purification. This work describes the quantitative analysis of caffeine using {sup 1}H NMR and the identification of the major components in commercial coffee samples using 1D and 2D NMR techniques without any sample pre-treatment. (author)

  6. Association of moderate coffee intake with self-reported diabetes among urban Brazilians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Machado, Liliane M M; da Costa, Teresa H M; da Silva, Eduardo F; Dórea, José G

    2011-01-01

    ...), including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult...

  7. Preference mapping of dulce de leche commercialized in Brazilian markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaze, L V; Oliveira, B R; Ferrao, L L; Granato, D; Cavalcanti, R N; Conte Júnior, C A; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    Dulce de leche samples available in the Brazilian market were submitted to sensory profiling by quantitative descriptive analysis and acceptance test, as well sensory evaluation using the just-about...

  8. Use of headspace gas chromatographic/FTIR for the monitoring of volatiles in commercial brand coffees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Senja V.; Compton, David A.

    1989-12-01

    Recently, the area of food analysis and product safety has become of major concern to consumers. Therefore, companies involved in the quality assurance of theirproducts have been encouraged to perform extensive analyses to guarantee safety and satisfaction. One of the largest consumer products in the beverage marketplace is coffee. Much emphasis has been placed upon the safety of the decaffeination processes used by various manufacturers; these involve extraction of the caffeine by a solvent system that may be aqueous or organic, and is sometimes,super-critical. Additionally, aroma (fragrance) of brewing coffee has been found to be of major concern to the individual by the marketing departments of the coffee companies. The heads ace analysis of coffees can be used to discover the species retained after the decaffeination of coffee, as well as to distinguish the volatile species released upon treatment of the coffee at boiling water temperatures.

  9. Little Adults: Child and Teenage Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Contemporary Brazilian Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silvia, Antonio Marcio

    2016-01-01

    This current study explores three contemporary Brazilian films' depiction of commercial sexual exploitation of young girls and teenagers. It points out how the young female characters cope with the abuses they suffer and proposes that these filmic representations of the characters' experiences expose a significant social problem of contemporary…

  10. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Rodrigues Machado

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (>255mL/day or >123mg caffeine/day. According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (123mg caffeine/day. Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal (1.8±1.5 vs 2.3±1.5, p=0.04, lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4 fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, p<0.001 and of histological activity grade (A3, A4 observed in liver biopsies (13.8% vs 36.9%, p<0.001. By multivariate logistic regression, fibrosis was independently associated with caffeine intake (OR- 0.16; 95%CI - 0.03-0.80; p=0.026, γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake.

  11. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Silmara Rodrigues; Parise, Edison Roberto; Carvalho, Luciana de

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥ 255 mL/day or ≥ 123 mg caffeine/day). According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (caffeine/day). Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal) (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p=0.04), lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4) fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, pcaffeine intake (OR- 0.16; 95%CI - 0.03-0.80; p=0.026), γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Volatile fingerprint of Brazilian defective coffee seeds: corroboration of potential marker compounds and identification of new low quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2014-06-15

    In the present work, the volatile profiles of green and roasted Brazilian defective coffee seeds and their controls were characterised, totalling 159 compounds. Overall, defective seeds showed higher number and concentration of volatile compounds compared to those of control seeds, especially pyrazines, pyrroles and phenols. Corroborating our previous results, butyrolactone and hexanoic acid, previously considered as potential defective seeds' markers, were observed only in raw and roasted defective seeds, respectively, and not in control seeds. New compounds were suggested as potential defective seeds' markers: hexanoic acid (for raw and roasted defective seeds in general), butyrolactone (for raw defective seeds in general), and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene (for raw black seeds); β-linalool and 2-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (for roasted defective seeds in general), and 2-pentylfuran (for roasted black seeds). Additional compounds suggested as low quality indicators were 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine,2,3-butanediol and 4-ethylguaiacol, β-linalool, 2-,3-dimethylbutyl butanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2,3-butanedione, hexanedioic acid, guaiacol, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-benzopyrrol, 3-methylpiperidine, 2-pentylpiperidine, 3-octen-2-one, 2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-butyl-3-methylpyrazine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preference mapping of dulce de leche commercialized in Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, L V; Oliveira, B R; Ferrao, L L; Granato, D; Cavalcanti, R N; Conte Júnior, C A; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    2015-03-01

    Dulce de leche samples available in the Brazilian market were submitted to sensory profiling by quantitative descriptive analysis and acceptance test, as well sensory evaluation using the just-about-right scale and purchase intent. External preference mapping and the ideal sensory characteristics of dulce de leche were determined. The results were also evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, partial least squares regression, artificial neural networks, and logistic regression. Overall, significant product acceptance was related to intermediate scores of the sensory attributes in the descriptive test, and this trend was observed even after consumer segmentation. The results obtained by sensometric techniques showed that optimizing an ideal dulce de leche from the sensory standpoint is a multidimensional process, with necessary adjustments on the appearance, aroma, taste, and texture attributes of the product for better consumer acceptance and purchase. The optimum dulce de leche was characterized by high scores for the attributes sweet taste, caramel taste, brightness, color, and caramel aroma in accordance with the preference mapping findings. In industrial terms, this means changing the parameters used in the thermal treatment and quantitative changes in the ingredients used in formulations. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ochratoxin A in brazilian instant coffee Ocratoxina A em café solúvel brasileiro

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    Adriana P. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of instant coffee samples collected in the market of the city of São Paulo, Brazil from August to December, 2004. The EN 14133/2003 method, originally developed to quantify OTA in wine, grape juice and beer samples, was evaluated and approved for analyzing OTA in instant coffee samples. OTA was isolated in an immunoaffinity column and quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The established detection and quantification limits were 0.16 and 0.52 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries from spiked samples were 92.6 ± 1.7, 83.7 ± 0.8, and 91.0 ± 1.2 % at levels of 3.0, 5.0, and 8.0 ng/g, respectively. Of a total of 82 samples analised, 81 (98.8% contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.17 to 6.29 ng/g. The high frequency of OTA occurrence in the instant coffee samples demonstrates the importance of an effective control of this product by governmental authorities and industries. The rapid methodology for OTA analysis in instant coffee used in this study was defined and validated, permitting it´s use for quality control of this product.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a contaminação por OTA em amostras de café solúvel comercializadas na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil no período de agosto a dezembro de 2004. O método EN 14133/2003, originalmente desenvolvido para quantificar OTA em amostras de vinho, suco de uva e cerveja, foi avaliado e aprovado para análise de OTA em amostras de café solúvel. OTA foi isolada em coluna de imunoafinidade e quantificada por CLAE com detecção em fluorescência. Os limites de detecção e quantificação do método foram 0,16 e 0,52 ng/g, respectivamente. Os percentuais médios de recuperação foram de 92,6% (3 ng/g, 83,7% (5 ng/g e 91,0% (8 ng/g, com coeficientes de variação de 1,7 (3 ng/g, 0,8 (5 ng/g e 1,2 (8 ng/g. A análise das 82 amostras de café solúvel revelou a presença de ocratoxina A em 81 amostras (98

  15. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Mainara B; Gherardi, Douglas F M; Lentini, Carlos A D; Dias, Daniela F; Campos, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning "at the right place and at the right time".

  16. Determination of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid in commercial tea and coffee samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić-Letić Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tea and coffee are one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world due to their beneficial health effects which are largely associated with their phenolic compounds composition, including chlorogenic acid. The main aim of this study was to determine 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid, in various commercial tea and coffee samples present at the Serbian market. Methods. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for determination of 5-CQA in plant extracts was applied to determine the content of this active compound in commercial tea and coffee samples. Mobile phase was aqueous 1.5% acetic acid - methanol (80:20, v/v with the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Run time was 15 min and column temperature 25°C. The detection was performed at 240 nm. Results. The HPLC method was modified and revalidated. The 5-CQA content varied depending on the type of tea (white, green, black tea and mate and the processing technology. Green tea had the highest 5-CQA content (16 mg/100 mL among the analyzed tea samples. The content of 5-CQA in coffee samples ranged 0-36.20 mg/g of coffee and 0-46.98 mg/100 mL of beverage, showing that the content varied depending on the type of coffee, coffee processing technology and the formulation. Conclusion. The modified and revalidated HPLC method showed a good accuracy, repeatability, selectivity and robustness. The highest amount of 5-CQA was determined in green tea in comparison to white, black and mate tea because the increased oxidation level decreases the amount of 5-CQA. The obtained results for commercial coffee samples indicated that the formulation was the most important factor determining the amount of 5-CQA. It can be concluded that plant material selection, processing conditions and formulation have great influence on the amount of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA in the final tea and coffee products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI

  17. Determination of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid in commercial tea and coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevena, Grujić-Letić; Branislava, Rakić; Emilia, Sefer; Dusica, Rakić; Ivan, Nedeljković; Nebojsa, Kladar; Biljana, Božin

    2015-11-01

    Tea and coffee are one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world due to their beneficial health effects which are largely associated with their phenolic compounds composition, including chlorogenic acid. The main aim of this study was to determine 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid, in various commercial tea and coffee samples present at the Serbian market. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of 5-CQA in plant extracts was applied to determine the content of this active compound in commercial tea and coffee samples. Mobile phase was aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (80:20, v/v) with the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Run time was 15 min and column temperature 25°C. The detection was performed at 240 nm. The HPLC method was modified and revalidated. The 5-CQA content varied depending on the type of tea (white, green, black tea and mate) and the processing technology. Green tea had the highest 5-CQA content (16 mg/100 mL) among the analyzed tea samples. The content of 5-CQA in coffee samples ranged 0-36.20 mg/g of coffee and 0-46.98 mg/100 mL of beverage, showing that the content varied depending on the type of coffee, coffee processing technology and the formulation. The modified and revalidated HPLC method showed a good accuracy, repeatability, selectivity and robustness. The highest amount of 5-CQA was determined in green tea in comparison to white, black and mate tea because the increased oxidation level decreases the amount of 5-CQA. The obtained results for commercial coffee samples indicated that the formulation was the most important factor determining the amount of 5-CQA. It can be concluded that plant material selection, processing conditions and formulation have great influence on the amount of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) in the final tea and coffee products.

  18. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Rodrigues Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥255 mL/day or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (< or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p = 0.04, lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4 fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, p < 0.001 and of histological activity grade (A3, A4 observed in liver biopsies (13.8% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001. By multivariate logistic regression, fibrosis was independently associated with caffeine intake (OR– 0.16; 95%CI – 0.03–0.80; p = 0.026, γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake.

  19. Teores de compostos bioativos em cafés torrados e moídos comerciais Levels of bioactive compounds in commercial roasted and ground coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilaine Mansano Nicolau de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of nicotinic acid, trigonelline, 5-CQA, caffeine, kahweol and cafestol in 38 commercial roasted coffees ranged from 0.02 to 0.04; 0.22 to 0.96; 0.14 to 1.20; 1.00 to 2.02; 0.10 to 0.80 and 0.25 to 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. Evaluation of color and content of thermo-labile compounds indicated similarity in roasting degree. Differences in the levels of diterpenes and caffeine, components less influenced by the roasting degree, could be mainly explained by the species used (arabica and robusta. Gourmet coffees showed high concentrations of diterpenes, trigonelline and 5-CQA and low levels of caffeine, indicating high proportion of arabica coffee.

  20. Molecular and toxigenic characterization of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from commercial ground roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Jeane Quintanilha; Cavados, Clara de Fátima Gomes; Vivoni, Adriana Marcos

    2012-03-01

    Thirty samples of roasted ground coffee beans from 10 different commercial brands were analyzed to investigate the occurrence and levels of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Strains were evaluated for their genetic diversity by repetitive element sequence polymorphism PCR (Rep-PCR) and for their toxigenic profiles, i.e., the presence of hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, ces, and entFM. Survival and multiplication of B. cereus sensu lato in the ready-to-drink coffee was determined to evaluate this beverage as a possible vehicle for B. cereus infection. B. cereus was detected in 17 (56.7%) of the 30 samples, and B. thuringiensis was detected in 8 (26.7%) of the 30 samples. Five samples did not produce any characteristic growth. The most common gene, entFM, was detected in 23 strains (92%). The NHE complex (nheA, nheB, and nheC genes) was found in 19 strains (76%). The HBL complex (hblA, hblC, and hblD) was found in 16 strains (64%). All strains were negative for ces. The cytK gene was found in 16 strains (64%). The computer-assisted cluster analysis of Rep-PCR profiles using a clustering criterion of 80% similarity revealed four main clusters. Cluster 1 was the predominant and comprised three B. thuringiensis strains with 100% similarity, cluster 2 comprised two B. cereus strains (100% similarity), cluster 3 comprised two B. thuringiensis strains (90% similarity), and cluster 4 comprised one B. thuringiensis strain and one B. cereus strain (85% similarity). The cluster analysis of fingerprints generated by Rep-PCR revealed a high genetic diversity among the B. cereus strains, suggesting that the contamination could have originated from different sources. In our experiments, when sugar was added and the beverage was kept in thermic bottles there was a significant increase in B. cereus sensu lato levels, which may increase the risk of food poisoning. These results highlight the need for additional studies on this subject to better evaluate

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  2. Grãos defeituosos em café colhido verde Occurrence of commercial defective coffee beans in unripe fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Teixeira

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de café Mundo Novo, colhidos verdes, após o benefício, foram analisados quanto aos defeitos comerciais que apresentaram. A classificação foi efetuada independentemente, por três classificadores, com a contagem de grãos "normais" e daqueles considerados defeitos, isto é, "verde" (três categorias, "ardido" e "prêto". Notou-se uma elevada porcentagem de grãos normais quanto à coloração, e também a ocorrência de grãos dos tipos "ardido" e "prêto", no café não maduro. Com a remoção da película prateada verificou-se uma redução na porcentagem de grãos "verdes" e um acentuado aumento na porcentagem de grãos "ardidos", e um aumento menor na de grãos "normais" e "prêtos". Estas observações indicam que os grãos normalmente classificados no comércio como "verdes" devem esta característica à côr .anormal da película, e que os grãos "ardidos" têm, como uma das suas origens, a colheita de frutos verdes.The frequency of defective coffee beans was determined in samples of unripe fruits of the cultivar Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica.Ten samples of 1000 seeds each obtained from green fruits after sundrying and shelling were independently scored for the commercial defects by three coffee classifiers. Each one of the classifiers recorded the occurrence of green-coated, brown and black beans before and after removal of the silver skin. The data revealed that more than half of the beans had normal green color whereas 44.9 per cent were green-coated, 3.5 per cent were brown and 0.1 per cent were black beans. The removal of the silver skin affected the previous classification giving 59.7 per cent of normal green beans, 39.5 per cent of brown and 0.3 per cent of black beans. These observations indicated that the so-called green-coated beans are caused by the presence of the silver skin which retains green pigments probably chlorophyll. On the other hand the browns which have been considered as product of over-fermentation were

  3. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.

  4. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  5. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Abelmann, Anders; Pierce, Jennifer S; Glynn, Meghan E; Henshaw, John L; McCarthy, Lauren A; Lotter, Jason T; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (roast combination and sample location, diketone concentrations during grinding were higher than those measured during roasting. During grinding, concentrations decreased with increased distance from the source. Measured concentrations of both diketones were higher during grinding of soft beans than hard beans. The results indicate that airborne concentrations of naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with unflavored coffee processing: (1) are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2) are likely to exceed some recommended short-term occupational exposure limits, but; (3) based on previous analyses of exposure response relationships in animal studies, are far below the concentrations that are expected to cause even minimal responses in the human respiratory tract.

  6. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in breathing zone and area air during large-scale commercial coffee roasting, blending and grinding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McCoy

    Full Text Available Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists’ (ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are even more conservative. Chronic exposure to these alpha-diketones at elevated airborne concentrations has been associated with lung damage, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans, most notably in industrial food processing facilities.Workers at a large commercial coffee roaster were monitored for both eight-hour and task-based, short-term, 15-min sample durations for airborne concentrations of these alpha-diketones during specific work processes, including the coffee bean roasting, blending and grinding processes, during two separate 8-h work periods. Additionally, the authors performed real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the workers’ breathing zone as well as the area workplace air for the presence of organic compounds to determine the sources, as well as quantitate and identify various organic compounds proximal to the roasting and grinding processes. Real-time FTIR measurements provided both the identification and quantitation of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, as well as other organic compounds generated during coffee bean roasting and grinding operations.Airborne concentrations of diacetyl in the workers’ breathing zone, as eight-hour time-weighted averages were less than the ACGIH TLVs for diacetyl, while concentrations of 2,3-pentanedione were below the limit of detection in all samples. Short-term breathing zone samples revealed airborne concentrations for diacetyl that exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit of 0

  7. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  8. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Prelle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC, molecular imprinting polymers (MIP, Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0% more than wine (6.6%, beers (16.6% and coffee (26.6%. Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%, two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  9. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  10. Sensory characterization of commercial soluble coffees by Flash ProfileCaracterização sensorial de cafés solúveis comerciais por Perfil Flash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo Benassi

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive market, there is a lack of simple methods for sensory characterization of products. The Flash Profile is a combination of the Free Choice Profiling terms selection with a ranking method, based on the simultaneous presentation of all samples to be evaluated, providing a quick description and discrimination of a set of products. Thus, this study aimed to apply the Flash profile method on the characterization of commercial soluble coffees. Four soluble coffees selected by presenting diversity in the production process and composition were evaluated by 32 assessors in a single session. The coffee brews were prepared with 28 g of soluble coffee per 1000 mL of purified water, and added of 9.5 % sucrose. Initially, the whole set of samples were presented simultaneously for the glossary development. In individual discussion, each assessor was assisted on the elaboration of individual score sheet with the definition of each attribute. Subsequently, the four coffee beverages were presented simultaneously to the assessor, who ordered the samples in ascending order for the intensity of each attribute on its score sheet. The results were analyzed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. The most relevant attributes in the description and discrimination of sweetened coffee brews were brown color, aroma and flavor of coffee, bitter taste, sweet taste and the presence of oil on the brew surface. The Flash Profile method was efficient on the description and discrimination of a complex food matrix as soluble coffee, presenting consensus among the assessors, and a fast assessment.Dentro do competitivo mercado atual, há demanda por métodos mais simples na descrição de produtos. O Perfil Flash (Flash Profile é uma combinação do levantamento de atributos do Perfil Livre com um método de ordenação, baseado na apresentação simultânea de todas as amostras a serem avaliadas, proporcionando uma descrição e discriminação rápida de um

  11. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in breathing zone and area air during large-scale commercial coffee roasting, blending and grinding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Michael J; Hoppe Parr, Kimberly A; Anderson, Kim E; Cornish, Jim; Haapala, Matti; Greivell, John

    2017-01-01

    Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are even more conservative. Chronic exposure to these alpha-diketones at elevated airborne concentrations has been associated with lung damage, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans, most notably in industrial food processing facilities. Workers at a large commercial coffee roaster were monitored for both eight-hour and task-based, short-term, 15-min sample durations for airborne concentrations of these alpha-diketones during specific work processes, including the coffee bean roasting, blending and grinding processes, during two separate 8-h work periods. Additionally, the authors performed real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the workers' breathing zone as well as the area workplace air for the presence of organic compounds to determine the sources, as well as quantitate and identify various organic compounds proximal to the roasting and grinding processes. Real-time FTIR measurements provided both the identification and quantitation of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, as well as other organic compounds generated during coffee bean roasting and grinding operations. Airborne concentrations of diacetyl in the workers' breathing zone, as eight-hour time-weighted averages were less than the ACGIH TLVs for diacetyl, while concentrations of 2,3-pentanedione were below the limit of detection in all samples. Short-term breathing zone samples revealed airborne concentrations for diacetyl that exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit of 0.02 parts per million (ppm) in

  12. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon H. Gaffney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (coffee processing: (1 are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2 are likely to exceed some

  13. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity, furan compounds and cytoprotective/cytotoxic effects upon Caco-2 cells of commercial Colombian coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya-Ramírez, Daniel; Cilla, Antonio; Contreras-Calderón, José; Alegría-Torán, Amparo

    2017-03-15

    Antioxidant capacity (AC), total phenolics (TPs), furan compounds (HMF and furfural F) and cytoprotective/cytotoxic effects upon Caco-2 cells (MTT, cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) were evaluated in Colombian coffee (2 ground and 4 soluble samples). The AC (ABTS and FRAP), TPs and HMF ranged between 124-722, 95-802μmoles Trolox/g, 21-100mg gallic acid/g and 69-2900mg/kg, respectively. Pretreatment of cells for 24h with lyophilized coffee infusions at the highest dose without cytotoxic effects (500μg/mL) significantly prevented the decrease in cell viability compared to control stress with H2O2 (5mM/2h), recovering viability to values between 34% and 45% and restoring the control values without stress induction in the G1 phase of cell cycle. After exposure to stress, four extracts decreased ROS values significantly to 22.5-24.9%. The coffee samples exerted a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, with improvement in cell viability and a reduction of intracellular ROS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XIV - Competição de variedades comerciais em Monte Alegre do Sul Coffee breeding: XIV - Comparative trial of commercial varieties of coffee in Monte Alegre do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Antunes Filho

    1960-01-01

    ão semelhantes quando se analisam os produções transformadas em café beneficiado.In 1949 on experiment was started in the Northwestern region of S. Paulo to compare the behovior in this area of the best new stra.ns of coffee that hod been selected previously in Campinas. This trial was made with the following commercial varieties: Nacional, Amarelo de Botucatu, Bourbon Vermelho. Bourbon Amarelo, Mundo Novo, Caturra Vermelho, Caturra Amarelo, Laurina, Maragogipe A. D., and Semperflorens. An incomplete block design was used with fifteen blocks of four treatments. A single plot consisted of ten coffee holes, with three seedlings per hole. Protection against erosion was built around each hole. The first commercial yield was obtained in 1952. The data on the total yields, expressed in kilograms of ripe fruit, in the years 1952 to 1956, are presented in table 1. The analysis revealed that the Mundo Novo coffee yielded more than all other varieties. The yields of Bourbon Amarelo, Bourbon Vermelho, and Calurra Vermelho did not differ significantly. The varieties Nacional and Amarelo de Botucatu produced less than the Mundo Novo, Bourbon Amarelo, Bourbon Vermelho and Caturra Amarelo (table 2. The data presented in table I also indicate that the yield of the varieties with yellow fruit is greater than the corresponding ones with red fruit, as follows; the Bourbon Amarelo produced more fruits than the Bourbon Vermelho, Caturra Amarelo more than Caturra Vermelho, and Amarelo de Botucatu more than the Nacional variety. The difference in yield was not significant and may be due to a pleiotropic effect of the xanthocarp allele. An analysis was also undertaken with the yield expressed in kg of clean coffee and the observed results are almost of the same order, when compared to the yield expressed in kg of ripe fruits (table 3. The relation of the weight of ripe fruits to clean coffee was determined every year from samples taken from the total yield of every plot. Only the Laurina variety and

  15. Studies of acrylamide level in coffee and coffee substitutes: influence of raw material and manufacturing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Many animal studies have shown that acrylamide is both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. The first reports of acrylamide actually having been found in foodstuffs were published in 2002 by the Swedish National Food Agency in conjunction with scientists from the University of Stockholm. It has since been demonstrated that acrylamide arises in foodstuffs by the Maillard reaction, ie. between free asparagine and reducing sugars at temperatures >120 degrees C. Coffee in fact, forms one of the principal dietary sources of acrylamide, where it is normally drunk in large quantities throughout many countries worldwide that includes Poland. Thus, it constitutes a major dietary component in a wide range of population groups, mainly ranging from late adolescents to the elderly. To determine the acrylamide level in commercial samples of roasted and instant coffee and in coffee substitutes by LC-MS/MS method. The influence of coffee species and colour intensity of coffee on acrylamide level was also detailed. A total of 42 samples of coffee were analysed which included 28 that were ground roasted coffee, 11 instant coffees and 3 coffee substitutes (grain coffee). Analytical separation of acrylamide from coffee was performed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To evaluate the colour intensity of ground roasted coffee and instant coffee we used method of arranging (sequence). The highest mean acrylamide concentrations were found in coffee substitutes (818 pg/kg) followed by instant coffee (358 microg/kg) and then roasted coffee (179 microg/kg). One single cup of coffee (160 ml) delivered on average from 0.45 microg acrylamide in roasted coffee to 3.21 microg in coffee substitutes. There were no significant differences in acrylamide level between the coffee species ie. Arabica vs Robusta or a mixture thereof. The various methods of coffee manufacture also showed no differences in acrylamide (ie. freeze-dried coffee vs agglomerated coffee). A

  16. Coffee and qat on the Royal Danish expedition to Arabia – botanical, ethnobotanical and commercial observations made in Yemen 1762-1763

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    In spite of widespread consumption of coffee in Europe at the time of the Royal Danish expedition to Arabia 1761-1767, little was known of the cultivation of coffee in Yemen and of the Arabian coffee export to Europe. Fresh leaves of qat were used as a stimulant on the Arabian Peninsula and in Ea...... used and banned drug.......In spite of widespread consumption of coffee in Europe at the time of the Royal Danish expedition to Arabia 1761-1767, little was known of the cultivation of coffee in Yemen and of the Arabian coffee export to Europe. Fresh leaves of qat were used as a stimulant on the Arabian Peninsula and in East...... requested observations on the use of coffee, but otherwise Forsskål and Niebuhr’s studies of coffee and qat were made entirely on their own initiative. Now, 250 years after The Royal Danish expedition to Arabia, coffee has become one of the world’s most valuable trade commodities and qat has become a widely...

  17. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Brazilian Commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Castro Melo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples of Cymbopogon citratus were evaluated. Among the 12 samples investigated (11 dried leaf samples and fresh plant leaves, seven presented essential oil concentrations within the threshold established by the Brazilian legislation. The moisture content was also determined and the majority of the samples presented humidity contents near 12%. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 22 compounds, with neral and geranial as the two major components. The total percentage of these two compounds varied within the investigated sample oils from 40.7% to 75.4%. In addition, a considerable variation in the chemical composition of the analyzed samples was observed. The process of grinding the leaves significantly decreased (by up to 68% the essential oil content, as well as the percentage of myrcene in the oils.

  18. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Brazilian commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) stapf samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio Almeida; Pereira, Ulisses Alves; Martinazzo, Ana Paula; Maltha, Célia Regina Alvares; Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Melo, Evandro de Castro

    2008-08-27

    The concentration and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples of Cymbopogon citratus were evaluated. Among the 12 samples investigated (11 dried leaf samples and fresh plant leaves), seven presented essential oil concentrations within the threshold established by the Brazilian legislation. The moisture content was also determined and the majority of the samples presented humidity contents near 12%. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 22 compounds, with neral and geranial as the two major components. The total percentage of these two compounds varied within the investigated sample oils from 40.7% to 75.4%. In addition, a considerable variation in the chemical composition of the analyzed samples was observed. The process of grinding the leaves significantly decreased (by up to 68%) the essential oil content, as well as the percentage of myrcene in the oils.

  19. Determinação de compostos bioativos em amostras comerciais de café torrado Determination of bioactive compounds in Brazilian roasted coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Costa Monteiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is a product consumed all around the world, Brazil being the biggest exporter. However, little is known about the difference in composition of the different brands in terms of bioactive substances. In the present study, ten of the most consumed brands of coffee in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. Caffeine contents, trigonelline and total chlorogenic acid varied from 0.8 g/100g to 1.4 g/100g; 0.2 g/100g to 0.5 g/100g and from 3.5 g kg-1 to 15.9 g kg-1, respectively. The large heterogeneity observed in the amounts of the bioactive compounds can be attributed to different formulations of the various brands, as well as to different roasting conditions.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Brazilian commercial dog food: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, the exposure of non-human species to ionizing radiation, as well as its effects, has been given a different focus; on the one hand due to the increasing knowledge on different exposure situations that these species are subjected to and on the other hand, due to the concern regarding biodiversity and its protection. To estimate the effects of ionizing radiation over non-human biota, several key points must be considered, such as radionuclide concentration, dosimetry models, reference biota and others. A vast number of non-human individuals can be represented by reference organisms defined by different international organisms (UNSCEAR, ICRP and the FASSET project), to facilitate the assessment of exposure, absorbed dose and radiation effect for individuals from alike environments. There is, however, no specific representative for domestic animals, like dogs and cats. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world, consuming over 2 million tons of feed every year. The Brazilian Association of the Industry of Products for Pets (ABINPET) foresees, for the year of 2013, an economic growth of 8.1% that may represent 0.34% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Animal food content and quality evaluations have been presented elsewhere, while no radiological study and the consequences from its ingestion have ever been conducted in the country. Hence, the present study will evaluate absorbed doses for domestic animals (i.e. dogs and cats) due to ingestion of food designed for them, by determining the radioactivity content of natural and anthropogenic cause. Initially, the activity concentrations in different brands of dry dog and cat food will be assessed by high resolution gamma spectrometry. Several brands usually consumed in Brazil were selected for the study. Eighteen dog food samples were prepared (crushed into powder and kiln dried) and tightly sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks, with a plan screw cap and bubble

  1. Morphological and molecular identification of four Brazilian commercial isolates of Pleurotus spp. and cultivation on corncob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Menolli Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The species of Pleurotus have great commercial importance and adaptability for growth and fructification within a wide variety of agro-industrial lignocellulosic wastes. In this study, two substrates prepared from ground corncobs supplemented with rice bran and charcoal were tested for mycelium growth kinetics in test tubes and for the cultivation of four Pleurotus commercial isolates in polypropylene bags. The identification of the isolates was based on the morphology of the basidiomata obtained and on sequencing of the LSU rDNA gene. Three isolates were identified as P. ostreatus, and one was identified as P. djamor. All isolates had better in-depth mycelium development in the charcoal-supplemented substrate. In the cultivation experiment, the isolates reacted differently to the two substrates. One isolate showed particularly high growth on the substrate containing charcoal.Espécies de Pleurotus têm grande importância comercial e adaptabilidade para crescimento e frutificação em uma ampla variedade de resíduos agro-industriais lignocelulósicos. Neste trabalho foram testados dois substratos à base de sabugo de milho triturado, suplementados com farelo de arroz e carvão vegetal, para avaliação da cinética de crescimento micelial em tubos de ensaio e produção em sacos de polipropileno, utilizando quatro isolados comerciais. O estudo taxonômico foi realizado com a análise da morfologia dos basidiomas obtidos em cultivo e pelo seqüenciamento do gene nLSU do DNAr, para certificar a identificação taxonômica. Os isolados tiveram melhor desenvolvimento micelial em profundidade no substrato suplementado com carvão vegetal. Em relação à produção, os isolados reagiram de formas distintas em função dos substratos, sendo significativamente melhor o substrato contendo carvão. Três isolados foram identificados como P. ostreatus e o outro foi identificado como P. djamor.

  2. Income Content of the World Coffee Exports Income Content of the World Coffee Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Monteiro da Silva; Carlos Antonio Leite

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is the most widely commercialized tropical product on the international market. The 2009/10 crop had an estimated value of $15.4 billion, with 93.4 million bags exported. According to the International Coffee Organization (ICO, 2011), the coffee sector employed  around 26 million people in 56 producing countries and over 100 exporting countries. But how would coffee products rank, in terms of income content, in relation to other commercialized products, and how have they evolved? To an...

  3. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  4. TABLE COFFEE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dextroamphetamine with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine are the best known drug treatment for ADHD. 1 However, these drugs are not available in our environment. Caffeine is a psychoactive substance available in table coffee. When consumed in a low to moderate doses, it leads to increased alertness, energy and.

  5. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By ... the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed. Some medications ...

  6. Effect of sugar addition (torrefacto) during roasting process on antioxidant capacity and phenolics of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, I.A. (Iziar A.); Bravo, J.; Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Cid, C.

    2013-01-01

    The addition of sugar during roasting (torrefacto) has been proposed as a technique to increase the antioxidant capacity. However, other factors such as roasting degree and coffee origin also play a key role. Two batches of Colombian green coffee were roasted adding increased amounts of sucrose (0-15 g per 100 g of coffee) to reach the same roasting degree than a commercial Colombian coffee. Moreover, seven conventional roasted coffees from different origins (Colombia, Brazil, Kenya, Guatemal...

  7. Climate change impacts on coffee rust disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.

  8. Development of a multivariate calibration model for the determination of dry extract content in Brazilian commercial bee propolis extracts through UV-Vis spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeira, Paulo J. S.; Paganotti, Rosilene S. N.; Ássimos, Ariane A.

    2013-10-01

    This study had the objective of determining the content of dry extract of commercial alcoholic extracts of bee propolis through Partial Least Squares (PLS) multivariate calibration and electronic spectroscopy. The PLS model provided a good prediction of dry extract content in commercial alcoholic extracts of bee propolis in the range of 2.7 a 16.8% (m/v), presenting the advantage of being less laborious and faster than the traditional gravimetric methodology. The PLS model was optimized with outlier detection tests according to the ASTM E 1655-05. In this study it was possible to verify that a centrifugation stage is extremely important in order to avoid the presence of waxes, resulting in a more accurate model. Around 50% of the analyzed samples presented content of dry extract lower than the value established by Brazilian legislation, in most cases, the values found were different from the values claimed in the product's label.

  9. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian Coffea arabica varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa S.N. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats, have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of nineteen commercially important Brazilians and six interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Coffea liberica. The set used comprised 52 newly developed SSR markers derived from microsatellite enriched libraries, 56 designed on the basis of coffee SSR sequences available from public databases, 6 already published, and 13 universal chloroplast microsatellite markers. Only 22 were polymorphic, these detecting 2-7 alleles per marker, an average of 2.5. Based on the banding patterns generated by polymorphic SSR loci, the set of twenty-five coffee varieties were clustered into two main groups, one composed of only Brazilian varieties, and the other of interspecific hybrids, with a few Brazilians. Color mutants could not be separated. Clustering was in accordance with material genealogy thereby revealing high similarity.

  10. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian Coffea arabica varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of nineteen commercially important Brazilians and six interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Coffealiberica. The set used comprised 52 newly developed SSR markers derived from microsatellite enriched libraries, 56 designed on the basis of coffee SSR sequences available from public databases, 6 already published, and 13 universal chloroplast microsatellite markers. Only 22 were polymorphic, these detecting 2-7 alleles per marker, an average of 2.5. Based on the banding patterns generated by polymorphic SSR loci, the set of twenty-five coffee varieties were clustered into two main groups, one composed of only Brazilian varieties, and the other of interspecific hybrids, with a few Brazilians. Color mutants could not be separated. Clustering was in accordance with material genealogy thereby revealing high similarity. PMID:21637425

  11. Coffee and Its Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Baiq Rien

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely served beverage. Flavor mainly the aroma is the most important attribute to specialty coffee. Coffee flavor consisted of volatile and non volatile compounds. The compounds were influenced by several factors i.e. growth environment, physiology, harvesting, post-harvest, roasting process and preparation. Keywords: coffee, flavor

  12. Coffee and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bae

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people start their day with a cup of coffee. Many people would also finish their daily work with coffee. As such, coffee drinking is an important part of modern daily life. It has been told that coffee is a driving force for humans to develop science, because it has an alerting effect on the human brain. However, some people report experiencing irregular heartbeat or headaches and are thus reluctant to drink coffee, which suggests individual variation to coffee intolerance. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the effects of coffee on human health.

  13. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380

  14. Application of EPR spectroscopy to the examination of pro-oxidant activity of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2014-05-15

    Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolem,Ciro Antonio; Leite,Vagner Maximino

    2007-01-01

    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  16. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography methods for caffeine determination in decaffeinated coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Schaper Bizzotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Decaffeinated coffee accounts for 10 percent of coffee sales in the world; it is preferred by consumers that do not wish or are sensitive to caffeine effects. This article presents an analytical comparison of capillary electrophoresis (CE and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for residual caffeine quantification in decaffeinated coffee in terms of validation parameters, costs, analysis time, composition and treatment of the residues generated, and caffeine quantification in 20 commercial samples. Both methods showed suitable validation parameters. Caffeine content did not differ statistically in the two different methods of analysis. The main advantage of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was the 42-fold lower detection limit. Nevertheless, the capillary electrophoresis (CE detection limit was 115-fold lower than the allowable limit by the Brazilian law. The capillary electrophoresis (CE analyses were 30% faster, the reagent costs were 76.5-fold, and the volume of the residues generated was 33-fold lower. Therefore, the capillary electrophoresis (CE method proved to be a valuable analytical tool for this type of analysis.

  17. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  18. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  19. Development of a multivariate calibration model for the determination of dry extract content in Brazilian commercial bee propolis extracts through UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeira, Paulo J S; Paganotti, Rosilene S N; Assimos, Ariane A

    2013-10-01

    This study had the objective of determining the content of dry extract of commercial alcoholic extracts of bee propolis through Partial Least Squares (PLS) multivariate calibration and electronic spectroscopy. The PLS model provided a good prediction of dry extract content in commercial alcoholic extracts of bee propolis in the range of 2.7 a 16.8% (m/v), presenting the advantage of being less laborious and faster than the traditional gravimetric methodology. The PLS model was optimized with outlier detection tests according to the ASTM E 1655-05. In this study it was possible to verify that a centrifugation stage is extremely important in order to avoid the presence of waxes, resulting in a more accurate model. Around 50% of the analyzed samples presented content of dry extract lower than the value established by Brazilian legislation, in most cases, the values found were different from the values claimed in the product's label. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  1. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis; Comercializacao de energia no novo ambiente do setor eletrico brasileiro. Uma metodologia para analise de estrategias de alocacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorelam@cesp.com.br; Lima, Wagner da Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: wagner@pea.usp.br; Castro, Roberto [ELEKTRO - Eletricidade e Servicos S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: castro@mt2net.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  2. Mainstreaming Fair Trade Coffee: From Partnership to Traceability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raynolds, Laura T

    2009-01-01

    ..., to "quality-driven" firms that selectively foster Fair Trade conventions to ensure reliable supplies of excellent coffee, to "market-driven" corporations that largely pursue commercial/industrial...

  3. Avanços na norma brasileira de comercialização de alimentos para idade infantil Advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Moura de Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os avanços na Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes no período de 1988 a 2002, comparando seus diferentes textos entre si e com o Código Internacional de Comercialização de Substitutos do Leite Materno. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos em documentos, relatórios, portarias e resoluções do Ministério da Saúde. As versões utilizadas na comparação foram a de 1992 e a de 2002. RESULTADOS: A análise comparativa permitiu identificar importantes avanços na legislação. Em 1992, foram incluídos os leites fluídos, em pó, as chupetas e frases de advertência na propaganda e na rotulagem dos produtos. Em 2002, a regulamentação dos produtos foi publicada pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, fortalecendo a ação de fiscalização e incluindo a regulamentação dos alimentos para crianças de primeira infância, fórmulas de nutrientes indicadas para recém-nascido de alto risco e protetores de mamilo. As frases utilizadas na promoção comercial e na rotulagem dos produtos, inclusive de chupetas e mamadeiras, passaram a ser de advertência do Ministério da Saúde. A rotulagem foi definida para cada tipo de produto, baseada em regras mais restritas. CONCLUSÕES: Foram identificadas importantes modificações no controle do marketing dos produtos dirigidos à mãe no período de lactação. No entanto, ainda há questões legislativas que possibilitariam o aprimoramento da norma brasileira, visando à proteção do aleitamento materno. É necessário também que o governo implante rotinas de monitoramento sistemático de fiscalização dessa legislação.OBJECTIVE: To assess the advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods from 1988 to 2002, comparing the different texts with each other and with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on data collected

  4. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Bolson

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL. The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  5. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  6. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  7. Coffee Leaf Rust Epidemics ( Hemileia vastatrix ) in Montane Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is native to southwestern Ethiopia growing as understory of the rainforests that harbor huge floral and faunal diversities. Besides drastic reduction in the forest cover and low average yield, the crop is attacked by several diseases among which coffee berry disease, coffee wilt disease and coffee ...

  8. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  10. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  11. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...... and mean birth weight. Based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort we evaluated the association between coffee intake and fetal death in 88,482 pregnant women who participated in a comprehensive interview during second trimester. Information about fetal death was obtained from registries...

  12. Official monitoring of the Brazilian Norm for Commercialization of Food for Nursling and Children of First Infancy, Rubber Nipples, Pacifiers, and Nursing Bottles - NBCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luiz Silva Bartolini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate advertisement of baby food, rubber nipples, pacifiers and nursing bottles through newspapers as well as on TV, radio, and the internet, in order to check whether the 'Brazilian Norm for Commercialization of Food for Nursling and Children of First Infancy, Rubber Nipples, Pacifiers and Nursing Bottles' (Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância, Bicos, Chupetas e Mamadeiras - NBCAL has been complied. Samples of all the items above were acquired at discount and department stores to check whether labeling was in compliance with the NBCAL. The development of this research as well as the analyses of commercial promotion were carried out in Juiz de Fora - state of Minas Gerais, from May to July 2006, using convenient, non-representative sampling composed of 680 pieces of advertisement. The results obtained through descriptive statistics showed that 564 of the 680 samples analyzed, or 83.0%, did not meet the NBCAL. Irregularities were detected in 100% of the samples advertised on the media and found in hospitals and drugstores; in 70.1% of the samples purchased at supermarkets, in 37% of those from medical clinics and in 86.6% of those found on the internet. The evidences showed that monitoring must be carried out continuously and educational campaigns on the importance of breast-feeding for the full development of children must be addressed to mothers, the food industry and commercial establishments.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar propagandas e publicidades impressas de alimentos infantis, bicos, chupetas e mamadeiras, além das veiculadas em rádio, TV e internet, para verificar o cumprimento da Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância (NBCAL. Também foi realizada a aquisição de bicos, mamadeiras e chupetas em "lojas de 1,99" e de departamento, para a verificação de rotulagem de acordo

  13. Volatile compounds as potential defective coffee beans' markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Although Brazil is the largest raw coffee producer and exporter in the world, a large amount of its Arabica coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P), green (V) and sour (A) defective beans, which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of defective coffee beans (two lots) compared to good quality beans from the respective lots. Potential defective beans' markers were identified. In the raw samples, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furylmethanol acetate were identified only in black-immature beans and butyrolactone only in sour beans, while benzaldehyde and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine showed to be potential markers of defective beans in general. In the roasted PVA beans, pyrazine, 2,3-butanediol meso, 2-methyl-5-(1-propenyl)pyrazine, hexanoic acid, 4-ethyl-guayacol and isopropyl p-cresol sulfide also showed to be potential defective coffee beans' markers. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  15. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  16. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    and ethnomethodology we – researchers - decided to study the interplay between practitioners and researchers negotiating on how a psychiatric patient who drinks too much coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the interlocutors’ different common......-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee. Moreover, the examination of the dialogue between these show how important it is to respect multivocality in order to be sensitive to how different...

  17. Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis of Selected NSIC-registered Coffee Varieties in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy May C. Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea sp. is an important commercial crop worldwide. Three species of coffee are used as beverage, namely Coffea arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica. Coffea arabica L. is the most cultivated among the three coffee species due to its taste quality, rich aroma, and low caffeine content. Despite its inferior taste and aroma, C. canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, which has the highest caffeine content, is the second most widely cultivated because of its resistance to coffee diseases. On the other hand, C. liberica W.Bull ex Hierncomes is characterized by its very strong taste and flavor. The Philippines used to be a leading exporter of coffee until coffee rust destroyed the farms in Batangas, home of the famous Kapeng Barako. The country has been attempting to revive the coffee industry by focusing on the production of specialty coffee with registered varieties on the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC. Correct identification and isolation of pure coffee beans are the main factors that determine coffee’s market value. Local farms usually misidentify and mix coffee beans of different varieties, leading to the depreciation of their value. This study used simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to evaluate and distinguish Philippine NSIC-registered coffee species and varieties. The neighbor-joining tree generated using PAUP showed high bootstrap support, separating C. arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica from each other. Among the twenty primer pairs used, seven were able to distinguish C. arabica, nine for C. liberica, and one for C. canephora.

  18. Identification of two metallothioneins as novel inhalative coffee allergens cof a 2 and cof a 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Peters

    Full Text Available Dust of green coffee beans is known to be a relevant cause for occupational allergic disorders in coffee industry workers. Recently, we described the first coffee allergen (Cof a 1 establishing an allergenic potential of green coffee dust.Our aim was to identify allergenic components of green coffee in order to enhance inhalative coffee allergy diagnosis.A Coffea arabica pJuFo cDNA phage display library was created and screened for IgE binding with sera from allergic coffee workers. Two further coffee allergens were identified by sequence analysis, expressed in E. coli, and evaluated by Western blots. The prevalence of sensitization to recombinant Cof a 1, Cof a 2, and Cof a 3 and to commercially available extract was investigated by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively CAP (capacity test screening in 18 sera of symptomatic coffee workers.In addition to the previously described chitinase Cof a 1, two Coffea arabica cysteine-rich metallothioneins of 9 and 7 kDa were identified and included in the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature as Cof a 2 and Cof a 3. Serum IgE antibodies to at least one of the recombinant allergens were found in 8 out of 18 symptomatic coffee workers (44%. Only 2 of the analysed sera (11% had reacted previously to the commercial allergy test.In addition to the previously described Cof a 1 we have identified two further coffee proteins to be type I coffee allergens (Cof a 2 and Cof a 3 which may have a relevant potential for the specific diagnosis and/or therapy of coffee allergy.

  19. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  20. Use of colour parameters for roasted coffee assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Cavaco Bicho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and non-destructive indicators were evaluated as tools to measure the technological quality of Arabica and Robusta coffee. Accordingly, considering the roasting intensity in highly valuable commercial samples, volume, mass, apparent density, moisture, total ash, ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, and ether extract were characterized. The chromatic parameters L*, C*, Hº were measured using illuminants D65 and C. It was found that in roasted coffee beans, the parameters L*, C*, Hº, and coordinate b* had an antagonist interaction due to an increase in the roasting intensity, whereas after milling, only L* and Hº decreased progressively. Considering that the parameters L* and Hº followed similar patterns using both illuminants, D65 and C, it can be concluded that they are appropriate to evaluate coffee colour changes during roasting, enabling a relationship with coffee quality.

  1. REMPI-TOFMS for on-line monitoring and controlling the coffee roasting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Zimmermann, Ralf; Kettrup, Antonius

    2001-08-01

    REMPI@266nm-TOFMS is used for on-line analysis of the coffee roasting process. Volatile and flavor active compounds of coffee were ionized by REMPI@266nm and monitored on-line and in real-time by TOFMS during the coffee roasting process. The phenol and 4-vinylguaiacol time-intensity profiles, for example, show typical behavior for different roasting temperatures and provide an indicator to the achieved degree of roasting. The impact of the moisture level of the green coffee beans on the time shift of a typical (commercial) roasting time, correlates with REMPI-TOFMS measurements and literature data.

  2. Composição volátil dos defeitos intrínsecos do café por CG/EM-headspace Volatile composition of intrinsic defective coffee beans by GC/MS-headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D. C. C. Bandeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of Brazilian raw coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. Consequently, these beans are incorporated to good quality beans in the Brazilian market. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P, green (V and sour (A defective beans which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of immature, black-immature, black defective beans and PVA compared to good quality beans. Potential defective beans markers were identified.

  3. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  4. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  5. coffee growing areas in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enal eudiodiorg.uk -. Acknowledgements. The authors would like to thank Jennifer Leavy, Steve Wiggins, Colin Poulton and Kay Sharp for comments on various versions of this paper. ... coffee for a considerable share of their income, and provides jobs for many more people in coffee-related activities (e.g. coffee processing, ...

  6. Briquetting of wastes from coffee plants conducted in zero harvest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the present work was to verify the viability of briquette production using the biomass waste obtained by zero harvest system. The treatments were composed of briquetting process: 1 coffee rind; 2 mixture of branches and leaves; 3 25% of coffee rind + 75% of branches and leaves; 4 75% of coffee rind + 25% of branches and leaves; 5 50% of coffee rind + 50% of branches and leaves; 6 40% of coffee rind + 60% of branches and leaves. The mixtures were realized in v/v base, milled to produce 5-10 mm particles and were briqueted with 12% of humidity. The C-teor of briquettes produced ranged from 41.85 to 43. 84% and sulphur teor was below 0.1%. The calorific value of briquettes produced ranged from 3,359 to 4, 028 Kcal/ kg and the ashes were below 6%. The isolated use of coffee rind or branches and leaves, as well the mixtures of coffee rind with 50% or more of branches and leaves allow the production of briquettes with calorific value around 4,000 Kcal/ kg which is within the quality parameters. The briquetting of coffee crop wastes is viable and sustainable energetically.

  7. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  8. Análise de compostos bioativos, grupos ácidos e da atividade antioxidante do café arábica (Coffea arabica do cerrado e de seus grãos defeituosos (PVA submetidos a diferentes torras Bioactive compounds, acids groups and antioxidant activity analysis of arabic coffee (Coffea arabica and its defective beans from the Brazilian savannah submitted to different roasting degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou os compostos bioativos (ácidos clorogênicos, trigonelina, cafeína, fenóis totais e proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos e atividade antioxidante de um café arábica proveniente do Cerrado Mineiro e de seu PVA (grãos pretos, verdes e ardidos. As amostras foram preparadas nas torras clara (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutos, média (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos e escura (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutos. Considerando-se a média das três torras do café e do PVA, a diferença observada no teor de todos os constituintes acima não foi significativa (p > 0,05, exceto com o teor de grupos hidroxila ácidos que foi ligeiramente superior no PVA e cafeína calculada pelo método semiquantitativo que foi superior no café. Portanto, dentre esses constituintes, os compostos com grupos ácidos seriam os únicos que poderiam contribuir para explicar a grande diferença de sabor existente entre o café de grãos sadios e o de PVA. Tanto o café como o PVA apresentaram atividade seqüestradora do radical DPPH. nas três torras, sendo a atividade do café sempre superior. Analisando-se as variações dos teores de cafeína, fenóis totais, proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos, trigonelina e ácidos clorogênicos, não foi possível explicar a atividade antioxidante superior apresentada pelo café da torra média (CE50 de 2,3 mg.mg-1 de DPPH..This work reports the results of the investigation of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total phenolics, and proanthocyanidins, total acid groups, and the antioxidant activity of the Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica from the Brazilian cerrado (vast tropical savannah (Minas Gerais state and its defective beans (Black, green, and sour beans. The samples were prepared using three roasting degrees: light (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutes, medium (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos, and dark (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutes. Considering the

  9. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-02

    Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.

  10. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  11. Estratégia de Diferenciação no Mercado Brasileiro de CaféDifferentiation Strategy in the Brazilian Coffee MarketEstrategia de Diferenciación en el Mercado Brasileño del Café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Christian Luiz da

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem como objetivo verificar se as estratégias de diferenciação das empresas de torrefação e moagem por meio de novas tecnologias de produto têm sido percebidas pelos consumidores brasileiros. Para isso, foi correlacionado o perfil da demanda com a evolução de consumo (preço e quantidade dos diferentes tipos de café, adquiridos a partir de dados mensais de 2002 a 2004, classificados em grupos de produtos: café Gourmet, Tradicional moído e moído a Vácuo puro. Os principais resultados mostraram uma mudança comportamental, ainda que singela, no período analisado. Os cafés Gourmet e a Vácuo ganharam mercado em relação ao produto tradicional, uma vez que apresenta maior valor agregado. Considerando a pequena modificação da restrição orçamentária no período em análise na região estudada, concluiu-se que a mudança estratégica permitiu ampliar a participação do café na cesta de produto dos consumidores a partir do valor adicionado, conquistado pela diferenciação nas características, principalmente, sensorial do produto.ABSTRACTThis article aims to verify whether Brazilian consumers have perceived the differentiation strategies of roasting and grinding companies. For that purpose, the profile of the demand for different types of coffee was correlated with their consumption history (price and quantity. 2002 and 2004 monthly data series from Sao Paulo metropolitan region were classified into the following groups of coffee products: Gourmet, Ground Traditional and Vacuum Ground. The main results showed a behavioral change, albeit small, in the period studied. Compared against the Traditional type, the Gourmet and Vacuum types have gained market share, once they present a higher added value. Considering that there was an almost imperceptible change in the budgetary restriction of the consumers in the period and region analyzed, it is concluded that the strategic change, i.e., added value through

  12. Boron, copper and zinc effects on photosynthesis, enzymatic activity, nutritional status, production, chemical composition and cup quality of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente,Junia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of micronutrients required for the coffee trees follows the order Fe> Mn> B> Zn> Cu> Mo, which allows us to infer that the biggest problems are related to B, Cu and Zn, since the Brazilian oxisoils have high contents of Fe and Mn and coffee trees do not need high amounts of Mo. Soil fertilization or foliar sprays are the usual ways of supplying such nutrients to coffee plants, but in some conditions both forms are ineffec- tive. The literature has many references about sources and...

  13. Heavy metals in wet method coffee processing wastewater in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Y; Mejia, G; Mejia-Saavedra, J; Pohlan, J; Sokolov, M

    2007-05-01

    One of the driving forces of the economy in southeast Mexico is agriculture. In Soconusco, Chiapas, coffee is one of the main agricultural products and is traded on the international market. Coffee grown in this region is processed using the wet method in order to be commercialized as green coffee. In the beneficio (coffee processing plant) water is an essential resource which is required in great quantities (Matuk et al., 1997; Sokolov, 2002) as it is used to separate good coffee berries from defective ones, as a method of transporting the coffee berries to the processing machinery, in the elimination of the berry husk from the coffee grains (pulping) and finally in the post-fermentation washing process. This process gives rise to one of the smoothest, high-quality coffees available (Zuluaga, 1989; Herrera, 2002). Currently, many producers in Soconusco are opting for ecological coffee production, which has, among its many criteria, human health and environmental protection (Pohlan, 2005). Furthermore, increasing concern during the past few years regarding the production of food that is free from contaminants such as heavy metals, and recent environmental policies in relation to aquatic ecosystem protection, have given rise to questions concerning the quality of water used in coffee processing, as well as pollutants produced by this agroindustry. Water used in the coffee processing plants originates from the main regional rivers whose hydrological basins stretch from the Sierra Madre mountain range down to the coastal plain. As well as providing water, these rivers also receive the wastewater produced during coffee processing (Sokolov, 2002).

  14. Thermogenic Effect from Nutritionally Enriched Coffee Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Peter F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Method Ten subjects (8 male, 2 female; 20.9 ± 1.7 y; 178.1 ± 10.4 cm; 71.8 ± 12.1 kg underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 354 ml (1.5 cups of freshly brewed JF or commercially available caffeinated coffee (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a session-average was calculated for RER, HR and BP. Results Initial analysis revealed no significant differences. However, seven of the ten subjects were considered responders to JF (had a higher AUC for VO2during JF than P. Statistical analysis showed the difference between JF and P (12% to be significantly different in these responders. In addition, the average systolic BP was higher (p Conclusion It appears that consuming a nutritionally-enriched coffee beverage may increase resting energy expenditure in individuals that are sensitive to the caffeine and herbal coffee supplement. In addition, this supplement also appears to affect cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting systolic arterial blood pressure.

  15. Coffee Leaf Rust Epidemics ( Hemileia vastatrix ) in Montane Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty coffee trees were selected from each forest (three sites within a forest) coffee population to record incidence (percent rusted leaves), severity (percent leaf area damaged) and sporulated lesion density (number of lesion per leaf, SLD) from selected six branches per tree. An average of 10-12 leaves per branch was ...

  16. Characterisation of AC1: a naturally decaffeinated coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Benjamim Benatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the biochemical characteristics of the beans of a naturally decaffeinated Arabica coffee (AC1 discovered in 2004 with those of the widely grown Brazilian Arabica cultivar "Mundo Novo" (MN. Although we observed differences during fruit development, the contents of amino acids, organic acids, chlorogenic acids, soluble sugars and trigonelline were similar in the ripe fruits of AC1 and MN. AC1 beans accumulated theobromine, and caffeine was almost entirely absent. Tests on the supply of [2-14C] adenine and enzymatic analysis of theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase in the endosperm of AC1 confirmed that, as in the leaves, caffeine synthesis is blocked during the methylation of theobromine to caffeine. The quality of the final coffee beverage obtained from AC1 was similar to that of MN.

  17. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  18. Coffee Berry Borer Resistance in Coffee Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the coffee germplasm of the Paraná Agronomic Institute (IAPAR for resistance to the coffee-berry-borer. Preliminary field evaluation was performed in August 2004 and the fruits of less damaged genotypes in the field were evaluated under controlled condition with obligated and free choice experiments established in a randomized complete design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated fifteen days after infestation with one borer per fruit in Petri dishes. The data were analyzed by the Scott-Knott means test at 1 % and by the χ2 test. Statistical analysis indicated that Coffea kapakata, Psilanthus bengalensis, C. eugenioides and genotypes with C. eugenioides genes were resistant. These genotypes presented low frequency of bored grains. C. eugenioides and C. kapakata could present resistance at epicarp level but not in the grain. P. bengalensis could present resistance also in the grains.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fontes de resistência genética a H. hampei em diferentes espécies de café do banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR, Londrina, PR. Foram realizadas avaliações preliminares de campo, para posterior testes de confinamento e de livre escolha, em laboratório, instalados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os genótipos foram avaliados quinze dias após a infestação com uma broca por fruto em placas de petri. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de médias Scott-Knott a 1 % e pelo teste de χ2. Foi observado que C. eugenioides, C. kapakata e P. bengalensis constituem importantes fontes de resistência à broca, pois apresentaram menor freqüência de grãos brocados. Os dois primeiros podem apresentar substâncias voláteis antagônicas à broca na casca e a resistência de P. bengalensis pode estar também no grão.

  19. Changes in headspace volatile concentrations of coffee brews caused by the roasting process and the brewing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, Isabel; Fournier, Nicole; Cid, Concepción; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    Headspace-solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to characterize the aroma compounds of coffee brews from commercial conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee prepared by filter coffeemaker and espresso machine. A total of 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to differentiate coffee brew samples by volatile compounds. Conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee brews were separated successfully by principal component 1 (68.5% of variance), and filter and espresso ones were separated by principal component 2 (19.5% of variance). By GC olfactometry, a total of 34 aroma compounds have been perceived at least in half of the coffee extracts and among them 28 were identified, among which octanal was identified for the first time as a contributor to coffee brew aroma.

  20. [Coffee enema induced acute colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Jung; Song, Seung Kyun; Jeon, Jin Ho; Sung, Mi Kyung; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Youn Soo

    2008-10-01

    Rectal enema used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes infrequently causes colitis. In medical practice, enemas are known to incidentally bring about colitis by mechanical, thermal, or direct chemical injuries. Coffee enema is told to ameliorate the constipation in alternative medicine. We hereby report a case of acute colitis resulting from coffee enema, which was presented with severe abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  1. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  2. Evaluation of physiological changes in coffee seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were carried out at three locations with different vegetation in Nigeria between 1996 and 1998 to determine the physiological changes in coffee intercropped with maize, cassava and plantain. There were four intercropping treatments comprising coffee/maize, coffee/cassava, coffee/plantain and ...

  3. Have coffee reforms and coffee supply chains affected farmers' income? The case of coffee growers in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Murekezi, Abdoul Karim; Loveridge, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Low prices in the international coffee markets have worsened the economic well-being among coffee farmers. In the face of this situation, the Government of Rwanda has introduced coffee sector reforms that aimed to transform the sector in a way that targets the high quality market and moves away from the bulk coffee market. The high quality coffee market has shown consistent growth over time and exhibits price premiums in international market. If these high prices are passed on to farmers who ...

  4. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AS AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESS COMPARED TO THERMAL HYDROLYSIS FOR INSTANT COFFEE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Baraldi

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional production of instant coffee is based on solubilisation of polysaccharides present in roasted coffee. Higher process temperatures increase the solubilisation yield, but also lead to carbohydrate degradation and formation of undesirable volatile compounds. Enzymatic hydrolysis of roasted coffee is an alternative to minimize carbohydrate degradation. In this work, products obtained from thermal and enzymatic processes were compared in terms of carbohydrates and volatiles composition. Roasted coffee was extracted with water at 125 °C, and spent coffee was processed by thermal (180 °C or enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis experiments were carried out at 50 °C using the commercial enzyme preparations Powercell (Prozyn, Galactomannanase (HBI-Enzymes, and Ultraflo XL (Novozymes. These formulations were previously selected from eleven different commercial enzyme preparations, and their main enzymatic activities included cellulase, galactomannanase, galactanase, and β-glucanase. Enzymatic hydrolysis yield was 18% (dry basis, similar to the extraction yield at 125 °C (20%, but lower than the thermal hydrolysis yield at 180 °C (28%. Instant coffee produced by enzymatic hydrolysis had a low content of undesirable volatile compounds and 21% (w/w of total carbohydrates. These results point to the enzymatic process as a feasible alternative for instant coffee production, with benefits including improved quality as well as reduced energy consumption.

  5. Coffee roasting acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Preston S

    2014-06-01

    Cracking sounds emitted by coffee beans during the roasting process were recorded and analyzed to investigate the potential of using the sounds as the basis for an automated roast monitoring technique. Three parameters were found that could be exploited. Near the end of the roasting process, sounds known as "first crack" exhibit a higher acoustic amplitude than sounds emitted later, known as "second crack." First crack emits more low frequency energy than second crack. Finally, the rate of cracks appearing in the second crack chorus is higher than the rate in the first crack chorus.

  6. [Negligible amounts of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee made with coffee pads in comparison with unfiltered coffee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekschoten, M V; van Cruchten, S T J; Kosmeijer-Schuil, T G; Katan, M B

    2006-12-30

    To determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee. Observational. In five cities in the Netherlands coffee was purchased in three major supermarkets resulting in a total of 30 samples of coffee pads. The levels of cafestol and kahweol were determined by gas chromatography. As controls, the diterpene levels in filtered and unfiltered coffee were also measured. Coffee prepared using coffee pads contained on average 0.76 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 0.69-0.82) and 0.85 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 0.77-0.94). Filtered coffee contained 0.76 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 0.63-0.88) and 0.81 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 0.63-0.99). Unfiltered coffee contained 72.5 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 48.5-96.4) and 71.5 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 45.0-98.1). Coffee prepared using coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine contained minute levels of diterpenes comparable to those of filtered coffee. Its effect on serum-cholesterol levels is therefore likely to be negligible.

  7. Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-time-of-flight mass spectrometric methodology for geographical origin verification of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risticevic, Sanja; Carasek, Eduardo; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-06-09

    Increasing consumer awareness of food safety issues requires the development of highly sophisticated techniques for the authentication of food commodities. The food products targeted for falsification are either products of high commercial value or those produced in large quantities. For this reason, the present investigation is directed towards the characterization of coffee samples according to the geographical origin. The conducted research involves the development of a rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) method that is utilized for the verification of geographical origin traceability of coffee samples. As opposed to the utilization of traditional univariate optimization methods, the current study employs the application of multivariate experimental designs to the optimization of extraction-influencing parameters. Hence, the two-level full factorial first-order design aided in the identification of two influential variables: extraction time and sample temperature. The optimum set of conditions for the two variables was 12 min and 55 degrees C, respectively, as directed by utilization of Doehlert matrix and response surface methodology. The high-throughput automated SPME procedure was completed by implementing a single divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) 50/30 microm metal fiber with excellent durability properties ensuring the completion of overall sequence of coffee samples. The utilization of high-speed TOFMS instrument ensured the completion of one GC-MS run of a complex coffee sample in 7.9 min and the complete list of benefits provided by ChromaTOF software including fully automated background subtraction, baseline correction, peak find and mass spectral deconvolution algorithms was exploited during the data evaluation procedure. The combination of the retention index (RI) system using C(8)-C(40) alkanes and the mass spectral library search was utilized

  8. The ritual of coffee break inside organizations: toward social efficiency and/or performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécilia BRASSIER-RODRIGUES

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a non-formal ritual practice – the coffee break – inside organizations. Based on a survey conducted on 12 marketing and commercial teams in France, we analyse if the coffee break has an objective of social efficiency or of performance. While solving this question, our results also reveal the importance of seniority in the observed behaviors, suggesting that it symbolizes an informal level of authority in front of the formal authority symbolized by the status.

  9. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  10. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  11. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  12. Role of roasting conditions in the level of chlorogenic acid content in coffee beans: correlation with coffee acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Yoo, Hyui Sun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2009-06-24

    Total chlorogenic acids of nine isomers from seven commercial green and roasted coffee beans ranged from 34.43 +/- 1.50 to 41.64 +/- 3.28 mg/g and from 2.05 +/- 0.07 to 7.07 +/- 0.16 mg/g, respectively. Methanol/water (7:3) extracts from four commercial green coffee beans roasted at different conditions (230 degrees C, 12 min; 24 degrees C, 14 min; 250 degrees C, 17 min; and 250 degrees C, 21 min) were also analyzed for chlorogenic acids. The total chlorogenic acid found in green coffee beans ranged from 86.42 +/- 2.04 to 61.15 +/- 1.40 mg/g. Total chlorogenic acids present were reduced in accordance with the intensity of roasting conditions. When green beans were roasted at 230 degrees C for 12 min and at 250 degrees C for 21 min, total chlorogenic acid content was reduced to nearly 50% and to almost trace levels, respectively. The results indicate that roasting conditions play an important role in chlorogenic acid content in roasted coffee beans. A general correlation between total caffeoylquinic acids and pH was observed.

  13. Ethnoichthyological contribution to the official fisheries document concerning fisheries closure of some commercial fish categories in the western Brazilian Amazon, Guaporé River, Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Taciane Brasil de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicts among fishermen and local environmental protection agencies that regulate fishing in the area, concerning the official closure periods of the fisheries. The fishermen affirm that the dates established for protection of spawning do not correspond to the spawning season of the primary commercialized species, and that this could be hindering the local fish markets. This report compares the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK with information obtained from experimental fishery and scientific data covering the reproduction periods of the primary categories of fish market in the region. Of the 28 fish categories analyzed, 14 (50% were captured in experimental fishing and were evaluated. The TEK confirmed the experimental information for 10 categories of fish (72%. The results suggest the necessity of adjusting the official protection dates stipulated for the following fish categories: caparari (Pseudoplatystoma tigrinun, Sorubim (P. fasciatum, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, pescada (Plagioscion squamosissimus and tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris. The discussion deals with a possibly inadequate period of protection based on the information obtained from different basins applied to larger and more diverse areas of the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. This study confirms the refined biological knowledge that the fishermen have of the species they exploit and suggests that the traditional ecological knowledge can be useful to adjust political issues dealing with the regional protection agency of fishing.

  14. Mobilizing labour for the global coffee market: profits from an unfree work regime in colonial Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee has been grown on Java for the commercial market since the early eighteenth century, when the Dutch East India Company began buying from peasant producers in the Priangan highlands. What began as a commercial transaction, however, soon became a system of compulsory production. This book shows

  15. Prokaryotic Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Organic, Intensive, and Transitional Coffee Farms in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Adam Collins; Silva, Lívia Carneiro Fidéles; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Ouverney, Cleber Costa

    2015-01-01

    Despite a continuous rise in consumption of coffee over the past 60 years and recent studies showing positive benefits linked to human health, intensive coffee farming practices have been associated with environmental damage, risks to human health, and reductions in biodiversity. In contrast, organic farming has become an increasingly popular alternative, with both environmental and health benefits. This study aimed to characterize and determine the differences in the prokaryotic soil microbiology of three Brazilian coffee farms: one practicing intensive farming, one practicing organic farming, and one undergoing a transition from intensive to organic practices. Soil samples were collected from 20 coffee plant rhizospheres (soil directly influenced by the plant root exudates) and 10 control sites (soil 5 m away from the coffee plantation) at each of the three farms for a total of 90 samples. Profiling of 16S rRNA gene V4 regions revealed high levels of prokaryotic diversity in all three farms, with thousands of species level operational taxonomic units identified in each farm. Additionally, a statistically significant difference was found between each farm's coffee rhizosphere microbiome, as well as between coffee rhizosphere soils and control soils. Two groups of prokaryotes associated with the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal genus Candidatus Nitrososphaera and the bacterial order Rhizobiales were found to be abundant and statistically different in composition between the three farms and in inverse relationship to each other. Many of the nitrogen-fixing genera known to enhance plant growth were found in low numbers (e.g. Rhizobium, Agrobacter, Acetobacter, Rhodospirillum, Azospirillum), but the families in which they belong had some of the highest relative abundance in the dataset, suggesting many new groups may exist in these samples that can be further studied as potential plant growth-promoting bacteria to improve coffee production while diminishing negative

  16. Prokaryotic Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Organic, Intensive, and Transitional Coffee Farms in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Collins Caldwell

    Full Text Available Despite a continuous rise in consumption of coffee over the past 60 years and recent studies showing positive benefits linked to human health, intensive coffee farming practices have been associated with environmental damage, risks to human health, and reductions in biodiversity. In contrast, organic farming has become an increasingly popular alternative, with both environmental and health benefits. This study aimed to characterize and determine the differences in the prokaryotic soil microbiology of three Brazilian coffee farms: one practicing intensive farming, one practicing organic farming, and one undergoing a transition from intensive to organic practices. Soil samples were collected from 20 coffee plant rhizospheres (soil directly influenced by the plant root exudates and 10 control sites (soil 5 m away from the coffee plantation at each of the three farms for a total of 90 samples. Profiling of 16S rRNA gene V4 regions revealed high levels of prokaryotic diversity in all three farms, with thousands of species level operational taxonomic units identified in each farm. Additionally, a statistically significant difference was found between each farm's coffee rhizosphere microbiome, as well as between coffee rhizosphere soils and control soils. Two groups of prokaryotes associated with the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal genus Candidatus Nitrososphaera and the bacterial order Rhizobiales were found to be abundant and statistically different in composition between the three farms and in inverse relationship to each other. Many of the nitrogen-fixing genera known to enhance plant growth were found in low numbers (e.g. Rhizobium, Agrobacter, Acetobacter, Rhodospirillum, Azospirillum, but the families in which they belong had some of the highest relative abundance in the dataset, suggesting many new groups may exist in these samples that can be further studied as potential plant growth-promoting bacteria to improve coffee production while

  17. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yashin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc. in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.. Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared.

  18. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461

  19. COFFEE TO FUEL LONDON BUSES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    .... A company called Bio-bean, in partnership with the oil giant Royal Dutch Shell, introduced relatively small amounts of oil produced from coffee grounds into the mix of diesel and biofuels mandated...

  20. Zapata Coffee Roasting Company

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata Pardo, Paula Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Zapata Coffee Roasting Company es un pequeño negocio de tostión y comercialización de café gourmet, ubicado en la ciudad de Bothell, Washington, al norte del área de Seattle, al noroeste de Estados Unidos. Fue fundada por María V. Zapata, quien proviene de cuatro generaciones de amor y pasión por el café, ya que su familia ha cosechado y tostado café por casi un siglo en el suroccidente de los Andes Colombianos. La compañía compite con otros pequeños tostadores y con grandes empresas con m...

  1. Application of gas chromatography/flame ionization detector-based metabolite fingerprinting for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2015-11-01

    Development of authenticity screening for Asian palm civet coffee, the world-renowned priciest coffee, was previously reported using metabolite profiling through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, a major drawback of this approach is the high cost of the instrument and maintenance. Therefore, an alternative method is needed for quality and authenticity evaluation of civet coffee. A rapid, reliable and cost-effective analysis employing a universal detector, GC coupled with flame ionization detector (FID), and metabolite fingerprinting has been established for discrimination analysis of 37 commercial and non-commercial coffee beans extracts. gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) provided higher sensitivity over a similar range of detected compounds than GC/MS. In combination with multivariate analysis, GC/FID could successfully reproduce quality prediction from GC/MS for differentiation of commercial civet coffee, regular coffee and coffee blend with 50 wt % civet coffee content without prior metabolite details. Our study demonstrated that GC/FID-based metabolite fingerprinting can be effectively actualized as an alternative method for coffee authenticity screening in industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  3. Coffee consumption and incident dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Tiemeier, Henning; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2014-10-01

    Coffee consumption has been frequently reported for its protective association with incident dementia. However, this association has mostly been reported in studies with short follow-up periods, and it remains unclear to what extent reverse causality influences this association. Studying the long-term effect of coffee consumption on dementia with stratified follow-up time may help resolve this issue. In the population-based Rotterdam Study, coffee consumption was assessed in 1989-1991 (N = 5,408), and reassessed in 1997-1999 (N = 4,368). Follow-up for dementia was complete until 2011. We investigated the association of coffee consumption and incident dementia for the two examination rounds separately using flexible parametric survival models. We studied the entire follow-up period as well as stratified follow-up time at 4 years. For both examination rounds, we did not find an association between coffee consumption and dementia over the entire follow-up. In contrast, for both examination rounds, a protective association was observed only in the follow-up stratum of 0-4 years. Our data suggest that coffee consumption is not associated with incident dementia during long-term. The protective association observed in the short-term might be driven by reverse causality.

  4. Is coffee a functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M

    2005-06-01

    Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.

  5. Sampling of plant in coffee for evaluation of nutritional status

    OpenAIRE

    Cintra, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"; Rozane, Danilo Eduardo; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"; Natale, William; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Silva, Silvia Helena Modenese Gorla da; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Barbosa, José Carlos; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Lopes, Marcelo Domingos Chamma; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho

    2015-01-01

    The foliar fertilization assists programs in order to obtain higher yields, however, it is essential to know the ideal number of plants to be sampled. The study aimed to determine in commercial coffee plantations, subjected to two water regimes, the number of plants to be sampled and estimate the sample error for the diagnosis of nutritional status of that culture. The work consisted of two studies where samples of leaves were collected in rainfed and irrigated farming. For both studies the c...

  6. A process for reduction in viscosity of coffee extract by enzymatic hydrolysis of mannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Sharma, Prince; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen

    2014-07-01

    Mannan is the main polysaccharide component of coffee extract and is responsible for its high viscosity, which in turn negatively affects the technological processing involved in making instant coffee. In our study, we isolated mannan from coffee beans and extract of commercial coffee and it was enzymatically hydrolyzed using alkali-thermostable mannanase obtained from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11. As mannan is found to be more soluble under alkaline conditions, an alkali-thermostable mannanase is well suited for its hydrolysis. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized by response surface methodology. Under the following optimized conditions viz enzyme dose of 11.50 U mannanase g(-1) coffee extract, temperature of 44.50 °C and time of 35.80 min, significant twofold decrease in viscosity (50 mPas to 26.00 ± 1.56 mPas) was achieved. The application of this process in large-scale industrial production of coffee will help in reduction of energy consumption used during freeze-drying. It will also make technological processing involved in making coffee more economical.

  7. Esporos de Clostridium botulinum em mel comercializado no Estado de São Paulo e em outros Estados brasileiros Clostridium botulinum spores in honey commercialized in São Paulo and other Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Valim Ferreira Ragazani

    2008-04-01

    commercialized in Brazil. One hundred of honey samples commercialized in six different Brazilin states (SP, MG, GO, CE, MT, SC were searched for the presence of spores of Clostridium botulinum, using thermal shock followed by the inoculation in Cooked Meat Medium (Difco® and incubation in anaerobic conditions. The positives cultures were analyzed by Gram stain and seeded in Reinforced Clostrideo Agar (Difco® and Sulfito Polimixina Sulfadiazina -SPS (Difco® plates, which were incubated in anaerobic conditions in order to pick up the colonies of this bacteria. The positive colonies were submitted to toxicity test by inoculation in susceptible mice and to biochemical characterization. Clostridium botulinum colonies producing actively toxins were detected in 7% of the commercial honey samples, highlighting the relevance of this microorganism for public health due to the high potential risk of honey commercialized in these Brazilian regions to cause Infant Botulism, specially in children under one-year old.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF COFFEE MARKET AND CHANGES IN COFFEE CONSUMPTION AMONG POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.

  9. Modeling and validation of heat and mass transfer in individual coffee beans during the coffee roasting process using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Torres, Beatriz; Hernández-Pérez, José Alfredo; Sierra-Espinoza, Fernando; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in individual coffee beans during roasting were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Numerical equations for heat and mass transfer inside the coffee bean were solved using the finite volume technique in the commercial CFD code Fluent; the software was complemented with specific user-defined functions (UDFs). To experimentally validate the numerical model, a single coffee bean was placed in a cylindrical glass tube and roasted by a hot air flow, using the identical geometrical 3D configuration and hot air flow conditions as the ones used for numerical simulations. Temperature and humidity calculations obtained with the model were compared with experimental data. The model predicts the actual process quite accurately and represents a useful approach to monitor the coffee roasting process in real time. It provides valuable information on time-resolved process variables that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, but critical to a better understanding of the coffee roasting process at the individual bean level. This includes variables such as time-resolved 3D profiles of bean temperature and moisture content, and temperature profiles of the roasting air in the vicinity of the coffee bean.

  10. Mathematical Model for the Mexican Coffee Market

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, Gustavo Guerra; Moss, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that the production of quality coffee is more expensive than the production of coffee of less quality, also that market failures in the transmission of quality signals to producer lower the average quality of coffee produced industry. Used its simultaneous equations in three stage lest square we have found that some variable were significant; the size of the producer affects the share of sold cherry, the quality affects the international green coffee price of México and the qua...

  11. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian coffee arabica varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, E.S.N.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Carvalho, M.G.G.; Esselink, G.; Vosman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of

  12. Management zones in coffee cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João L. Jacintho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to apply precision agriculture techniques in coffee production, using correlation analysis in the definition of management zones. This work was carried out in a 22-ha area of coffee (Coffea arabica L., cv. ‘Topázio MG 1190’, which was sampled on a regular grid, using a topographic GPS, totaling 64 georeferenced samples (on average, 2.9 points per ha. Descriptive analysis was used in the data, followed by Pearson’s correlation analysis at 0.05 significance between soil chemical attributes, agronomic characteristics of the plants and altitude. It was possible to verify the correlation of soil chemical attributes, agronomic characteristics of the plants and altitude with coffee yield. Altitude was the variable most correlated with coffee yield through correlation analysis. Therefore, it was chosen as the best variable to define management zones and thematic maps capable to support coffee farmers. Three maps were generated to characterize the area in two, three and four management zones. There was a direct influence on mean yield.

  13. Coffee consumption and disease correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcen, Büşra Başar; Şanlier, Nevin

    2017-08-30

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. It has primarily consumed due to its stimulant effect and unique taste since the ancient times. Afterwards, its consumption has been historically associated with a lower risk of some diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease and some type of cancer and thus it has also consumed due to health benefits. It contains many bioactive compounds such as caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenoid alcohols which have so far been associated with many potential health benefits. For example, caffeine reduces risk of developing neurodegenerative disease and chlorogenic acids (CGA) and diterpene alcohols have many health benefits such as antioxidant and chemo-preventive. Coffee also have harmful effects. For example, diterpenoid alcohols increases serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels and thus it has adverse effects on cardiovascular system. Overall, the study that supports the health benefits of coffee is increasing. But, it is thought-provoking that the association with health benefits of coffee consumption and frequency at different levels in each study. For this reason, we aimed to examine the health effect of the coffee and how much consumption is to investigate whether it meets the claimed health benefits.

  14. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B; Souza Djair SL; Silva Maria CM; Albuquerque Érika VS; Barbosa Aulus EAD; Valencia Arnubio; Rocha Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa Maria F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hy...

  15. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A; Boletim estatistico comercial da CELESC: Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates 6 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  17. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage Características analíticas e discriminação de suco, néctar e bebida de uva comerciais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.A produção e a comercialização de suco de uva brasileiro estão aumentando anualmente devido a sua tipicidade, qualidade e valor nutritivo. Por isso, realizou-se este trabalho em face de sua importância para a agroindústria de vinho e de suco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição e discriminação do suco de uva em relação a outras bebidas dele derivadas. Avaliaram-se 24 amostras de sucos de uva −integral, adoçado e reprocessado −, néctar de uva e bebida de uva. As variáveis clássicas foram determinadas por meio de métodos físico-químicos; os ácidos tartárico e málico, por HPLC; o metanol, por cromatografia gasosa; e os minerais, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Esses produtos foram

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  19. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  20. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  1. CoffeeScript application development

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ian

    2013-01-01

    CoffeeScript Application Development is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. Follow the smooth and easy tutorial approach, covering examples that build in complexity. By the final chapter you'll be wondering why you didn't try CoffeeScript sooner.If you are a JavaScript developer who wants to save time and add power to your code, then this is the book that will help you do it. With minimal fuss you will learn a whole new language which will reduce your application development time from weeks to days.

  2. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  3. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  4. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate.

  5. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of a total mixed ration silage containing coffee grounds at ten or twenty percent of dry matter1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C C Xu; Y Cai; J G Zhang; M Ogawa

    2007-01-01

    ...) silages that included wet coffee grounds (WCG). The TMR were prepared using a commercial compound feed, timothy hay, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, and a vitamin-mineral supplement in a ratio of 36.5:30:20:12...

  6. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of a total mixed ration silage containing coffee grounds at ten or twenty percent of dry matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, C. C; Cai, Y; Zhang, J. G; Ogawa, M

    2007-01-01

    ...) silages that included wet coffee grounds (WCG). The TMR were prepared using a commercial compound feed, timothy hay, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, and a vitamin-mineral supplement in a ratio of 36.5:30:20:12...

  7. Phenol adsorption by activated carbon produced from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cínthia S; Abreu, Anelise L; Silva, Carmen L T; Guerreiro, Mário C

    2011-01-01

    The present work highlights the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) using spent coffee grounds, an agricultural residue, as carbon precursor and two different activating agents: water vapor (ACW) and K(2)CO(3) (ACK). These ACs presented the microporous nature and high surface area (620-950 m(2) g(-1)). The carbons, as well as a commercial activated carbon (CAC) used as reference, were evaluated as phenol adsorbent showing high adsorption capacity (≈150 mg g(-1)). The investigation of the pH solution in the phenol adsorption was also performed. The different activating agents led to AC with distinct morphological properties, surface area and chemical composition, although similar phenol adsorption capacity was verified for both prepared carbons. The production of activated carbons from spent coffee grounds resulted in promising adsorbents for phenol removal while giving a noble destination to the residue.

  8. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  10. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  11. Income Content of the World Coffee Exports Income Content of the World Coffee Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Monteiro da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is the most widely commercialized tropical product on the international market. The 2009/10 crop had an estimated value of $15.4 billion, with 93.4 million bags exported. According to the International Coffee Organization (ICO, 2011, the coffee sector employed  around 26 million people in 56 producing countries and over 100 exporting countries. But how would coffee products rank, in terms of income content, in relation to other commercialized products, and how have they evolved? To answer this question, the annual income content of 5,111 products exported by 167 countries from the period between 2000 and 2009, was calculated. Data from the UNCOMTRADE (2011, and “sophistication” indicators proposed by Hausmann and Rodrik (2003 who classify different products according to their productivity, were used. An emphasis was put on five coffee products (whole grain, roasted, decaffeinated, caffeinated, and soluble, showing the evolution of the number of exporting countries and of the “sophistication” index (income content, whose temporal variation was decomposed by the effects of competitiveness and income per capita changes. The results showed that non-roasted, non-decaffeinated, whole grain coffee is still the most commercialized product, but with the lowest income content of all coffee products, occupying the twenty-fourth worst position in terms of income content in 2009. The roasted, decaffeinated coffee presented the greatest income growth in the period, placing itself in the 3,309th position in 2009. The decomposition of the index showed that for coffee products with the most processing, the greatest cause of export sophistication growth was the Revealed Comparative Advantage effect. Products with the least amount of processing presented a loss in relative market share, with the addition of values to the production chain occurring outside those countries producing the raw materials.El café es el producto tropical m

  12. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  13. The Impact of Market Reform Programmes on Coffee Prices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of coffee production, marketing and trade. The institutionalization of coffee ... years and its demise meant allowing coffee prices to vary based on the market forces of supply and demand. Also the purpose of liberalizing coffee .... question with respect to effects of reform policies on the direction and magnitude of coffee price.

  14. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column

  15. Double Coffee opens in China

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti suursaadik Ingrida Levrence avas esimese Double Coffee kohviku Hiina pealinnas Pekingi südames. Rahvusvaheline kohvikukett kavatseb laieneda mõne kohviku võrra igal aastal. Seni tegutsetakse Lätis, Eestis, Leedus, Ukrainas ja Valgevenes

  16. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  17. Coffee consumption and incident dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R.F.A.G. de Bruijn (Renée); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCoffee consumption has been frequently reported for its protective association with incident dementia. However, this association has mostly been reported in studies with short follow-up periods, and it remains unclear to what extent reverse causality influences this association. Studying

  18. Formas de apresentação e embalagens de mandioquinha-salsa no varejo brasileiro New forms and product types of arracacha commercialized at the Brazilian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-03-01

    identified. The objective of this paper is to make a survey of arracacha packing and types of product commercialized at the Brazilian retail market, and a preliminary study of the consumer perception of the product in São Paulo. Data were collected through visits to supermarkets, grocery shops and other retail markets in the metropolitan areas of São Paulo and Brasília from 2001 to 2003. Arracacha is sold at the retail market in ten distinct forms and product types, three of them organic and seven grown in the conventional system. The two most common ways of selling arracacha is displaying the roots on open market stands without wrapping and in Styrofoam trays wrapped with PVC films. Organic arracacha had higher average retail prices when compared to the traditional product, reaching R$ 5.80/kg for non-packed roots, R$ 9.95/kg for PVC-wrapped roots and R$ 11.54/kg for precooked and vacuum-packed roots. For the conventionally cultivated arracacha, prepacked forms (PVC film, minimally processed roots (peeled; slices; rods; whole roots packed in vacuum-sealed bags and precooked roots in vacuum-sealed bags had higher prices at the retail market, ranging from R$ 4.16/kg (peeled roots to R$ 8.60/kg (slices. The new arracacha forms and product types at the Brazilian retail market had higher added value and fulfill specific market demands.

  19. The Impact of Coffee on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  1. Hydrolysis of isolated coffee mannan and coffee extract by mannanases of Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachslehner, A; Foidl, G; Foidl, N; Gübitz, G; Haltrich, D

    2000-06-23

    Different mannanase preparations obtained from the filamentous fungus Sclerotium rolfsii were used for the hydrolysis of coffee mannan, thus reducing significantly the viscosity of coffee extracts. Mannan is the main polysaccharide component of these extracts and is responsible for their high viscosity, which negatively affects the technological processing of instant coffee. Coffee mannan was isolated from green defatted Arabica beans by delignification, acid wash and subsequent alkali extraction with a yield of 12.8%. Additionally, coffee extract polysaccharides were separated by alcohol precipitation and were found to form nearly half of the coffee extract dry weight. These isolated mannans as well as the mannan in the coffee extract were efficiently hydrolysed by the S. rolfsii mannanase, which resulted in significant viscosity reductions. Concurrently, the reducing sugar content increased continuously due to the release of various mannooligosaccharides including mannotetraose, mannotriose, and mannobiose. Both a partially purified, immobilised and a soluble, crude mannanase preparation were successfully employed for the degradation of coffee mannan.

  2. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  3. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee. PMID:20565807

  4. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  5. Overview on the mechanisms of coffee germination and fermentation and their significance for coffee and coffee beverage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V

    2017-01-22

    Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.

  6. Determination of the alkylpyrazine composition of coffee using stable isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SIDA-GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Stephanie; Becker, Irina; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Richling, Elke

    2013-07-03

    A stable isotope dilution analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (SIDA-GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 12 alkylpyrazines found in commercially available coffee samples. These compounds contribute to coffee flavor. The accuracy of this method was tested by analyzing model mixtures of alkylpyrazines. Comparisons of alkylpyrazine-concentrations suggested that water as extraction solvent was superior to dichloromethane. The distribution patterns of alkylpyrazines in different roasted coffees were quite similar. The most abundant alkylpyrazine in each coffee sample was 2-methylpyrazine, followed by 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, respectively. Among the alkylpyrazines tested, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine revealed the lowest concentrations in roasted coffee. By the use of isotope dilution analysis, the total concentrations of alkylpyrazines in commercially available ground coffee ranged between 82.1 and 211.6 mg/kg, respectively. Decaffeinated coffee samples were found to contain lower amounts of alkylpyrazines than regular coffee samples by a factor of 0.3-0.7, which might be a result of the decaffeination procedure.

  7. Analysis of Energy Characteristics of Rice and Coffee Husks Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuthbert F. Mhilu

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper reports work done to determine energy characteristics of rice and coffee husks. The results show that coffee husks have better energy quality than rice husks, while heating values of coffee are 18.34 MJ/kg...

  8. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Walking with coffee: when and why coffee spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Hans C.; Krechetnikov, Rouslan

    2011-11-01

    In our busy lives, almost all of us have to walk with a cup of coffee. Needless to say, under certain conditions we spill that precious liquid. This is a common example of the interplay between the mechanics of the complex motion of a walking individual and the fluid dynamics of a low viscosity liquid contained in a cup. We report on the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to explore the particular conditions under which coffee spills. Frame-by-frame analysis of recorded movies helps to elucidate the trajectory of the cup for various walking speeds and initial liquid levels. These kinematics, including both regular and irregular motions, are connected to instances during walking that result in spilled liquid. The coupling between mechanical aspects of walking and the fluid motion are analyzed based on which we determine a basic operational space with which one can confidently walk with cup in hand.

  10. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  12. Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro Vianna Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

  13. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  14. Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis...

  15. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  16. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  17. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  18. Assessment of Cellular Mutagenicity of Americano Coffees from Popular Coffee Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.

  19. The impact of coffee on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, A; Tarín, J J; Cano, A

    2013-05-01

    Coffee is a beverage used worldwide. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implication on health. We have reviewed publications on the impact of coffee on a series of health outcomes. Articles published between January 1990 and December 2012 were selected after crossing coffee or caffeine with a list of keywords representative of the most relevant health areas potentially affected by coffee intake. Caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes are important components of coffee. Tolerance often acts as a modulator of the biological actions of coffee. There is a significant impact of coffee on the cardiovascular system, and on the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Contrary to previous beliefs, the various forms of arterial cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia or heart insufficiency seem unaffected by coffee intake. Coffee is associated with a reduction in the incidence of diabetes and liver disease. Protection seems to exist also for Parkinson's disease among the neurological disorders, while its potential as an osteoporosis risk factor is under debate. Its effect on cancer risk depends on the tissue concerned, although it appears to favor risk reduction. Coffee consumption seems to reduce mortality. The information gathered in recent years has generated a new concept of coffee, one which does not match the common belief that coffee is mostly harmful. This view is further supported by the discovery of a series of phyto-components with a beneficial profile. Reasonable optimism needs to be tempered, however, by the insufficiency of the clinical data, which in most cases stem from observational studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neglected Food Bubbles: The Espresso Coffee Foam

    OpenAIRE

    Illy, Ernesto; Navarini, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Coffee beverage known as espresso, must be topped by a velvety thick, reddish-brown foam called crema, to be considered properly prepared and to be appreciated by connoisseurs. In spite of the relevant role played by crema as a quality marker, espresso coffee foam has not yet been the subject of detailed investigations. Only recently, some aspects of the Physics and Chemistry behind the espresso coffee foam have attracted the attention of scientists. In addition to sharing several characteris...

  1. On the Spent Coffee Grounds Biogas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Vítěz; Tomáš Koutný; Martin Šotnar; Jan Chovanec

    2016-01-01

    Due to the strict legislation currently in use for landfilling, anaerobic digestion has a strong potential as an alternative treatment for biodegradable waste. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and spent coffee grounds (SCG) are generated in a considerable amount as a processing waste during making the coffee beverage. Chemical composition of SCG, presence of polysaccharides, proteins, and minerals makes from the SCG substrates with high biotechnological value, which m...

  2. The effects of coffee on glucose metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Tracey M.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that coffee drinking may confer a beneficial effect on health by reducing the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and indeed there is much epidemiological evidence for a reduced incidence of T2DM in habitual coffee drinkers. However, many acute studies have reported a temporary worsening in postprandial glycaemia following caffeinated coffee (CC) consumption. Varied methodologies have been employed by these studies with many giving their participants large...

  3. Social and Ecological Drivers of the Economic Value of Pollination Services Delivered to Coffee in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Mushambanyi Théodore Munyuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On-farm pollination experiments were conducted in 30 different small-scale coffee fields to determine monetary value attributable to pollination services in coffee production and to identify the degree of influences of various socio-ecological drivers in Uganda. Ecological-economic approaches were applied to determine the economic value of pollinating services. Economic value of bees increased significantly with increase in coffee farm size, bee diversity, and cover of seminatural habitats. The value of bees declined sharply (P<0.05 with forest distance and cultivation intensity. Economic values of pollinating services associated with coffee fields established in regions with low intensity were found to be high. Organically managed small-scale coffee fields were 2 times more profitable than commercially managed farms. The annual value of pollinating services delivered by wild bees oscillated between US$67.18 and US$1431.36. Central Uganda produces in total 0.401 million tons of coffee beans for an approximate economic value of US$214 million from which US$149.42 million are attributable to pollination services. Policy makers should strengthen environmental/agricultural extension service systems to better serve farmers. Farmers are recommended to protect/increase the cover of natural and semi-natural habitats in the vicinity of their coffee fields to receive high economic benefits from pollinating services delivered by bees.

  4. Study of composition of espresso coffee prepared from various roast degrees of Coffea arabica L. coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučera, Lukáš; Papoušek, Roman; Kurka, Ondřej; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr

    2016-05-15

    Espresso coffee samples prepared at various roasting degrees defined according to its basic conventional classification (light, medium, medium-dark and dark roasted) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained raw data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to evaluate chemical differences between each roasting degrees (untargeted part of study). All four roasting degrees were resolved in appropriate Score plot. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures provided signals of significant markers describing the differences among particular roasting degrees. Detailed interpretation of those signals by targeted LC/MS(2) analysis revealed four groups of compounds. The first two groups involve chlorogenic acids and related lactones. The signals of other two sets of markers were ascribed to some specific atractylosides and particular melanoidins. Ratios of contents of selected representatives of each group to the sum of all identified markers were proposed as definite parameters for determination of roasting degree of Brazilian coffee Arabica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Little Book on CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaw, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This little book shows JavaScript developers how to build superb web applications with CoffeeScript, the remarkable little language that's gaining considerable interest. Through example code, this guide demonstrates how CoffeeScript abstracts JavaScript, providing syntactical sugar and preventing many common errors. You'll learn CoffeeScript's syntax and idioms step by step, from basic variables and functions to complex comprehensions and classes. Written by Alex MacCaw, author of JavaScript Web Applications (O'Reilly), with contributions from CoffeeScript creator Jeremy Ashkenas, this book

  6. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    OpenAIRE

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA; ROXANA SARBU; ELENA CONDREA

    2014-01-01

    The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s). The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many...

  7. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  8. Seed Storage Proteins In Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bau S.M.T.; Mazzafera P.; Santoro L.G.

    2001-01-01

    It has been reported that Coffea arabica seeds contain as the main reserve protein, a legumin-like protein, constituted of two subunits, alpha and beta, of approximately 35 and 20 kDa. In this work the seed proteins of several coffee species and varieties were investigated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. No differences were observed in the electrophoretic profiles among varieties of C. arabica, however, marked differences were observed among species, or even among individuals of some species....

  9. Isolation and quantification of major chlorogenic acids in three major instant coffee brands and their potential effects on H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis in PC-12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee is a most consumed drink worldwide. In this paper, from three commercially available instant coffees, major chlorogenic acids were isolated and quantified using HPLC and NMR spectroscopic methods. Also, their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined using DPPH-radical sca...

  10. The Climate Change and Rwandan Coffee Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Hakorimana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed overview of the current situation of the coffee sector in the Rwandan economy and identifies the possible challenges that the sector is currently facing. The study has identified the economic and the livelihood indicators for farmers who are engaged in coffee production and also gives the Rwandan coffee sector’ situation and its position in the global coffee market. Also, the research has found out that in Rwanda, nearly 500,000 farmers produce coffee along with other crops, notably beans, savory banana and corn and found out that in 2012, coffee accounted for almost 30 percent of Rwanda’s total export revenue. On the other hand, the study revealed that the sector throughout all the coffee production process, has undergone different challenges especially climate change as it is reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources. A low yield was reported in 2007 and climate variability was quoted among the causes. Insufficient rainfall in the last three months of 2006 (the period of coffee flowering proceeding the short dry season in the first two months of 2007 was recorded. The reduced rainfall was also poorly distributed across coffee growing regions in Rwanda. In addition, the research revealed that even though the area under coffee production is increasing, the coffee production is decreasing due to unexpected climate change and variability in current years and also the improper use of chemical fertilizers by coffee farmers is very critical. The study concluded that adding value to the coffee supply chain of Rwanda is adding direct economic benefits and important indirect social benefits to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities in Rwanda. Moreover, more effort should continue to raise the profile of the Rwandan coffee sector suggesting that proper use of chemical fertilizers, solid marketing channels and climate change adaptations measures would be the fair ways of making the

  11. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  12. Genetics of coffee consumption and its stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitala, Venla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-12-01

    Coffee is a highly popular drink associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases and the use of tobacco and alcohol. Considering the worldwide consumption, coffee has a substantial effect on individual wellbeing and public health. The role of genetic factors contributing to interindividual differences and their stability in coffee use is not well known. We analysed the heritability of coffee consumption and its stability in a large population-based sample of Finnish twins. In 1975 and 1981 a postal questionnaire on coffee consumption was sent to all Finnish same-sex twin pairs born before 1958. Responses were obtained from 10 716 complete twin pairs in 1975 (3409 monozygotic and 7307 dizygotic), of whom 8124 also responded in 1981. The data were analysed using classical twin modelling based on linear structural equations. Additive genetic and unique environmental factors affected coffee drinking, whereas shared environmental factors did not show any effect. Heritability of coffee consumption, adjusted for age and sex, was estimated as 0.56 in 1975 and 0.45 in 1981. Coffee consumption showed a moderate correlation between these two time-points (r = 0.58 in men and 0.55 in women). Genetic factors affecting coffee consumption were stable: additive genetic correlations were 0.84 in men and 0.83 in women, whereas unique environmental correlations were moderate (0.45 and 0.36). Additive genetic factors had the highest contribution in young adults. Coffee consumption is affected by both additive genetic and unique environmental factors, each of which plays an almost equally important role. The long-term stability of coffee consumption is affected mainly by a stable set of additive genetic factors.

  13. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-04

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  14. Botanical and geographical characterization of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora): chemometric evaluation of phenolic and methylxanthine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Serra, Francesca; Reniero, Fabiano; Héberger, Károly

    2009-05-27

    Green coffee beans of the two main commercial coffee varieties, Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta), from the major growing regions of America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania were studied. The contents of chlorogenic acids, cinnamoyl amides, cinnamoyl glycosides, free phenolic acids, and methylxanthines of green coffee beans were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with UV spectrophotometry to determine their botanical and geographical origins. The analysis of caffeic acid, 3-feruloylquinic acid, 5-feruloylquinic acid, 4-feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-5-feruloylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-4-feruloylquinic acid, 3-p-coumaroyl-4-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-4-dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-5-dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl-N-tryptophan, feruloyl-N-tryptophan, caffeoyl-N-tryptophan, and caffeine enabled the unequivocal botanical characterization of green coffee beans. Moreover, some free phenolic acids and cinnamate conjugates of green coffee beans showed great potential as means for the geographical characterization of coffee. Thus, p-coumaroyl-N-tyrosine, caffeoyl-N-phenylalanine, caffeoyl-N-tyrosine, 3-dimethoxycinnamoyl-5-feruloylquinic acid, and dimethoxycinnamic acid were found to be characteristic markers for Ugandan Robusta green coffee beans. Multivariate data analysis of the phenolic and methylxanthine profiles provided preliminary results that allowed showing their potential for the determination of the geographical origin of green coffees. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) provided classification models that correctly identified all authentic Robusta green coffee beans from Cameroon and Vietnam and 94% of those from Indonesia. Moreover, PLS-DA afforded independent models for Robusta samples from these three countries with sensitivities and specificities of classifications close to 100% and for Arabica samples from America and

  15. Electrochemical behavior and determination of major phenolic antioxidants in selected coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; Rezende, Stefani Garcia; de Fátima Reis, Carolina; Benjamin, Stephen Rathinaraj; Rocha, Matheus Lavorenti; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The redox behavior of commercial roasted coffee products were evaluated by electroanalysis, whereas high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for determination of cinnamic acid markers, the total phenolic content (TPC) was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and the traditional DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method for antioxidant power determination. In turn, an optimized electrochemical index was proposed to estimate the antioxidant power of different samples and it was found a great correlation between all methods. The voltammetric profile of all coffee samples was quite similar, presenting the same number of peaks at the same potential values. Minor differences on current levels were in agreement with the total phenolic and major markers content, as well as, to the antioxidant power. Therefore, the electrochemical methods showed to be practical, low cost and very useful to evaluate the antioxidant properties of coffee samples, which is a relevant quality parameter of this widely consumed beverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self Reported Symptoms associated with Coffee Consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the psycho physiological effects of coffee consumption as reported by University students. The relationship between coffee consumption and anxiety was also explored. It was hypothesized that heavy caffeine users would report significantly higher anxiety and more psychophysical symptoms of ...

  17. Crushing of roasted Arabica coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with experimental research on the crushing of coffee beans of different kinds under quasi-static compression. The process of the crushing is described in details. It has been shown that there is variability in the crushing strength values. A relation between crushing strength and the coffee grain shape is also studied. Roasted Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica beans were used for analyses. Arabica coffees were produced in Colombia and Indonesia. Abbreviation in the square brackets indicates the coffee type and it is used in the text hereinafter. All Arabica samples were submitted to a light roast. The detail analysis of the experimental data shows that there is no significant relation between parameters describing the fracture behaviour of the grains and grain geometry. These parameters are also independent on the grain weight. Compression of the coffee grains leads to their crushing. The fracture force is different for the different kinds of the coffee. The same is fact valid also for the strain at the fracture and for the energy absorbed during the grain crushing. The obtained results suggest that the fracture parameters obtained at the compression loading are dependent only on the coffee brand and on the roasting conditions.

  18. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in Rats fed on High-Sucrose Diet. ... Summary: Several epidemiological evidences indicate that consumption of coffee is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) however; there is dearth of experimental data to support these ...

  19. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    beneficial health effects of coffee consumption have received considerable scientific attention (Nawrot et al. ... coffee may reduce the cariogenic potential of foods by reducing plaque formation (Armstrong et al. 2005). .... hour (16-hr) fast, blood was collected from the tail of the animals and used for the determination of the.

  20. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  1. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and

  2. Coffee, colon function and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-09-01

    For several years the physiological effects of coffee have been focused on its caffeine content, disregarding the hundreds of bioactive coffee components, such as polyphenols, melanoidins, carbohydrates, diterpenes, etc. These compounds may exert their protection against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. However, the amount and type of compounds ingested with the beverage may be highly different depending on the variety of coffee used, the roasting degree, the type of brewing method as well as the serving size. In this frame, this paper reviews the mechanisms by which coffee may influence the risk of CRC development focusing on espresso and filtered coffee, as well as on the components that totally or partially reach the colon i.e. polyphenols and dietary fiber, including melanoidins. In particular the effects of coffee on some colon conditions whose deregulation may lead to cancer, namely microbiota composition and lumen reducing environment, were considered. Taken together the discussed studies indicated that, due to their in vivo metabolism and composition, both coffee chlorogenic acids and dietary fiber, including melanoidins, may reduce CRC risk, increasing colon motility and antioxidant status. Further studies should finally assess whether the coffee benefits for colon are driven through a prebiotic effect.

  3. Study of the Pigments in Colombian Powdered Coffee Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Bedoya, A.; Marín, E.

    2017-01-01

    Biological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.

  4. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  5. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  6. Coordinating quality practices in Direct Trade coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Emil; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kerndrup, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many food niches have emerged with a specific focus on quality. In specialty coffee, micro roasters have brought about Direct Trade coffee as a way of organising an alternative around new tastes and qualities through ongoing and ‘direct’ relations to farmers...... and cooperatives. But Direct Trade also involves exporters. We ask, how do exporters and roasters work together in these new coffee relations, and what do they work on? We observe and participate in a situation where Colombian coffee exporters visit Danish roasters. They tour the roasting facilities and taste...... a number of coffees. Often, the term power is used to analyse such value chain interactions, but we argue that the term coordination better opens up these interactions for exploration and analysis. What emerges is a coordination of quality. Through touring and tasting, issues emerge and differences...

  7. Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.

  8. A perception on health benefits of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sunitha Elizabeth; Ramalakshmi, Kulathooran; Mohan Rao, Lingamallu Jagan

    2008-05-01

    Coffee, consumed for its refreshing and stimulating effect, belongs to the tribe Coffea of the subfamily Cinchonoidea of Rubiaceae family. Coffee is a complex chemical mixture composed of several chemicals. It is responsible for a number of bioactivities and a number of compounds accounting for these effects. Few of the significant bioactivities documented are antioxidant activity, anticarcinogenic activity, antimutagenic activity etc. Various compounds responsible for the chemoprotective effects of coffee are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, kahweol, cafestol, and other phenolics. Coffee also shows protective or adverse effects on various systems like the skeletal (bone) system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the homocysteine levels, the cholesterol levels etc. Harmful effects of coffee are associated with people who are sensitive to stimulants. Overall, with the available information, it can be concluded that the moderate consumption, corresponding to 3 to 4 cups/day with average strength is safer to human health.

  9. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, large quantities of husk resulting from the dry method of treatment of robusta coffee are dumped into nature. This generates multiple harmful ecological effects. The downward trend of coffee prices and the rise in the cost of manure has urged coffee farmers to better exploit the by-products of coffee transformation.

  10. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  11. Effect of Dominant Shade Trees on Coffee Production in Manasibu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of shade trees species on coffee production in Manasibu district, West Ethiopia was assessed by the current study. It was aimed to (i) identify the most suitable dominant shade tree species for coffee production; (ii) assess the status of coffee production under different dominant coffee shade trees and unshaded areas ...

  12. A repellent against the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...

  13. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Science with coffee and hobnobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Hannah D.; Macdonald, Averil M.; Eason, Robert W.

    2005-10-01

    Many parents or guardians of primary school pupils have little knowledge of science, and many lack confidence in their ability to help their children, though most welcome the chance to do so. We describe our experiences running a series of meetings in the form of coffee sessions at local primary schools, where parents can increase their knowledge and confidence in the science their children study, and engage in simple experiments with their children to apply the knowledge they gain. We discuss how this programme can be instrumental in improving the profile of scientific education and scientific careers for children of a young age.

  15. Polyphenoloxidase activity in coffee leaves and its role in resistance against the coffee leaf miner and coffee leaf rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Shimizu, Milton Massao; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2006-02-01

    In plants, PPO has been related to defense mechanism against pathogens and insects and this role was investigated in coffee trees regarding resistance against a leaf miner and coffee leaf rust disease. PPO activity was evaluated in different genotypes and in relation to methyl-jasmonate (Meja) treatment and mechanical damage. Evaluations were also performed using compatible and incompatible interactions of coffee with the fungus Hemileia vastatrix (causal agent of the leaf orange rust disease) and the insect Leucoptera coffeella (coffee leaf miner). The constitutive level of PPO activity observed for the 15 genotypes ranged from 3.8 to 88 units of activity/mg protein. However, no direct relationship was found with resistance of coffee to the fungus or insect. Chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid), the best substrate for coffee leaf PPO, was not related to resistance, suggesting that oxidation of other phenolics by PPO might play a role, as indicated by HPLC profiles. Mechanical damage, Meja treatment, H. vastatrix fungus inoculation and L. coffeella infestation caused different responses in PPO activity. These results suggest that coffee resistance may be related to the oxidative potential of the tissue regarding the phenolic composition rather than simply to a higher PPO activity.

  16. Determinação do percentual de malte e adjuntos em cervejas comerciais brasileiras através de análise isotópica Determination of malt and adjunct percentage in brazilian commercial beer through isotopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muris Sleiman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Oobjetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a quantidade de malte e de adjunto presentes nas cervejas comerciais brasileiras do tipo Pilsen e detectar possível adulteração em sua composição, tomando por base a legislação brasileira. Para isso, foi utilizada a metodologia de análise isotópica utilizando os isótopos estáveis dos elementos carbono e nitrogênio. Foram analisadas 161 amostras de cervejas provenientes de dezessete estados do Brasil. Concluiu-se que 95,6 % utilizaram malte e adjunto cervejeiro (derivados de milho ou açúcar de cana: 91,3 % e derivados de arroz: 4,3 % em sua formulação e outros 4,3 % eram cervejas "puro malte". Das amostras analisadas, 3,7 % eram cervejas com menos de 50 % de malte em sua formulação (adulteradas, 28,6 % delas estavam na faixa de incerteza, para qualquer tipo de adjunto e 67,7 % apresentaram malte dentro do limite legal estabelecido.The aim of this study was to determine the amount of malt and adjunct in Pilsen Brazilian commercial beer, and to detect likely adulteration in its composition, based on the Brazilian legislation. The methodology applied was the isotopic analysis which used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. One hundred sixty-one beer samples from seventeen Brazilian states were analyzed. It was concluded that 95.6% used malt and adjunct (corn or sugarcane derived: 91.3% and rice derived: 4.3% in their formula and 4.3% were "pure malt" beer. Among the analyzed samples 3.7% were beers with less than 50% of malt in their formula (adulterated, 28.6% of them were in doubtful level for any adjunct and 67.7% contained malt in the legal established limit.

  17. The Value Chain for Indonesian Coffee in a Green Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Neilson, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The global value chain for Indonesian coffee is currently undergoing significant structural changes, which offer both opportunities and policy challenges for the Government of Indonesia in its attempt to develop a national green economy. These changes include: the declining importance of coffee farming as a reliable livelihood strategy for many rural households; growth of the domestic coffee processing sector; and the increasing influence of coffee trading companies in coffee farm systems ass...

  18. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-01-01

    Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80–90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnai...

  19. Neglected Food Bubbles: The Espresso Coffee Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Ernesto; Navarini, Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Coffee beverage known as espresso, must be topped by a velvety thick, reddish-brown foam called crema, to be considered properly prepared and to be appreciated by connoisseurs. In spite of the relevant role played by crema as a quality marker, espresso coffee foam has not yet been the subject of detailed investigations. Only recently, some aspects of the Physics and Chemistry behind the espresso coffee foam have attracted the attention of scientists. In addition to sharing several characteristics with other food foams like beer foam, for instance, the espresso coffee foam may contain solid particles (minute coffee cell-wall fragments), it is subjected to a remarkable temperature gradient and its continuous phase is an oil in water emulsion rendering it a very complex system to be studied. Moreover, in the typical regular espresso coffee cup volume (serving) of 25-30 mL, crema represents at least 10% of the total volume, and this is a limitation in obtaining experimental data by conventional instruments. The present work is aimed at reviewing the literature on espresso coffee foam. The traditional espresso brewing method will be briefly described with emphasis on the steps particularly relevant to foam formation and stabilization. In addition to present up-dated experimental data on surface properties at solid/beverage and air/beverage interface, recent advances on the espresso foam formation mechanism, as well as on foam stability, will be critically examined. The key role played by carbon dioxide generated by roasting and the effects of low and high-molecular-weight coffee compounds in promoting/inhibiting the espresso coffee foam will be discussed and emphasized.

  20. On the Spent Coffee Grounds Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strict legislation currently in use for landfilling, anaerobic digestion has a strong potential as an alternative treatment for biodegradable waste. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and spent coffee grounds (SCG are generated in a considerable amount as a processing waste during making the coffee beverage. Chemical composition of SCG, presence of polysaccharides, proteins, and minerals makes from the SCG substrates with high biotechnological value, which might be used as valuable input material in fermentation process. The methane production ranged from 0.271–0.325 m3/kg dry organic matter.

  1. What is more addictive : cannabis or coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Hili, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The answer is coffee. Coffee is drunk by around 80% of Americans. The large numbers call for extensive studies on the effect of this drug on the brain. Caffeine is a stimulant. It has a similar molecular structure to adenosine, a chemical linked to us feeling tired. Caffeine binds to adenosine and stops it from working. Coffee does not wake you up but makes your body forget it is tired. Taking that espresso in the morning makes your body increase the number of receptors to caffeine in the bra...

  2. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  3. Saving coffee | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-26

    Sep 26, 2017 ... Global warming is threatening coffee production and the economies of small countries that rely on it to make a living. In Colombia, producers and scientists are keeping a close eye on the situation.

  4. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard...... regression models evaluated with restricted cubic splines to examine observational associations in 95 366 White Danes. Second, we estimated mean coffee intake according to five genetic variations near the AHR (rs4410790; rs6968865) and CYP1A1/2 genes (rs2470893; rs2472297; rs2472299). Third, we used sex...

  5. LABORATORY SCREENING OF SOME SAPROPHYTIC COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Saprophytic microflora were isolated from coffee berry surfaces. Eight isolates were selected for antagonistic tests against Colletotrichum kahawae. Six isolates (Bacillus macerans [two isolates], Epicoccum nigrum,. Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum and Pestalotiopsis sp) were selected for having inhibition zones.

  6. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  7. High Molecular Weight Melanoidins from Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein

  8. Benefit-cost analysis of Uganda's clonal coffee replanting program: An ex-ante analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Benin, Samuel; You, Liangzhi

    2007-01-01

    "The Ugandan coffee industry is facing some serious challenges, including low international prices in the international coffee market, aging coffee trees and declining productivity, and, more recently, the appearance of coffee-wilt disease, which have all contributed to the decline in both the quantity and value of coffee exports. The government of Uganda, through the Uganda Coffee Development Authority (UCDA), in 1993/94 started a coffee-replanting program to both replace coffee trees that w...

  9. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, T

    1992-11-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use.

  10. Fermentative characteristics of coffee pulp silage with different proportions of coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the coffee pulp silages with different proportions of coffee hulls. The material was ensiled in PVC with 150 mm diameter by 750 mm high, according to the treatments: coffee pulp (CoP, CoP + 20% of coffee hulls (CH, CoP + 40% of CH and CoP + 60% CH in a completely randomized design with six replications. The silos were opened 60 days after closing, when samples were taken for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, cellulose, pH, N-NH3, caffeine, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. We also determined gas production and effluent. There was a linear increase in DM content and pH, and a linear decrease of CP, NDF and ADF, lignin, cellulose, caffeine, Ca and P. This reduction occurs because the coffee hulls have lower levels than pulp to CP, NDF, ADF, caffeine, Ca and P. There was also a linear reduction in N-NH3 values, and only the highest percentage of silage with coffee hulls obtained below 10%, considered as the limit for good quality silage. Effluent production was higher for silage shelled coffee pulp and do not get any production in silage with 60% coffee hull. There was no significant difference in vitro digestibility of dry matter among treatments. The coffee hulls was effective in increasing DM content of CoP silage and to reduce NDF, ADF, N-NH3, providing nutritional value of silage satisfactory for cattle feed, creating an alternative for recovery of such waste. When considering the DM content found in silages, the amount of bark best coffee to be added to coffee pulp for the production of silage is between 30% and 35%.

  11. Coffee and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M Tauseef

    2011-04-01

    Coffee is the leading worldwide beverage after water and its trade exceeds US $10 billion worldwide. Controversies regarding its benefits and risks still exist as reliable evidence is becoming available supporting its health promoting potential; however, some researchers have argued about the association of coffee consumption with cardiovascular complications and cancer insurgence. The health-promoting properties of coffee are often attributed to its rich phytochemistry, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ), etc. Many research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses regarding coffee consumption revealed its inverse correlation with that of diabetes mellitus, various cancer lines, Parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, it ameliorates oxidative stress because of its ability to induce mRNA and protein expression, and mediates Nrf2-ARE pathway stimulation. Furthermore, caffeine and its metabolites help in proper cognitive functionality. Coffee lipid fraction containing cafestol and kahweol act as a safeguard against some malignant cells by modulating the detoxifying enzymes. On the other hand, their higher levels raise serum cholesterol, posing a possible threat to coronary health, for example, myocardial and cerebral infarction, insomnia, and cardiovascular complications. Caffeine also affects adenosine receptors and its withdrawal is accompanied with muscle fatigue and allied problems in those addicted to coffee. An array of evidence showed that pregnant women or those with postmenopausal problems should avoid excessive consumption of coffee because of its interference with oral contraceptives or postmenopausal hormones. This review article is an attempt to disseminate general information, health claims, and obviously the risk factors associated with coffee consumption to scientists, allied stakeholders, and certainly readers. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

  12. Aspects of nitrogen metabolism in coffee plants

    OpenAIRE

    Carelli,Maria Luiza Carvalho; Fahl,Joel Irineu; Ramalho, José D. Cochicho

    2006-01-01

    Coffee plants are highly N-demanding plants. Despite the importance of N nutrition for the development, acclimation and yield of coffee plants, there are few reports concerning N metabolism in this species. In this review, our intention is to summarize the information available in the literature and to point out the influence of environmental conditions on N assimilation, as well as comment and discuss some apparently contradictory results and raise and enlighten queries about N assimilation ...

  13. Metabolism of alkaloids in coffee plants

    OpenAIRE

    ASHIHARA, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Coffee beans contain two types of alkaloids, caffeine and trigonelline, as major components. This review describes the distribution and metabolism of these compounds. Caffeine is synthesised from xanthosine derived from purine nucleotides. The major biosynthetic route is xanthosine -> 7-methylxanthosine -> 7-methylxanthine -> theobromine -> caffeine. Degradation activity of caffeine in coffee plants is very low, but catabolism of theophylline is always present. Theophylline is converted to xa...

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of coffee-infecting Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Deibs; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Santos, Daiene Souza; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Cláudia; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; de Oliveira, Regina Souza; Nunes, Luiz R

    2015-05-01

    Strains of Xylella fastidiosa constitute a complex group of bacteria that develop within the xylem of many plant hosts, causing diseases of significant economic importance, such as Pierce's disease in North American grapevines and citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil. X. fastidiosa has also been obtained from other host plants, in direct correlation with the development of diseases, as in the case of coffee leaf scorch (CLS)--a disease with potential to cause severe economic losses to the Brazilian coffee industry. This paper describes a thorough genomic characterization of coffee-infecting X. fastidiosa strains, initially performed through a microarray-based approach, which demonstrated that CLS strains could be subdivided in two phylogenetically distinct subgroups. Whole-genomic sequencing of two of these bacteria (one from each subgroup) allowed identification of ORFs and horizontally transferred elements (HTEs) that were specific to CLS-related X. fastidiosa strains. Such analyses confirmed the size and importance of HTEs as major mediators of chromosomal evolution amongst these bacteria, and allowed identification of differences in gene content, after comparisons were made with previously sequenced X. fastidiosa strains, isolated from alternative hosts. Although direct experimentation still needs to be performed to elucidate the biological consequences associated with such differences, it was interesting to verify that CLS-related bacteria display variations in genes that produce toxins, as well as surface-related factors (such as fimbrial adhesins and LPS) that have been shown to be involved with recognition of specific host factors in different pathogenic bacteria. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Activated carbon prepared from coffee pulp: potential adsorbent of organic contaminants in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maraisa; Guerreiro, Mário César; Ramos, Paulize Honorato; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; Sapag, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The processing of coffee beans generates large amounts of solid and liquid residues. The solid residues (pulp, husk and parchment) represent a serious environmental problem and do not have an adequate disposal mechanism. In this work, activated carbons (ACs) for adsorption of organic compounds were prepared from coffee pulp by controlled temperature at different pulp/Na2HPO4 ratios (4:1, 2:1, 5:4 and 1:1). The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms showed ACs with high quantities of mesopores and micropores and specific surface areas of 140, 150, 450 and 440 m(2)g(-1) for AC 4:1, AC 2:1, AC 5:4 and AC 1:1, respectively. The prepared material AC 5:4 showed a higher removal capacity of the organic contaminants methylene blue (MB), direct red (DR) and phenol than did a Merck AC. The maximum capacities for this AC are approximately 150, 120 and 120 mg g(-1) for MB, DR and phenol, respectively. Thus, a good adsorbent was obtained from coffee pulp, an abundant Brazilian residue.

  16. In silico identification of coffee genome expressed sequences potentially associated with resistance to diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Samuel Mazzinghy; Caixeta, Eveline Teixeira; Hufnagel, Bárbara; Thiebaut, Flávia; Maciel-Zambolim, Eunize; Zambolim, Laércio; Sakiyama, Ney Sussumu

    2010-10-01

    Sequences potentially associated with coffee resistance to diseases were identified by in silico analyses using the database of the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project (BCGP). Keywords corresponding to plant resistance mechanisms to pathogens identified in the literature were used as baits for data mining. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) related to each of these keywords were identified with tools available in the BCGP bioinformatics platform. A total of 11,300 ESTs were mined. These ESTs were clustered and formed 979 EST-contigs with similarities to chitinases, kinases, cytochrome P450 and nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins, as well as with proteins related to disease resistance, pathogenesis, hypersensitivity response (HR) and plant defense responses to diseases. The 140 EST-contigs identified through the keyword NBS-LRR were classified according to function. This classification allowed association of the predicted products of EST-contigs with biological processes, including host defense and apoptosis, and with molecular functions such as nucleotide binding and signal transducer activity. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the significance of differences in contig expression between libraries representing the responses to biotic stress challenges and other libraries from the BCGP. This analysis revealed seven contigs highly similar to catalase, chitinase, protein with a BURP domain and unknown proteins. The involvement of these coffee proteins in plant responses to disease is discussed.

  17. In silico identification of coffee genome expressed sequences potentially associated with resistance to diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mazzinghy Alvarenga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequences potentially associated with coffee resistance to diseases were identified by in silico analyses using the database of the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project (BCGP. Keywords corresponding to plant resistance mechanisms to pathogens identified in the literature were used as baits for data mining. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs related to each of these keywords were identified with tools available in the BCGP bioinformatics platform. A total of 11,300 ESTs were mined. These ESTs were clustered and formed 979 EST-contigs with similarities to chitinases, kinases, cytochrome P450 and nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR proteins, as well as with proteins related to disease resistance, pathogenesis, hypersensitivity response (HR and plant defense responses to diseases. The 140 EST-contigs identified through the keyword NBS-LRR were classified according to function. This classification allowed association of the predicted products of EST-contigs with biological processes, including host defense and apoptosis, and with molecular functions such as nucleotide binding and signal transducer activity. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the significance of differences in contig expression between libraries representing the responses to biotic stress challenges and other libraries from the BCGP. This analysis revealed seven contigs highly similar to catalase, chitinase, protein with a BURP domain and unknown proteins. The involvement of these coffee proteins in plant responses to disease is discussed.

  18. Calcium and potassium contents in nutrient solution on Phoma leaf spot intensity in coffee seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aricléia de Moraes Catarino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the main export commodities of Brazilian agribusiness. Phoma leaf spot [Phoma tarda (Stewart Boerema & Bollen] is one of the most important coffee fungal diseases in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the intensity of Phoma leaf spot in coffee seedlings supplied with different rates of Ca+2 and K+. The study was conducted under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, at the Department of Phytopathology - UFLA, from February 2010 to December 2011. The assay was repeated twice under the same conditions. The nutrient solutions consisted of five concentrations of K+ (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 mmol L-1 and Ca+2 (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mmol L-1. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 25 treatments and three replicates, with two plants per plot. The areas under incidence progress curve (AUIPC and severity (AUSPC were calculated. At the lowest rate of Ca2+ (2 mmol L-1 and highest K+ (6 and 7 mmol L-1, approximately, the AUIPC was the smallest. For the AUSPC, the lowest rates of Ca+2 and K+ resulted in the lowest severities. Supply of Ca+2 and K+ in nutrient solution reduced AUIPC and AUSPC of Phoma leaf spot, and these nutrients can be recommended for the management of the disease.

  19. Concentration levels of metals in commercially available Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of nine essential metals (K, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co) and two non-essential (Pb, Cd) metals were determined in three brands of commercially available roasted Ethiopian coffee powders (Abyssinia, Alem and Pride) obtained from local markets and their infusions using flame atomic absorption ...

  20. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  1. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  2. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-06

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages.

  3. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.

  4. Attracting Students to Fluid Mechanics with Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new class developed at U.C. Davis titled "The Design of Coffee," which serves as a nonmathematical introduction to chemical engineering as illustrated by the process of roasting and brewing coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, conservation of energy, and fluid mechanics. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where students strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy - a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty. "The Design of Coffee" started as a freshmen seminar in 2013, and it has exploded in popularity: it now serves 1,533 students per year, and is the largest and most popular elective course at U.C. Davis. In this talk we focus on the class pedagogy as applied to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis on how coffee serves as an engaging and exciting topic for teaching students about fluid mechanics in an approachable, hands-on manner.

  5. Verwaarloosbare hoeveelheden cholesterolverhogende diterpenen in koffie gezet met de koffiepadzetmethode bij vergelijking met ongefilterde kookkoffie=Negligible amounts of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee made with coffee pads in comparison with unfiltered coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekschoten, M.V.; Cruchten, van S.T.J.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, J.G.; Katan, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee. DESIGN: Observational. METHOD: In five cities in the Netherlands coffee was purchased in three major

  6. Influence of roasting and different brewing processes on the ochratoxin A content in coffee determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pera, L; Avellone, G; Lo Turco, V; Di Bella, G; Agozzino, P; Dugo, G

    2008-10-01

    A rapid and reliable procedure has been developed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in green and roasted coffee. The method consists of extraction of the sample with methanol-5% aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate/1% PEG8000 (20:80), followed by immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and, finally, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination with fluorimetric detection. Mean recoveries for green and roasted coffee spiked at different levels ranging from 94 and 105% were obtained. The limit of determination (S/N = 3) was 0.032 ng g(-1) and the precision (within-laboratory relative standard deviation) was 6%. The method described has been used to assess the influence of roasting and different brewing processes on OTA content in commercial lots of green and roasted coffee. The results provided evidence that roasting led to a significant drop on OTA levels (65-100%). Also, the way coffee is prepared affects the OTA content: brewing using a Moka Express (Italian coffee) led to a significant reduction of OTA concentration (50-75%) since hot water stays in contact with coffee for a short time. On the contrary, Turkish coffee-making (infusion for about 10 min) cause poor reduction in OTA.

  7. Coffee harvest management by manipulation of coffee flowering with plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breaking of coffee flower bud dormancy is known to be associated with one or more significant rainfall events following an extended period of dryness. In Hawaii, lack of a distinct wet-dry season poses serious problems for coffee growers because flowering is spread over several months. Multiple...

  8. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  9. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food producers in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Wamala, S; Baryamutuma, R; Kabwama, E; Loewenson, R

    2013-09-01

    these economic returns, and spent more cash on health care and food from commercial sources. Their health outcomes were similar to those of the food producers, but with poorer dietary outcomes and greater food stress. The small-scale women farmers who are producing food cannot rely on the economic infrastructure to give them support for meaningful levels of production. However, despite having higher incomes than their food producing counterparts, the evidence showed that women who are producing coffee in Uganda as an export commodity cannot rely on the income from their crops to guarantee their health and nutritional wellbeing, and that the income advantage gained in coffee-producing households has not translated into consistently better health or food security outcomes. Both groups have limited levels of autonomy and control to address these problems.

  10. Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S

    2017-08-01

    Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.

  11. Chemical Characterization of Potentially Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Brewed Coffee and Spent Coffee Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2017-04-05

    Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.

  12. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secilmis, S S; Yanık, D Kocak; Gogus, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content both prior to roasting and after the roasting. The oil content was reduced to around 21.5 % in all roasting methods to approach to that of coffee beans. Powdered Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee brews were compared with each other and Turkish coffee in terms of aroma, flavor, acidity aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Sensorial analysis results showed that coffee brews prepared by pressing after the roasting process were better than those pressing prior to roasting.

  13. Application of commercial ion-exchange resins to isolation and fractionation of naphthenic acids of brazilian petroleum; Aplicacao de troca ionica em resinas comerciais para isolamento e fracionamento de acidos naftenicos de petroleos nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Maria Rangel de Figueiredo; Lopes, Damiana Claudia Nunes [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisas Analiticas e Tecnologicas (LAPAT)]. E-mail: anamaria @chemist.com; Teixeira, Marco Antonio Gomes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica]. E-mail: marcoa@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    Commercial ion-exchange resins showed different behaviors relating naphthenic acids retention. A characteristic behavior was employed for a fractionation procedure that is related to steric factors. Thus a characterization parameter is yielded, and that allows inferences on the corrosive behavior. (author)

  14. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  15. Wood-nesting ants and their parasites in forests and coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mora, Aldo; Philpott, Stacy M

    2010-10-01

    Agricultural intensification is linked to reduced species richness and may limit the effectiveness of predators in agricultural systems. We studied the abundance, diversity, and species composition of wood-nesting ants and frequency of parasitism of poneromorph ants in coffee agroeco systems and a forest fragment in Chiapas, Mexico. In three farms differing in shade management and in a nearby forest fragment, we surveyed ants nesting in rotten wood. We collected pupae of all poneromorph ants encountered, and incubated pupae for 15 d to recover emerging ant parasites. If no parasites emerged, we dissected pupae to examine for parasitism. Overall, we found 63 ant morphospecies, 29 genera, and 7 subfamilies from 520 colonies. There were no significant differences in ant richness or abundance between the different sites. However, there were significant differences in the species composition of ants sampled in the four different sites. The parasitism rates of ants differed according to site; in the forest 77.7% of species were parasitized, and this number declined with increasing intensification in traditional polyculture (40%),commercial polyculture (25%), and shade monoculture (16.6%). For three of four poneromorph species found in >1 habitat, parasitism rates were higher in the more vegetatively complex sites. The result that both ant species composition and ant parasitism differed among by site indicates that coffee management intensification affects wood-nesting ant communities. Further, coffee intensification may significantly alter interactions between ants and their parasites, with possible implications for biological control in coffee agroecosystems.

  16. Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslick, Benjamin A.; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA revealed that the sensor array has exceptionally high dimensionality with 18 dimensions required to define 90% of the total variance. In quintuplicate runs of 10 commercial coffees and controls, no confusions or errors in classification by HCA were observed in 55 trials. In addition, the effects of temperature and time in the roasting of green coffee beans were readily observed and distinguishable with a resolution better than 10 °C and 5 min, respectively. Colorimetric sensor arrays demonstrate excellent potential for complex systems analysis in real-world applications and provide a novel method for discrimination among closely similar complex mixtures. PMID:20143838

  17. Coffee roasting and aroma formation: application of different time-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Kaegi, Ruth; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2008-07-23

    The impact of time-temperature combinations of roasting processes on the kinetics of aroma formation in coffee was investigated. The development of 16 aroma compounds and the physical properties of coffee beans was followed in a commercial horizontal drum roasting process and in laboratory scale fluidizing-bed roasting processes at high temperature-short time and low temperature-long time conditions. All trials were run to an equal roast end point as defined by the lightness of coffee beans. In addition, the effect of excessive roasting on aroma composition was studied. Compared to low temperature-long time roasting, high temperature-short time roasting resulted in considerable differences in the physical properties and kinetics of aroma formation. Excessive roasting generally led to decreasing or stable amounts of volatile substances, except for hexanal, pyridine, and dimethyl trisulfide, whose concentrations continued to increase during over-roasting. When the drum roaster and the fluidizing bed roaster were operated in the so-called temperature profile mode, that is, along the identical development of coffee bean temperature over roasting time, the kinetics of aroma generation were similar in both processes.

  18. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes and N Uptake by Coffee Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Sá Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manures are an alternative for substituting or supplementing mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this study was to quantify biological N fixation (BNF and the N contribution derived from BNF (N-BNF to N levels in leaves of coffee intercropped with legumes grown on four family farms located in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following green manures were evaluated: pinto peanuts (Arachis pintoi, calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides, crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis, Brazilian stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lablab beans (Dolichos lablab, and velvet beans (Stizolobium deeringianum, and spontaneous plants. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 4 × 8 factorial arrangement (four agricultural properties and eight green manures, and four replications. One hundred grams of fresh matter of each green manure plant were dried in an oven to obtain the dry matter. We then performed chemical and biochemical characterizations and determined the levels of 15N and 14N, which were used to quantify BNF through the 15N (δ15N natural abundance technique. The legumes C. mucunoides, S. guianensis, C. cajan, and D. lablab had the highest rates of BNF, at 46.1, 45.9, 44.4, and 42.9 %, respectively. C. cajan was the legume that contributed the largest amount of N (44.42 kg ha-1 via BNF.C. cajan, C. spectabilis, and C. mucunoides transferred 55.8, 48.8, and 48.1 %, respectively, of the N from biological fixation to the coffee plants. The use of legumes intercropped with coffee plants is important in supplying N, as well as in transferring N derived from BNF to nutrition of the coffee plants.

  19. Coffee consumption and periodontal disease in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I

    2014-08-01

    Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.

  20. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talbot, John M

    2015-01-01

    .... This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being...

  1. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  2. Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Padron, B.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households.

  3. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  4. Determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using polymeric ionic liquid-based sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Ho, Tien D; Zhang, Cheng; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-06-03

    This study describes a simple and rapid sampling method employing a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating in direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the trace-level analysis of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder. The crosslinked PIL sorbent coating demonstrated superior sensitivity in the extraction of acrylamide compared to all commercially available SPME coatings. A spin coating method was developed to evenly distribute the PIL coating on the SPME support and reproducibly produce fibers with a large film thickness. Ninhydrin was employed as a quenching reagent during extraction to inhibit the production of interfering acrylamide. The PIL fiber produced a limit of quantitation for acrylamide of 10μgL(-1) and achieved comparable results to the ISO method in the analysis of six coffee powder samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Commercializing Patents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ted Sichelman

    2010-01-01

    .... Although more recent "prospect" theories properly recognize the importance of patent protection for commercializing inventions, they incorrectly conclude that strong, real property-like rights...

  6. Market-Based Price-Risk Management for Coffee Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Mohan

    2007-01-01

    Coffee is characterised by high levels of price fluctuation, which exposes coffee producers to price risk. Coffee is widely traded in international commodity futures markets. This offers scope for producers to mange their price risk by hedging on these markets. The hedging mechanism proposed is based on the use of put options. The paper uses historical data of actual coffee put options contracts to estimate the costs of the mechanism; the benefits are inferred from field evidence. It emerges ...

  7. Bio-refinery approach for spent coffee grounds valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Martins, António A; Caetano, Nídia S

    2018-01-01

    Although normally seen as a problem, current policies and strategic plans concur that if adequately managed, waste can be a source of the most interesting and valuable products, among which metals, oils and fats, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, tannins, antioxidants, caffeine, polyphenols, pigments, flavonoids, through recycling, compound recovery or energy valorization, following the waste hierarchy. Besides contributing to more sustainable and circular economies, those products also have high commercial value when compared to the ones obtained by currently used waste treatment methods. In this paper, it is shown how the bio-refinery framework can be used to obtain high value products from organic waste. With spent coffee grounds as a case study, a sequential process is used to obtain first the most valuable, and then other products, allowing proper valorization of residues and increased sustainability of the whole process. Challenges facing full development and implementation of waste based bio-refineries are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IR Spectroscopy of Gasses Evolved During Roasting Coffee Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clain, Alexander; Capaldi, Xavier; Amanuel, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    We measured the IR spectra of the gasses that evolve during roasting of coffee beans. The spectra recorded at different temperature revealed that the intensity of certain IR bands increase as the temperature increases. For instance, the intensity of the CO2 band increased by a factor of four and reached a plateau as the roasting temperature approached 200°C. The intensity further increased as the temperature increased above 200°C, however, in two steps. Similarly the intensity of the OH bands monotonically increased until 200°C and then increased further in two rapid steps above 200°C. The temperature ranges where IR intensities change in two steps coincides with the temperature ranges where typically commercial roasting is done and where the first and second ``cracks'' are heard during roasting.

  9. Estruturas de governança interna e a capacidade de inovação em pequenas firmas brasileiras de torrefação e moagem de café Estructuras de gobernanza interna y capacidad de innovación en pequeñas empresas brasileñas productoras de café tostado y molido Internal governance structures and capacity for innovation in small Brazilian coffee roasting and grinding firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Feresin Jardim

    2013-06-01

    .0 (RAGIN, 2008. Como resultado, se verificó que las estructuras de gobernanza interna plural, que combinan prácticas de incentivos monetarios, burocráticos y comunitarios, presentaron resultados más consistentes para la innovación de las pequeñas empresas de tostado. Tales resultados, al permitir identificar los requisitos organizacionales que producen mayor innovación, pueden ayudar a definir acciones de políticas públicas y privadas para las empresas brasileñas, con el fin de mejorar su nivel de innovación y competitividad en sus mercados.This study investigates which combinations of internal governance structures (market, bureaucratic, and community allow the greatest scope for developing the innovation capacity of small firms. It draws on the studies by Grandori and Furnari (2008, 2010, which hypothesize that the capacity to innovate is more consistently found in firms that use plural internal governance structures. This hypothesis was tested through a survey of 110 Brazilian roasting and grinding coffee firms. The type of innovation investigated was the product. To determine the combinations of structures we used the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA software fs/QCA, version 2.0 (Ragin, 2008. As a result, we found that plural internal governance structures, which combine monetary, bureaucratic, and community incentives, have more consistent innovation results for small roasting firms. By identifying the organizational requirements that create greater opportunities for innovation, these results can help chart the course of public and private policies which will enable Brazilian companies to improve their rate of innovation and competitiveness in their markets.

  10. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  11. The Impact of Market Reform Programmes on Coffee Prices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of collapse of International Coffee Agreement (ICA) and liberalization of coffee marketing in Tanzania on coffee prices. The motivation for this analysis is that the ICA regulatory system reduced price volatility by encouraging the build-up of stocks during surplus years ...

  12. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  13. Coffee husks: - A possible wood substitute in the particleboard industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee husks, a waste by-product from coffee processing has been used as particles with hydrolysed tannin and urea formaldehyde as binders to make homogenous coffee husks particleboards. The resulting particleboards were subjected to physical and mechanical tests and a comparison made with the existing ...

  14. The structural changes in the Mexican coffee sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padron, Benigno Rodriguez; Burger, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the structural changes which have been present since the economic clauses of the International Coffee Agreements have no longer been in effect. It studies the elements that modified the coffee policy over time. It also investigates the main characteristics of the entire coffee

  15. Coffee Berry Insect Pests and their Parasitoids in the Afromontane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the presence, intensity and damages caused to coffee berries by major insect pests of coffee in wild coffee populations in Afromontane rainforests of Southwestern Ethiopia. The parasitoids associated with those insect pests were also studied. Based on ecological descriptions of forest ...

  16. Productivity and profitability of robusta coffee agroforestry systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute to understanding the socio-economic impact of shade trees and the returns from robusta coffee farming systems, this study compared the financial profitability of shaded coffee fields which are dependent on nutrient cycling to sustain production (traditional system) and shaded coffee fields where compost ...

  17. Coffee Production in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Profitability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers processed at CPU gained about TZS 1350/kg as coffee improvement gain. Coffee production contributed about 39% of the total household income in the region. Input prices, taxes, research contribution and Central Pulpery Unit tax, shortage of extension services, unreliable markets and low coffee price, low quality ...

  18. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their

  19. Sensory properties of under-roasted coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Camilla; Dinnella, Caterina; Barnabà, Massimo; Navarini, Luciano; Monteleone, Erminio

    2013-08-01

    Conditions milder than standard roasting (under-roasting: 140 to 170 °C for 20 to 12 min) have been proposed to reduce the formation of potentially harmful compounds developing during standard coffee roasting. In the present study, sensory properties of brews prepared with under-roasted coffees (140 to 165 °C for 20 min) were described by descriptive analysis. Two meta-attributes were defined: "coffee" consisting of attributes positively related to the increasing of process temperature and "no-coffee" consisting of those negatively related to temperature. The progressive lowering of "no-coffee" and the corresponding increasing of "coffee" mean values were induced by temperature increasing in under-roasting conditions. The processing temperature of 150 °C seems to represent the changing point between the 2 meta-attributes with "no-coffee" prevailing at lower and "coffee" at higher temperatures. Consumer responses indicate the positive effect of both product processing temperature and "coffee" attribute intensity on liking. Brews from coffee treated at temperature lower than 150 °C showed a sensory profile characterized by "no-coffee" attributes and resulted the less preferred by regular coffee consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta Rio Nunes) in Kogi State, Nigeria. ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a result of inappropriate processing method, lack of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  1. additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis of coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    very low as compared to world average. This is attributed mainly due to the lack of improved cultivars for central and eastern coffee growing areas of the region, shortage of improved agronomic practices and prevalence of diseases, mainly CBD and coffee wilt disease (CWD). Previous studies on coffee have shown that.

  2. Direct transesterification of spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...

  3. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  4. A coffee-time challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Can you tell a Z from a WW? The Bulletin is offering a prize for deciphering LEP events on show in Restaurant No. 1.   If you’ve been to the coffee areas in Restaurant 1 you’ve probably noticed the ‘LEP event’ table tops, installed for the symposium and exhibition ‘From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics’. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, ‘Voyage to the Heart of Matter’, for the correct identification of all 16 events. Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There will be a draw on 19 January to pick the winner from entries that correctl...

  5. The coffee-time challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The challenge to identify the LEP events displayed on coffee tables in Restaurant 1 (Bulletin 02-03/2010) sparked interest among readers who do not have the opportunity to see them . Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6, Table 7, Table 8, Table 9, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12 Table 13, Table 14, Table 15, Table 16       We have therefore decided to open the challenge to these readers by displaying the events on the web. We are also extending the deadline accordingly to 2 March. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, Voyage to the Heart of Matter, for the correct identification of all 16 events.  Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There wi...

  6. Analisis Customer Segment, Channels, Dan Customer Relationship Dalam Pembentukan Value Proposition Di Starbucks Coffee (Studi Kasus Pada Starbucks Coffee Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmanisa, Aisy; Wilopo,; Sanawiri, Brillyanes

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand and explain; How to Starbucks Coffee create value proposition for their customer? How to Starbucks Coffee segmented the customer, to create the value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build and choose the channels to grab the customer and create value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build a customer relationship and create value proposition from the process? .This reaserch uses primery data descriptive analysis method with fenomelogy kualitative o...

  7. Associations of coffee genetic risk scores with consumption of coffee, tea and other beverages in the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Amy E; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the utility of coffee-related genetic variants as proxies for coffee consumption in Mendelian randomisation studies, by examining their association with non-alcoholic beverage consumption (including subtypes of coffee and tea) and a range of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.DESIGN: Observational study of the association of genetic risk scores for coffee consumption with different types of non-alcoholic beverage consumption.SETTING: UK general population PARTICIPANTS: I...

  8. Walking with coffee: Why does it spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H. C.; Krechetnikov, R.

    2012-04-01

    In our busy lives, almost all of us have to walk with a cup of coffee. While often we spill the drink, this familiar phenomenon has never been explored systematically. Here we report on the results of an experimental study of the conditions under which coffee spills for various walking speeds and initial liquid levels in the cup. These observations are analyzed from the dynamical systems and fluid mechanics viewpoints as well as with the help of a model developed here. Particularities of the common cup sizes, the coffee properties, and the biomechanics of walking proved to be responsible for the spilling phenomenon. The studied problem represents an example of the interplay between the complex motion of a cup, due to the biomechanics of a walking individual, and the low-viscosity-liquid dynamics in it.

  9. Pulse arrival time measurement with coffee provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmaniemi, Teemu; Rajala, Satu; Lindholm, Harri; Taipalus, Tapio

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake in pulse arrival time (PAT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured with electrocardiogram (ECG) from arms and photoplethysmogram (PPG) from fingertip. In addition, correlation of PWV with blood pressure (BP) is analyzed. 30 healthy participants were recruited to two measurement sessions, one arranged before and another one after the coffee intake. During each session, ECG and PPG were measured continuously for six minutes and PAT values calculated from ECG R-peak to the maximum of the first derivative of the PPG pulse. In addition, blood pressure was measured twice during each session with cuff based method. Coffee intake had statistically significant influence on both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but not on PAT or PWV. Correlation between systolic blood pressure and PWV was 0.44. Individual calibration, additional derivatives of ECG and PPG such as heart rate, pulse pressure, or waveform characteristics could improve the correlation.

  10. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, pCoffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult

  11. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T; Duncan, Bruce B; Bisi Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and -2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2-3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, pCoffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act

  12. Ionic Liquids as Additives of Coffee Bean Oil in Steel-Steel Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Grace

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness and ever-growing restrictive regulations over contamination have increased the need for more environmentally-friendly lubricants. Due to their superior biodegradability and lower toxicity, vegetable oils are a good alternative to replace currently-used mineral oils. However, vegetable oils show low oxidation and thermal stability and poor anti-wear properties. Most of these drawbacks can be attenuated through the use of additives. In the last decade, ionic liquids have emerged as high-performance fluids and lubricant additives due to their unique characteristics. In this study, the tribological behavior of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids is investigated as additives of coffee bean oil in steel-steel contact. Coffee bean oil-ionic liquid blends containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% of each ionic liquid are studied using a block-on-flat reciprocating tribometer and the test results are compared to commercially-available, fully-formulated lubricant. Results showed that the addition of the ionic liquids to the coffee bean oil reduces wear volume of the steel disks, and wear values achieved are comparable to that obtained when the commercially-available lubricant is used.

  13. Civil Society Participation in Brazilian Foreign Policy: an Analysis of its Democratic Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pomeroy, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    ... high degree of informality. Keywords: Participation; Brazilian Foreign Policy; Civil Society; Democratic Quality; Foreign Policy Analysis. Introduction The Brazilian processes of democratisation and the economic opening of the last three decades favoured a diversification of foreign policy agendas. On the one hand, the commercial opening a...

  14. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  15. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating the antioxidant capacity of coffee!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the 1990s we began to understand that free radical damage is involved in artery-clogging atherosclerosis and health problems like vision loss, cancer or chronic diseases. Studies have shown that the damage especially affects people with a low consumption of antioxidant-rich fruits, vegetables...and coffee. Is this just a fairy tale promoted by the coffee industry? Scientists at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Wädenswil wanted to get to the bottom of the question.

  17. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SPECIALTY COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vharessa Aknesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee  type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai

  18. Coffee-ring effect beyond the dilute limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Joon Heon; Park, Jung Su; Park, Yong Seok; Oh, Jeong Su; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    The coffee-ring effect, which is a natural generation of outward capillary flows inside drying coffee drops, is valid at the dilute limit of initial solute concentrations. If the solute is not dilute, the ring deposit is forced to have a non-zero width; higher initial concentration leads to a wider ring. Here we study the coffee-ring effect in the dense limit by demonstrating differences with various initial coffee concentrations from 0.1% to 60%. The coffee drops with high initial concentrations of real coffee particles show interesting evaporation dynamics: dense coffee drops tend to evaporate slowly. This result is different from the classic coffee-ring effect in the dilute limit. We suppose that the slow evaporation of dense coffee drops is associated with the ring growth dynamics. The coffee-ring effect becomes more significant in modern technologies such as self-assembly of nanoparticles, ink-jet printing, painting and ceramics. The complexity in evaporation dynamics of colloidal fluids would be able to be understood by expanding the coffee-ring effects in the dilute as well as the dense limits.

  19. Methylglyoxal content in drinking coffee as a cytotoxic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Chang, T

    2010-08-01

    A causal relationship between metabolic syndrome and methylglyoxal (MG) has been suggested. Consumption of coffee and other types of beverages has been known to produce MG, thus resulting in both nutritional and health concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine the ideal combination of coffee, cream, and sugar in order to minimize MG consumption. Four types of black coffee were tested: espresso, bold, mild, and a decaffeinated mild roast. Sugar and/or cream were added to the coffee samples to test whether MG levels were altered. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, the concentration of MG in various coffee samples was determined. The espresso coffee sample was found to contain the highest level of MG at 230.9 microM. The bold coffee roast had the 2nd highest amount of MG, followed by the mild and decaffeinated varieties. Adding cream to bold coffee significantly reduced its MG level in comparison to the coffee sample without cream. On the other hand, the addition of sugar to the bold coffee did not further increase the MG level in the samples. The cellular damaging effect of MG was shown as there were decreased numbers of cultured HEK-293 cells after 24 h of MG treatment (100 and 300 microM), which is consistent with an increased cell apoptosis induced by MG treatment (100 and 300 microM). Due to the overconsumption of exogenous MG, drinking an excess of any type of coffee poses health risks.

  20. Antioxidant activity of membrane-fractionated coffee extracts in dependence of the storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, D.; Peshev, D.; Peev, G.; Peeva, L.

    2016-10-01

    Present paper aims at one of the important aspects of the application of products with antioxidant activity: namely the preservation and change of their properties during the storage in different conditions, as well as their reliable characterisation. The tests of antioxidant properties were conducted with membrane-separated coffee extracts, isolated using a “Microdyn Nadir NP030P” type of commercial nanofiltration membrane (30% retention of NaCl; MWCO∼400). Prepared coffee permeates and retentates were stored 0÷10 days in cool/warm conditions, with/without air access and at different illumination conditions. The kinetics of content changes was evaluated according to Folin-Ciocalteu method of total phenolic/reducing content determination.

  1. 2-Furoylglycine as a Candidate Biomarker of Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Holmes, Elaine; Kochhar, Sunil; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-09-30

    Specific and sensitive food biomarkers are necessary to support dietary intake assessment and link nutritional habits to potential impact on human health. A multistep nutritional intervention study was conducted to suggest novel biomarkers for coffee consumption. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis resolved 2-furoylglycine (2-FG) as a novel putative biomarker for coffee consumption. We relatively quantified 2-FG in the urine of coffee drinkers and investigated its origin, metabolism, and excretion kinetics. When searching for its potential precursors, we found different furan derivatives in coffee products, which are known to get metabolized to 2-FG. Maximal urinary excretion of 2-FG occurred 2 h after consumption (p = 0.0002) and returned to baseline after 24 h (p = 0.74). The biomarker was not excreted after consumption of coffee substitutes such as tea and chicory coffee and might therefore be a promising acute biomarker for the detection of coffee consumption in human urine.

  2. Profitability of Cedrela odorata L. in Agroforestry Systems with Coffee in Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela González-Rojas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the production of cedar wood in agroforestry systems (AF with coffee, using a prediction model of the commercial volume obtained in the study area, as well as the profitability generated by the sale of coffee, wood and payment for environmental services (PPSA. The study was carried out in the canton of Pérez Zeledón, province of San José, Costa Rica. There were established 30 temporary sampling plots of 1000 m2 in AF with cedar between five and 17 years of age. The diameter growth (DBH and the commercial height (CH of the species were evaluated, as well as the management of the SAF (activities, inputs and yields and coffee production through the producer interview. The obtained models allowed to predict the commercial volume (m3 tree-1 according to age (R2 = 88.7%, DBH (R2 = 90.3% and CH (R2 = 97.2%. The average coffee production of the sampled sites was 26 fanegas ha-1 year-1. At the age of 17 years of the cedar, a production of 1.04 m3 tree-1 (92.13 m3 ha-1 of standing timber was obtained, which represented a financial contribution of 81% of the net present value (NPV of the AF in the analysis period. The estimated financial indicators allow concluding that the coffee-cedar AF is profitable since it generated a positive NPV of ₡ 8 198 601,5, an internal rate of return (IRR of 16% which was higher than the cost of money (discount rate of 6.1% and a B/C ratio of 1.34.

  3. Roasted and Ground Coffee: A Study of Extenders, Substitutes and Alternative Coffee Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    intensity was reduced but acceptability was unaffected: 2$) caramel -based extenders restored beverage color lost by cutting recipe levels...without a caramel -based extender product was financed by Food Engineering Laboratory (FEL) Task No. Q823126, Support to Armed Forces Product Evaluation...Analysis 14 Laboratory Experiments 14 A. Roasted and Ground Coffee without Extenders 14 B. Troop-Issue R&G Coffee with Caramel -Based Extenders 15 C

  4. Chemical, functional, and structural properties of spent coffee grounds and coffee silverskin

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; J. A. Teixeira; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2014-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and coffee silverskin (CS) represent a great pollution hazard if discharged into the environment. Taking this fact into account, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, functional properties, and structural characteristics of these agro-industrial residues in order to identify the characteristics that allow their reutilization in industrial processes. According to the results, SCG and CS are both of lignocellulosic nature. Sugars polymeri...

  5. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Ranjitkar

    Full Text Available The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS. Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops.

  6. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Sujakhu, Nani M; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops.

  7. Current knowledge of coffee wilt disease, a major constraint to coffee production in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Mike A

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Coffee is vital to the economy of East and Central Africa, providing a major source of foreign exchange earnings and, as a cash crop, supporting the livelihoods of millions involved in cultivation, processing, marketing, and export. Coffee wilt disease (CWD), attributed to Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides), has caused losses to coffee production in Africa since 1927 but has been largely contained through the use of host resistance and in some instances wide-scale sanitation practices. A reemergence of CWD on Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee) in Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tanzania has already led to heavy losses and threatens future production in these countries and elsewhere in the region. The relevance of CWD is all the more pertinent given the impact of a considerable fall in world coffee prices over the last decade. Recent research has clarified the extent of the problem in the region and revealed a low level of diversity within the pathogen, suggesting that two genetically and biologically distinct forms are responsible for current problems. These findings and related research and development initiatives undertaken under the auspices of the Regional Coffee Wilt Programme are of fundamental importance in providing an urgently needed solution to this devastating disease.

  8. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  9. Cells Deficient in the Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCD2 are Hypersensitive to the Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Induced by Coffee and Caffeic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Orta, Manuel Luis; Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between coffee consumption and a lower risk of cardiovascular disorders, some cancers, diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Coffee consumption, however, has also been linked to an increased risk of developing some types of cancer, including bladder cancer in adults and leukemia in children of mothers who drink coffee during pregnancy. Since cancer is driven by the accumulation of DNA alterations, the ability of the coffee constituent caffeic acid to induce DNA damage in cells may play a role in the carcinogenic potential of this beverage. This carcinogenic potential may be exacerbated in cells with DNA repair defects. People with the genetic disease Fanconi Anemia have DNA repair deficiencies and are predisposed to several cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. Defects in the DNA repair protein Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2) also play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers (e.g., bladder cancer) in people without this genetic disease. This communication shows that cells deficient in FANCD2 are hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity (clonogenic assay) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX and 53BP1 focus assay) induced by caffeic acid and by a commercial lyophilized coffee extract. These data suggest that people with Fanconi Anemia, or healthy people who develop sporadic mutations in FANCD2, may be hypersensitive to the carcinogenic activity of coffee. PMID:27399778

  10. Freshness indices of roasted coffee: monitoring the loss of freshness for single serve capsules and roasted whole beans in different packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöss, Alexia N; Schönbächler, Barbara; Rast, Markus; Deuber, Louis; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-01-01

    With the growing demand for high-quality coffee, it is becoming increasingly important to establish quantitative measures of the freshness of coffee, or the loss thereof, over time. Indeed, freshness has become a critical quality criterion in the specialty coffee scene, where the aim is to deliver the most pleasant flavor in the cup, from highest quality beans. A series of intensity ratios of selected volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of coffee (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were revisited, with the aim to establish robust indicators of freshness of coffee - called freshness indices. Roasted whole beans in four different packaging materials and four commercial capsule systems from the Swiss market were investigated over a period of up to one year of storage time. These measurements revealed three types of insight. First, a clear link between barrier properties of the packaging material and the evolution of selected freshness indices was observed. Packaging materials that contain an aluminum layer offer better protection. Second, processing steps prior to packaging are reflected in the absolute values of freshness indices. Third, differences in the standard deviations of freshness-indices for single serve coffee capsule systems are indicative of differences in the consistency among systems, consistency being an important quality attribute of capsules.

  11. 2-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-carboxyatractyligenin from Coffea L. inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase in isolated mitochondria but is quantitatively degraded during coffee roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roman; Fromme, Tobias; Beusch, Anja; Wahl, Anika; Klingenspor, Martin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Atractyloside (1) and carboxyatractyloside (2) are well-known inhibitors of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in mitochondria, thus effectively blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Structurally related derivatives atractyligenin (3), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-atractyligenin (4), 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-isovaleryl-2β-(2-desoxy-atractyligenin)-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-carboxyatractyligenin (6) were isolated from raw beans of Coffea L. and the impact of 1-6 on ANT activity was evaluated in isolated mitochondria. Among the coffee components, 6 significantly inhibited ANT activity leading to reduced respiration. Quantitative analysis in commercial coffees, experimental roastings of coffee, and model experiments using purified compound 6 consistently revealed a complete degradation during thermal treatment. In comparison, raw coffee extracts were found to contain high levels of 6, which are therefore expected to be present in food products enriched with raw coffee extracts. This implies the necessity of analytically controlling the levels of 6 in raw coffee extracts when used as additives for food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    J. Physiol. Sci. 28(December 2013) 179–185 www.njps.com.ng. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose. Intolerance in Rats fed on High-Sucrose Diet. Morakinyo AO*, Adekunbi DA, Dada KA and Adegoke OA. Department of Physiology, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Lagos. Nigeria.

  13. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  14. The Coffee-Milk Mixture Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of a problem that is frequently posed at professional development workshops, in print, and on the Web--the coffee-milk mixture riddle--illustrates the timeless advice of George Pólya's masterpiece on problem solving in mathematics, "How to Solve It." In his book, Pólya recommends that problems previously solved and put…

  15. AFLP analysis among Ethiopian arabica coffee genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... AFLP analysis among Ethiopian arabica coffee genotypes. Yigzaw Dessalegn1*, L. Herselman2 and M. T. Labuschagne2. 1IPMS Project, Bure PLW, P.O. Box 03, Bure, Ethiopia. 2University of the Free State, Department of Plant Sciences, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, Republic of South Africa.

  16. Setting the Stage for California Coffee Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional coffee farming has occurred worldwide at equatorial latitudes below 25° under very specific growing conditions with acidic soils, warm temperatures and high humidity. Environmental conditions have been found to have large impacts on the quality and taste of the berry, which in turn affec...

  17. AFLP analysis among Ethiopian arabica coffee genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... The genetic relationship of 28 Coffea arabica genotypes from Ethiopia was assessed using 10 Amplified ... All genotypes were independently distinguished and did not cluster according to collection region, demonstrating the presence of coffee genetic resource diversity within each region ...

  18. Citra Kvh Specialty Coffee Shop Dimata Konsumen

    OpenAIRE

    Tjoanda, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui citra Perusahaan dimata konsumen. Citra KVH Specialty Coffee Shop diukur melalui 5 elemen citra, yaitu: Primary Impression, Familiarity, Perception, Preference, and Position. Elemen – elemen yang ada dalam citra Perusahaan turut berperan dalam menentukan penilaian konsumen terhadap citra Perusahaan yang akhirnya membentuk citra Perusahaan dimata konsumen. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif.Metode yang digunak...

  19. LABORATORY SCREENING OF SOME SAPROPHYTIC COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    in some conditions they can infect plant. (Pestalotiopsis causes leaf spots) or animals to cause mycosis. Aspergillus and Penicillium genera are also considered mycotoxin producers but this is dependent on species and strains. Aspergillus niger has strains that produce the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA) even in coffee.

  20. Morphophysiological plasticity of plagiotropic branches in response to change in the coffee plant spacing within rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Pagotto Ronchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in spacing within rows may alter the morphology of the coffee plant by affecting the physiological constituents of its productivity. Even though some common plant responses to crop spacing variation are known, there is yet no scientific evidence that elucidates the effects of decreased spacing on the sourcesink relation in plagiotropic branches and, its association with both productivity and eco-physiological aspects of coffee leaves, mainly for new coffee cultivars in the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this work was to characterize the morphophysiological responses of Coffea arabica L. cultivars subjected to different spacing between plants within rows. Four Arabica coffee cultivars (Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144, Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62, Catuaí Amarelo IAC 32, and Tupi RN IAC 1669-13 were transplanted in January 2010. A row spacing of 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 m was adopted between plants, maintaining a 3.80-m constant between rows. A randomized block design with four replicates was applied. During the experimental period, several morphophysiological characteristics of plagiotropic fruiting branches were evaluated in the months of April and December in 2013 and, in April 2014. The evaluation was conducted based on two canopy positions; canopy toward the rows, representing low exposure to light or toward the inter-row spacing, representing high light exposure. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic pigments levels were minimally or not at all affected by changing either the coffee cultivars or plant spacing. During the first evaluation, the leaf-to-fruitratio linearly increased, regardless of the cultivar. Light-exposed branches showed higher content of carotenoids and chlorophyll a in leaves and lower leaf-to-fruit-ratio as compared to those within the plant canopy. A major reduction in the number of fruits per branch was observed which was closely related to a parallel decrease in the number of fruits per

  1. Viability and susceptibility of propagation material from coffee plants to Colletotrichum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ogoshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the viability of propagation material from coffee plants descended from germplasm susceptible to blister spot disease as well as its susceptibility to Colletotrichum sp. relative to commercial coffee cultivars. In the first experiment, fruits were harvested from plants with and without symptoms of blister spot and sowed in trays containing a commercial sterilized substrate. The percentages of germinated seeds, viable plantlets and seedlings were evaluated. In diseased tissues, pathogens were isolated and identified though a pathogenicity test. In the second experiment, ten commercial cultivars and one cultivar originating from plants with blister spot were inoculated with the pathogens to assess the severity of anthracnose. Significant differences were not observed with respect to seed germination. However, the viability of plantlets and seedlings was reduced in the cultivar originating from plants with blister spot (Genotype Originated from Diseased Plants-GODP. These plants showed characteristic symptoms of blister spot, including necrosis in the leaves and hypocotyls, wilting and death. In the necrotic lesions, we observed characteristic sporulation of Colletotrichum sp. The cultivar most susceptible to anthracnose in cotyledonary leaves was Catuaí Vermelho (GODP, which presented the highest area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. In conclusion, the viability of propagation material from coffee plants that had descended from plants with symptoms of blister spot (GODP was reduced compared with plants from other genotypes, although seed germination was not affected. Moreover, GODP species are more susceptible to Anthracnose on the cotyledonary leaves relative to the other analyzed commercial cultivars. This work is the first to report on different symptoms exhibited by seedlings originating from the seeds of plants with symptoms of blister spot..

  2. Genotyping-by-sequencing provides the first well-resolved phylogeny for coffee (Coffea) and insights into the evolution of caffeine content in its species: GBS coffee phylogeny and the evolution of caffeine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Perla; Grover, Corrinne E; Davis, Aaron P; Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques; Raharimalala, Nathalie E; Albert, Victor A; Sreenath, Hosahalli L; Stoffelen, Piet; Mitchell, Sharon E; Couturon, Emmanuel; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre; Crouzillat, Dominique; Rigoreau, Michel; Sumirat, Ucu; Akaffou, Sélastique; Guyot, Romain

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive and meaningful phylogenetic hypothesis for the commercially important coffee genus (Coffea) has long been a key objective for coffee researchers. For molecular studies, progress has been limited by low levels of sequence divergence, leading to insufficient topological resolution and statistical support in phylogenetic trees, particularly for the major lineages and for the numerous species occurring in Madagascar. We report here the first almost fully resolved, broadly sampled phylogenetic hypothesis for coffee, the result of combining genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology with a newly developed, lab-based workflow to integrate short read next-generation sequencing for low numbers of additional samples. Biogeographic patterns indicate either Africa or Asia (or possibly the Arabian Peninsula) as the most likely ancestral locality for the origin of the coffee genus, with independent radiations across Africa, Asia, and the Western Indian Ocean Islands (including Madagascar and Mauritius). The evolution of caffeine, an important trait for commerce and society, was evaluated in light of our phylogeny. High and consistent caffeine content is found only in species from the equatorial, fully humid environments of West and Central Africa, possibly as an adaptive response to increased levels of pest predation. Moderate caffeine production, however, evolved at least one additional time recently (between 2 and 4Mya) in a Madagascan lineage, which suggests that either the biosynthetic pathway was already in place during the early evolutionary history of coffee, or that caffeine synthesis within the genus is subject to convergent evolution, as is also the case for caffeine synthesis in coffee versus tea and chocolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  4. Free choice profiling sensory analysis to discriminate coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Sorane Good Kitzberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory attributes were evaluated from Arabica coffee genotypes growing in two places in Brazil, Mandaguari and Londrina. Post-harvest and roasted process was standardized. Free choice profiling sensory analysis was apply to investigate the influence of genetic variability and local cultivation (Londrina and Mandaguari, Brazil on the sensory characteristics of coffee genotypes. A sensory panel evaluated coffees from Mandaguari in two groups: one (Sarchimor derived, IPR100, IPR102, IPR105, IPR106 characterized by transparency, coffee colour, green aroma, taste (green, bitter, fermented, astringent and a watery texture, another group (Catuaí, Sarchimor derived, IPR101, IPR103 was characterized by coffee colour, brightness, aroma (coffee, acid, sweet, chocolate, acidity, bitterness, burnt aroma, sweetness and full-bodied. Coffees from Londrina presented brightness, coffee colour, sweet, green, burnt aroma, astringent, bitter, fermented, green taste; and watery texture (Catuaí, IPR97, IPR98, IPR100. Another group (Sarchimor derived, IPR101, IPR102, IPR103, IPR105, IPR106 were associated with turbidity, aroma (green, coffee, sweet, acidity, astringency, bitterness, sweetness and full-bodied. Catuaí, Iapar59, IPR99, IPR101, IPR103 and IPR108 exhibited positive attributes when grown in either locale. Edaphoclimatic conditions play a major role in the sensory profiles of coffee.

  5. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  6. Role of food emulsifiers in milk coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Cho, H

    2015-07-01

    To emphasize the coffee flavor, many milk coffee beverages contain coffee extracts; these are the so-called "rich milk coffee" beverages. When the content of the coffee extracts increases, milk coffee beverages become unstable. The milk ring formation, or oiling off, is accelerated in these kinds of drinks. We prepared a "rich milk coffee" beverage and studied the stability of the emulsion. We also investigated the influence of the food emulsifiers on the stability of the emulsion. We tried to test the emulsifier system in order to improve the emulsion stability. When the milk coffee beverage with a low light value for the roasted coffee beans sterilized by UHT was stored at a low temperature, the milk component strongly separated. We found that the sucrose monoester with a high HLB and diglycerol monoester accelerated the milk separation, and the decaglycerol monoester controlled the milk separation. We discussed the milk separation mechanism and showed that maintaining the hydration of the hydrophilic group in the rich milk coffee beverage was related to the combination of emulsifiers that control the milk separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Definição e esquematização das fases fenológicas do cafeeiro arábica nas condições tropicais do Brasil Definition and outline for the phenological phases of arabic coffee under Brazilian tropical conditions

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    ÂNGELO PAES DE CAMARGO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O café arábica (Coffea arabica L. leva dois anos para completar o ciclo fenológico de frutificação, ao contrário da maioria das plantas que completam o ciclo reprodutivo no mesmo ano fenológico. Após várias tentativas para definição e esquematização das distintas fases fenológicas do cafeeiro, chegou-se a uma forma racional constituída de seis fases distintas envolvendo os dois anos fenológicos, iniciados em setembro. As fases são: 1ª fase, vegetativa com sete meses, de setembro a março, todos com dias longos; 2ª fase, também vegetativa, de abril a agosto, com dias curtos, quando há indução das gemas vegetativas dos nós formados na 1ª fase, para gemas reprodutivas. No final da 2ª fase, em julho e agosto, as plantas entram em relativo repouso com formação de um ou dois pares de folhas pequenas, que aparecem no período de relativo repouso do cafeeiro, entre os dois anos fenológicos. Em seguida vem a maturação das gemas reprodutivas após a acumulação de cerca de 350 mm de evapotranspiração potencial (ETp, a partir de abril; 3ª fase, de florada e expansão dos frutos, de setembro a dezembro. As floradas ocorrem cerca de 8 a 15 dias após o aumento do potencial hídrico nas gemas florais (choque hídrico, causado por chuva ou irrigação; 4ª fase, granação dos frutos, de janeiro a março; 5ª fase, maturação dos frutos ao completar cerca de 700 mm de somatório de ETp, após a florada principal; 6ª fase, de senescência e morte dos ramos produtivos, não primários, em julho e agosto.The arabic coffee (Coffea arabica L. takes two years to complete the entire phenological cycle of the frutification, unlike most of the other crops, that complete the reproductive cycle in one year. Six different phenological phases, taking a total of two years, are proposed, starting in September of each year. The phases are: 1st phase: vegetative, with seven months, September to March, with long days; 2nd phase: also

  8. Kinetics of K release from soils of Brazilian coffee regions: effect of organic acids Cinética de liberação do potássio em solos de regiões cafeeiras: efeito de ácidos orgânicos

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    Vladimir Antônio Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies on soil potassium release can contribute to a better understanding of K availability to plants. This study was conducted to evaluate K release rates from the whole soil, clay, silt, and sand fractions of B-horizon samples of a basalt-derived Oxisol and a sienite-derived Ultisol, both representative soils from coffee regions of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Potassium was extracted from each fraction after eight different shaking time periods (0-665 h with either 0.001 mol L-1 citrate or oxalate at a 1:10 solid:solution ratio. First-order, Elovich, zero-order, and parabolic diffusion equations were used to parameterize the time dependence of K release. For the Oxisol, the first-order equation fitted best to the experimental data of K release, with similar rates for all fractions and independent of the presence of citrate or oxalate in the extractant solution. For all studied Ultisol fractions, in which K release rates increased when extractions were performed with citrate solution, the Elovich model described K release kinetics most adequately. The highest potassium release rate of the Ultisol silt fraction was probably due to the transference of "non-exchangeable" K to the extractant solution, whereas in the Oxisol exchangeable potassium represented the main K source in all studied fractions.Estudos de cinética de liberação de K podem contribuir para avaliação da disponibilidade deste nutriente no solo para as plantas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a cinética de liberação do potássio nas frações terra fina, areia, silte e argila de dois solos do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, originalmente cultivados com cafeeiro e comparar quatro equações para descrevê-la. As frações foram submetidas a oito extrações sucessivas (0 a 665 h com citrato e oxalato 1 mmol L-1, sendo os resultados de K liberado somados e plotados em função do tempo. Foram comparadas as equações de ordem zero, primeira ordem, Elovich

  9. New biomarkers of coffee consumption identified by the non-targeted metabolomic profiling of cohort study subjects.

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    Joseph A Rothwell

    Full Text Available Coffee contains various bioactives implicated with human health and disease risk. To accurately assess the effects of overall consumption upon health and disease, individual intake must be measured in large epidemiological studies. Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful approach to discover biomarkers of intake for a large range of foods. Here we report the profiling of the urinary metabolome of cohort study subjects to search for new biomarkers of coffee intake. Using repeated 24-hour dietary records and a food frequency questionnaire, 20 high coffee consumers (183-540 mL/d and 19 low consumers were selected from the French SU.VI.MAX2 cohort. Morning spot urine samples from each subject were profiled by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Partial least-square discriminant analysis of multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data clearly distinguished high consumers from low via 132 significant (p-value<0.05 discriminating features. Ion clusters whose intensities were most elevated in the high consumers were annotated using online and in-house databases and their identities checked using commercial standards and MS-MS fragmentation. The best discriminants, and thus potential markers of coffee consumption, were the glucuronide of the diterpenoid atractyligenin, the diketopiperazine cyclo(isoleucyl-prolyl, and the alkaloid trigonelline. Some caffeine metabolites, such as 1-methylxanthine, were also among the discriminants, however caffeine may be consumed from other sources and its metabolism is subject to inter-individual variation. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that the biomarkers identified could be used effectively in combination for increased sensitivity and specificity. Once validated in other cohorts or intervention studies, these specific single or combined biomarkers will become a valuable alternative to assessment of coffee intake by dietary survey and finally lead to a better understanding of

  10. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: II. Effects of different roast levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

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    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  12. Associations of coffee genetic risk scores with consumption of coffee, tea and other beverages in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of coffee-related genetic variants as proxies for coffee consumption in Mendelian randomization studies, by examining their association with non-alcoholic beverage consumption (including subtypes of coffee and tea) and a range of socio-demographic and life-style factors. Observational study of the association of genetic risk scores for coffee consumption with different types of non-alcoholic beverage consumption. UK general population. Individuals of European ancestry aged 40-73 years from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 (n = 114 316). Genetic risk scores were constructed using two, four and eight independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of coffee consumption. Drinks were self-reported in a baseline questionnaire (all participants) and in detailed 24 dietary recall questionnaires in a subset (n = 48 692). Genetic risk scores explained up to 0.38, 0.19 and 0.76% of the variance in coffee, tea and combined coffee and tea consumption, respectively. Genetic risk scores demonstrated positive associations with both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea consumption, and with most subtypes of coffee consumption, but only with standard tea consumption. There was no clear evidence for positive associations with most other non-alcoholic beverages, but higher genetic risk for coffee consumption was associated with lower daily water consumption. The genetic risk scores were associated with increased alcohol consumption, but not consistently with other socio-demographic and life-style factors. Coffee-related genetic risk scores could be used as instruments for combined coffee and tea consumption in Mendelian randomization studies. However, associations observed with alcohol consumption require further investigation to determine whether these are due to causal effects of coffee and tea consumption or biological pleiotropy. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John

  13. Nitrate leaching through climatologic water balance in a fertigated coffee plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pivotto Bortolotto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate losses from soil profiles by leaching should preferentially be monitored during high rainfall events and during irrigation when fertilizer nitrogen applications are elevated. Using a climatologic water balance, based on the models of Thornthwaite and Penman Monteith for potential evapotranspiration, drainage soil water fluxes below the root zone were estimated in a fertigated coffee crop. Soil solution extraction at the depth of 1 m allowed the calculation of nitrate leaching. The average nitrate concentration in soil solution for plots that received nitrogen by fertigation at a rate of 400 kg ha-1, was 5.42 mg L-1, surpassing the limit of the Brazilian legislation of 10.0 mg L-1, only during one month. For plots receiving 800 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, the average was 25.01 mg L-1, 2.5 times higher than the above-mentioned limit. This information indicates that nitrogen rates higher than 400 kg ha-1 are potentially polluting the ground water. Yearly nitrate amounts of leaching were 24.2 and 153.0 kg ha-1 for the nitrogen rates of 400 and 800 kg ha-1, respectively. The six times higher loss indicates a cost/benefit problem for coffee fertigations above 400 kg ha-1.

  14. THE LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIC COFFEE INDUSTRY: U.S. MARKET INROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Danilo; Epperson, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The U.S. organic coffee market has experienced extraordinary growth in the past five years because of an increase in c...

  15. Relationship between caffeine content and flavor with light intensity of several coffee Robusta clones

    OpenAIRE

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah; Yusianto Yusianto

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCR...

  16. Relationship Between Caffeine Content and Flavor with Light Intensity of Several Coffee Robusta Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Pranata Erdiansyah, Novie; Yusianto, Yusianto

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCR...

  17. What is the Difference in Profit per Acre between Organic and Conventional Coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jennifer; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The research addresses the economic problem of deforestation. A contributing factor to deforestation is coffee production. Coffee is an indigenous plant that is naturally occurring in the native tropical forests. However, conventional coffee is grown on cleared forest soil. In the native forest there is the potential for additional fruits (bananas, mangoes, avocados) and wood products while in the conventional coffee production system the only product is coffee. Conventional coffee production...

  18. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated wi...

  19. Cronologia da normatização das demonstrações contábeis no Brasil: do Código Comercial Brasileiro de 1850 ao pronunciamento 26 do CPC de 2009 = Chronology of standardization of financial statements in Brazil: Brazilian Commercial Code of 1850 to the statement of CPC 26, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Schmidt

    2012-05-01

    by being essentially a historical literature. The first Brazilian accounting standardization occurred with the publication of the 1st Brazilian Commercial Code (BAC on 6/26/1850, by Law No. 556. Ten years after the CCB, came into force the Law of 08.22.1860 No. 1083, known as "the first law of S. A. in Brazil". Brazil has to have an updated Corporate Law, with the publication of the 2627 Act. In 1976, Brazil incorporates the North American financial trends with the new Corporate Law: Law No. 6404 of 15/12/1976. The first major change of this law was in 2007 with Law 11,638 of 28/12/2007 CVM Resolution 488 of 03/10/2005, however, had already established the beginning of the convergence process towards the adoption of international principles. From the publication of CPC1, followed by further restructuring the Brazilian Accounting. Of these pronouncements, the CPC 26 shows the structure of financial statements in connection with International Accounting Standards - IAS 1. It appears that during this period of more than a century and a half, especially analyzing the BP, the Brazilian accounting has always sought a way to update and linkage world.

  20. Effect of nutritionally enriched coffee consumption on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Jennings, Peter F; Mangine, Gerald T; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nutritionally enriched JavaFit coffee (JF) to commercially available decaffeinated coffee (P) with regard to impact on endurance and anaerobic power performance in a physically active, college-aged population. Ten subjects (8 men, 2 women) performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic power tests and 2 cycle ergometer tests (75% VO2 max) to exhaustion. Mean VO2 was measured during each endurance exercise protocol. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were recorded for 30 minutes following all exercise sessions. Area under the curve analysis was used to compare EPOC between JF and P for all exercise sessions. No differences were seen between JF and P in any of the power performance measures. However, time to exhaustion was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in JF (35.3 +/- 15.2 minutes) compared with P (27.3 +/- 10.7 minutes). No difference between JF and P were seen in EPOC in either the aerobic or anaerobic exercise sessions. A significant (p coffee beverage appears to enhance time to exhaustion during aerobic exercise, but does not provide an ergogenic benefit during anaerobic exercise.

  1. The effect of fungal fermentation in phenolics content in robusta coffee husk

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    Lady Rossana Palomino García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coffee husk is an abundant by-product generated by the coffee industry and it can be used for the production of-value-added phenolic compounds. Currently, this residue has no commercial use due to the presence of anti-nutritional compounds and it is returned to the soil or burned. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds in Robusta coffee husk, the adequacy of this residue as substrate for fermentation processes, as well as evaluating the influence of fungal solid state fermentation to obtain phenolic compounds from this residue. In the present study, the use of different solvents for the extraction of polyphenols was evaluated and the content was found to be in the range of 96.9-159.5 mg of galic acid (GA·g-1 substrate, depending on the solvent used. The best solvent was acetone, therefore it was selected for extraction. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of solid-state fermentation in the release of phenolic compounds, using the filamentous fungi Penicillium purpurogenum. The total phenolic content increased from 159.5 up to 243.2 mg GA·g-1 substrate as a result the solid-state fermentation.

  2. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  3. Mycorrhizal fungi increase coffee plants competitiveness against Bidens pilosa interference

    OpenAIRE

    França,André Cabral; Freitas,Ana Flávia de; Santos,Edson Aparecido dos; Grazziotti,Paulo Henrique; Andrade Júnior,Valter Carvalho de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycorrhizae provide several benefits to coffee plants. This study evaluated whether these benefits influence the damage caused by the Bidens pilosa competition with coffee seedlings. A randomized blocks design was used, with treatments established in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (presence and absence of B. pilosa interference in non-inoculated control or plants inoculated with either Claroideoglomus etunicatum or Dentiscutata heterogama). Coffee seedlings were inoculated with fungi spore...

  4. Coffee research using optical methods of physical and chemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhonov B.; Kuznetsov V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses aspects of application of optical methods of physical and chemical analysis to determine the identity of the functional groups of substances extraction at different ways of making coffee. Infrared spectroscopy, diffusion reflectance spectrophotometry and refractometry methods were used for the researches. A comparison of coffee preparation methods was conducted in cupping and aeropresse Aerobie Aeropress Coffee Maker. Temperature of the water used to brew, and the punc...

  5. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

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    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  6. Coffee: A Dietary Intervention on Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Irene; Casal, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Coffee beverages, prepared in a multitude of ways around the world, are increasingly part of our daily lives. Although considered an unhealthy beverage for decades, coffee is increasingly the headline of medical journals in association with a reduced risk for several diseases. What if this beverage could give us pleasure, while modulating mood and lowering the risk for several diseases of the modern society, including type 2 diabetes (T2D)? Based on the most recent epidemiological and research data, long-term consumption of coffee beverages is associated with a lower risk of developing T2D in healthy individuals, probably involving multiple mechanisms, with interventions on glucose homeostasis, antioxidant activity, and inflammatory biomarkers. Several coffee constituents potentially responsible for these effects are described, as well as the factors that make their presence highly variable, with interesting effects associated with chlorogenic acids, trigonelline and norharman. Due to the high number of compounds contained in coffee, we explore the potential synergic effect within the coffee matrix. Moreover, acute coffee consumption shows different health effects from those achieved on a long-term daily consumption, and not all coffee beverages are similar. Still, despite the huge amount or work developed in the last decade, the substances and mechanisms behind these protective effects on T2D are still to be fully elucidated, being therefore soon for dietary interventions based on coffee. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  8. How coffee affects metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O

    2017-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  9. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  10. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  11. Coffee and caffeine intake and male infertility: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Elena; ViganA[sup.2], Paola; Cipriani, Sonia; Somigliana, Edgardo; Chiaffarino, Francesca; Bulfoni, Alessandro; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    .... To summarize available evidence, we performed a systematic review of observational studies on the relation between coffee/caffeine intake and parameters of male fertility including sperm ploidy...

  12. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Geleijnse

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna M GeleijnseDivision of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The NetherlandsAbstract: This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP and risk of hypertension. Data from crosssectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studies suggest a protective effect of high coffee intake (4 or more cups per day against hypertension, mainly in women. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension may be lower in coffee abstainers. Randomized controlled trials, which are mostly of short duration (1–12 weeks, have shown that coffee intake around 5 cups per day causes a small elevation in BP (∼2/1 mmHg when compared to abstinence or use of decaffeinated coffee. With regard to underlying biological mechanisms, most research has been devoted to BP-raising effects of caffeine. However, there are many other substances in coffee, such as polyphenols, soluble fi bre and potassium, which could exert a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Although the precise nature of the relation between coffee and BP is still unclear, most evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension.

  13. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L.; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), current evidence remains inconclusive. Methods We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of CRC in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing CRC [Odds Ratio (drinkers versus non-drinkers)=0.74; 95% CI: 0.64–0.86; Pcoffee consumption alone (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.68–0.99; P=0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.94; P=0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing CRC. Compared to 2.5 servings/day (OR=0.46; 95% CI: 0.39–0.54; PCoffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. Impact Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of CRC. PMID:27196095

  14. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-12-08

    Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80-90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; p for the trend coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.

  15. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2017-07-03

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mycorrhizal fungi increase coffee plants competitiveness against Bidens pilosa interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral França

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizae provide several benefits to coffee plants. This study evaluated whether these benefits influence the damage caused by the Bidens pilosa competition with coffee seedlings. A randomized blocks design was used, with treatments established in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (presence and absence of B. pilosa interference in non-inoculated control or plants inoculated with either Claroideoglomus etunicatum or Dentiscutata heterogama. Coffee seedlings were inoculated with fungi spores and developed for 120 days. Then, they were subjected to the interference of B. pilosa for more 120 days, when data were collected for growth traits, mycorrhizal colonization, dry matter and foliar nutrient concentrations in coffee plants. Dry matter and nutrient contents in B. pilosa plants were also evaluated. Inoculation provided better growth and nutrition of coffee plants. The competition with B. pilosa reduced mycorrhizal colonization, height, leaf area, leaf and stem dry mass, root dry weight, number of reproductive branches and levels of P and Fe in the coffee plants. However, the harmful effect of the interference was lower in inoculated coffee plants. The dry mass of B. pilosa decreased under the interference of inoculated coffee plants. The inoculation of C. etunicatum and D. heterogama in Arabica coffee seedlings increases the competitiveness of the crop against B. pilosa interference.

  17. Model studies on the influence of coffee melanoidins on flavor volatiles of coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, T; Czerny, M; Calligaris, S; Schieberle, P

    2001-05-01

    Addition of the total melanoidin fraction isolated by water extraction from medium-roasted coffee powder to a model solution containing a set of 25 aroma compounds mimicking the aroma of a coffee brew reduced, in particular, the intensity of the roasty, sulfury aroma quality. Model studies performed by static headspace analysis revealed that especially three well-known coffee odorants, that is, 2-furfurylthiol (FFT), 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, were significantly reduced in the headspace above an aqueous model solution when melanoidins were added. In particular, the low molecular weight melanoidins (1500-3000 Da) led to the most significant decrease in FFT. In contrast, for example, aldehydes remained unaffected by melanoidin addition.

  18. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  19. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Drajat, Bambang; Agustian, Adang; Supriatna, Ade

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in International markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ochratoxin A contamination in green coffee beans using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taradolsirithitikul, Panchita; Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Dachoupakan Sirisomboon, Cheewanun

    2017-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination is highly prevalent in a variety of agricultural products including the commercially important coffee bean. As such, rapid and accurate detection methods are considered necessary for the identification of OTA in green coffee beans. The goal of this research was to apply Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy to detect and classify OTA contamination in green coffee beans in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. PLSR models were generated using pretreated spectroscopic data to predict the OTA concentration. The best model displayed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814, a standard error of prediction (SEP and bias of 1.965 µg kg -1 and 0.358 µg kg -1 , respectively. Additionally, a PLS-DA model was also generated, displaying a classification accuracy of 96.83% for a non-OTA contaminated model and 80.95% for an OTA contaminated model, with an overall classification accuracy of 88.89%. The results demonstrate that the developed model could be used for detecting OTA contamination in green coffee beans in either a quantitative or qualitative manner. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee.

  2. Light coffee consumption is protective against sarcopenia, but frequent coffee consumption is associated with obesity in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Yong Soon

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of coffee on body composition in the general population. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that coffee consumption is protective against obesity and sarcopenia in Korean adults. The study included 6906 subjects aged ≥40 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009-2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was determined according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height-squared that was below the lower quintile of the study population. Participants were classified into 4 groups according to the degree of coffee consumption (coffee once a day compared to those who rarely drink coffee (OR: 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.94). Women who consumed coffee ≥3 times/d had higher obesity ORs than those who rarely drink coffee according to both obesity indices (OR: 1.57, 95% CI, 1.18-2.10 for obesity by BMI; OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75 for obesity by WC). Light coffee consumption was protective against sarcopenia in men, whereas frequent coffee consumption produced a higher risk for obesity, especially in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  4. IPR 99 - Dwarf arabica coffee cultivar resistant to coffee ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘IPR 99’ was derived from a cross between “Villa Sarchi 971/10” and “Hibrido de Timor 832/2”. It is a dwarf cultivar, resistant to coffee ringspot virus, partially resistant to leaf rust with semi-late ripening. ‘IPR 99’ presents partial resistance to necrosis and mummification of young fruits on field conditions. It presents special cup quality and high yield in lower and higher temperature coffee regions in Paraná State.

  5. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  6. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  7. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Rennert, Hedy S; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer, current evidence remains inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing colorectal cancer [OR (drinkers vs. non-drinkers), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.86; P coffee consumption alone (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer. Compared with 2.5 servings/day (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39-0.54; P Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in a dose-response manner. Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 634-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement

  9. A better brew: Toward a sustainable coffee industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... At the consumer end of the supply chain, coffee devotees pay a premium for their favourite morning pick-me-up to compensate growers for adopting sustainable farming practices. That premium presently stands at more than double the conventional market price. In the mainstream coffee market, price is ...

  10. A review of coffee wilt disease, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee is vital to the economy of East and Central Africa, providing a major source of foreign exchange earnings and as a cash crop, supporting the livelihood of millions of people who are involved in cultivation, processing, marketing, and export. Coffee is attacked by various disease-causing organisms such as fungi, ...

  11. Association of Arabica coffee quality attributes with selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) bean quality attributes differ based on the origin of the produce. Several agro-ecological conditions influence coffee bean quality attributes. Soil chemical properties may be some of the factors affecting the quality attributes. However, no study has so far been conducted to elucidate the association ...

  12. Agricultural Commercialisation In Coffee Growing Areas Of Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coffee sub-sector is very important to the Ethiopian economy – in 2005, coffee export generated 41% of foreign exchange earnings – and provides income for approximately 8 million smallholder households. Policy attention to the sector was always considerable, and its importance has been renewed in the latest ...

  13. Quantification and antibacterial activity of flavonoids in coffee samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Flavonoids are the phenolic substances widely found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and coffee. Methodology: In the current study quantity of flavonoids and antibacterial activities were determined in different coffee samples namely Nescafe classic, Nescafe gold, Nescafe martina, ...

  14. Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust and coffee berry diseases, inflorescence blight disease of cashew in order to make farming profitable and ...

  15. Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of coffee on the gastrointestinal system have been suggested by patients and the lay press, while doctors tend to discourage its consumption in some diseases. METHODS: The literature on the effects of coffee and caffeine on the gastrointestinal system is reviewed with emphasis on

  16. Quality and value chain analyses of Ethiopian coffee | Beshah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the quality and value chain of Ethiopian coffee in a way to identify opportunities that maximize the benefits from the sector. First the Ethiopian coffee sector is overviewed and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively starting from the crop up to the cup based on data collected from ...

  17. Recent advances in coffee berry disease (CBD) control in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waller & Bridge) attacks arabic a coffee in most African arabica coffee growing countries. The disease was first recorded in Uganda in 1959 and surveys on the disease indicated that up to 50% crop losses were being incurred. Most of the ...

  18. Uganda Coffee Supply Response and Export Demand: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.

  19. Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity of Concentrated Solutions of Soluble Coffee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolík, Václav; Žitný, R.; Tovčigrečko, Valentin; Delgado, M.; Allaf, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 93-98 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:MSM 212200008 Keywords : coffee extract * soluble coffee * viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2002

  20. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  1. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who

  2. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  3. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Therefore, urgent attention should be given to the coffee refinery for effluent ... as their maintenance and restoration. ... sound ecohydrological of river basin management, human activities can upset the ... determine the rivers' recovery potential. At each ... much stress from the coffee refineries disposal at p<0.05 and 0.01.

  4. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension. Data from crosssectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective

  5. Ant patchiness: a spatially quantitative test in coffee agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M.

    2006-08-01

    Arboreal ants form patchy spatial patterns in tropical agroforest canopies. Such patchy distributions more likely occur in disturbed habitats associated with lower ant diversity and resource availability than in forests. Yet, few studies have quantitatively examined these patchy patterns to statistically test if ants are non-randomly distributed or at what scale. Coffee agroecosystems form a gradient of management intensification along which vegetative complexity and ant diversity decline. Using field studies and a spatially explicit randomization model, I investigated ant patchiness in coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico varying in management intensity to examine if: (1) coffee intensification affects occurrence of numerically dominant ants, (2) numerical dominants form statistically distinguishable single-species patches in coffee plants, (3) shade trees play a role in patch location, and (4) patch formation or size varies with management intensity. Coffee intensification correlated with lower occurrence frequency of numerically dominant species generally and of one of four taxa examined. All dominant ant species formed patches but only Azteca instabilis was patchy around shade trees. Ant patchiness did vary somewhat with spatial scale and with strata (within the coffee layer vs around shade trees). Patchiness, however, did not vary with management intensity. These results provide quantitative evidence that numerically dominant ants are patchy within the coffee layer at different scales and that shade tree location, but not coffee management intensity, may play a role in the formation of patchy distributions.

  6. Coffee intake and incidence of hypertension 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Ocké, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Grobbee, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The long-term longitudinal evidence for a relation between coffee intake and hypertension is relatively scarce. Objective: The objective was to assess whether coffee intake is associated with the incidence of hypertension. Design: This study was conducted on a cohort of 2985 men and 3383

  7. Incorporation of Chlorogenic Acids in Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the

  8. Let’s have a cup of coffee!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2013-01-01

    Coffee breaks are the main target in this investigation as the paper draws upon a qualitative focus group among Danish public family law caseworkers employed in a newly merged workplacesite. Coffee breaks were identified as the utmost important factor for the social and personal survival well-bei...

  9. Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    During the roasting process, coffee bean components undergo structural changes leading to the formation of melanoidins, which are defined as high molecular weight nitrogenous and brown-colored compounds. As coffee brew is one of the main sources of melanoidins in the human diet, their health implications are of great interest. In fact, several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antiglycative activities, have been attributed to coffee melanoidins. To understand the potential of coffee melanoidin health benefits, it is essential to know their chemical structures. The studies undertaken to date dealing with the structural characterization of coffee melanoidins have shown that polysaccharides, proteins, and chlorogenic acids are involved in coffee melanoidin formation. However, exact structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in their formation are far to be elucidated. This paper systematizes the available information and provides a critical overview of the knowledge obtained so far about the structure of coffee melanoidins, mechanisms of their formation, and their potential health implications.

  10. Impact of coffee on liver diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Sammy; Mallam, Divya; Cox, Gerald A; Tong, Myron J

    2014-04-01

    Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Its health benefits including improved overall survival have been demonstrated in a variety of disease states. To examine the association of coffee consumption with liver disease, a systematic review of studies on the effects of coffee on liver associated laboratory tests, viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was performed. Coffee consumption was associated with improved serum gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in a dose dependent manner in individuals at risk for liver disease. In chronic liver disease patients who consume coffee, a decreased risk of progression to cirrhosis, a lowered mortality rate in cirrhosis patients, and a lowered rate of HCC development were observed. In chronic hepatitis C patients, coffee was associated with improved virologic responses to antiviral therapy. Moreover, coffee consumption was inversely related to the severity of steatohepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, in patients with chronic liver disease, daily coffee consumption should be encouraged. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree

  12. A Poetry Coffee House: Creating a Cool Community of Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the sharing of writing through a coffee house--style poetry reading. Although this article focuses on a workshop and share activity used in a preservice teacher language arts and literacy course, it contains tips and ideas for implementing poetry coffee houses with elementary and secondary school students and preservice and…

  13. Phenotypic Diversity in the Hararge Coffee ( Coffea arabica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic Diversity in the Hararge Coffee ( Coffea arabica L) Germplasm for Quantitative Traits. ... East African Journal of Sciences ... A field experiment was conducted at Awada Agricultural Research Sub-Center, Ethiopia, to study the magnitude of phenotypic diversity among Hararge coffee (Coffea arabica L.) germplasm ...

  14. Boosting climate resilience for Colombian coffee growers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-29

    Sep 29, 2016 ... This will help farmers stabilize their livelihoods and be more competitive in the face of climate change, while securing the supply and quality of their coffee. Cenicafé researchers will also receive assistance from staff at the Tim Hortons Coffee Partnership, a farmer-support program established in 2005 to ...

  15. Activity of some isoenzymatic systems in stored coffee grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Saath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide consumption of coffee, it is natural that throughout the history many people have dedicated the research to markers that contribute somehow on gauging its quality. This research aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance of arabica coffee during storage. Coffee in beans (natural and in parchment (pulped dried in concrete terrace and in dryer with heated air were packed in jute bags and stored in not controlled environmental conditions. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, esterase and lipoxygenase in coffee grains were evaluated at zero, three, six, nine and twelve months by means of electrophoresis. Independently of the drying method, the activity of isoenzymatic complexes highlighted deteriorative processes in stored grains of coffee. The treatments 60/40º C and 60º C used to reduce the water content imposed a greater stress condition, accelerated metabolism of natural coffee in the storage with decreased activity of defense mechanisms due to latent damage in these grains. Natural coffees are more sensible to high drying temperatures and its quality reduces faster than pulped coffee in the storage.

  16. International competitiveness of brazilian and paraná state`s coffe complex / Competitividade internacional do complexo cafeeiro brasileiro e paranaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vasques Cintra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants aspects of the competitiveness of the exportations of the coffee complex in Paraná State between 1990 and 2003 . The study intends to systematize: the recent literature on the subject, focusing the competitiveness of the main products of the brazilian guideline of exportations. A critical review of literature was made about the theories of international trade and competitiveness. It was characterized the dynamics of the complex of Brazilian coffee. The article identifies the competitive advantages of the Paraná coffee (green, roasted, soluble and special in relation to the competing countries; discusses the barriers to imports imposed to the brazilian coffee by the importing countries, and ends with the possible public and private policies favorable to the competitiveness of the coffee exportations.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os determinantes da competitividade das exportações do complexo cafeeiro paranaense entre 1990 e 2003. O estudo pretende sistematizar: a literatura recente sobre o tema, enfocando a competitividade de um dos principais produtos da pauta de exportações brasileira e do Paraná. Realizou-se a revisão crítica da literatura das teorias do comércio internacional e da competitividade e em seguida, caracterizou-se a dinâmica do complexo cafeeiro do brasileiro e paranaense. O artigo identifica as vantagens competitivas do café paranaense (verde, torrado, solúvel e especial em relação aos países concorrentes; discute as barreiras às importações impostas ao café brasileiro pelos países importadores; e finaliza com as possíveis políticas públicas e privadas favoráveis à competitividade das exportações de café.

  17. Advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Maria de Fátima Moura de; Rea, Marina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Karina Aragão; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar os avanços na Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes no período de 1988 a 2002, comparando seus diferentes textos entre si e com o Código Internacional de Comercialização de Substitutos do Leite Materno. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos em documentos, relatórios, portarias e resoluções do Ministério da Saúde. As versões utilizadas na comparação foram a de 1992 e a de 2002. RESULTADOS: A análise comparativa permiti...

  18. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study....... Setting: 10 European countries. Participants: 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Measurements: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum...... biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). Results: During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically...

  19. Coffee Adulteration: More than Two Decades of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline Theodoro; Farah, Adriana; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a ubiquitous food product of considerable economic importance to the countries that produce and export it. The adulteration of roasted coffee is a strategy used to reduce costs. Conventional methods employed to identify adulteration in roasted and ground coffee involve optical and electron microscopy, which require pretreatment of samples and are time-consuming and subjective. Other analytical techniques have been studied that might be more reliable, reproducible, and widely applicable. The present review provides an overview of three analytical approaches (physical, chemical, and biological) to the identification of coffee adulteration. A total of 30 published articles are considered. It is concluded that despite the existence of a number of excellent studies in this area, there still remains a lack of a suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodology able to take into account the various different aspects of adulteration, considering coffee varieties, defective beans, and external agents.

  20. The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell

    2014-05-28

    The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee.

  1. Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05 between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark, the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.

  2. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have different effects on human health. It is therefore important to know their chemical structures and changes. Previous studies have shown that polysaccharides, proteins and chlorogenic acids are included in the formation of these melanoidins. However, the precise structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in the formation are not yet clarified. This article systematize available information and provides an overview of research obtained so far on the structure of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms of their formation and potential health effects.

  3. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  4. Espresso coffee foam delays cooling of the liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Kaho

    2017-04-01

    Espresso coffee foam, called crema, is known to be a marker of the quality of espresso coffee extraction. However, the role of foam in coffee temperature has not been quantitatively clarified. In this study, we used an automatic machine for espresso coffee extraction. We evaluated whether the foam prepared using the machine was suitable for foam analysis. After extraction, the percentage and consistency of the foam were measured using various techniques, and changes in the foam volume were tracked over time. Our extraction method, therefore, allowed consistent preparation of high-quality foam. We also quantitatively determined that the foam phase slowed cooling of the liquid phase after extraction. High-quality foam plays an important role in delaying the cooling of espresso coffee.

  5. Integrated pest management of coffee berry borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: current status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges...

  6. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  7. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  8. [Spectroscopic methods applied to component determination and species identification for coffee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-zhou; Xu, Li-li; Qin, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopic analysis was applied to the determination of the nutrient quality of ground, instant and chicory coffees. By using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), nine mineral elements were determined in solid coffee samples. Caffeine was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and organic matter was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Oxidation-reduction titration was utilized for measuring the oxalate. The differences between ground coffee and instant coffee was identified on the basis of the contents of caffeine, oxalate and mineral elements. Experimental evidence showed that, caffeine in instant coffee was 2-3 times higher than in ground coffee. Oxalate in instant coffee was significantly higher in ground coffee. Mineral elements of Mg, P and Zn in ground coffee is lower than in instant coffee, while Cu is several times higher. The mineral content in chicory coffee is overall lower than the instant coffee. In addition, we determined the content of Ti for different types of coffees, and simultaneously detected the elements of Cu, Ti and Zn in chicory coffee. As a fast detection technique, FTIR spectroscopy has the potential of detecting the differences between ground coffee and instant coffee, and is able to verify the presence of caffeine and oxalate.

  9. Challenges in Specialty Coffee Processing and Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices to prevent this risk. The quality of coffee beans depends on optimized protocols of cultivation, ripe berries collection, and removal of the outer fruit layers by dry or wet processes and moisture reduction. Storage and shipment represent two steps where bean quality needs to be preserved by preventing fungal contamination that may impact the final product and form mycotoxins, mainly ochratoxin A. In this review, we describe the challenges faced by the coffee industry to guarantee quality from production to roasting and brewing. An overview of novel technologies, such as the application of starter cultures in fermentation and the exploitation of industrial enzymes in accelerating the process of flavour development in coffee beans, is given. Moreover, the results of studies on microbial populations on coffee and the differences found in fungi, yeasts and bacteria composition among the investigations, are summarized. In particular, this review describes new attempts to contain the development of mycotoxigenic fungi, through the application of antagonistic microorganisms such as S. cerevisiae. The new wave of specialty coffees, i.e., those with a cupping score higher than 85/100, is also presented. It is shown how, through careful coffee production methods and controlled fermentation processes, coffee producers may increase their income by assuring high standards of quality and high added value for the coffee experience sector.

  10. Altered intestinal absorption of L-thyroxine caused by coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Bartolone, Luigi; Pappalardo, Maria Angela; Russo, Antonia; Lapa, Daniela; Giorgianni, Grazia; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco

    2008-03-01

    To report eight case histories, and in vivo and in vitro studies showing coffee's potential to impair thyroxine (T4) intestinal absorption. Of eight women with inappropriately high or nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) when T4 was swallowed with coffee/espresso, six consented to the evaluation of their T4 intestinal absorption. This in vivo test was also administered to nine volunteers. In three separate tests, two 100 microg T4 tablets were swallowed with coffee, water, or water followed, 60 minutes later, by coffee. Serum T4 was assayed over the 4-hour period of the test. Two patients and two volunteers also agreed on having tested the intestinal absorption of T4 swallowed with solubilized dietary fibers. In the in vitro studies, classical recovery tests on known concentrations of T4 were performed in the presence of saline, coffee, or known T4 sequestrants (dietary fibers, aluminium hydroxide, and sucralfate). For the in vivo test, average and peak incremental rise of serum T4 (AIRST4 and PIRST4), time of maximal incremental rise of serum T4 (TMIRST4), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined. In patients and volunteers, the four outcome measures were similar in the water and water + coffee tests. In patients and volunteers, compared to water, coffee lowered AIRST4 (by 36% and 29%), PIRST4 (by 30% and 19%), and AUC (by 36% and 27%) and delayed TMIRST4 (by 38 and 43 minutes); bran was a superior interferer. In the in vitro studies, coffee was weaker than known T4 sequestrants. Coffee should be added to the list of interferers of T4 intestinal absorption, and T4 to the list of compounds whose absorption is affected by coffee.

  11. Consumption of unfiltered coffee brews in elderly Europeans. SENECA Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgert, R; de Groot, C P

    1996-07-01

    To quantify the consumption of unfiltered coffee brews, which contain the cholesterol-raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, in elderly subjects. Interviews of randomly selected elderly in the 1993 SENECA Study on Nutrition and the Elderly in Europe. Nine towns in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, Poland, and Northern Ireland/United Kingdom). 962 relatively healthy elderly persons (460 men, 502 women) born between 1913 and 1918. Daily coffee consumption, classified by brewing technique. About 90 percent of the examinees were daily coffee users in Roskilde/Denmark (population means; men 530 ml/d, women 425 ml/d) and Culemborg/the Netherlands (men 513 ml/d, women 285 ml/d), against only 12% in Marki/Poland (population means; men 14 ml/d, women 36 ml/d) and 7% in Coimbra/Portugal (men 8 ml/d, women 0 ml/d). Drip-filtered and instant coffee, which are poor in diterpenes, were the prevalent types in most survey towns. Espresso and mocha coffee, which contain intermediate amounts of diterpenes, were consumed daily by 31% of the coffee drinkers in Switzerland and by all coffee drinkers in Italy, but intake was too low to substantially affect serum cholesterol levels. Consumption of brews that are rich in diterpenes, such as cafetiere, boiled, or Turkish/Greek coffee, was negligible in all survey towns. Coffee drinking is common among elderly people in some European countries, but intake of cafestol and kahweol with unfiltered coffee brews is low.

  12. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  13. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-04-15

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. © 2014 UICC.

  14. Stable Radical Content and Anti-Radical Activity of Roasted Arabica Coffee: From In-Tact Bean to Coffee Brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J.; Navarini, Luciano; Liverani, Furio Suggi; Drew, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25856192

  15. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity in coffees marketed in Colombia: Relationship with the extent of non-enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Calderón, José; Mejía-Díaz, Diana; Martínez-Castaño, Marcela; Bedoya-Ramírez, Daniel; López-Rojas, Natalia; Gómez-Narváez, Faver; Medina-Pineda, Yaqueline; Vega-Castro, Oscar

    2016-10-15

    Fifty-eight samples of commercial Colombian coffee with different characteristics (soluble, ground, decaffeinated, etc) were evaluated for antioxidant capacity (AC) (ABTS and FRAP), total soluble phenolics (TP), browning index (BI), color parameters (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), c(∗) and h(∗)), HMF and furfural. The AC in Colombian coffees was very varied (164-1000, 100.8-885.9μmol of Trolox equiv/g and 12.5-127mg gallic acid equiv/g, respectively for ABTS, FRAP and TP). AC, TP, BI, color, HMF and furfural values were higher (penzymatic browning and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of products of coffee silverskin in anti-ageing cosmetics and functional food

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M. Dolores del; Ibáñez, Elena; Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Herrero, Miguel; Plaza, Merichel; Ullate, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a product obtained from coffee silverskin, characterised in that it is (a) powdered coffee silverskin or b) coffee silverskin extract. The invention also relates to a method for extracting coffee silverskin, comprising a step of extraction with water, preferably with subcritical water. The invention further relates to the use of the product obtained from coffee silverskin in cosmetics or functional food, especially for preventing physiological ageing processes, a...

  18. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of conilon coffee submitted to different degrees of roasting

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Sérgio Antônio Lemos de; Aquino, Francisco José Tôrres de; Nascimento, Priscilla Mendes do; Nascimento, Evandro Afonso do; Chang, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity presented by Conilon coffee (C. Canephora) variety, produced in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were quantified. The light roast coffee showed the highest level of total phenols, trigonelline, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. The proanthocyanidin level was the highest for dark roast coffee, while caffeine level didn't show significative changes for the light and middle roast coffees. All the Conilon coffee extracts showed antioxidant activity d...

  19. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja; Grace N. Njoroge; John M. Kihoro; Mary W. Gikungu; L.E. Newton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different...

  20. Modernization of the Grinding Electromechanical Drive System of the Automated Coffee Machine

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    Ilie Nuca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to espresso coffee machines high quality and some possibilities to increase the level of automation and productivity. Existing machines require manual adjustment of coffee grinder depending on the quality of coffee beans. To eliminate this flaw has been developed and implemented an adjustable electromechanical system with DC servomotor and numerical control of coffee grinder. Computer simulation results demonstrate the functionality of the proposed electromechanical drive system of the coffee grinder

  1. Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground

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    Fan Leifa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid state cultivation (SSC was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent-ground as substrates for the production of edible mushroom Flammulina under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. The strain of F. velutipes LPB 01 was adapted for a coffee husk extract medium. Best results were obtained with 25% spawn rate, though there was not much difference when lower spawn rates (10-20% were used. Ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60% and 55% for coffee husk and spent-ground, respectively. With coffee husk as substrate, first fructification occurred after 25 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 56% with two flushes after 40 days. With spent-ground as substrate, first fructification occurred 21 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 78% in 40 days. There was decrease in the caffeine and tannins contents (10.2 and 20.4%, respectively in coffee husk after 40 days. In coffee spent-ground, the tannin contents decreased by 28% after 40 days. These decrease was attributed to the degradation of caffeine or tannins by the culture because these were not adsorbed in the fungal mycelia. Results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and coffee spent-ground as substrate without any nutritional supplementation for cultivation of edible fungus in SSC. Spent ground appeared better than coffee husk.Cultivo no estado sólido foi utilizado para avaliar as possibilidades de utilizar a casca e a borra de café como substrato para a produção do cogumelo comestível do gênero Flamulina. A cepa de F. velutipes LPB foi adaptada em um meio contendo extrato de casca de café. Os melhores resultados em termos de produção do cogumelo foram obtidos com taxas de inoculação de 25%, embora não tenha sido observadas diferenças significativas quando taxas inferiores foram utilizadas (10-20%. O teor de umidade ideal para o crescimento micelial foi de 60% e 55% para

  2. The Brazilian School Principals

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    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  3. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

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    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  4. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

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    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  5. Marketing of Patents for Innovation: A Study in Brazilian Multicase Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe de Almeida Malvezzi; Andre Luiz Zambalde; Daniel Carvalho de Rezende

    2014-01-01

    Ways to make patents Brazilian universities in innovation has been discussed both by academia and by the funding agencies in order to generate, in addition to knowledge, social and economic benefits to the university and to society in general. In this sense, this research aimed to understand the strategies and marketing practices developed by Brazilian universities for the promotion and commercialization of patent records, aiming at innovation. The assumption for this research is that the use...

  6. Affective sensory tests and internal analysis of preference in acceptability assessment of Brazilian varietal white wines

    OpenAIRE

    BEHRENS, Jorge H.; SILVA, Maria Aparecida A. P. da; WAKELING, Ian N.

    1999-01-01

    The acceptability of nine commercial brazilian varietal white table wines (Riesling, Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer) was evaluated using sensory affective tests. The samples were assessed by 43 consumers of brazilian white wines using he nine-point structured hedonic scale. Judges were recruited based on their responses to a questionnary about consumer?s behavior towards white wines consumption. Subsequently, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with means comparision (Tukey test) and Internal Analysi...

  7. Molecular Bases Underlying the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Federico; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2017-01-23

    Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.

  8. Coffee consumption modulates inflammatory processes in an individual fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaku, Besnik; Tahir, Ammar; Klepeisz, Philip; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mayer, Rupert L; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Marlene; Schmetterer, Klaus; Gerner, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of coffee consumption have been reported to be caused by caffeine and adenosine receptor signaling. However, contradictory effects have been observed. Many kinds of chronic diseases are linked to inflammation; therefore a profound understanding of potential effects of coffee consumption is desirable. We performed ex vivo experiments with eight individuals investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood before and after coffee consumption, as well as in vitro experiments applying caffeine on isolated cells. After in vitro inflammatory stimulation of the cells, released cytokines, chemokines, and eicosanoids were determined and quantified using targeted mass spectrometric methods. Remarkably, the release of inflammation mediators IL6, IL8, GROA, CXCL2, CXCL5 as well as PGA2, PGD2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), LTC4, LTE4, and 15S-HETE was significantly affected after coffee consumption. While in several individuals coffee consumption or caffeine treatment caused significant downregulation of most inflammation mediators, in other healthy individuals exactly the opposite effects were observed. Ruling out age, sex, coffee consumption habits, the metabolic kinetics of caffeine in blood and the individual amount of regulatory T cells or CD39 expression as predictive parameters, we demonstrated here that coffee consumption may have significant pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in an individual fashion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Strength of coffee beans under static and dynamic loading

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    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with experimental research on the crushing of coffee beans of different kinds under quasi-static and dynamic compression. The process of the crushing is described in details. It has been shown that there is variability in the crushing strength values. A relation between crushing strength and the coffee grain shape is also studied. Roasted Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica beans were used for analyses. Arabica coffees were produced in different countries. All Arabica samples were submitted to a light roast. The detail analysis of the experimental data shows that there is no significant relation between parameters describing the fracture behaviour of the grains and grain geometry. These parameters are also independent on the grain weight. Compression of the coffee grains leads to their crushing. The fracture force is different for the different kinds of the coffee. The same is fact valid also for the strain at the fracture and for the energy absorbed during the grain crushing. Dynamic loading leads to the increase in the fracture force of coffee grains in comparison with the quasi static loading.

  10. Equine poisoning by coffee husk (Coffea arabica L.

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    Delfiol Diego Jose Z

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting the coffee husks that are used as bedding. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether coffee husk consumption causes intoxication in horses. Results Six horses fed coast cross hay ad libitum were given access to coffee husks and excitability, restlessness, involuntary muscle tremors, chewing movements and constant tremors of the lips and tongue, excessive sweating and increased respiration and heart rates were the most evident clinical signs. Caffeine levels were measured in the plasma and urine of these horses on two occasions: immediately before the coffee husks were made available to the animals (T0 and at the time of the clinical presentation of intoxication, 56 h after the animals started to consume the husks (T56. The concentrations of caffeine in the plasma (p Conclusions It was concluded that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses.

  11. Aroma recovery from roasted coffee by wet grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, J; Thomann, D; Perren, R; Escher, F

    2010-01-01

    Aroma recovery as determined by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was compared in coffees resulting from conventional grinding processes, and from wet grinding with cold and hot water. Freshly roasted coffee as well as old, completely degassed coffee was ground in order to estimate the relationship of internal carbon dioxide pressure in freshly roasted coffee with the aroma loss during grinding. The release of volatile aroma substances during grinding was found to be related to the internal carbon dioxide pressure, and wet grinding with cold water was shown to minimize losses of aroma compounds by trapping them in water. Due to the high solubility of roasted coffee in water, the use of wet-grinding equipment is limited to processes where grinding is followed by an extraction step. Combining grinding and extraction by the use of hot water for wet grinding resulted in considerable losses of aroma compounds because of the prolonged heat impact. Therefore, a more promising two-step process involving cold wet grinding and subsequent hot extraction in a closed system was introduced. The yield of aroma compounds in the resulting coffee was substantially higher compared to conventionally ground coffee. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Habitual coffee consumption enhances attention and vigilance in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikić, Petar M; Andrić, Branislav R; Stojimirović, Biljana B; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.

  13. Decaffeinated coffee prevents scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; Shim, Jaesung; Kim, Chang-Yul; Jang, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2013-05-15

    Several human studies have reported that coffee consumption improves cognitive performance. In the present study, we investigated whether instant decaffeinated coffee also ameliorates cognitive performance and attenuates the detrimental effects of scopolamine on memory. Memory performance was evaluated in Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Instant decaffeinated coffee (p.o.) at 120 or 240 mg/kg in Sprague-Dawley rats, which is equivalent to approximately three or six cups of coffee, respectively, in a 60 kg human, was administered for two weeks. Oral gavage administration of instant decaffeinated coffee inhibited scopolamine-induced memory impairment, which was measured by Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Instant decaffeinated coffee suppressed scopolamine-mediated elevation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and stimulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway (i.e., phosphorylation of IκBα and p65) in the rat hippocampus. These findings suggest that caffeine-free decaffeinated coffee may prevent memory impairment in human through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and subsequent TNF-α production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Bases Underlying the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Salomone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.

  15. Bird communities in sun and shade coffee farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion to meet rising crop demand is one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity. Coffee, one of the most valuable trade items in tropical countries, can provide both economic livelihood and wildlife habitat. Previous work, conducted primarily on Neotropical coffee farms, indicates that birds are generally more abundant and diverse in farms with a canopy of shade trees, though regional variation exists. To date, few studies have examined birds on coffee farms in Africa, which contains 20% of the world’s coffee acreage. We studied differences in the bird communities between sun and shade monoculture coffee in central Kenya, and we examined effects of vegetation on bird abundance and diversity. Sun coffee had higher species richness and abundances of all major guilds (omnivores, insectivores, and granivores, and showed low community similarity to shade. Unlike findings from the Neotropics, canopy cover appeared to have a negative influence on all guilds, while understory volume of weeds increased bird abundance and species richness with a similar magnitude as canopy cover. These differences highlight the need for further studies in the general East Africa region with a wider variety of shade coffee systems.

  16. Coffee, nutritional status, and renal artery resistive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M; Pirri, Clara; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Trovato, Francesca; Catalano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nutrition and atherosclerosis is known, even dissociated from protein malnutrition. Cardiovascular impact of several nutrients is known; among them the action of coffee is still debated and cardiovascular effect of caffeine has been investigated without definite results. The aim of this study is to investigate whether coffee habits, and/or quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship with renal resistive index (RRI), a hallmark of arterial stiffness (AS). The relationship of AS with nutritional status assessed by body composition and serum albumin, insulin resistance (assessed by HOMA), and renal function assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is concurrently investigated. This study was done with 221 consecutive patients, without diabetes, cancer, liver, renal, and heart disease, referred for clinical noninvasive assessment and nutritional counseling: 124 essential hypertensive and 97 nonhypertensive patients were eligible. Personalized Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase, and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By multiple linear regression, fat-free mass (FFM), HOMA (positive relationship), and number of cups of coffee/day (negative relationship) account for 17.2% of the variance to RRI. By odds ratios lower risk to increased RRI is associated with higher serum albumin, higher hemoglobin, and FFM; greater risk is associated with hypertension, insulin resistance (HOMA ≥ 3.0), and renal insufficiency (GFR ≤ 90); coffee, assessed by number of cups/day, reduces risk. Coffee use is inversely associated with RRI. Habitual coffee users have risk protection to higher RRI; lower serum albumin, insulin resistance, and renal insufficiency are associated with greater RRI.

  17. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

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    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  18. DETERMINATION OF FORMALDEHYDE LEVELS IN 46 COFFEE SHOPS IN ANKARA

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    Songul Acar VAIZOÐLU

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research performed in order to measure formaldehyde levels in 46 random selected coffee shops in from central districts of Ankara. Formaldemeter 400 was used for formaldehyde measures. Simultaneous measures were applied in coffee shops. Mean of formaldehyde levels was 0,20 ppm. There was artificial ventilation in all of the coffee shops. It was used aspirator as ventilation device in 69,6% of the coffee shops. But in 81,0% of these, the formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. In 51,0% of the shops stoves were used for warming and 95,7% of these formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. There were statistically significant difference between warming-up method and formaldehyde levels of coffee shops ( p<0,05, chi square = 6,4. It was used liquid fuel in 51,1% of them as heating fuel. In 69,6% of them formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. There were statistically significant difference between fuel type and formaldehyde levels of coffee shops ( p<0,05, chi square = 5,7. As a result; in 91,3% of the coffee shops formaldehyde levels were above the 0,03 ppm which is permitted limit for indoors, and in 82,6% of them formaldehyde levels were above the 0,1 ppm which is symptom producing level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(3.000: 129-135

  19. Coffee intake and development of pain during computer work

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    Strøm Vegard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine if subjects who had consumed coffee before performing a simulated computer office-work task found to provoke pain in the neck and shoulders and forearms and wrists exhibited different time course in the pain development than the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake. Findings Forty eight subjects all working fulltime, 22 with chronic shoulder and neck pain and 26 healthy pain-free subjects, were recruited to perform a computer-based office-work task for 90 min. Nineteen (40% of the subjects had consumed coffee (1/2 -1 cup on average 1 h 18 min before start. Pain intensity in the shoulders and neck and forearms and wrists was rated on a visual analogue scale every 15 min throughout the work task. During the work task the coffee consumers exhibited significantly lower pain increase than those who abstained from coffee. Conclusions Subjects who had consumed coffee before starting a pain provoking office work task exhibited attenuated pain development compared with the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake. These results might have potentially interesting implications of a pain-modulating effect of caffeine in an everyday setting. However, studies with a double blind placebo controlled randomized design are needed.

  20. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  1. Habitual Coffee Consumption Enhances Attention and Vigilance in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar M. Nikić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants’ response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78% consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%. Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P=0.024. Conclusions. Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.

  2. Caracterização química, reológica e aceitação sensorial do queijo petit suisse brasileiro Chemical composition, water holding capacity, rheological properties and sensory acceptability of Brazilian commercial petit suisse cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. VEIGA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis amostras comerciais de queijo petit suisse foram coletadas em supermercados da cidade de Campinas e analisadas quanto à composição química, capacidade de retenção de água, propriedades reológicas e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos comerciais diferiram especialmente em relação ao tipo de hidrocolóide adicionado e na relação proteína/gordura. O produto B apresentou uma capacidade de retenção de água maior que o dobro da apresentada pelas demais amostras. Este produto apresentou uma relação proteína/gordura intermediária e continha os hidrocolóides concentrado protéico de soro (CPS e pectina. A amostra E apresentou os maiores valores de viscosidade aparente (etaa, viscosidade complexa (eta*, módulo de armazenamento (G’, módulo de dissipação (G’’ e também apresentou a maior relação proteína/gordura, sugerindo haver boa correlação entre a razão proteína/gordura e os parâmetros reológicos. A relação proteína/gordura influenciou significativamente os valores G’, G’’ e eta*, confirmando a influência da composição do produto na estrutura e na elasticidade do queijo petit suisse. Todas as amostras mostraram comportamento viscoelástico, sendo que G’ (o caráter elástico foi maior que G’’ (o caráter viscoso, em todas as freqüências estudadas. Todas as amostras apresentaram características de "gel fraco" com a relação G’/G’’ entre 3 e 4. Houve diferença significativa (pThe chemical composition, water holding capacity, rheological properties and sensory acceptability of six commercial brands of Brazilian petit suisse cheeses collected from local markets, where analyzed after 20 days of storage at temperatures between 8 and 12°C. The commercial products differed mainly with respect to the type of hydrocolloid added and protein/fat ratio. Product B showed more than two times the water holding capacity as compared to the other samples presenting an intermediate protein/fat ratio and whey

  3. Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coffee consumption and mortality in women with cardiovasculardisease123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Li, Tricia Y; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Hu, Frank B; van Dam, Rob M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coffee is commonly consumed among populations of all ages and conditions. The few studies that have examined the association between coffee consumption and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have obtained conflicting results. Objective: The objective was to assess the association between filtered caffeinated coffee consumption and all-cause and CVD mortality during up to 24 y of follow-up in women with CVD from the Nurses’ Health Study. Design: The Nurses’ Health Study included 11,697 women. Coffee consumption was first assessed in 1980 with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then repeatedly every 2–4 y. Cumulative consumption was calculated with all available FFQs from the diagnosis of CVD to the end of the follow-up in 2004 to assess long-term effects. In addition, the most recent coffee measurement was related to mortality in the subsequent 2 y to assess shorter-term effects. Analyses were performed by using Cox regression models. Results: We documented 1159 deaths, of which 579 were due to CVD. The relative risks [RRs (95% CI)] of all-cause mortality across categories of cumulative coffee consumption [coffee intake were 1, 0.99 (0.75, 1.31), 1.03 (0.80, 1.35), 0.97 (0.78, 1.21), and 1.25 (0.85, 1.84), respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similarly, caffeine intake was not associated with total or CVD mortality. Finally, we observed no association of the most recent coffee and caffeine intakes with total and CVD mortality in the subsequent 2 y. Conclusion: Consumption of filtered caffeinated coffee was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality in women with CVD. PMID:21562090

  5. Weather and Climate Indicators for Coffee Rust Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.

  6. Performance of a table vibration type coffee grading machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important coffee beans quality is the size uniformity. To confirm with the standart requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is still carried out fully manual, so that the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is as a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, machine for grading coffee beans is good alternative for grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table vibration type coffee grading machine for grouping of coffee beans in order to consistent quality and reduce grading cost. The machine has dimension of 272 cm length, 126 cm height, and 144 cm width. The machine has three primary components, i.e. grader table, combustion engine, and beam. The machine has three kinds of grader table that each grader table has different holes size, i.e. 7 mm x 7 mm for top grader table, 5 mm x 5 mm for axle grader table, and 4 mm x 4 mm for bottom grader table. Each grader table has dimension of 206 cm length, 105.5 cm height, and 14 cm width. The grading mechanism is by vibration grader table with the power source 5.5 HP combustion engine. The results shown that the outlet are in farms of three grades of coffee beans with connected to each compartement. Assessment of the grading machine reveals that the optimum capacity of 1,406 kg/hour reached when the speed 2,600 rpm and the angle 10O. Economic analysis showed that operational cost for grading one kilogram Robusta coffee beans with moisture content 13—14% wet basis is Rp 7.17.Key words : grading, coffee, quality, vibration table.

  7. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80–90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI, and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC. A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.91–3.34; p for the trend < 0.001 and abdominal obesity as measured by WC (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59–2.79; p for the trend < 0.001. The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.

  8. Diagnostic Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibodies in Urine: a Brazilian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oelemann, Walter M. R.; Lowndes, Catherine M; Veríssimo Da Costa, Giovani C.; Morgado, Mariza G; Castello-Branco,Luiz Roberto R; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Alary, Michel; Bastos, Francisco I

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated, for the first time in Latin America, the performance of a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Calypte Biomedical Corporation, Berkeley, Calif.) that detects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific antibodies in urine in comparison to standard serological assays (two commercial EIAs and a commercial Western blot [WB] assay). Paired serum and urine specimens were collected from two different groups of Brazilian patients: 225 drug users with unknown HIV status who att...

  9. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  10. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  11. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Talbot

    2015-01-01

    The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set o...

  12. Nitrogen fertilization of coffee: organic compost and Crotalaria juncea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo,João Batista Silva; Rodrigues,Mateus Cupertino; Rodrigues,Luisa Bastos; Santos,Ricardo Henrique Silva; Martinez,Herminia Emilia Prieto

    2013-01-01

    Information concerning the response of coffee to organic fertilizers is scarce. This study evaluates the effect of different doses of compost and Crotalaria juncea L. on growth, production and nitrogen nutrition of coffee trees. The treatments consisted of compost at rates of 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the recommended fertilization, with or without the aerial part of C. juncea. C. juncea was grown with NH4-N (2% 15N) and applied to coffee. The use of C. juncea increased growth in height and diame...

  13. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  14. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010, coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids, chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi, and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions.

  15. IPR 107 – Dwarf arabic coffee cultivar with resistance to coffee leaf rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘IPR 107’ was derived from a cross between ‘IAPAR 59’ and ‘Mundo Novo IAC 376-4’. ‘IPR 107’ is a dwarf medium sizeplant with medium precocity in ripening and with complete resistance to rust races in this time. This cultivar presents superior qualityand high yield in many coffee regions.

  16. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, T

    1992-01-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Mos...

  17. Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non

  18. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  19. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2015-10-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  1. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  2. [Coffee and caffeine - enemies or alliantes of a cardiologist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworzański, Wojciech; Burdan, Franciszek; Szumiło, Michał; Jaskólska, Anna; Anielska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is a widespread known psychoactive substance that is present mainly in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks. As a natural methylopxanthine it blocks A1 and A2 adenosine receptors and in high doses inhibits the phosphodiesterase activity. Caffeine also decreases calcium ion accumulation in the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes. A clinical and experimental data indicates that the caffeine and coffee increase the arterial wall stiffness, blood pressure and endothelium-dependent flow mediated dilatation. Caffeine also elevates cholesterol and homocysteine blood level. Moderate coffee consumption decreases the mortality of the cardiac infarct. However, acceleration of acute ischemic cardiac disease correlates with high coffee intake. The metyloxantine easily crosses the blood-placenta barrier, and may induce intrauterine growth retardation. Due to chronotropic and inotropic activity it may induce fetal tachycardia and/or extrasystolic beats.

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Angelica; Adisa, Afolabi; Woodham, Cara; Saleh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g(-1) for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g(-1) for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g(-1) for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g(-1) for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.

  4. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.

  5. Caffeine in coffee: its removal. Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Raghavan, B

    1999-09-01

    The popularity of coffee as a beverage is ever increasing despite the fact that there are reports antagonized to its consumption. Of the several factors cited, the alkaloid caffeine present in coffee can cause addiction and stimulate the central nervous system. It has an effect on the cardiovascular system with a slight increase in blood pressure and heart output. It undergoes biotransformation in the human body to form methylated derivatives of uric acid. In recent times, much effort has gone into the research on the removal of caffeine in coffee, resulting in a specialty product called decaffeinated coffee. Decaffeination methods mainly employ organic solvents or water or supercritical carbon dioxide. These methods with their attendant advantages and disadvantages are reviewed in this article.

  6. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  7. Coffee and pancreatic cancer in a rural California county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, E D; Garland, C F; Garland, F C; Benenson, A S; Cottrell, L

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the risk of fatal pancreatic cancer according to intake of regular and decaffeinated coffee, cases (N = 30) and controls (N = 47) were identified from death certificates and matched for age (+/- 5 years), sex, ethnicity, and date of death (+/- 5 years). Telephone interviews were completed with survivors of about 80% of both groups. In smokers, the relative risk for high (3 + cups) versus low (risk. Mean daily intakes of alcohol and cigarettes were virtually identical in cases and controls, although cases had accumulated nonsignificantly more pack-years. Intakes of regular and decaffeinated coffee were uncorrelated, and the smoking-coffee interaction could not be readily explained by recall bias. If coffee intake increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, the mechanism could depend heavily on smoking.

  8. Sequence variants at CYP1A1-CYP1A2 and AHR associate with coffee consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulem, P; Gudbjartsson, D.F; Geller, F; Prokopenko, I; Feenstra, B; Aben, K.K.H; Franke, B; Heijer, M. den; Kovacs, P; Stumvoll, M; Magi, R; Yanek, L.R; Becker, L.C; Boyd, H.A; Stacey, S.N; Walters, G.B; Jonasdottir, A; Thorleifsson, G; Holm, H; Gudjonsson, S.A; Rafnar, T; Bjornsdottir, G; Becker, D.M; Melbye, M; Kong, A; Tonjes, A; Thorgeirsson, T; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M; Stefansson, K

    2011-01-01

    .... The heritability of coffee consumption has been estimated at around 50%. We performed a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of coffee consumption among coffee drinkers from Iceland (n = 2680), The Netherlands (n = 2791...

  9. Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Padron, B.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households. Specific topics we examine are the contract arrangements and trade performance, the factors influencing the growers´ willingness to join a cooperative, the effects of cooperation on price var...

  10. Selection of arabica coffee progenies tolerant to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Lara Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to high temperatures, practically all coffee farms in the state of Rondonia are of the C. canephora species. Thus, importing arabica coffee from other states becomes necessary for composition of blends, as well as for the specialty or gourmet coffee market. The purpose of this study was to select arabica coffee genotypes that exhibit satisfactory agronomic performance under high temperature conditions. The experiment was conducted in OuroPreto do Oeste, RO, Brazil, with mean annual temperature of 25.8°C and mean annual rainfall of 2300mm year-1. The experiment was composed of 114 arabica coffee genotypes, with 103 progenies and eleven control cultivars, provided by EPAMIG. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications, spacing of 3.0x1.0 meters and five plants per plot. All the crop seasons showed significant difference for the green coffee yield trait. In joint analysis, significant differences were detected among progenies and control cultivars. In the average of the four harvests, green coffee yield was 32.38 bags ha-1. The cultivars 'CatuaíVermelho IAC 15', 'Obatã IAC 1669-20' and 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SLCAK' stood out, achieving yields greater than 40 bags ha-1. The gain obtained from selection was 14.33 bags ha-1, which is equivalent to an increase of 44.04% in production of green coffee. The progeny H514-7-10-6-2-3-9 stood out with an average yield of 51.20 bags ha-1. In regard to maturation cycle, 56% of the progenies were classified as early maturity and 44% as medium maturity. Late maturity genotypes were not observed

  11. Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Jennifer J.; Tanner, Julie‐Anne; Taylor, Amy E.; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J.; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: 1) determine whether coffee consumption causally influences cigarette smoking, 2) estimate the magnitude of any association, and 3) explore potential mechanisms.DESIGN: We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarised data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual le...

  12. Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measu...

  13. Coffee silverskin: a possible valuable cosmetic ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, M Helena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is a great tendency in cosmetic area to use natural extracts. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the most abundant solid by-product generated during roasting of coffee processing. To evaluate different CS extracts as promising cosmetic ingredients, regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic CS extracts were obtained by an environmentally friendly procedure considering costs and pollution. Extracts were characterized for total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antimicrobial activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). The TPC of extracts was 18.33-35.25 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of material on a dry basis (mg GAE/g db). The TFC of extracts was 1.08-2.47 µg cathechin equivalents per g dry material (µg CE/g db). The antioxidant activity was high, with values ranging between 95.95 and 216.40 µmol Fe(2+)/g for aqueous and alcoholic samples, respectively. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts display antibacterial activity. The MIC varied from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for Gram-positive, and from 31.3 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-negative. Extracts did not affect in vitro cell viability, with values near 100% in all concentrations tested. RESULTS seem show that CS is a safe source of natural antioxidants with antifungal and antibacterial activity and no cytotoxicity, with potential usefulness for cosmetic applications.

  14. Preliminary design of a coffee harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.

  15. Microclimate and development of 'Conilon' coffee intercropped with rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of intercropping 'Conilon' coffee (Coffea canephora with rubber trees on coffee tree microclimate, nutrition, growth, and yield. Rubber trees were planted in two double rows 33 m apart, with 4x2.3 m spacing between plants. Treatments consisted of the distances from the coffee plants to the rubber trees: 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 m. Measurements of atmospheric variables (temperature, irradiance, and relative humidity, leaf nutrient concentration, internode length of plagiotropic and orthotropic branches, individual leaf area, chlorophyll content, and yield were performed. Intercropping promotes changes in the microclimatic conditions of coffee plants close to rubber trees, with reduction of temperature and irradiance level and increase in air relative humidity. The proximity of the coffee tree to the rubber trees promotes the elongation of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches and increases the individual leaf area; however, it does not affect leaf concentrations of N, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, and B in 'Conilon' coffee and does not have a negative impact on yield.

  16. Blood pressure in relation to coffee and caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and coffee is of major interest given its widespread consumption and the public health burden of high BP. Yet, there is no specific recommendation regarding coffee intake in existing hypertension guidelines. The lack of a definitive understanding of the BP-coffee relationship is partially attributable to issues that we discuss in this review, issues such as acute vs. chronic effects, genetic and smoking effect modifications, and coffee vs. caffeine effects. We also present evidence from meta-analyses of studies on the association of BP with coffee intake. The scope of this review is limited to the latest advances published with a specific focus on caffeine, acknowledging that caffeine is only one among numerous components in coffee that may influence BP. Finally, considering the state of the research, we propose a mechanism by which the CYP1A2 gene and enzyme influence BP via inhibition of the adenosine receptor differentially in smokers and non-smokers.

  17. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in korean premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.

  18. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste

  20. Micro mills, specialty coffee and relationships. Following the supply chain from Costa Rica to Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllensten, Benedicte

    2017-01-01

    2.25 billion cups of coffee are consumed every single day, and an increasing amount of this is specialty coffee. The third wave of coffee focuses on quality, taste and variety and consumers demand socially responsible coffee, but despite many initiatives to return more value to producers, most of the world’s coffee producers still struggle to make a living. The majority of the value of a cup of coffee is created and remains in consuming countries. This thesis looks at the phenomenon of micro ...