WorldWideScience

Sample records for comestible sugar snap

  1. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  2. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quali...

  3. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Daniel D; Bettge, Arthur D; Morris, Craig F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality. Functional differences were examined relative to arabinoxylan content, protein content, and oxidative cross-linking potential of flour slurries. Oxidative cross-linking measurements were obtained on flour slurries with a low shear Bostwick consistometer and considered endogenous oxidative cross-linking potential (water alone) or enhanced oxidative cross-linking potential (with added hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase). A 2-way ANOVA indicated that flour blend was the greater source of variation compared to grain lot for all response variables except water-extractable arabinoxylan content. Patent flours produced larger sugar snap cookies and Japanese sponge cakes, and contained significantly less total and water-unextractable arabinoxylans, protein, and ash than did straight grade flours. Patent flours produced more viscous slurries for endogenous and enhanced cross-linking measurements compared to the straight grade flours. The functional differences between patent and straight grade flours appear to be related to the particular mill streams that were utilized in the formulation of the 2 flour blends and compositional differences among those streams. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  4. Isolation and characterization of starch from industrial fresh pasta by-product and its potential use in sugar-snap cookie making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Soumaya Zouari; Driss, Dorra; Maktouf, Sameh; Neifar, Mohamed; Kobbi, Ameni; Kamoun, Hounaida; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouze; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouze

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, starch was extracted from fresh pasta by-product (PS) and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Commercial wheat starch (CS) was used as reference. In general, purity was similar between starches studied. However, others compounds such as protein, lipid and ash were significantly different. PS starch granules had large lenticular-shape (25-33 μm) and small spherical-shape (5-8 μm). The pH and color of PS starch were similar to those reported for CS starch. On the other hand, PS had higher water absorption capacity, viscosity and cooking stability than CS. The gelatinization temperature of PS was similar to that of CS (60 and 61 °C). At high temperature (90 °C) both starches had similar rheological behavior. The results achieved suggest that PS starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures such the manufacture of sugar snap cookie. The effects of PS starch addition on the dough making stage and the final cookie quality were analyzed. Improvements in dough cohesiveness (24 %) and springiness (10 %) were significant relative to those of CS dough. Texture profile analysis confirmed the rheological changes.

  5. Digital Snaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette; Larsen, Jonas

    . Distance as the New Punctum / Mikko Villi -- pt. II. FAMILY ALBUMS IN TRANSITION -- ch. 4. How Digital Technologies Do Family Snaps, Only Better / Gillian Rose -- ch. 5. Friendship Photography: Memory, Mobility and Social Networking / Joanne Garde-Hansen -- ch. 6. Play, Process and Materiality in Japanese...... -- ch. 9. Retouch Yourself: The Pleasures and Politics of Digital Cosmetic Surgery / Tanya Sheehan -- ch. 10. Virtual Selves: Art and Digital Autobiography / Louise Wolthers -- ch. 11. Mobile-Media Photography: New Modes of Engagement / Michael Shanks and Connie Svabo....

  6. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de diez basidiomicetos comestibles en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Belloso; Ivonne González; Rebeca Suárez; Armando Cáceres

    2015-01-01

    Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas substancias pueden obtenerse de diversas fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Aga...

  7. Elementary chaotic snap flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munmuangsaen, Buncha; Srisuchinwong, Banlue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing chaotic snap flow have been presented. → Three of all are conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. → Four cases need only a single control parameter and a single nonlinearity. → A cubic case in a jerk representation requires only two terms and a single nonlinearity. - Abstract: Hyperjerk systems with 4th-order derivative of the form x .... =f(x ... ,x .. ,x . ,x) have been referred to as snap systems. Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing flow are presented through an extensive numerical search. Four of these flows demonstrate elegant simplicity of a single control parameter based on a single nonlinearity of a quadratic, a piecewise-linear or an exponential type. Two others demonstrate elegant simplicity of all unity-in-magnitude parameters based on either a single cubic nonlinearity or three cubic nonlinearities. The chaotic snap flow with a single cubic nonlinearity requires only two terms and can be transformed to its equivalent dynamical form of only five terms which have a single nonlinearity. An advantage is that such a chaotic flow offers only five terms even though the (four) dimension is high. Three of the chaotic snap flows are characterized as conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. Basic dynamical properties are described.

  8. SNAP operating system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III.

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories

  9. Efeito do teor de amido danificado na produção de biscoitos tipo semi-duros Effect of damaged starch in the production of sugar-snap cookie type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou estudar a danificação do amido de farinha de trigo por moagem e o seu efeito na produção de biscoitos tipo semi-duros. Amostras de trigo dos cultivares BR 23, BRS Angico e Rubi, com características diferentes quanto à dureza foram moídas em moinho de rolos através de uma passagem pelo conjunto de quebra; quebra mais três reduções na umidade 16% e quebra mais três reduções na umidade 12%. Neste tratamento, a moagem foi complementada pelo emprego de moinho de bolas. Nas farinhas, foram realizadas análises físicas, químicas, reológicas e funcionais, utilizando delineamento casualizado em planejamento fatorial completo 3 x 3, totalizando nove tratamentos. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente e, nos modelos significativos, as médias comparadas entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade de erro. Os resultados rendimento de quebra, proteína bruta, amido danificado, força geral do glúten (W x 10-4J e relação tenacidade/extensibilidade (P/L indicam que a farinha do cultivar BRS Angico apresentou melhores características para a produção de biscoitos seguido de BR 23 e Rubi. O teor de amido danificado produzido durante a moagem dos trigos influencia nas propriedades funcionais dos biscoitos apresentando melhor resultado aqueles obtidos a partir de uma passagem pelo conjunto de quebra.The objective of this research was to study the damage starch of wheat flour which occurred in the milling process and its effect in the production of sugar-snap cookie type. Samples of the wheat by cultivars BR 23, BRS Angico and Rubi, with different hardness were milled in a roller-mill through a passage for the break system; a break and three reductions in the 16% of moisture, a break and three reductions in the 12% of moisture. In this treatment, the milling was complemented using a ball-mill. The flours were analyzed with respect to physical, chemistry, rheology and functional characteristics, using a 3 x

  10. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  11. Les Champignons sauvages comestibles du Parc National Fazao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les champignons sauvages comestibles jouent un rôle important pour les populations d'Afrique tropicale. Ils servent de nourriture, de médicaments et de source de revenus. Pour évaluer leur pertinence socioéconomique au Togo et promouvoir leur exploitation durable, un inventaire a été réalisé à travers un ...

  12. Snap-top nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Ambrogio, Michael W.

    2010-08-06

    (Equation Presented). An approach to the design and fabrication of mechanized mesoporous silica nanoparticles is demonstrated at the proof of principle level. It relies on the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds within an integrated nanosystem, wherein surface-bound rotaxanes incorporate disulfide bonds in their stalks,-which are encircled by cucurbit[6]uril or α-cyclodextrin rings, until reductive chemistry is performed, resulting in the snapping of the stalks of the rotaxanes, leading to cargo release from the inside of the nanoparticles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Snap-top nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Ambrogio, Michael W.; Pecorelli, Travis A.; Patel, Kaushik I.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Trabolsi, Ali; Khatib, Hussam A.; Botros, Youssry Y.; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Stoddart, Fraser Fraser Raser

    2010-01-01

    (Equation Presented). An approach to the design and fabrication of mechanized mesoporous silica nanoparticles is demonstrated at the proof of principle level. It relies on the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds within an integrated nanosystem, wherein surface-bound rotaxanes incorporate disulfide bonds in their stalks,-which are encircled by cucurbit[6]uril or α-cyclodextrin rings, until reductive chemistry is performed, resulting in the snapping of the stalks of the rotaxanes, leading to cargo release from the inside of the nanoparticles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. The Classroom Animal: Snapping Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the distinctive features of the common snapping turtle. Discusses facts and misconceptions held about the turtle. Provides guidelines for proper care and treatment of a young snapper in a classroom environment. (ML)

  15. Ubuntu Core Snaps for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyngaard, J.

    2017-12-01

    A key challenge in the burgeoning sector of IoT (Internet of Things) is ensuring device and communication security. Ubuntu Core's approach to this is the use of 'snaps'. Along side this growth, scientists are increasingly utilising the many new low cost sensors now available. This work prototypes the use of snaps as a possible avenue to reducing the barrier to entry for scientific use of these low cost sensors while also ensuring proper meta-data is captured. Snaps are contained applications that have been signed. This means that a snap application is unable to read or write to any area of the system beyond its assigned reach, thereby significantly limiting the possible impact of any break in security higher up the stack. Further, application and system updates are automatically verified as authentic before being applied. Additionally, on an embedded system running Ubuntu Core the hardware interface (Gadget), kernel, and OS (Core) are all also snaps and therefore also have acquired these same gains. The result is an architecture that enables: (1) Secure, robust, remote automatic updates of both the OS and applications. (2) A user friendly deployment mechanism.(3) A easy to maintain means of supporting multiple platforms. The above is primarily targeted at non-academic domains, however, it is proposed that the Scientific community can benefit from it too. This work therefore prototypes a snap for sensors on board a small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS). For demonstration purposes this snap specifically targets connecting a popular low cost CO2 meter to a Raspberry Pi3 and the popular open source sUAS autopilot Arducopter.

  16. Revised SNAP III Training Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Calvin Elroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzales, Samuel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rothrock, Richard Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sorensen, Eric Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sundby, Gary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    The Shielded Neutron Assay Probe (SNAP) technique was developed to determine the leakage neutron source strength of a radioactive object. The original system consisted of an EberlineTM Mini-scaler and discrete neutron detector. The system was operated by obtaining the count rate with the EberlineTM instrument, determining the absolute efficiency from a graph, and calculating the neutron source strength by hand. In 2003 the SNAP III, shown in Figure 1, was designed and built. It required the operator to position the SNAP, and then measure the source-to-detector and detectorto- reflector distances. Next the operator entered the distance measurements and started the data acquisition. The SNAP acquired the required count rate and then calculated and displayed the leakage neutron source strength (NSS). The original design of the SNAP III is described in SNAP III Training Manual (ER-TRN-PLN-0258, Rev. 0, January 2004, prepared by William Baird) This report describes some changes that have been made to the SNAP III. One important change is the addition of a LEMO connector to provide neutron detection output pulses for input to the MC-15. This feature is useful in active interrogation with a neutron generator because the MC-15 has the capability to only record data when it is not gated off by a pulse from the neutron generator. This avoids recording of a lot of data during the generator pulses that are not useful. Another change was the replacement of the infrared RS-232 serial communication output by a similar output via a 4-pin LEMO connector. The current document includes a more complete explanation of how to estimate the amount of moderation around a neutron-emitting source.

  17. SNAP Operating System (SOS) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III.

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphics postprocessor for SNAP. The SOS User's Guide is designed to provide the user with the information necessary to use SOS effectively. Examples are used throughout to illustrate the concepts. The format of the user's guide follows the same sequence as would be used in executing an actual application

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE PROPIEDADES ANTIOXIDANTES DE PARTE COMESTIBLE Y NO COMESTIBLE DE PITAHAYA, UCHUVA Y MANGOSTINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS DANIEL DAZA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó el contenido de fenoles en los macerados etanólicos provenientes de la parte comestible (pulpa y no comestible (semilla y cáscara de Pitahaya (Cereus triangularis, Uchuva (Physalis peruviana y Mangostino (Garcinia mangostana. Además se estudió comparativamente el potencial de los extractos para inhibir la peroxidación lipídica en una mantequilla elaborada artesanalmente. La concentración de compuestos fenólicos en la cáscara de Garcinia mangostana (590,9±3,9 mg EAG/g, resultó ser la más elevada entre los materiales analizados, contradictoriamente la pulpa de este fruto fue la porción con el contenido de fenoles (55,5±07 mg EAG/g. La actividad antioxidante mostró una relación directa con el contenido de compuesto fenólicos, con valores de coeficiente de correlación de 0,988, 0,961 y 0,998 para la Uchuva, Pitahaya y el Mangostino respectivamente. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad frente a la peroxidación lipídica y tres de ellos, cáscara de mangostino (CM, semilla de mangostino (SM y pulpa de Uchuva (PU mostraron mayor inhibición que el BHT, A.A y PC1 (producto comercial 1, mostrándose como materias primas promisorias para el uso en la industria alimentaria y cosmetica.

  19. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de diez basidiomicetos comestibles en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Belloso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas substancias pueden obtenerse de diversas fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Agaricus aff. bisporus, Agaricus brunnescens, Armillariella polymyces, Amanita garabitoana, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus lateritius, Laccaria amethystina, Lactarius deliciosus, Neolentinus ponderosus y Pleurotus ostreatus. Se utilizó un método cualitativo por cromatografía en capa fina (CCF y tres ensayos macrométricos in vitro de cuantificación de fenoles totales, reducción del radical 1,1-difenil-2-pricrilhidrazilo (DPPH y decoloración del radical catiónico del reactivo ácido 2,2’-azinobis-(acido-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico (ABTS. Los extractos acuosos mostraron mayor actividad antioxidante que los extractos etanólicos en todas las técnicas cuantitativas realizadas. La especie que mostró mayor actividad antioxidante en ambos extractos fue B. edulis, cuyos resultados fueron: fenoles totales del extracto acuoso 93.46 ± 18.17 mg/g y 42.70 ± 3.48 mg/g, DPPH CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.93 mg/mL (IC95 0.65-1.28 y 2.75 mg/mL (IC95 2.46-3.07 del extracto etanólico; y en ABTS CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.96 mg/mL (IC95 0.63-1.35 y 4.13 mg/mL (IC95 2.67-5.88 del extracto etanólico. Por la actividad antioxidante de los extractos acuosos de algunas de las especies de basidiomicetos, pueden promoverse como alimentos funcionales.

  20. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.; Walker, J.L.; Polito, J.

    1981-11-01

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  1. Frutos y semillas comestibles en el Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Martínez-De La Cruz

    2015-01-01

    El Estado de México conjuga condiciones edafoclimaticas para el desarrollo de frutales que son fuente de fibras, vitaminas y minerales. Con el objetivo de inventariar las especies con frutos o semillas comestibles, se llevó a cabo una recolecta de ejemplares de junio 2012 a mayo de 2013. Informantes clave aportaron datos sobre las especies con frutos y semillas comestibles. Los ejemplares se determinaron taxonómicamente, la designación del hábito de crecimiento (hierba, arbusto o árbol), el o...

  2. Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP): overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D; Engi, D.

    1979-08-01

    Nuclear safeguards systems provide physical protection and control of nuclear materials. The Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) provides a convenient and standard analysis methodology for the evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness. This is achieved through a standard set of symbols which characterize the various elements of safeguards systems and an analysis program to execute simulation models built using the SNAP symbology. The outputs provided by the SNAP simulation program supplements the safeguards analyst's evaluative capabilities and supports the evaluation of existing sites as well as alternative design possibilities. This paper describes the SNAP modeling technique and provides an example illustrating its use

  3. Targeting of SNAP-23 and SNAP-25 in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, SH; Roche, PA; Anderson, HA; van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Zhang, M; Mostov, KE; Weimbs, T

    1998-01-01

    SNAP-23 is the ubiquitously expressed homologue of the neuronal SNAP-25, which functions in synaptic vesicle fusion, We have investigated the subcellular localization of SNAP-23 in polarized epithelial cells, In hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the

  4. Valor preditivo dos escores de SNAP e SNAP-PE na mortalidade neonatal Predictive value of SNAP and SNAP-PE for neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE como preditores de mortalidade neonatal na nossa UTI neonatal, comparando seus resultados. MÉTODOS: todos os recém-nascidos admitidos na UTI neonatal no período de março de 1997 a dezembro de 1998 foram avaliados prospectivamente quanto ao SNAP e SNAP-PE com 24 horas de vida. Foram critérios de exclusão o óbito ou alta da UTI nas primeiras 24 horas de vida, as malformações congênitas incompatíveis com a vida, e recém-nascidos transferidos de outros hospitais. RESULTADOS: 553 recém-nascidos foram incluídos, 54 faleceram. Os valores das medianas do SNAP e SNAP-PE foram mais elevados naqueles que não sobreviveram. Os recém-nascidos foram divididos em cinco faixas de gravidade crescente de SNAP e SNAP-PE. SNAP: até 6, 7-11, 12-15, 16-24, acima de 24 (mortalidade: 3%, 11%, 29%, 48%, 75%, respectivamente. SNAP-PE: até 11, 12-23, 24-32, 33-50, acima de 50 (mortalidade: 3%, 10%, 53%, 78%, 83%, respectivamente. A partir da Curva ROC, os pontos de corte foram 12 para SNAP e 24 para SNAP-PE, obtendo-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP e valor preditivo negativo (VPN para mortalidade. SNAP 12: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 71,7%, VPP 23,4%, VPN 97%. SNAP-PE 24: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 80%, VPP 30%, VPN 97,3%. A área abaixo da Curva ROC (Az para SNAP foi 81,4% e para SNAP-PE 85,1%, ambas estatisticamente significativas. A comparação entre as áreas das duas curvas não evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÕES: os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE são excelentes preditores de sobrevida neonatal, recomendamos sua utilização rotineiramente na admissão de recém-nascidos nas Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology and the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension as neonatal mortality predictors in our neonatal intensive care unit, and to compare their

  5. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  6. 241 Culture de trois espèces fongiques sauvages comestibles du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    inflorescences mâles de palmier de palmier à huile trempés dans l'eau de distribution ... agricole par la mise en culture d'espèces fongiques comestibles par des ..... mycélienne est en rapport avec le rendement ou l'efficacité biologique.

  7. Características de Trichoderma harzianum, como agente limitante en el cultivo de hongos comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Romero Arenas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El incremento dramático de incidencia y severidad de los “mohos verdes” en la producción de hongos comestibles se refleja en la aparición de formas altamente agresivas de éstos patógenos, como es el caso de los biotipos de Trichoderma harzianum (Th1, Th2., Th3 y Th4, que han sido encontrados en Europa y Norte América, donde la importancia de la patogenicidad de dicho “moho” se comprobó en 1995 con las pérdidas del 30-100% en las plantas de hongos comestibles en Chester, Pennsylvania. En México se han identificado diversos “mohos contaminantes”, entre los cuales Trichoderma spp., se encuentra frecuentemente en la producción de hongos comestibles (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus y Lentinula edodes, en el 2004, un grupo de investigación detectó la presencia de cepas altamente agresivas de T. aggressivum f. aggressivum, identificadas con técnicas clásicas y moleculares, en muestras de substrato (compost contaminado, proporcionado por la principal planta de hongos de México. Actualmente se desconoce la situación sobre la distribución de Trichoderma harzianum y los problemas de contaminación en la producción de hongos comestibles, tanto de zonas rurales, como de zonas industrializadas en México, puede causar serias disminuciones en la producción de hongos comestibles y presentar pérdidas económicas para los productores de la región.

  8. Dynamics of snapping beams and jumping poppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Moulton, D. E.; Vella, D.; Holmes, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the dynamic snapping instability of elastic beams and shells. Using the Kirchhoff rod and Föppl-von Kármán plate equations, we study the stability, deformation modes, and snap-through dynamics of an elastic arch with clamped boundaries and subject to a concentrated load. For parameters typical of everyday and technological applications of snapping, we show that the stretchability of the arch plays a critical role in determining not only the post-buckling mode of deformation but also the timescale of snapping and the frequency of the arch's vibrations about its final equilibrium state. We show that the growth rate of the snap-through instability and its subsequent ringing frequency can both be interpreted physically as the result of a sound wave in the material propagating over a distance comparable to the length of the arch. Finally, we extend our analysis of the ringing frequency of indented arches to understand the “pop” heard when everted shell structures snap-through to their stable state. Remarkably, we find that not only are the scaling laws for the ringing frequencies in these two scenarios identical but also the respective prefactors are numerically close; this allows us to develop a master curve for the frequency of ringing in snapping beams and shells.

  9. Snapping plicae associated with radiocapitellar chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuna, S A; O'Driscoll, S W

    2001-05-01

    Painful snapping of the elbow joint is usually attributed to intra-articular loose bodies, instability, or medial dislocation of the triceps muscle over the medial epicondyle. We report our experience with 14 patients who were treated arthroscopically for snapping elbow that was found to be caused by hypertrophic synovial folds associated with radiocapitellar chondromalacia. Case series. The records of 14 patients who were treated arthroscopically for painful snapping elbows caused by intra-articular plicae were reviewed. There were 6 women and 8 men with an average age of 36 years (range, 27 to 48 years). Nine patients had had some type of trauma to the joint. Four patients had been previously diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and 5 with intra-articular loose bodies. The average time from initial onset of symptoms to treatment was 13 months (range, 8 to 36 months). Average follow-up was 24 months (range, 6 to 66 months). All patients complained of painful snapping in the posterolateral or anterolateral aspect of the elbow. The snapping occurred between 90 degrees and 110 degrees of flexion with the forearm in pronation. In 7 patients, the snapping was reproducible by passively flexing the pronated elbow, which we refer to as the flexion-pronation test. At the time of arthroscopic surgery, all patients had a thickened synovial plica that would snap back and forward over the radial head, usually associated with a chondromalacic area on the radial head. Twelve patients had complete relief of their snapping after surgery. One patient in whom there was associated posterolateral rotatory elbow instability did not improve. One patient became asymptomatic for 4 years but then had recurrence of her symptoms, which persisted despite 2 subsequent arthroscopies. The presence of synovial plicae in the radiocapitellar joint must be considered in the differential diagnosis of painful snapping elbow. Arthroscopy confirms the diagnosis and allows excision of the plica.

  10. Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

  11. Culture de trois espèces fongiques sauvages comestibles du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des essais de culture de trois souches de trois espèces de champignons lignicoles comestibles: Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller, Lentinus cladopus Lév. et Marasmius buzungolo Singer isolées sur milieu gélosé PDA et dont les mycéliums ont été repiqués sur substrats de semis de grains de maïs et de sciure de bois ont ...

  12. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  13. Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula snap traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional–morphological and biomimetic context.

  14. Contenido nutricional, propiedades funcionales y conservación de flores comestibles: Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Baños, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    La florifagia, que es el consumo de flores como alimento es una práctica que, aunque no es nueva no estaba muy difundida entre los consumidores hasta hace algunas décadas. Las flores comestibles contribuyen al mejoramiento de la estética de los alimentos además, aportan sustancias biológicamente activas como vitaminas A, C, riboflavina, niacina, minerales como calcio, fósforo, hierro y potasio beneficiando la salud de quien las consume. Esta revisión incluye algunos ejemplos de flores comesti...

  15. Estudio de la obtención de biodiesel a partir de aceite comestible usado

    OpenAIRE

    García-Díaz, Marilin; Gandón-Hernández, José; Maqueira-Tamayo, Yudisel

    2013-01-01

    Nuestro país actualmente no cuenta con una estrategia para utilizar racionalmente el volumen de aceite vegetal usado que se genera en la industria alimentaria y el sector turístico proveniente del proceso de fritura, es por eso que el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar la obtención del biodiesel a partir de aceites comestibles usados y metanol. Las cantidades de aceite y reactivos para que se desarrolle la reacción de transesterificación, mediante la cual se obtiene biodiésel y gli...

  16. SnapShot: The Bacterial Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gero; Szewczak-Harris, Andrzej; Löwe, Jan

    2016-07-14

    Most bacteria and archaea contain filamentous proteins and filament systems that are collectively known as the bacterial cytoskeleton, though not all of them are cytoskeletal, affect cell shape, or maintain intracellular organization. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  18. SNAP and AI Fuel Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lords, R.E.

    1994-08-01

    The SNAP and AI Fuel Summary Report provides a detailed overview of treatment and storage of these fuels from fabrication through current storage including design parameters and reactor history. Chemical and physical characteristics are described, and potential indicators of as-stored fuel conditions are emphasized

  19. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  20. Snap: an integrated SNP annotation platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shengting; Ma, Lijia; Li, Heng

    2007-01-01

    Snap (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Annotation Platform) is a server designed to comprehensively analyze single genes and relationships between genes basing on SNPs in the human genome. The aim of the platform is to facilitate the study of SNP finding and analysis within the framework of medical...

  1. Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.: Maas (Zingiberaceae: planta comestible de la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía, Manuel J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The edible fruits of Renealmia alpinia are highly valued in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México where they are managed at a household level. The plant is wild in the región, although a rare species. The aril of the fruit is the edible part. After harvesting, the aril is extracted fresh and processed for local consumption. Sometimes the fruits are commercialized in tradicional markets. Only 19% of the total weight of the fruits is used for food.Los frutos comestibles de Renealmia alpinia son muy apreciados en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, en donde son manejados a nivel familiar. La planta crece silvestre en la región, aunque es una especie poco frecuente. La parte comestible es el arilo de los frutos. Tras la cosecha, se extrae en fresco el arilo y se procesa para su consumo familiar. Ocasionalmente los frutos se comercializan en los mercados tradicionales. Solamente el 19 % del peso total de los frutos se aprovecha para alimentación.

  2. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  3. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  4. Experimental Snap Loading of Synthetic Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Hennessey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Large tensile forces, known as snap loads, can occur when a slack rope becomes taut. Such forces may damage the rope or masses connected to it. Experiments are described in which one end of a rope is attached to the top of a drop tower and the bottom end is attached to a weight. The weight is raised to a certain height and then released. The force at the top of the rope and the acceleration of the weight are recorded during the first snap load that occurs. Repeated drop tests are performed on each rope. The effects of the type of rope, drop height, drop weight, whether the rope has been subjected to static precycling, and the number of previous dynamic tests are examined. A mathematical model is proposed for the rope force as a function of the displacement and velocity of the weight.

  5. Triggered Snap-Through of Bistable Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yijie; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Hu, Nan; Chen, Zi

    Elastic bistable shells are common structures in nature and engineering, such as the lobes of the Venus flytrap or the surface of a toy jumping poppers. Despite their ubiquity, the parameters that control the bistability of such structures are not well understood. In this study, we explore how the geometrical features of radially symmetric elastic shells affect the shape and potential energy of a shell's stable states, and how to tune certain parameters in order to generate a snap-through transition from a convex semi-stable state to concave stable state. We fabricated a series of elastic shells with varying geometric parameters out of silicone rubber and measured the resulting potential energy in the semi-stable state. Finite element simulations were also conducted in order to determine the deformation and stress in the shells during snap-through. It was found that the energy of the semi-stable state is controlled by only two geometric parameters and a dimensionless ratio. We also noted two distinct transitions during snap-through, one between monostability and semi-bistability (the state a popper toy is in before it snaps-through and jumps), and a second transition between semi-bistability and true bistability. This work shows that it is possible to use a set of simple parameters to tailor the energy landscape of an elastic shell in order to generate complex trigger motions for their potential use in smart applications. Z.C. acknowledge support from Society in Science-Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich.

  6. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  7. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  8. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  9. Dynamic ultrasound of the external snapping hip syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Song, Baek Yong; Paik, Sang Hyun; Lee, Tae Gyu; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Lee, Sung Moon

    2002-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome has been described as a hip pain accompanied by an audible snapping during motion of the hip or while walking. The variable causes of its external, internal, and intra-articular origins have been described. The most common extemal snapping hip has been associated with a thickened posterior border of the iliotibial band or of the anterior border of the gluteus maximus muscle slipping over the greater trochanter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic ultrasound findings of external snapping hip syndrome with review of the literature. We studied 5 patients (7 cases) with external snapping hip and pain over the greater trochanter during walking or hip motion (3 males and 2 females, age range, 14-32 years; mean, 19 years). Two patients reported bilateral snapping hips.

  10. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of added sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain ... include: Drink water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less ...

  11. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  12. SnapShot: Phosphoregulation of Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Andrew; Vuong, Jenny; Rogers, Samuel; Malumbres, Marcos; O'Donoghue, Seán I

    2017-06-15

    During mitosis, a cell divides its duplicated genome into two identical daughter cells. This process must occur without errors to prevent proliferative diseases (e.g., cancer). A key mechanism controlling mitosis is the precise timing of more than 32,000 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events by a network of kinases and counterbalancing phosphatases. The identity, magnitude, and temporal regulation of these events have emerged recently, largely from advances in mass spectrometry. Here, we show phosphoevents currently believed to be key regulators of mitosis. For an animated version of this SnapShot, please see http://www.cell.com/cell/enhanced/odonoghue2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A document review to characterize Atomic International SNAP fuels shipped to INEL 1966--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahnschaffe, S.D.; Lords, R.E.; Kneff, D.W.; Nagel, W.E.; Pearlman, H.; Schaubert, V.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides the results of a document search and review study to obtain information on the spent fuels for the following six Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) reactor cores now stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL): SNAP-2 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-2 Development Reactor, SNAP-10A Ground Test Reactor, SNAP-8 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-8 Development Reactor, and Shield Test Reactor. The report also covers documentation on SNAP fuel materials from four in-pile materials tests: NAA-82-1, NAA-115-2, NAA-117-1, and NAA-121. Pieces of these fuel materials are also stored at INEL as part of the SNAP fuel shipments

  14. Snapping turtles, a biological screen for PCB's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olafsson, P.G.; Bryan, A.M.; Bush, B.; Stone, W.

    1983-01-01

    Snapping turtles are capable of storing extremely high concentration of organochlorine compounds in their fat without any apparent detrimental effect. This tolerance, to high bioconcentration, permits a wide gradation between the extremes in pollution levels and facilitates the detection of extremely toxic substances present in trace amounts. Consequently snapping turtles provide an excellent biological screen for these compounds.

  15. Extending the accuracy of the SNAP interatomic potential form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mitchell A.; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2018-06-01

    The Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP) is a classical interatomic potential that expresses the energy of each atom as a linear function of selected bispectrum components of the neighbor atoms. An extension of the SNAP form is proposed that includes quadratic terms in the bispectrum components. The extension is shown to provide a large increase in accuracy relative to the linear form, while incurring only a modest increase in computational cost. The mathematical structure of the quadratic SNAP form is similar to the embedded atom method (EAM), with the SNAP bispectrum components serving as counterparts to the two-body density functions in EAM. The effectiveness of the new form is demonstrated using an extensive set of training data for tantalum structures. Similar to artificial neural network potentials, the quadratic SNAP form requires substantially more training data in order to prevent overfitting. The quality of this new potential form is measured through a robust cross-validation analysis.

  16. SNAP 19 Viking RTG mission performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking-75 mission utilized the August/September 1975 opportunity to launch two spacecrafts to Mars for arrival in 1976 after about a one-year transit period. On arrival, each spacecraft, consisting of an orbiter and lander, will be placed in Mars orbit, with each lander subsequently descending from orbit to a soft-landing on the Martian surface. Two SNAP 19 RTG's (radioisotope thermoelectric generators) provide the primary source of electrical power and means of thermal control for each Viking lander. The RTG's will be switched on-load just prior to separation of the lander from the orbiter for checkout of the lander, and will remain on-load during entry and the remainder of the 90-day minimum surface mission

  17. PERFECCIONAMIENTO DE LA LOGÍSTICA DE APROVISIONAMIENTO EN LA EMPRESA COMESTIBLES RICOS LTDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Molano Naranjo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Se expone el diagnóstico realizado sobre la logística de aprovisionamiento de la firma colombiana Comestibles Ricos Ltda que ocupa un importante segmento en la oferta en varios importantes mercados de Bogotá. El artículo examina diversos aspectos del aprovisionamiento tales como: sistema de proveedores, precios, transporte, recepción, sistema informativo y de control, costos y otros.Como resultado, se formulan proposiciones para reducir los costos logísticos mediante la aplicación del MRP (Material Resources Planning, la introducción del correo electrónico en los vínculos con proveedores y el empleo de transporte subutilizado del área de distribución en el área de aprovisionamiento reduciendo los precios de compra de los insumos entre otras medidas.

  18. Alginato de sodio en el desarrollo de películas comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alexander Méndez Reyes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alginato, es un término que se refiere a un grupo de polisacáridos presentes en las algas pardas, los cuales cuentan con una importancia especial para diferentes industrias (alimentaria, textil, farmacéutica, cosmética, entre otras, atribuida a su capacidad para formar geles fuertes en presencia de cationes calcio (Ca+2. El alginato de sodio es la forma más comercializada de alginato y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria hoy en día están generando avances en el desarrollo de nuevos e innovadores biomateriales con características únicas, tales como, propiedades de barrera contra la pérdida de humedad causada por la deshidratación en alimentos de alto contenido de humedad, soporte para el transporte de compuestos antimicrobianos y probioticos entre otros, para mantener la calidad de productos alimentarios en almacenamiento. En este trabajo se recopiló información referente a la incidencia de diferentes polímeros, biocompuestos, aditivos y del proceso de gelificación en la producción de películas comestibles destinadas a la ingeniería del empaque.

  19. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-01-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < λ < 1.7 (micro)m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers

  20. Cutaneous fibroma in a captive common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Bauer, G; Bauer, A; Aguiar, L S; Brito, L T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2012-11-01

    An adult female common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) had a mass on the plantar surface of the right forelimb that was removed surgically. Microscopical examination revealed many spindle cells with mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis and a surrounding collagenous stroma. There were no mitoses. Immunohistochemistry showed that the spindle cells expressed vimentin, but not desmin. A diagnosis of cutaneous fibroma was made. Tumours are reported uncommonly in chelonian species. Cutaneous fibroma has been diagnosed in an alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii), but not previously in a common snapping turtle. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative mass spectrometry reveals changes in SNAP-25 isoforms in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakauskas, Vilte E; Moradian, Annie; Barr, Alasdair M.; Beasley, Clare L; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Mann, J John; Ilievski, Boro; Stankov, Aleksandar; Dwork, Andrew J; Falkai, Peter; Morin, Gregg B; Honer, William G

    2016-01-01

    SNAP-25 and syntaxin are presynaptic terminal SNARE proteins altered in amount and function in schizophrenia. In the ventral caudate, we observed 32% lower SNAP-25 and 26% lower syntaxin, but greater interaction between the two proteins using an in vitro assay. SNAP-25 has two isoforms, SNAP-25A and B, differing by only 9 amino acids, but with different effects on neurotransmission. A quantitative mass spectrometry assay was developed to measure total SNAP-25, and proportions of SNAP-25A and B. The assay had a good linear range (50- to 150-fold) and coefficient of variation (4.5%). We studied ventral caudate samples from patients with schizophrenia (n=15) previously reported to have lower total SNAP-25 than controls (n=13). We confirmed 27% lower total SNAP-25 in schizophrenia, and observed 31% lower SNAP-25A (P = 0.002) with 20% lower SNAP-25B amounts (P = 0.10). Lower SNAP-25A amount correlated with greater SNAP-25-syntaxin protein-protein interactions (r = -0.41, P = 0.03); the level of SNAP-25B did not. Administration of haloperidol or clozapine to rats did not mimic the changes found in schizophrenia. The findings suggest that lower levels of SNAP-25 in schizophrenia may represent a greater effect of the illness on the SNAP-25A isoform. This in turn could contribute to the greater interaction between SNAP25 and syntaxin, and possibly disturb neurotransmission in the illness. PMID:26971072

  2. The amino acid sequence of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, Jacob; Broos, Jaap; Meulenberg, Janneke; Schüller, Cornelis

    1985-01-01

    Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue. Turtle ribonuclease binds much more weakly to the affinity chromatography matrix used than mammalian ribonucleases. The amino acid sequence was determined from overlapping peptides obtained from three different

  3. SNAP-3D: a three-dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1975-10-01

    A preliminary report is presented describing the data requirements of a one- two- or three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP-3D. This code is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but it can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffuse approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. It is assumed the reader is familiar with the older, two-dimensional code SNAP and can refer to the report [TRG-Report-1990], describing it. The present report concentrates on the enhancements to SNAP that have been made to produce the three-dimensional version, SNAP-3D, and is intended to act a a guide on data preparation until a single, comprehensive report can be published. (author)

  4. Combined SAFE/SNAP approach to safeguards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engi, D.; Chapman, L.D.; Grant, F.H.; Polito, J.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of a safeguards evaluation model can efficiently address one of two issues: (1) global safeguards effectiveness or (2) vulnerability analysis for individual scenarios. The Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) focuses on the first issue, while the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) is directed towards the second. A combined SAFE/SNAP approach to the problem of safeguards evaluation is described and illustrated through an example. 4 refs

  5. SNAP: A General Purpose Network Analysis and Graph Mining Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovec, Jure; Sosič, Rok

    2016-10-01

    Large networks are becoming a widely used abstraction for studying complex systems in a broad set of disciplines, ranging from social network analysis to molecular biology and neuroscience. Despite an increasing need to analyze and manipulate large networks, only a limited number of tools are available for this task. Here, we describe Stanford Network Analysis Platform (SNAP), a general-purpose, high-performance system that provides easy to use, high-level operations for analysis and manipulation of large networks. We present SNAP functionality, describe its implementational details, and give performance benchmarks. SNAP has been developed for single big-memory machines and it balances the trade-off between maximum performance, compact in-memory graph representation, and the ability to handle dynamic graphs where nodes and edges are being added or removed over time. SNAP can process massive networks with hundreds of millions of nodes and billions of edges. SNAP offers over 140 different graph algorithms that can efficiently manipulate large graphs, calculate structural properties, generate regular and random graphs, and handle attributes and meta-data on nodes and edges. Besides being able to handle large graphs, an additional strength of SNAP is that networks and their attributes are fully dynamic, they can be modified during the computation at low cost. SNAP is provided as an open source library in C++ as well as a module in Python. We also describe the Stanford Large Network Dataset, a set of social and information real-world networks and datasets, which we make publicly available. The collection is a complementary resource to our SNAP software and is widely used for development and benchmarking of graph analytics algorithms.

  6. SNAP: a tool for nuclear physical protection system modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engi, D.; Grant, F.H. III.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear safeguards systems are concerned, in part, with the physical protection of nuclear materials. The function of a physical protection system is to define the facility against adversary activities which could lead to theft of nuclear material or sabotage resulting in a radiological release. The Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) provides a convenient and standard analysis methodology for the evaluation of physical protection system analysis. This paper describes a detailed application of SNAP to a hypothetical nuclear facility

  7. Perfil electroforético de las proteínas de la seta comestible "Coprinus comatus"

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en un estudio experimental del perfil proteico del hongo comestible Coprinus comatus, muy relevante por su alto valor económico y gastronómico, debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. Los hongos son considerados alimentos funcionales, pues además de sus propiedades nutricionales, se han demostrado sus efectos beneficiosos para la salud que pueden ser utilizados en la prevención o tratamiento de enfermedades. Su acción terapéutica es atribuida a los compuest...

  8. Uso de revestimento comestível e conservação pós-colheita de goiaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda de Fátima Ferreira Soares

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se desenvolver um revestimento comestível antimicrobiano e avaliar sua eficiência na conservação de goiaba. Os frutos foram submetidos a cinco tratamentos: sem revestimento, revestimento de amido de mandioca, revestimento de amido de mandioca com ácido acético e revestimento de amido de mandioca com 1,0% e 1,5% de quitosana. As análises realizadas foram: cor da polpa e casca, firmeza, perda de massa, sólidos solúveis e contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras. A coloração verde da casca dos frutos tratados com revestimentos contendo 1,0% e 1,5% de quitosana foi mantida, e a coloração da polpa de todos os tratamentos mudou de rósea para vermelho intenso durante o armazenamento. Os frutos tratados com revestimento contendo quitosana apresentaram menor perda de massa quando comparados aos frutos-controle. Houve redução no teor de sólidos solúveis para os frutos-controle durante o armazenamento, enquanto nos outros tratamentos, o teor de açúcar foi mantido até o 8º dia. Os revestimentos antimicrobianos apresentaram menores contagens de fungos filamentosos e leveduras quando comparados ao controle. O uso de revestimentos comestíveis antimicrobianos contribui na conservação de goiaba, aumentando a vida útil pós-colheita.

  9. External Snapping Hip Syndrome: Emphasis on the MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Lee, Bae Young; Sung, Mi Sook; Lee, Ki Haeng; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Hyun Wook; Chung, Myung Hee; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jee Young

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the MR imaging features of patients with external snapping hip syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 63 hip MR images. The images were analyzed according to the thickness and contour of the iliotibial band and the gluteus maximus, the presence of bone marrow edema, bursitis, joint effusion and other associated findings. The MR imaging of 22 hips with snapping hip syndrome depicted the causes of external snapping hip syndrome in twenty cases (90%). The MR imaging features of the snapping hip included thickening of the iliotibial band in twelve cases (55%) and/or thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in nineteen (86%), and a wavy contour of the iliotibial band or the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in ten cases (45%). These findings show a significant p value (<0.01). The majority of patients with snapping hip syndrome revealed thickening of the iliotibial band, thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus and wavy contour of the those structures on MR imaging

  10. External Snapping Hip Syndrome: Emphasis on the MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Lee, Bae Young [Catholic University St. Paul' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Mi Sook; Lee, Ki Haeng; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Hyun Wook; Chung, Myung Hee [Catholic University Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Mi [Catholic University St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Young [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the MR imaging features of patients with external snapping hip syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 63 hip MR images. The images were analyzed according to the thickness and contour of the iliotibial band and the gluteus maximus, the presence of bone marrow edema, bursitis, joint effusion and other associated findings. The MR imaging of 22 hips with snapping hip syndrome depicted the causes of external snapping hip syndrome in twenty cases (90%). The MR imaging features of the snapping hip included thickening of the iliotibial band in twelve cases (55%) and/or thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in nineteen (86%), and a wavy contour of the iliotibial band or the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in ten cases (45%). These findings show a significant p value (<0.01). The majority of patients with snapping hip syndrome revealed thickening of the iliotibial band, thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus and wavy contour of the those structures on MR imaging.

  11. Snap-Through Buckling Problem of Spherical Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumirin Sumirin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a numerical study on the nonlinear behavior of shells undergoing snap-through instability. This research investigates the problem of snap-through buckling of spherical shells applying nonlinear finite element analysis utilizing ANSYS Program. The shell structure was modeled by axisymmetric thin shell of finite elements. Shells undergoing snap-through buckling meet with significant geometric change of their physical configuration, i.e. enduring large deflections during their deformation process. Therefore snap-through buckling of shells basically is a nonlinear problem. Nonlinear numerical operations need to be applied in their analysis. The problem was solved by a scheme of incremental iterative procedures applying Newton-Raphson method in combination with the known line search as well as the arc- length methods. The effects of thickness and depth variation of the shell is taken care of by considering their geometrical parameter l. The results of this study reveal that spherical shell structures subjected to pressure loading experience snap-through instability for values of l≥2.15. A form of ‘turn-back’ of the load-displacement curve took place at load levels prior to the achievement of the critical point. This phenomenon was observed for values of l=5.0 to l=7.0.

  12. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  13. Combined SAFE/SNAP approach to safeguards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engi, D.; Chapman, L.D.; Grant, F.H.; Polito, J.

    1980-01-01

    Generally, the scope of a safeguards evaluation model can efficiently address one of two issues, (1) global safeguards effectiveness, or (2) vulnerability analysis for individual scenarios. The Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) focuses on (1) while the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) is directed at (2). SAFE addresses (1) in that it considers the entire facility, i.e., the composite system of hardware and human components, in one global analysis. SNAP addresses (2) by providing a safeguards modeling symbology sufficiently flexible to represent quite complex scenarios from the standpoint of hardware interfaces while also accounting for a rich variety of human decision making. A combined SAFE/SNAP approach to the problem of safeguards evaluation is described and illustrated through an example

  14. SNAP: Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Dillman, R. A.; Atkinson, D. H.; Li, J.; Saikia, S.; Simon, A. A.; Spilker, T. R.; Wong, M. H.; Hope, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a concept for a small, atmospheric probe that could be flexibly added to future missions that orbit or fly-by a giant planet as a secondary payload, which we call the Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP). SNAP's main scientific objectives are to determine the vertical distribution of clouds and cloud-forming chemical species, thermal stratification, and wind speed as a function of depth. As a case study, we present the advantages, cost and risk of adding SNAP to the future Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission; in combination with the mission's main probe, SNAP would perform atmospheric in-situ measurements at a second location, and thus enable and enhance the scientific objectives recommended by the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the 2014 NASA Science Plan to determine atmospheric spatial variabilities. We envision that the science objectives can be achieved with a 30-kg entry probe 0.5m in diameter (less than half the size of the Galileo probe) that reaches 5-bar pressure-altitude and returns data to Earth via the carrier spacecraft. As the baseline instruments, the probe will carry an Atmospheric Structure Instrument (ASI) that measures the temperature, pressure and acceleration, a carbon nanotube-based NanoChem atmospheric composition sensor, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) to conduct a Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE). We also catalog promising technologies currently under development that will strengthen small atmospheric entry probe missions in the future. While SNAP is applicable to multiple planets, we examine the feasibility, benefits and impacts of adding SNAP to the Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission. Our project is supported by NASA PSDS3 grant NNX17AK31G.

  15. Territorial aggressiveness and predation: two possible origins of snapping in the ant Plectroctena minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Suzzoni, Jean-Pierre; Schatz, Bertrand; Orivel, Jérôme

    2002-07-01

    Plectroctena minor workers have long mandibles that can snap and deliver a sharp blow to intruders or prey, stunning or killing them. Encounters between homocolonial P. minor workers separated for 24 h or 15 days never resulted in snapping, while this behaviour was always noted during encounters between heterocolonial workers on neutral arenas or on the territory of a colony. In the latter case, only the aliens, that generally tried to escape, were snapped at. Snapping also occurred during encounters with workers belonging to sympatric ponerine species. During predation, the percentages of snapping varied according to prey nature, suggesting prey discrimination. Termite soldiers were always snapped at, while other prey were more often snapped close to rather than far from the nest entrances, indicating an intermingling of territorial aggressiveness and predatory behaviour. We discuss the adaptive value of snapping for hunting in galleries.

  16. Beyond velocity and acceleration: jerk, snap and higher derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, David; Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Reistad, Nina

    2016-11-01

    The higher derivatives of motion are rarely discussed in the teaching of classical mechanics of rigid bodies; nevertheless, we experience the effect not only of acceleration, but also of jerk and snap. In this paper we will discuss the third and higher order derivatives of displacement with respect to time, using the trampolines and theme park roller coasters to illustrate this concept. We will also discuss the effects on the human body of different types of acceleration, jerk, snap and higher derivatives, and how they can be used in physics education to further enhance the learning and thus the understanding of classical mechanics concepts.

  17. Snapping wrist due to multiple accessory tendon of first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhiyaneswaran Subramaniyam

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There are various causes for snapping wrist syndrome. Multiple accessory tendon can also cause snapping as shown in this case report. Moreover am presenting this case to highlight the diagnostic failure with non dynamic radiological investigation and to consider multiple accessory tendon as differential diagnosis for snapping wrist syndrome. Also suggest dynamic study could be a better choice of investigation to diagnosis snapping syndrome. First compartment tunnel release with few accessory tendon slip tenotomy gives good result.

  18. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... food choices, access to food, and retailer operations. Listening session attendees will be provided... food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are generally prohibited from being SNAP... in an area where no store meets basic eligibility criteria for SNAP authorization, how should FNS...

  19. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  20. Aplicación de cubiertas comestibles formuladas con cera de Candelilla para la conservación de Fresa.

    OpenAIRE

    Oregel Zamudio, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Por sus características, la recolección de fresa se hace después de la maduración y requiere de la aplicación de métodos de conservación que permitan prolongar su vida de anaquel, ya que es un producto altamente perecedero. Una alternativa con potencial para lograrlo son las películas comestibles, las cuales consisten en capas delgadas de un material biopolímero (proteína o polisacárido como una solución hidrocoloide, o como una emulsión con lípidos), que son aplicadas sobre la superficie de ...

  1. Snapping scapular syndrome secondary to rib intramedullary fixation device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel E. Zaidenberg

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Surgeons should pay attention to any protrusion of intramedullary rib implants, especially in the evaluation of routine X-rays following surgical treatment. We should be aware of the possibility of this rare cause of snapping scapula syndrome to avoid delayed diagnosis and consider removing the implant will resolve the pain.

  2. multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29053- ... Agriculture (CIAT), National Agricultural Research Laboratories Institute, ... Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... were harvested in sterile distilled water and spore.

  3. Reconceiving SNAP: Is Nutritional Assistance Really Income Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since its creation, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has changed from an antihunger program to an income-supplementation program. Because the program (and its predecessor Food Stamp Program) was not designed for this purpose, the result is a program that has many unintended and, many believe, negative effects. The key challenge…

  4. The 'Snap Vote' of 462/1 BCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian Ammitzbøll

    2014-01-01

    still holds that the absence of 4,000 politically conservative hoplites under the leadership of Kimon paved the way for radical democratic reform - championed by Ephialtes and voted through the Athenian assembly in a ‘snap vote’ by the mass of democratic rowers who remained in the city. This note re...

  5. Intra-articular lipoma causing snapping in the patellofemoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Karakurt, L.; Yildirim, H.; Ozercan, R.

    2007-01-01

    Intra-articular lipoma is an exceedingly rare diagnosis. We identified a lipoma that was seated in the retropatellar are and caused snapping of the patella during flexion of the knee joint. The tumor was easily and totally excised under arthroscopic guidance after the thin pedicle was cut. (author)

  6. Directed supramolecular surface assembly of SNAP-tag fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, H.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, J.; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, P.; Brunsveld, L.

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  7. Immobilization of ferrocene-modified SNAP-fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasserberg, D.; Uhlenheuer, D.; Neirynck, P.; Neirynck, Pauline; Cabanas Danés, Jordi; Schenkel, J.H.; Ravoo, B.J.; An, Q.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Milroy, L.G.; Brunsveld, Luc; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces has been investigated via the site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular moiety on proteins. To this end, fluorescent proteins have been site-selectively labeled with ferrocenes, as supramolecular guest moieties, via SNAP-tag technology. The

  8. Directed Supramolecular Surface Assembly of SNAP-tag Fusion Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  9. SNAP/SOS: a package for simulating and analyzing safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, F.H. III; Polito, J.; Sabuda, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effective analysis of safeguards systems at nuclear facilities requires significant effort. The Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) and the SNAP Operating System (SOS) reduce that effort to a manageable level. SNAP provides a detailed analysis of site safeguards for tactical evaluation. SOS helps the analyst organize and manage the SNAP effort effectively. SOS provides a database for model storage, automatic model generation, and computer graphics. The SOS/SNAP combination is a working example of a simulation system including executive-level control, database system, and facilities for model creation, editing, and output analysis

  10. Kinesin-1 plays a role in transport of SNAP-25 to the plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, April M.; Cunningham, Anthony L. [Centre for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Diefenbach, Russell J., E-mail: russell_diefenbach@wmi.usyd.edu.au [Centre for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2010-01-01

    The cellular molecular motor kinesin-1 mediates the microtubule-dependent transport of a range of cargo. We have previously identified an interaction between the cargo-binding domain of kinesin-1 heavy chain KIF5B and the membrane-associated SNARE proteins SNAP-25 and SNAP-23. In this study we further defined the minimal SNAP-25 binding domain in KIF5B to residues 874-894. Overexpression of a fragment of KIF5B (residues 594-910) resulted in significant colocalization with SNAP-25 with resulting blockage of the trafficking of SNAP-25 to the periphery of cells. This indicates that kinesin-1 facilitates the transport of SNAP-25 containing vesicles as a prerequisite to SNAP-25 driven membrane fusion events.

  11. The Truth about Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times.

  12. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also ...

  13. Wide-field surveys from the SNAP mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-borne observatory that will survey the sky with a wide-field optical/NIR imager. The images produced by SNAP will have an unprecedented combination of depth, solid-angle, angular resolution, and temporal sampling. Two 7.5 square-degree fields will be observed every four days over 16 months to a magnitude depth of AB = 27.7 in each of nine filters. Co-adding images over all epochs will give an AB = 30.3 per filter. A 300 square-degree field will be surveyed with no repeat visits to AB = 28 per filter. The nine filters span 3500-17000 (angstrom). Although the survey strategy is tailored for supernova and weak gravitational lensing observations, the resulting data supports a broad range of auxiliary science programs

  14. Calidad de melón cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo cubierto con una película comestible de alginato - hpmc - parafina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Concepción Reyes-Avalos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : El melón es un fruto que tiene un corto periodo de almacenamiento. Una alternativa para extender este periodo es el uso de películas comestibles. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de una película comestible de alginato de sodio - hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa - parafina (ALG - HPMC - PAR, sobre la calidad de melón Cantaloupe durante dos tipos de almacenamiento. Método : Frutos de melón Cantaloupe se cubrieron con una película comestible de alginato - hidroxipropilmetil celulosa - parafina (ALG - HPMC - PAR, y no cubiertos (CONTROL. Los melones se almacenaron por 21 días a 5ºC y 95% de humedad relativa (Hr. Cada siete días, los frutos se sometieron a análisis de índice de daños por frío, pérdida de peso, textura, y concentración de CO 2 y etileno d e la atmósfera interna del fruto. Además, para simular manejo comercial, al término de cada periodo de siete días en refrigeración, una muestra de melones era extraída del frigorífico y expuesta a condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa ( 25ºC y 21 - 25% respectivamente durante tres días (almacenamiento combinado, y medidos los parámetros anteriormente mencionados. Resultados : La aplicación de la película comestible provocó que los frutos cubiertos tuvieran una mayor concentración de CO 2 y menor concentración de etileno en la atmósfera interna del fruto, contribuyendo a que los melones cubiertos mantuvieron su calidad por un mayor tiempo de almacenamiento, manteniéndose más firmes, con menor pérdida de peso y sufrir menor índice de daños por frío con respecto los frutos control. Discusión : Los resultados demuestran la factibilidad de la aplicación de películas comestibles para mantener la calidad del melón Cantaloupe almacenado en refrigeración y en almacenamiento combinado.

  15. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2 on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26 abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9 loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly.

  16. Snapping shrimp sound production patterns on Caribbean coral reefs: relationships with celestial cycles and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Mooney, T. Aran

    2018-06-01

    The rich acoustic environment of coral reefs, including the sounds of a variety of fish and invertebrates, is a reflection of the structural complexity and biological diversity of these habitats. Emerging interest in applying passive acoustic monitoring and soundscape analysis to measure coral reef habitat characteristics and track ecological patterns is hindered by a poor understanding of the most common and abundant sound producers on reefs—the snapping shrimp. Here, we sought to address several basic biophysical drivers of reef sound by investigating acoustic activity patterns of snapping shrimp populations on two adjacent coral reefs using a detailed snap detection analysis routine to a high-resolution 2.5-month acoustic dataset from the US Virgin Islands. The reefs exhibited strong diel and lunar periodicity in snap rates and clear spatial differences in snapping levels. Snap rates peaked at dawn and dusk and were higher overall during daytime versus nighttime, a seldom-reported pattern in earlier descriptions of diel snapping shrimp acoustic activity. Small differences between the sites in snap rate rhythms were detected and illustrate how analyses of specific soundscape elements might reveal subtle between-reef variation. Snap rates were highly correlated with environmental variables, including water temperature and light, and were found to be sensitive to changes in oceanographic forcing. This study further establishes snapping shrimp as key players in the coral reef chorus and provides evidence that their acoustic output reflects a combination of environmental conditions, celestial influences, and spatial habitat variation. Effective application of passive acoustic monitoring in coral reef habitats using snap rates or snapping-influenced acoustic metrics will require a mechanistic understanding of the underlying spatial and temporal variation in snapping shrimp sound production across multiple scales.

  17. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SnapShot: Fanconi anemia and associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anderson T; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2015-01-15

    Fanconi anemia is a genetic disorder resulting from biallelic mutations in one of the 17 FANC genes. It is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. The underlying cause is genomic instability resulting from the deficiency in replication-dependent DNA interstrand crosslink repair pathway commonly referred to as the Fanconi anemia-BRCA pathway. This SnapShot presents the key factors involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparing diagnostic data for the SNAP transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.A.; Scott, S.D.; Towner, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the program SNAPIN which is used to prepare data for transport analysis with the SNAP code. The data input to SNAP includes diagnostic profiles [n e (R), T e (R), T i (R), v φ (R), Z eff (R), P rad (R)] and measurements such as total plasma current, R major , beam power, gas puff rate, etc. SNAPIN reads in the necessary TFTR data, allows editing of that data, including graphical editing of profile data and the selection of physics models. SNAPIN allows comparison of profile data from all diagnostics that measure a quantity, for example, electron temperature profiles from Thomson scattering and electron cyclotron emission (ECE). A powerful user interface is important to help the user prepare input data sets quickly and consistently, because hundreds of variables must be specified for each analysis. SNAPIN facilitates this by a careful organization of menus, display of all scalar data and switch settings within the menus, the graphical editing and comparison of profiles, and step-by-step checking for consistent physics controls [J. Murphy, S. Scott, and H. Towner, The SNAP User's Guide, Technical Report PPPL-TM-393, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (1992)

  20. Molecular Investigation of the Stem Snap Point in Textile Hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Behr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibre crops are important natural resources, as they sustainably provide bast fibres, an economically-valuable raw material used in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Among fibre crops, textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is appreciated for its long and strong gelatinous bast fibres. The stem of fibre crops is a useful system for cell wall-oriented studies, because it shows a strong tissue polarity with a lignified inner core and a cellulosic hypolignified cortex, as well as a basipetal lignification gradient. Along the stem axis of fibre crops, a specific region, denoted snap point, marks the transition from elongation (above it to fibre thickening (below it. After empirically determining the snap point by tilting the plant, we divided the stem segment containing it into three non-overlapping consecutive regions measuring 1 cm each, and carried out targeted RT-qPCR on cell wall-related genes separately, in outer and inner tissues. Different gene clusters can be observed, two of which are the major gene groups, i.e., one group with members expressed at higher levels in the inner tissues, and one group whose genes are more expressed in the cortex. The present results provide a molecular validation that the snap point is characterised by a gradient of events associated with the shift from fibre elongation to thickening.

  1. Recubrimiento comestible basado en goma arábiga y carboximetilcelulosa para conservar frutas en atmósfera modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Valle-Guadarrama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un recubrimiento comestible a base de goma arábiga (GA, carboximetilcelulosa (CMC y glicerol (GL como plastificante, para valorar su potencial de uso en sistemas de conservación de frutos en atmósfera modificada, mediante la evaluación de sus propiedades mecánicas, de barrera a gases y de transmisión de luz. En una fase de diseño evolutivo se obtuvo una formulación aproximada del recubrimiento; con esta base se definieron rangos de concentraciones de GA (20 y 30 %, CMC (0.25, 0.50 y 0.75 % y GL (5, 10 y 15 % para caracterizar el material. La combinación de GA en proporción de 30 %, CMC en un rango de 0.25 a 0.50 % y GL en un rango de 5 a 10 %, presentó un potencial adecuado para uso en conservación de frutos mediante sistemas de atmósfera modificada. El cambio de las concentraciones en GA, CMC y GL permitió regular las permeabilidadesa O2 y CO2 y la resistencia mecánica, con una transparencia mayor a 80 %.

  2. Defining SNAP by cross-sectional and longitudinal definitions of neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Wisse, L.E.M.; Das, S.R.; Davatzikos, C.; Dickerson, B.C.; Xie, S.X.; Yushkevich, P.A.; Wolk, D.A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (SNAP) is a biomarker driven designation that represents a heterogeneous group in terms of etiology and prognosis. SNAP has only been identified by cross-sectional neurodegeneration measures, whereas longitudinal measures might better reflect “active” neurodegeneration and might be more tightly linked to prognosis. We compare neurodegeneration defined by cross-sectional ‘hippocampal volume’ only (SNAP/L−) versus both cross-sectional and ...

  3. Synaptotagmin interaction with SNAP-25 governs vesicle docking, priming, and fusion triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohrmann, Ralf; de Wit, Heidi; Connell, Emma

    2013-01-01

    ramifications of proposed SNAP-25 × synaptotagmin-1 interaction in mouse chromaffin cells. We demonstrate that the postulated central binding domain surrounding layer zero covers both SNARE motifs of SNAP-25 and is essential for vesicle docking, priming, and fast fusion-triggering. Mutation of this site caused...... but is required for the full size of the readily releasable pool. Intriguingly, we also found that mutation of synaptotagmin-1 interaction sites led to more pronounced phenotypes in the context of the adult neuronal isoform SNAP-25B than in the embryonic isoform SNAP-25A. Further experiments demonstrated...

  4. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  5. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelWayne R Bohnenstiehl

    Full Text Available Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92 and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93, as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal

  6. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  7. Efficient radiological assessment of the internal snapping hip syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderbaldinger, P.; Bremer, C.; Matuszewski, L.; Marten, K.; Turetschek, K.; Rand, T.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value/significance of various imaging techniques for demonstrating the underlying causative pathology of clinically suspected internal snapping hip syndrome. We intended to define the most efficient diagnostic imaging algorithm that leads to a specific definite therapy for this rare hip disorder. The imaging studies of 54 patients (43 women, 11 men, average age 58 years) with the clinical suspicion of internal snapping hip syndrome were compared for their diagnostic value/significance for finding the underlying pathology. Radiological workup included plain radiographs of the pelvis and hip joints (n=54), ultrasound (US) of the hip joints (n=29), computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis and proximal femur (n=17), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis/hip joint (n=21). In order to establish an efficient diagnostic algorithm we compared the diagnostic value of each imaging technique alone and in combination with the other methods. The underlying causative pathology could be established in 37% of patients (n=20) by the use of conventional radiographs alone and in 46% of the patients (n=25) by US alone, and in combination in 83% of the patients (n=45). By adding CT to the radiological workup, we established final diagnosis in 88% (in combination with X-ray; n=15/17) and 94% (together with X-ray and US; n=16/17) of the patients. Whenever MR imaging was used a causative pathology was found in all patients (100%; n=21). The most efficient radiological algorithm in the assessment of patients with internal snapping hip syndrome is the combination of plain radiography and US. MR imaging can be retained for unresolved and difficult cases. (orig.)

  8. SNAP 19 Pioneer F and G. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    The generator developed for the Pioneer mission evolved from the SNAP 19 RTG`s launched aboard the NIMBUS III spacecraft. In order to satisfy the power requirements and environment of earth escape trajectory, significant modifications were made to the thermoelectric converter, heat source, and structural configuration. Specifically, a TAGS 2N thermoelectric couple was designed to provide higher efficiency and improved long term power performance, and the electrical circuitry was modified to yield very low magnetic field from current flow in the RTG. A new heat source was employed to satisfy operational requirements and its integration with the generator required alteration to the method of providing support to the fuel capsule.

  9. Snaps to Connect Coaxial and Microstrip Lines in Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial snaps (clothing fasteners can be used to connect a coaxial cable to a microstrip line. This is useful in the context of wearable antennas, especially in consumer applications and disposable connections. The measured S-parameters of the transition are presented, and an equivalent circuit and approximate equations are derived for system design purposes. The proposed connection is usable up to 1.5 GHz (10 dB return loss condition, and the frequency range can be extended to 2 GHz if a thinner, more flexible coaxial cable is used.

  10. Lipid droplets interact with mitochondria using SNAP23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jägerström, Sara; Polesie, Sam; Wickström, Ylva

    2009-01-01

    peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. We have used electron and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that LD form complexes with mitochondria in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Using an in vitro system of purified LD and mitochondria, we also show the formation of the LD-mitochondria complex, in which cytosolic...... factors are involved. Moreover, the presence of LD markers in mitochondria isolated by subcellular fractionations is demonstrated. Finally, ablation of SNAP23 using siRNA reduced complex formation and beta oxidation, which suggests that the LD-mitochondria complex is functional in the cell....

  11. Efecto del tipo y contenido de aceites esenciales sobre las propiedades mecánicas y barrera de películas comestibles basadas en zeína

    OpenAIRE

    Marzo Rojas, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Las películas comestibles basadas en zeína presentan importantes aplicaciones potenciales para su utilización en alimentos. Sin embargo, la necesidad de añadir aditivos como los plastificantes para mejorar sus propiedades provocan cambios en las propiedades físicas de las películas. Un complemento al uso de plastificantes puede ser el empleo de aceites esenciales pues su aplicación en las películas comestibles es por el momento limitada y además aportaría ya conocidas propie...

  12. Aceptación y apreciación de hongos comestibles Pleurotus djamor por expertos de cocina internacional y su perspectiva de comercialización en restaurantes de hoteles de Panamá. Año 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Marta; Vega Ríos, Aracelly

    2016-01-01

    El hongo comestible Pleutorus djamor (P. djamor) tiene alto valor nutritivo comparado con los hongos Crimini y Shiitake, posee macro y micronutrientes, vitaminas B9 y C en mayor cantidad que esas dos especies. Además, puede aportar al organismo más proteínas que otros vegetales y un 100 % de vitamina C más que las necesarias para el cuerpo humano. En otras culturas es común el consumo de hongos comestibles en la dieta diaria, sin embargo, es casi nula en la cultura de los hogares panameños. L...

  13. Pasado y presente del uso de plantas silvestres con órganos subterráneos de almacenamiento comestibles en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Ochoa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es la primara aproximación acerca del papel de las plantas con órganos de almacenamiento subterráneos comestibles (POAS en la Patagonia, desde una perspectiva temporal y espacial, al integrar datos etnohistóricos y etnográficos actuales ligados al uso de las POAS. El 75 % de las 54 fuentes analizadas mencionan el uso de POAS en la alimentación humana de la Patagonia. Las POAS silvestres comestibles registradas ascienden a 51 especies, siendo mayor el conjunto de POAS con raíces comestibles. La estepa y zonas ecotonales resultaron las de mayor riqueza de POAS, probablemente vinculado a adaptaciones ecológicas de éstas a la aridez en el primer caso, como a la alta diversidad relativa que presentan los ecotonos, en el segundo. El registro etnohistórico mostró discontinuidades marcadas, siendo pocas las especies presentes por más de un siglo, destacándose la continuidad documental de A. tuberosa desde el siglo XVIII al presente, así como la incorporación reciente de especies exóticas. Las fuentes etnohistóricas revisadas y su contraste con datos etnobotánicos recientes de campo sugieren dinamismo en los patrones de utilización, que a lo largo del tiempo han llevado al abandono del uso de las POAS en la práctica alimentaria de la Patagonia. Las singularidades encontradas respecto a lo temporal y espacial pueden vincularse tanto a los conocimientos locales y específicos desarrollados a lo largo del tiempo por los habitantes de la Patagonia, como también a las circunstancias sociopolíticas y académicas de cada una de las fuentes analizadas.

  14. Recubrimiento comestible de quitosano, almidón de yuca y aceite esencial de canela para conservar pera (Pyrus communis L. cv. “Bosc”)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro García, Marlon Reinaldo; Espinoza Posligua, Vanessa Gabriela; López Mantuano, Mario Henry; Molina Basurto, Ramón; García Montes, Yessenia Maribel; Lavayen Delgado, Edison Grego

    2017-01-01

    Las tecnologías de conservación de alimentos son esenciales en la alimentación humana por lo cual es fundamental utilizar técnicas de conservación sanas y seguras para los consumidores. Los frutos de pera (Pyrus communis) confieren un importante aporte nutricional, sin embargo, su vida útil es limitada al ser susceptibles a daños físicos, así como al deterioro microbiológico, frente a lo cual esta investigación evalúa el efecto de recubrimientos comestibles a base de quitosano y almidón de yu...

  15. Películas y recubrimientos comestibles: una alternativa favorable en la conservación poscosecha de frutas y hortalizas

    OpenAIRE

    Daybelis Fernández Valdés; Silvia Bautista Baños; Dayvis Fernández Valdés; Arturo Ocampo Ramírez; Annia García Pereira; Alejandro Falcón Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    El creciente interés de los consumidores hacia productos sanos, nutritivos, naturales y que beneficiosos para la salud, ha orientado y motivado investigaciones hacia el desarrollo de películas y recubrimientos comestibles aplicados a productos hortofrutícolas, como una alternativa para cubrir estas necesidades. Estos se aplican con el objetivo de extender la vida útil de los alimentos y proveen la posibilidad de mejorar la seguridad del producto mediante la limitación de transferencia de hume...

  16. Composição química e valor nutricional de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis do nordeste de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Correia, Daniela M.; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho, determinou-se a composição química e o valor nutricional de cinco espécies de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis (Agaricus arvensis, Lactarius deliciosus, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Sarcodon imbricatus, Tricholoma portentosum) vulgarmente consumidos na região de Trás-os-Montes, Nordeste de Portugal. A avaliação da composição química incluíu determinação de humidade, gordura total, proteína total, cinzas, hidratos de carbono e do valor nutricional. O perfil de macron...

  17. Efecto del recubrimiento comestible sobre los atributos físicoquímicos de mango 'Tommy Atkins' mínimamente procesado y refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    Dussán-Sarria, Saúl; Torres-León, Cristian; Reyes-Calvache, Pedro Martín

    2014-01-01

    El mango presenta una corta vida poscosecha. La tecnología de frutas mínimamente procesadas (cortadas) es una alternativa adecuada para su conservación y comercialización. En este estudio fueron evaluados los atributos de calidad del mango 'Tommy Atkins' mínimamente procesado durante el almacenamiento refrigerado. Tambien el efecto de un recubrimiento comestible de almidón de yuca y cera de carnauba tratado previamente con ácidos orgánicos (1%) y CaCl2, (1%) y se evaluó el efecto de dos bolsa...

  18. Efecto del recubrimiento comestible sobre los atributos físicoquímicos de mango 'Tommy Atkins' mínimamente procesado y refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    Saúl Dussán-Sarria; Cristian Torres-León; Pedro Martín Reyes-Calvache

    2014-01-01

    El mango presenta una corta vida poscosecha. La tecnología de frutas mínimamente procesadas (cortadas) es una alternativa adecuada para su conservación y comercialización. En este estudio fueron evaluados los atributos de calidad del mango `Tommy Atkins´ mínimamente procesado durante el almacenamiento refrigerado. Fue evaluado el efecto de un recubrimiento comestible de almidón de yuca y cera de carnauba tratado previamente con ácidos orgánicos (1%) y CaCl2, (1%) y se evaluó el efecto de dos ...

  19. Utilización de un desecho agroindustrial proveniente de una empresa refinadora de aceite comestible para la producción de jabones

    OpenAIRE

    Altomare, Vanessa; Fernández, Celeste; Ros, Mario

    2008-01-01

    La presente investigación esta enmarcada en el diseño de un proceso técnico factible a escala industrial para la reutilización, de las arcillas blanqueadoras agotadas, que se generan como residuos del proceso de elaboración de aceite comestible a partir de semillas oleaginosas, para obtener un producto de mayor valor agregado. La caracterización de las arcillas así como la síntesis del jabón de tocador se llevó a cabo a nivel de laboratorio, obteniéndose un contenido de aceite de palma de (58...

  20. Sistemas de transmisión del conocimiento etnobotánico de plantas silvestres comestibles en Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Antonio Mosquera Mena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los diferentes estudios etnobotánicos y etnoecológicos, muestran no solo la gran riqueza de recursos naturales que muchas comunidades han aprovechado de manera sostenible en el tiempo, si no también, la preocupación por la falta de sistematización del conocimiento debido a diferentes situaciones que lo dificultan. Esta investigación tiene como propósito mostrar los diferentes sistemas de transmisión del conocimiento que los habitantes del municipio de Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia, han utilizado para que las generaciones presentes y futuras reconozcan las plantas silvestres comestibles, lo cual es útil para tomar decisiones frente a la necesidad de sistematización del conocimiento de la biodiversidad local. Se utiliza una metodología que comprende las etapas de diseño de la encuesta etnobotánica, la aplicación de la misma teniendo en cuenta el tamaño de la población lo que arroja un total de 360 encuestas aplicadas en los 18 corregimientos del municipio, agrupados en cuatro sectores fisiográficos: Serranía, Litoral, Abanico Aluvial y Planicie Inundable. Los resultados muestran las formas de transmisión de conocimiento en cada uno de los corregimientos que componen la geografía del territorio, evidenciando que continúan primando sistemas de transmisión oral con muy baja sistematización y con un desinterés de la población joven por reconocer dichos recursos orientados a la preservación como fuentede alimento.

  1. SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qiuling; Gao Xiang; Lu Qi; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming

    2006-01-01

    SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

  2. Effect of temporary drought at different growth stages on snap bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High quality snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be produced under rain-fed conditions, provided that adequate moisture is available. However, drought may occur at any stage of growth of snap bean. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress at different growth stages on pod physical quality ...

  3. 78 FR 12245 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Suspension of SNAP Benefit Payments to Retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., national origin, gender, age, disability, marital or family status. Regulations at 7 CFR 272.6.... Discrimination in any aspect of the program administration is prohibited by these regulations, according to the... SNAP benefits at the location, store inventory, and the SNAP history of the store owners. For example...

  4. Geometrically controlled snapping transitions in shells with curved creases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, Nakul Prabhakar; Evans, Arthur A; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis A; Cohen, Itai; Hayward, Ryan C; Santangelo, Christian D

    2015-09-08

    Curvature and mechanics are intimately connected for thin materials, and this coupling between geometry and physical properties is readily seen in folded structures from intestinal villi and pollen grains to wrinkled membranes and programmable metamaterials. While the well-known rules and mechanisms behind folding a flat surface have been used to create deployable structures and shape transformable materials, folding of curved shells is still not fundamentally understood. Shells naturally deform by simultaneously bending and stretching, and while this coupling gives them great stability for engineering applications, it makes folding a surface of arbitrary curvature a nontrivial task. Here we discuss the geometry of folding a creased shell, and demonstrate theoretically the conditions under which it may fold smoothly. When these conditions are violated we show, using experiments and simulations, that shells undergo rapid snapping motion to fold from one stable configuration to another. Although material asymmetry is a proven mechanism for creating this bifurcation of stability, for the case of a creased shell, the inherent geometry itself serves as a barrier to folding. We discuss here how two fundamental geometric concepts, creases and curvature, combine to allow rapid transitions from one stable state to another. Independent of material system and length scale, the design rule that we introduce here explains how to generate snapping transitions in arbitrary surfaces, thus facilitating the creation of programmable multistable materials with fast actuation capabilities.

  5. Critical homoclinic orbits lead to snap-back repellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardini, Laura; Sushko, Iryna; Avrutin, Viktor; Schanz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We consider critical homoclinic orbits in continuous and discontinuous maps. → Unbounded homoclinic orbits in maps on unbounded domains are considered as well. → We show that a snapback-repeller (SBR) with a non-critical homoclinic orbit implies chaos. → We show also that a SBR with a critical homoclinic orbit may or may not imply chaos. - Abstract: When nondegenerate homoclinic orbits to an expanding fixed point of a map f:X→X,X subset or equal R n , exist, the point is called a snap-back repeller. It is known that the relevance of a snap-back repeller (in its original definition) is due to the fact that it implies the existence of an invariant set on which the map is chaotic. However, when does the first homoclinic orbit appear? When can other homoclinic explosions, i.e., appearance of infinitely many new homoclinic orbits, occur? As noticed by many authors, these problems are still open. In this work we characterize these bifurcations, for any kind of map, smooth or piecewise smooth, continuous or discontinuous, defined in a bounded or unbounded closed set. We define a noncritical homoclinic orbit and a homoclinic orbit of an expanding fixed point is structurally stable iff it is noncritical. That is, only critical homoclinic orbits are responsible for the homoclinic explosions. The possible kinds of critical homoclinic orbits will be also investigated, as well as their dynamic role.

  6. Defining SNAP by cross-sectional and longitudinal definitions of neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, L E M; Das, S R; Davatzikos, C; Dickerson, B C; Xie, S X; Yushkevich, P A; Wolk, D A

    2018-01-01

    Suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (SNAP) is a biomarker driven designation that represents a heterogeneous group in terms of etiology and prognosis. SNAP has only been identified by cross-sectional neurodegeneration measures, whereas longitudinal measures might better reflect "active" neurodegeneration and might be more tightly linked to prognosis. We compare neurodegeneration defined by cross-sectional 'hippocampal volume' only (SNAP/L-) versus both cross-sectional and longitudinal 'hippocampal atrophy rate' (SNAP/L+) and investigate how these definitions impact prevalence and the clinical and biomarker profile of SNAP in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). 276 MCI patients from ADNI-GO/2 were designated amyloid "positive" (A+) or "negative" (A-) based on their florbetapir scan and neurodegeneration 'positive' or 'negative' based on cross-sectional hippocampal volume and longitudinal hippocampal atrophy rate. 74.1% of all SNAP participants defined by the cross-sectional definition of neurodegeneration also met the longitudinal definition of neurodegeneration, whereas 25.9% did not. SNAP/L+ displayed larger white matter hyperintensity volume, a higher conversion rate to dementia over 5 years and a steeper decline on cognitive tasks compared to SNAP/L- and the A- CN group. SNAP/L- had more abnormal values on neuroimaging markers and worse performance on cognitive tasks than the A- CN group, but did not show a difference in dementia conversion rate or longitudinal cognition. Using a longitudinal definition of neurodegeneration in addition to a cross-sectional one identifies SNAP participants with significant cognitive decline and a worse clinical prognosis for which cerebrovascular disease may be an important driver.

  7. Telling our stories: heroin-assisted treatment and SNAP activism in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan; Murray, Dave; MacPherson, Donald

    2017-05-18

    This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver. This article highlights SNAP members' experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial conducted in Vancouver, Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME), that began recruitment of research participants in 2011. This paper draws on one brainstorming session, three focus groups, and field notes, with the SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP) in late 2013 about their experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial, SALOME in the DTES of Vancouver, and fieldwork from a 6-year period (March 2011 to February 2017) with SNAP members. SNAP's research draws on research principles developed by drug user groups and critical methodological frameworks on community-based research for social justice. The results illuminate how participating in the SALOME clinical trial impacted the lives of SNAP members. In addition, the findings reveal how SNAP member's advocacy for HAT impacts the group in positive ways. Seven major themes emerged from the analysis of the brainstorming and focus groups: life prior to SALOME, the clinic setting and routine, stability, 6-month transition, support, exiting the trial and ethics, and collective action, including their participation in a constitutional challenge in the Supreme Court of BC to continue receiving HAT once the SALOME trial ended. HAT benefits SNAP members. They argue that permanent HAT programs should be established in Canada because they are an effective harm reduction

  8. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Almeida Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

  9. A VESICLE TRAFFICKING PROTEIN αSNAP REGULATES PANETH CELL DIFFERENTIATION IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Naydenov, Nayden G.; Feygin, Alex; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2017-01-01

    A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein alpha (αSNAP) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking and signaling. In cultured intestinal epithelial cells, αSNAP has been shown to be essential for cell survival, motility, and adhesion; however, its physiologic functions in the intestinal mucosa remain unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse with a spontaneous hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mutation of αSNAP to examine the roles of this trafficking protein in regulating intestinal epithelial homeostasis in vivo. Homozygous hyh mice demonstrated decreased expression of αSNAP protein in the intestinal epithelium, but did not display gross abnormalities of epithelial architecture in the colon and ileum. Such αSNAP depletion attenuated differentiation of small intestinal epithelial enteroids ex vivo. Furthermore, αSNAP-deficient mutant animals displayed reduced formation of lysozyme granules in small intestinal crypts and decreased expression of lysozyme and defensins in the intestinal mucosa, which is indicative of defects in Paneth cell differentiation. By contrast, development of Goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and assembly of enterocyte apical junctions was not altered in hyh mutant mice. Our data revealed a novel role of αSNAP in the intestinal Paneth cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:28359759

  10. A vesicle trafficking protein αSNAP regulates Paneth cell differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Naydenov, Nayden G; Feygin, Alex; Jimenez, Antonio J; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2017-05-13

    A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein alpha (αSNAP) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking and signaling. In cultured intestinal epithelial cells, αSNAP has been shown to be essential for cell survival, motility, and adhesion; however, its physiologic functions in the intestinal mucosa remain unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse with a spontaneous hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mutation of αSNAP to examine the roles of this trafficking protein in regulating intestinal epithelial homeostasis in vivo. Homozygous hyh mice demonstrated decreased expression of αSNAP protein in the intestinal epithelium, but did not display gross abnormalities of epithelial architecture in the colon and ileum. Such αSNAP depletion attenuated differentiation of small intestinal epithelial enteroids ex vivo. Furthermore, αSNAP-deficient mutant animals displayed reduced formation of lysozyme granules in small intestinal crypts and decreased expression of lysozyme and defensins in the intestinal mucosa, which is indicative of defects in Paneth cell differentiation. By contrast, development of Goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and assembly of enterocyte apical junctions was not altered in hyh mutant mice. Our data revealed a novel role of αSNAP in the intestinal Paneth cell differentiation in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  12. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mass Health Promotion Clearinghouse Massachusetts Department of Public Health Fasting Blood Sugar Test - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Fasting Blood ...

  13. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2017: 4. Lifestyle management and 6. Glycemic targets. Diabetes Care . 2017;40( ...

  14. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposed to heat. It is best used in beverages rather than baking. Well-studied, and hasn't ... sweeteners, such as saccharin, in carbonated low-calorie beverages and other products. Most similar to table sugar ...

  15. Alcohol from sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Verzhbitskaya, V A

    1962-01-01

    The factor which determines the economy in the EtOH industry which uses sugar beets as raw materials is the rapid and complete recovery of the sugar contained in the beets for fermentation purposes. It is best to extract the beets at 70 to 75/sup 0/. Thorough shredding of the beets then need no longer form part of the operation, and the protein compounds, which give rise to fuel oils, are extracted in small amounts only.

  16. An ancient duplication of exon 5 in the Snap25 gene is required for complex neuronal development/function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny U Johansson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is an evolutionary innovation to create functionally diverse proteins from a limited number of genes. SNAP-25 plays a central role in neuroexocytosis by bridging synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane during regulated exocytosis. The SNAP-25 polypeptide is encoded by a single copy gene, but in higher vertebrates a duplication of exon 5 has resulted in two mutually exclusive splice variants, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b. To address a potential physiological difference between the two SNAP-25 proteins, we generated gene targeted SNAP-25b deficient mouse mutants by replacing the SNAP-25b specific exon with a second SNAP-25a equivalent. Elimination of SNAP-25b expression resulted in developmental defects, spontaneous seizures, and impaired short-term synaptic plasticity. In adult mutants, morphological changes in hippocampus and drastically altered neuropeptide expression were accompanied by severe impairment of spatial learning. We conclude that the ancient exon duplication in the Snap25 gene provides additional SNAP-25-function required for complex neuronal processes in higher eukaryotes.

  17. Snap Down Voltage of a Fast-Scanning Micromirror with Vertical Electrostatic Combdrives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hiroyuki; Lee, Daesung; Zappe, Stefan; Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Solgaard, Olav

    2004-02-01

    The parallel transition mode of the snap down of a fast-scanning mirror with vertical combdrives was analyzed. The snap down voltage of such a mirror significantly decreased when offsets between the ideal and actual upper movable comb teeth were more than 0.1 μm. When gap between the upper and lower comb teeth was decreased to increase torque, snap down voltage significantly decreased. The largest offset is induced by the lithography step in the fabrication process of the mirror. Self-alignment is required to increase the resonant frequency of the scanning mirror.

  18. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  19. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Meter, Robin J [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Spotila, James R [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Avery, Harold W [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. - Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the egg reduces survival of snapping turtle embryos and causes developmental abnormalities.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meter, Robin J.; Spotila, James R.; Avery, Harold W.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. - Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the egg reduces survival of snapping turtle embryos and causes developmental abnormalities

  2. Intra-axonal Synthesis of SNAP25 Is Required for the Formation of Presynaptic Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia F.R. Batista

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Localized protein synthesis is a mechanism for developing axons to react acutely and in a spatially restricted manner to extracellular signals. As such, it is important for many aspects of axonal development, but its role in the formation of presynapses remains poorly understood. We found that the induced assembly of presynaptic terminals required local protein synthesis. Newly synthesized proteins were detectable at nascent presynapses within 15 min of inducing synapse formation in isolated axons. The transcript for the t-SNARE protein SNAP25, which is required for the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane, was recruited to presynaptic sites and locally translated. Inhibition of intra-axonal SNAP25 synthesis affected the clustering of SNAP25 and other presynaptic proteins and interfered with the release of synaptic vesicles from presynaptic sites. This study reveals a critical role for the axonal synthesis of SNAP25 in the assembly of presynaptic terminals.

  3. A meniscus causing painful snapping of the elbow joint: MR imaging with arthroscopic and histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Guo-Shu; Chen, Cheng-Yu [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Chian-Her [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Herng-Sheng [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-12-01

    Snapping of the elbow joint can cause pain. We report a case of painful snapping elbow produced by an interposed meniscus in the radiohumeral joint in a 20-year-old man. The MR arthrogram demonstrated a meniscus-like tissue interposed between the radial head and humeral capitellum. The MR-arthrographic findings were well correlated with surgical findings. The location and appearance of the meniscus-like tissue was similar to that of meniscus in the knee joint. Histologic findings of the excised meniscus-like tissue showed a typical presentation of fibrocartilage. A meniscus may exist in the elbow joint and can be a rare cause of painful snapping elbow. MR arthrography is helpful for identifying the snapping tissue in the elbow joint. (orig.)

  4. α-SNAP prevents docking of the acrosome during sperm exocytosis because it sequesters monomeric syntaxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Rodríguez

    Full Text Available α-SNAP has an essential role in membrane fusion that consists of bridging cis SNARE complexes to NSF. α-SNAP stimulates NSF, which releases itself, α-SNAP, and individual SNAREs that subsequently re-engage in the trans arrays indispensable for fusion. α-SNAP also binds monomeric syntaxin and NSF disengages the α-SNAP/syntaxin dimer. Here, we examine why recombinant α-SNAP blocks secretion in permeabilized human sperm despite the fact that the endogenous protein is essential for membrane fusion. The only mammalian organism with a genetically modified α-SNAP is the hyh mouse strain, which bears a M105I point mutation; males are subfertile due to defective sperm exocytosis. We report here that recombinant α-SNAP-M105I has greater affinity for the cytosolic portion of immunoprecipitated syntaxin than the wild type protein and in consequence NSF is less efficient in releasing the mutant. α-SNAP-M105I is a more potent sperm exocytosis blocker than the wild type and requires higher concentrations of NSF to rescue its effect. Unlike other fusion scenarios where SNAREs are subjected to an assembly/disassembly cycle, the fusion machinery in sperm is tuned so that SNAREs progress uni-directionally from a cis configuration in resting cells to monomeric and subsequently trans arrays in cells challenged with exocytosis inducers. By means of functional and indirect immunofluorescense assays, we show that recombinant α-SNAPs--wild type and M105I--inhibit exocytosis because they bind monomeric syntaxin and prevent this SNARE from assembling with its cognates in trans. Sequestration of free syntaxin impedes docking of the acrosome to the plasma membrane assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The N-terminal deletion mutant α-SNAP-(160-295, unable to bind syntaxin, affects neither docking nor secretion. The implications of this study are twofold: our findings explain the fertility defect of hyh mice and indicate that assembly of SNAREs in trans

  5. Measuring the Effect of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Participation on Food Security.

    OpenAIRE

    James Mabli; Jim Ohls; Lisa Dragoset; Laura Castner; Betsy Santos

    2013-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides food assistance to more than 47 million low-income Americans every month. It aims to reduce hunger by facilitating beneficiaries’ access to enough food for a healthy, active lifestyle, otherwise known as "food security." Our study conducted for the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture shows that SNAP participation is associated with improved food security. The study is the largest and most rigorous one...

  6. Synaptotagmin-7 is an asynchronous calcium sensor for synaptic transmission in neurons expressing SNAP-23.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens P Weber

    Full Text Available Synchronization of neurotransmitter release with the presynaptic action potential is essential for maintaining fidelity of information transfer in the central nervous system. However, synchronous release is frequently accompanied by an asynchronous release component that builds up during repetitive stimulation, and can even play a dominant role in some synapses. Here, we show that substitution of SNAP-23 for SNAP-25 in mouse autaptic glutamatergic hippocampal neurons results in asynchronous release and a higher frequency of spontaneous release events (mEPSCs. Use of neurons from double-knock-out (SNAP-25, synaptotagmin-7 mice in combination with viral transduction showed that SNAP-23-driven release is triggered by endogenous synaptotagmin-7. In the absence of synaptotagmin-7 release became even more asynchronous, and the spontaneous release rate increased even more, indicating that synaptotagmin-7 acts to synchronize release and suppress spontaneous release. However, compared to synaptotagmin-1, synaptotagmin-7 is a both leaky and asynchronous calcium sensor. In the presence of SNAP-25, consequences of the elimination of synaptotagmin-7 were small or absent, indicating that the protein pairs SNAP-25/synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-23/synaptotagmin-7 might act as mutually exclusive calcium sensors. Expression of fusion proteins between pHluorin (pH-sensitive GFP and synaptotagmin-1 or -7 showed that vesicles that fuse using the SNAP-23/synaptotagmin-7 combination contained synaptotagmin-1, while synaptotagmin-7 barely displayed activity-dependent trafficking between vesicle and plasma membrane, implying that it acts as a plasma membrane calcium sensor. Overall, these findings support the idea of alternative syt∶SNARE combinations driving release with different kinetics and fidelity.

  7. Diagnosing Snapping Sartorius Tendon Secondary to a Meniscal Cyst Using Dynamic Ultrasound Avoids Incorrect Surgical Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Asopa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of painful snapping in the medial aspect of the knee of a 40-year-old man, following a knee hyperflexion injury. Dynamic real-time ultrasonography determined that the snapping was due to the distal tendon of sartorius passing over a medial meniscal cyst. The patient subsequently underwent arthroscopic decompression of the cyst instead of an inappropriate hamstring tendon harvest procedure, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  8. Classificação de óleos vegetais comestíveis usando imagens digitais e técnicas de reconhecimento de padrões

    OpenAIRE

    Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares de Melo

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta um método simples e de baixo custo, baseado na utilização de imagens digitais e técnicas de reconhecimento de padrões, para a classificação de óleos vegetais comestíveis com relação ao tipo (soja, canola, girassol e milho) e ao estado de conservação (prazo de validade expirado e não expirado). Para isso, imagens das amostras de óleos vegetais foram obtidas a partir de uma webcam e, em seguida, as mesmas foram decompostas em histogramas contendo as distribuições dos nív...

  9. Identification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Substrate Binding Pockets and Their Re-Engineering for Human SNAP-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorra, Stefan; Litschko, Christa; Müller, Carina; Thiel, Nadine; Galli, Thierry; Eichner, Timo; Binz, Thomas

    2016-01-29

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent bacterial proteins that block neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAREs (soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors). However, their serotype A (BoNT/A) that cleaves SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa) has also been an established pharmaceutical for treatment of medical conditions that rely on hyperactivity of cholinergic nerve terminals for 25 years. The expansion of its use to a variety of further medical conditions associated with hypersecretion components is prevented partly because the involved SNARE isoforms are not cleaved. Therefore, we examined by mutational analyses the reason for the resistance of human SNAP-23, an isoform of SNAP-25. We show that replacement of 10 SNAP-23 residues with their SNAP-25 counterparts effects SNAP-25-like cleavability. Conversely, transfer of each of the replaced SNAP-23 residues to SNAP-25 drastically decreased the cleavability of SNAP-25. By means of the existing SNAP-25-toxin co-crystal structure, molecular dynamics simulations, and corroborative mutagenesis studies, the appropriate binding pockets for these residues in BoNT/A were characterized. Systematic mutagenesis of two major BoNT/A binding pockets was conducted in order to adapt these pockets to corresponding amino acids of human SNAP-23. Human SNAP-23 cleaving mutants were isolated using a newly established yeast-based screening system. This method may be useful for engineering novel BoNT/A pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diseases that rely on SNAP-23-mediated hypersecretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth In SNAP Retailers Was Associated With Increased Client Enrollment In Georgia During The Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry; Shannon, Sarah; Adams, Grace Bagwell; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-11-01

    Policies to improve food accessibility in underserved areas often use direct financial incentives to attract new food retailers. Our analysis of data on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Georgia before and after the Great Recession suggests that increased program enrollment improves access to food for SNAP beneficiaries by acting as an indirect subsidy to retailers. We divided food stores into four categories: large, midsize, small, and specialty retailers. Between 2008 and 2011 the number of SNAP enrollees increased by 87 percent, and between 2007 and 2014 the number of SNAP retailers in Georgia increased by 82 percent, primarily because of growth in the number of authorized small retailers. Inside metropolitan Atlanta, changes in the numbers of SNAP enrollees and authorized retailers were positively and significantly associated for small retailers. For the areas outside of metropolitan Atlanta, the association between changes in numbers of enrollees and authorized retailers was strongest for small retailers; more modest associations were also seen for large and specialty retailers. Policy makers should consider how retailers' sensitivity to and reliance on SNAP funding can be leveraged to improve not only food availability, but also access to healthy foods. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. A single amino acid mutation in SNAP-25 induces anxiety-related behavior in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Kataoka

    Full Text Available Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25 is a presynaptic protein essential for neurotransmitter release. Previously, we demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC phosphorylates Ser(187 of SNAP-25, and enhances neurotransmitter release by recruiting secretory vesicles near to the plasma membrane. As PKC is abundant in the brain and SNAP-25 is essential for synaptic transmission, SNAP-25 phosphorylation is likely to play a crucial role in the central nervous system. We therefore generated a mutant mouse, substituting Ser(187 of SNAP-25 with Ala using "knock-in" technology. The most striking effect of the mutation was observed in their behavior. The homozygous mutant mice froze readily in response to environmental change, and showed strong anxiety-related behavior in general activity and light and dark preference tests. In addition, the mutant mice sometimes exhibited spontaneously occurring convulsive seizures. Microdialysis measurements revealed that serotonin and dopamine release were markedly reduced in amygdala. These results clearly indicate that PKC-dependent SNAP-25 phosphorylation plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional behavior as well as the suppression of epileptic seizures, and the lack of enhancement of monoamine release is one of the possible mechanisms underlying these defects.

  12. Perfil cualitativo de metabolitos secundarios en la fracción comestible de especies leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en un bosque semicaducifolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á Ojeda

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar cualitativamente el perfil de metabolitos secundarios de la fracción comestible de plantas leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en silvopastoreo, las cuales se encuentran en un bosque tropófilo semicaducifolio de Venezuela, se utilizaron 14 vacunos machos Brahman x Holstein de 390,4 ± 18,0 kg de PV. Estos fueron manejados en pastoreo continuo en una superficie de 81 ha, de las cuales 50 ha correspondían a un bosque semicaducifolio y el resto, a vegetación herbácea natural (Cynodon nlemfuensis, Sporobolus indicus, Axonopus sp., Mimosa pudica e Hyptis suaveolens. La composición de la biomasa leñosa seleccionada por los animales se estudió mediante la evaluación de los fragmentos epidérmicos presentes en las heces colectadas por vía transrectal, cada 15 días. A partir de estos resultados, se tomaron muestras de cinco plantas por especie leñosa, en los periodos seco y lluvioso. Se determinaron 15 grupos de metabolitos: alcaloides, á-aminos, carbohidratos solubles, cardenólidos, cianógenos, esteroles, fenoles totales, flavonoides, lectinas, mucílagos, quinonas, saponinas, taninos extractables (totales y condensados y terpenoides. La mayoría de la biomasa correspondió a especies de la familia Fabaceae, las cuales presentaron todos los metabolitos evaluados. En ambos periodos se detectaron niveles de esteroles, terpenoides, fenoles totales y taninos extractables que variaron desde leves hasta cuantiosos. Con independencia del periodo, el 66,7 % de las especies presentó entre 10-11 metabolitos secundarios en su biomasa comestible. Se recomienda realizar estudios para la cuantificación de los metabolitos secundarios presentes en plantas leñosas de valor forrajero, para este sistema silvopastoril

  13. Efecto del recubrimiento comestible sobre los atributos físicoquímicos de mango 'Tommy Atkins' mínimamente procesado y refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Dussán-Sarria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El mango presenta una corta vida poscosecha. La tecnología de frutas mínimamente procesadas (cortadas es una alternativa adecuada para su conservación y comercialización. En este estudio fueron evaluados los atributos de calidad del mango 'Tommy Atkins' mínimamente procesado durante el almacenamiento refrigerado. Tambien el efecto de un recubrimiento comestible de almidón de yuca y cera de carnauba tratado previamente con ácidos orgánicos (1% y CaCl2, (1% y se evaluó el efecto de dos bolsas de polietileno, bandeja de poliestireno cubiertas con PVC y PET. El experimento fue conducido en bloques completamente al azar y para el análisis estadístico fue utilizado el programa SAS 9.3 y la prueba de Tukey a nivel de 5% de significancia. El fruto fue almacenado a 5±1°C y 90±2% de HR y cada cuatro días, hasta el día 24 fueron medidos los atributos de calidad (color, firmeza, pH, acidez titulable y sólidos solubles. El mango mínimamente procesado tratado con ácido cítrico, ácido ascórbico, CaCl2, y recubrimiento comestible, asociado al empaque PET fue el tratamiento agroindustrial que extendió la vida útil en por lo menos 24 días.

  14. CULTIVATION OF THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM OUDEMANSIELLA CANARII (JUNGH. HÖHN. IN LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES Cultivo do cogumelo comestível Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn. em substratos lignocelulósicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Silveira Ruegger

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn is common in the Brazilian territory, being found in different biomas, where they colonize several plant species. In this study, the O. canarii cultivation was evaluated in polypropilene bags containing sugar-cane bagasse (200 g or eucalyptus sawdust (200 g supplemented with wheat bran (50 g. The composts were sterilized at 121ºC for 1 hour, after cooling they were inoculated with 3 g of spawn and then remained incubated at 25ºC until the basidiomata primordia formation. The mushrooms, harvested after the pilei opening, presented varied sizes reaching 9 cm of diameter and 10 cm of height. The fresh mushrooms presented mild taste and soft consistency. When kept at 4ºC, they maintained good appearance and good consistency for 7 days. In a period of 60 days, the largest basidiomata production was obtained in the compost with sugar-cane bagasse, showing greater productivity (4.47% ± 1.34, biological efficiency (55.66% ± 20.41 and compost consumption (38.78% ± 4.59 averages. Wilcoxon's non-parametric statistical analysis used to compare the biomass production in the two composts, showed significant differences at 5% significance level.O cogumelo comestível Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn., é comum no território brasileiro, sendo encontrado em diferentes biomas, onde colonizam várias espécies vegetais. Neste estudo, o cultivo deste basidiomiceto foi realizado em sacos plásticos contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (200 g ou serragem de eucalipto (200 g suplementados com farelo de trigo (50 g. Os substratos foram esterilizados a 121ºC por 1 hora, inoculados com 3 g de grãos de trigo colonizados por micélio do fungo e permaneceram incubados a 25ºC até a formação dos primórdios dos basidiomas. Os cogumelos, colhidos após a abertura do píleo, apresentaram tamanhos variados chegando a atingir 9 cm de diâmetro por 10 cm de altura. Os cogumelos frescos apresentaram paladar

  15. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.

  16. Contactless, photoinitiated snap-through in azobenzene-functionalized polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, M Ravi; Smith, Matthew L; Tondiglia, Vincent P; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E; Wang, David H; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J

    2013-11-19

    Photomechanical effects in polymeric materials and composites transduce light into mechanical work. The ability to control the intensity, polarization, placement, and duration of light irradiation is a distinctive and potentially useful tool to tailor the location, magnitude, and directionality of photogenerated mechanical work. Unfortunately, the work generated from photoresponsive materials is often slow and yields very small power densities, which diminish their potential use in applications. Here, we investigate photoinitiated snap-through in bistable arches formed from samples composed of azobenzene-functionalized polymers (both amorphous polyimides and liquid crystal polymer networks) and report orders-of-magnitude enhancement in actuation rates (approaching 10(2) mm/s) and powers (as much as 1 kW/m(3)). The contactless, ultra-fast actuation is observed at irradiation intensities focusing on isolating the role of sample geometry, mechanical properties of the materials, and photomechanical strain. Using light to trigger contactless, ultrafast actuation in an otherwise passive structure is a potentially versatile tool to use in mechanical design at the micro-, meso-, and millimeter scales as actuators, as well as switches that can be triggered from large standoff distances, impulse generators for microvehicles, microfluidic valves and mixers in laboratory-on-chip devices, and adaptive optical elements.

  17. Evaluating equity critiques in food policy: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F

    2013-01-01

    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy - modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet - and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program (SNAP) assistance (i.e., food stamps). We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were made to the sweetened beverage exclusion, and analyze these objections in terms of the theoretical notions of distributive equality and social equality. First, the sweetened beverage exclusion is unfair or violates distributive equality because it restricts the consumer choice of SNAP participants relative to non-participants. Second, it is disrespectful or violates social equality to prohibit SNAP participants from purchasing sweetened beverages with food stamps. We conclude that neither equity-based ethical objection is decisive, and that the proposed exclusion of sugar-sweetened beverages is not a violation of either distributive or social equality. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Sugar, Pressure and Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017.v33i1.337. 1. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2001;345(19):1359-1367. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa011300. 2. The NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators. Intensive ...

  19. The Maple Sugar Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  20. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and NutritionHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversHigh Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood VesselsUnderstanding Your Medical ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Share Print What ...

  2. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  3. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and...

  4. Recent Developments in the Recovery of SNAP-DYN Technical Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William R.; Grimmett, David

    2007-01-01

    SNAP-DYN was a concept for a multi-kilowatt class (i.e., 10 to 50 kWe) of space nuclear electric power systems based on the SNAP reactor, shield, and liquid metal heat transfer technologies developed in the 1960s and coupled with dynamic power conversion hardware and state of the art space radiator technologies. The basic concept minimized the system's development costs by utilizing established technologies for each of the major components within the power system to reduce its overall development schedule. Three power conversion technologies were evaluated for the SNAP-DYN concept including Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with a peak cycle temperature of 672 K, a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) with a peak cycle temperature of 906 K, and a free piston Stirling cycle (FPSC) with a peak cycle temperature of 870 K. Net system conversion efficiencies were estimated to range from 16 to 19 % over the 10 to 50 kWe power range. Specific power levels for these systems were estimated to range from 6.4 to 13 W/kg over the same power range. SNAP-DYN reactor thermal power levels varied from 55 to 260 kWt, but a much longer lifetime (5 to 10 years vs. 1.3 years) was being evaluated for this power system application than had been demonstrated in the 1960s SNAP reactor development program. The last SNAP reactor under development at the end of the program in 1973 was designed for a 5-year mission life at a nominal thermal power level of 110 kWt with a coolant outlet temperature capability of 922 K. This reactor technology formed the basis for the SNAP-DYN reactor concept.

  5. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  6. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  7. Cell-Specific Loss of SNAP25 from Cortical Projection Neurons Allows Normal Development but Causes Subsequent Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Korrell, Kim V; Hayashi, Shuichi; Jeans, Alexander; Ramirez, Denise M O; Grant, Eleanor; Christian, Helen C; Kavalali, Ege T; Wilson, Michael C; Molnár, Zoltán

    2018-05-30

    Synaptosomal associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP25) is an essential component of the SNARE complex regulating synaptic vesicle fusion. SNAP25 deficiency has been implicated in a variety of cognitive disorders. We ablated SNAP25 from selected neuronal populations by generating a transgenic mouse (B6-Snap25tm3mcw (Snap25-flox)) with LoxP sites flanking exon5a/5b. In the presence of Cre-recombinase, Snap25-flox is recombined to a truncated transcript. Evoked synaptic vesicle release is severely reduced in Snap25 conditional knockout (cKO) neurons as shown by live cell imaging of synaptic vesicle fusion and whole cell patch clamp recordings in cultured hippocampal neurons. We studied Snap25 cKO in subsets of cortical projection neurons in vivo (L5-Rbp4-Cre; L6-Ntsr1-Cre; L6b-Drd1a-Cre). cKO neurons develop normal axonal projections, but axons are not maintained appropriately, showing signs of swelling, fragmentation and eventually complete absence. Onset and progression of degeneration are dependent on the neuron type, with L5 cells showing the earliest and most severe axonal loss. Ultrastructural examination revealed that cKO neurites contain autophagosome/lysosome-like structures. Markers of inflammation such as Iba1 and lipofuscin are increased only in adult cKO cortex. Snap25 cKO can provide a model to study genetic interactions with environmental influences in several disorders.

  8. Strategies to improve the dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) beneficiaries: an assessment of stakeholder opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Susan J; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Leung, Cindy W; Lofink, Hayley; Jensen, Helen H; Foerster, Susan B; Cheung, Lilian Wy; Nestle, Marion; Willett, Walter C

    2014-12-01

    To examine the opinions of stakeholders on strategies to improve dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Participants answered a thirty-eight-item web-based survey assessing opinions and perceptions of SNAP and programme policy changes. Survey of 522 individuals with stakeholder interest in SNAP, conducted in October through December 2011. The top three barriers to improving dietary quality identified were: (i) unhealthy foods marketed in low-income communities; (ii) the high cost of healthy foods; and (iii) lifestyle challenges faced by low-income individuals. Many respondents (70 %) also disagreed that current SNAP benefit levels were adequate to maintain a healthy diet. Stakeholders believed that vouchers, coupons or monetary incentives for purchasing healthful foods might have the greatest potential for improving the diets of SNAP participants. Many respondents (78 %) agreed that sodas should not be eligible for purchases with SNAP benefits. More than half (55 %) believed retailers could easily implement such restrictions. A majority of respondents (58 %) agreed that stores should stock a minimum quantity of healthful foods in order to be certified as a SNAP retailer, and most respondents (83 %) believed that the US Department of Agriculture should collect data on the foods purchased with SNAP benefits. Results suggest that there is broad stakeholder support for policies that align SNAP purchase eligibility with national public health goals of reducing food insecurity, improving nutrition and preventing obesity.

  9. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  10. In vivo evaluation of radiotracers targeting the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1: [11C]SNAP-7941 and [18F]FE@SNAP reveal specific uptake in the ventricular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Markus; Dumanic, Monika; Pichler, Florian; Budinsky, Lubos; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Pallitsch, Katharina; Spreitzer, Helmut; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Hacker, Marcus; Mitterhauser, Markus; Philippe, Cécile

    2017-08-14

    The MCHR1 is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and changes of the expression are linked to a variety of associated diseases, such as diabetes and adiposity. The study aimed at the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 and [ 18 F]FE@SNAP as potential PET-tracers for the MCHR1. Competitive binding studies with non-radioactive derivatives and small-animal PET/CT and MRI brain studies were performed under baseline conditions and tracer displacement with the unlabelled MCHR1 antagonist (±)-SNAP-7941. Binding studies evinced high binding affinity of the non-radioactive derivatives. Small-animal imaging of [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 and [ 18 F]FE@SNAP evinced high tracer uptake in MCHR1-rich regions of the ventricular system. Quantitative analysis depicted a significant tracer reduction after displacement with (±)-SNAP-7941. Due to the high binding affinity of the non-labelled derivatives and the high specific tracer uptake of [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 and [ 18 F]FE@SNAP, there is strong evidence that both radiotracers may serve as highly suitable agents for specific MCHR1 imaging.

  11. Tuning and switching of band gap of the periodically undulated beam by the snap through buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose highly tuning and switching band gaps of phononic crystals through the snap through buckling by investigating wave propagation in a designed tractable undulated beam with single material and periodically arched shape. A series of numerical analyses are conducted to offer a thorough understanding of the evolution of the band gaps as a function of the vertical applied load. We find out that the interesting snap through buckling induced by the vertical load can alter the width of the band gap of the undulated beam dramatically, even switch them on and off. Our researches show an effective strategy to tune the band gaps of phononic crystals through the snap through buckling behavior.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

    2006-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs.

  13. Synaptotagmin-7 Is an Asynchronous Calcium Sensor for Synaptic Transmission in Neurons Expressing SNAP-23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Jens P; Toft-Bertelsen, Trine L; Mohrmann, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of neurotransmitter release with the presynaptic action potential is essential for maintaining fidelity of information transfer in the central nervous system. However, synchronous release is frequently accompanied by an asynchronous release component that builds up during repetitive...... stimulation, and can even play a dominant role in some synapses. Here, we show that substitution of SNAP-23 for SNAP-25 in mouse autaptic glutamatergic hippocampal neurons results in asynchronous release and a higher frequency of spontaneous release events (mEPSCs). Use of neurons from double-knock-out (SNAP......, while synaptotagmin-7 barely displayed activity-dependent trafficking between vesicle and plasma membrane, implying that it acts as a plasma membrane calcium sensor. Overall, these findings support the idea of alternative syt∶SNARE combinations driving release with different kinetics and fidelity....

  14. SNAP Participants' Eating Patterns over the Benefit Month: A Time Use Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Hamrick

    Full Text Available Individuals receiving monthly benefits through the U.S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP often fall short of food at the end of the month and some report feelings of hunger. To investigate this situation, we used time diaries from the 2006-08 American Time Use Survey and Eating & Health Module to identify the timing of days where respondents reported no eating occurrences. Analysis includes descriptive statistics, a logit model, and a simulated benefit month. We found that SNAP participants were increasingly more likely than nonparticipants to report a day with no eating occurrences over the benefit issuance cycle. This supports the view that there is a monthly cycle in food consumption associated with the SNAP monthly benefit issuance policy.

  15. SNAP Participants’ Eating Patterns over the Benefit Month: A Time Use Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Individuals receiving monthly benefits through the U.S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) often fall short of food at the end of the month and some report feelings of hunger. To investigate this situation, we used time diaries from the 2006–08 American Time Use Survey and Eating & Health Module to identify the timing of days where respondents reported no eating occurrences. Analysis includes descriptive statistics, a logit model, and a simulated benefit month. We found that SNAP participants were increasingly more likely than nonparticipants to report a day with no eating occurrences over the benefit issuance cycle. This supports the view that there is a monthly cycle in food consumption associated with the SNAP monthly benefit issuance policy. PMID:27410962

  16. SNAP Participants' Eating Patterns over the Benefit Month: A Time Use Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Karen S; Andrews, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Individuals receiving monthly benefits through the U.S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) often fall short of food at the end of the month and some report feelings of hunger. To investigate this situation, we used time diaries from the 2006-08 American Time Use Survey and Eating & Health Module to identify the timing of days where respondents reported no eating occurrences. Analysis includes descriptive statistics, a logit model, and a simulated benefit month. We found that SNAP participants were increasingly more likely than nonparticipants to report a day with no eating occurrences over the benefit issuance cycle. This supports the view that there is a monthly cycle in food consumption associated with the SNAP monthly benefit issuance policy.

  17. The development of Version 2 of the AN-SNAP casemix classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Janette; Gordon, Robert

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent review of the Australian National Sub-acute and Non-acute Patient (AN-SNAP) classification system. The AN-SNAP system was developed by the Centre for Health Service Development, University of Wollongong in 1997. The review was conducted between August 2005 and September 2006. Four clinical sub-committees comprising more than 50 clinicians from sub-acute services across New South Wales as well as representatives from Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory were established to develop a set of proposals to be considered for incorporation into Version 2 of the classification. It is proposed that the final AN-SNAP Version 2 classification will be available for implementation from 1 July 2007.

  18. A Brief Description of the Kokkos implementation of the SNAP potential in ExaMiniMD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Aidan P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Within the EXAALT project, the SNAP [1] approach is being used to develop high accuracy potentials for use in large-scale long-time molecular dynamics simulations of materials behavior. In particular, we have developed a new SNAP potential that is suitable for describing the interplay between helium atoms and vacancies in high-temperature tungsten[2]. This model is now being used to study plasma-surface interactions in nuclear fusion reactors for energy production. The high-accuracy of SNAP potentials comes at the price of increased computational cost per atom and increased computational complexity. The increased cost is mitigated by improvements in strong scaling that can be achieved using advanced algorithms [3].

  19. The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiak, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

  20. Scapulothoracic bursitis and snapping scapula syndrome: a critical review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Ryan J; Spiegl, Ulrich J; Millett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic scapulothoracic disorders, such as painful scapular crepitus and/or bursitis, are uncommon; however, they can produce significant pain and disability in many patients. To review the current knowledge pertaining to snapping scapula syndrome and to identify areas of further research that may be helpful to improve clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. Systematic review. We performed a preliminary search of the PubMed and Embase databases using the search terms "snapping scapula," "scapulothoracic bursitis," "partial scapulectomy," and "superomedial angle resection" in September 2013. All nonreview articles related to the topic of snapping scapula syndrome were included. The search identified a total of 167 unique articles, 81 of which were relevant to the topic of snapping scapula syndrome. There were 36 case series of fewer than 10 patients, 16 technique papers, 11 imaging studies, 9 anatomic studies, and 9 level IV outcomes studies. The level of evidence obtained from this literature search was inadequate to perform a formal systematic review or meta-analysis. Therefore, a critical review of current evidence is presented. Snapping scapula syndrome, a likely underdiagnosed condition, can produce significant shoulder dysfunction in many patients. Because the precise origin is typically unknown, specific treatments that are effective for some patients may not be effective for others. Nevertheless, bursectomy with or without partial scapulectomy is currently the most effective primary method of treatment in patients who fail nonoperative therapy. However, many patients experience continued shoulder disability even after surgical intervention. Future studies should focus on identifying the modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes after operative and nonoperative management for snapping scapula syndrome in an effort to improve clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  2. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gromkovskii; O. I. Sherstyuk

    2015-01-01

    Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive fir...

  4. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  5. The snap-back effect of an RC-IGBT and its simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenliang; Tian Xiaoli; Zhu Yangjun; Tan Jingfei

    2013-01-01

    The RC-IGBT (reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor) is a new kind of power semiconductor device which has many advantages such as smaller chip size, higher power density, lower manufacturing cost, softer turn off behavior, and better reliability. However, its performance has a number of drawbacks, such as the snap-back effect. In this paper, an introduction about the snap-back effect of the RC-IGBT is given firstly. Then the physical explanations are presented with two simplified models. After that, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the correctness of the models. (semiconductor devices)

  6. The sensitivity of graphene “snap-through” to substrate geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the deposition of few layer graphene sheets onto a grooved substrate incorporating adhesion between substrate and sheet. We develop a model to understand the equilibrium of the sheet allowing for partial conformation of sheet to substrate. This model gives physical insight into recent observations of snap-through from flat to conforming states and emphasizes the crucial role of substrate shape in determining the nature of this transition. Our analytical results are consistent with numerical simulations using a van der Waals-like interaction. Finally, we propose a substrate shape that should exhibit a continuous, rather than snap-through, transition. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  7. I Mend It With Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Lindvall, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    I mend it with sugar         Abstract   "Gluttony" and "sloth" is the sugar addictions best friend, or could it be that the addiction comes out of a disturbed hormone production caused by the environment that surrounds us? Trying to understand my own sugar addiction I weave in my personal story into my artistic research around this subject. The sugar might be the cause of the pandemic obesity and that's why it has to bee brought up into the light from its darkness down the basement of the fo...

  8. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF OXIDANT AIR POLLUTANTS ON SOYBEANS, SNAP BEANS AND POTATOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past 5 years the impact of photochemical oxidants on soybeans and snap beans in Maryland and on potatoes in Virginia and Delaware was assessed with open-top chambers. The mean yields of four selected soybean varieties grown in open-top chambers with carbon-filtered air...

  10. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment of cutaneous papillomas in a common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiti, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was used to treat multiple cutaneous papillomas on an adult female common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina. A combination of excisional and ablative techniques provided excellent intraoperative visibility and postoperative results due to the laser's unique ability to incise and vaporize soft tissue.

  11. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  12. Surgical Treatment of Snapping Scapula Syndrome Due to Malunion of Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Duis, Kaj; IJpma, Frank F A

    2017-02-01

    This report describes a case of snapping scapula syndrome (SSS) caused by malunited rib fractures. Abrasion of the deformed ribs was performed with good results. SSS as a cause of shoulder pain after thoracic trauma has to be considered and can be treated by a surgical abrasion technique. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative, wearable snap connector technology for improved device networking in electronic garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Lee, Kang S.; Gans, Eric; Winterhalter, Carole A.; Jannson, Tomasz P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses Physical Optics Corporation's (POC) wearable snap connector technology that provides for the transfer of data and power throughout an electronic garment (e-garment). These connectors resemble a standard garment button and can be mated blindly with only one hand. Fully compatible with military clothing, their application allows for the networking of multiple electronic devices and an intuitive method for adding/removing existing components from the system. The attached flexible cabling also permits the rugged snap connectors to be fed throughout the standard webbing found in military garments permitting placement in any location within the uniform. Variations of the snap electronics/geometry allow for integration with USB 2.0 devices, RF antennas, and are capable of transferring high bandwidth data streams such as the 221 Mbps required for VGA video. With the trend towards providing military officers with numerous electronic devices (i.e., heads up displays (HMD), GPS receiver, PDA, etc), POC's snap connector technology will greatly improve cable management resulting in a less cumbersome uniform. In addition, with electronic garments gaining widespread adoption in the commercial marketplace, POC's technology is finding applications in such areas as sporting good manufacturers and video game technology.

  14. Droplet snap-off in fluids with nematic liquid crystalline ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, A A; Lekkerkerker, H N W

    2012-01-01

    We studied the snap-off of nematic liquid crystalline droplets originating from the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the isotropic-nematic interface in suspensions of charged gibbsite in water and sterically stabilized gibbsite in bromotoluene. We found that droplet snap-off strongly depends on the director field structure inside the thinning neck, which is determined by the ratio of the splay elastic constant and the anchoring strength of the nematic phase to the droplet interface relative to the thickness of the thinning neck. If anchoring is weak, which is the case for aqueous gibbsite, this ratio is comparable to the thickness of the breaking thread. As a result, the thinning neck and pending drop have a uniform director field and droplet snap-off is determined by the viscous properties of the liquid crystal as well as by thermal fluctuations of the interface. On the other hand, in sterically stabilized gibbsite where anchoring is strong, this ratio is significantly smaller than the neck thickness. In this case, the neck has an escaped radial director field and the neck thinning is retarded close to snap-off due to a topological energy barrier involved in the separation of the droplet from the thread. (paper)

  15. 76 FR 35787 - Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-FDPIR Dual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...-Rulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov . Preferred method; follow the online instructions for... included in the record and will be made available to the public. Please be advised that the substance of... definition of trafficking in SNAP benefits is as follows: ``Trafficking means the buying or selling of...

  16. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  17. Concentration of Tobacco Advertisements at SNAP and WIC Stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Zhao, Qian-Wei; Szymkowiak, Dorota; Coffman, Ryan; Mallya, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco advertising is widespread in urban areas with racial/ethnic minority and low-income households that participate in nutrition assistance programs. Tobacco sales and advertising are linked to smoking behavior, which may complicate matters for low-income families struggling with disparate health risks relating to nutrition and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between the amount and type of tobacco advertisements on tobacco outlets and the outlet type and location. Methods By using field visits and online images, we inspected all licensed tobacco retail outlets in Philadelphia (N = 4,639). Point pattern analyses were used to identify significant clustering of tobacco outlets and outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the outlet’s acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the presence of tobacco advertisements. Results Tobacco outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements were significantly clustered in several high-poverty areas. Controlling for racial/ethnic and income composition and land use, SNAP and WIC vendors were significantly more likely to have exterior (SNAP odds ratio [OR], 2.11; WIC OR, 1.59) and interior (SNAP OR, 3.43; WIC OR, 1.69) tobacco advertisements than other types of tobacco outlets. Conclusion Tobacco advertising is widespread at retail outlets, particularly in low-income and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods. Policy makers may be able to mitigate the effects of this disparate exposure through tobacco retail licensing, local sign control rules, and SNAP and WIC authorization. PMID:25654220

  18. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Association of impulsivity and polymorphic microRNA-641 target sites in the SNAP-25 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Németh

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is a personality trait of high impact and is connected with several types of maladaptive behavior and psychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, as well as pathological gambling and mood disorders. Polymorphic variants of the SNAP-25 gene emerged as putative genetic components of impulsivity, as SNAP-25 protein plays an important role in the central nervous system, and its SNPs are associated with several psychiatric disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate if polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of the SNAP-25 gene are in association with normal variability of impulsivity. Genotypes and haplotypes of two polymorphisms in the promoter (rs6077690 and rs6039769 and two SNPs in the 3' UTR (rs3746544 and rs1051312 of the SNAP-25 gene were determined in a healthy Hungarian population (N = 901 using PCR-RFLP or real-time PCR in combination with sequence specific probes. Significant association was found between the T-T 3' UTR haplotype and impulsivity, whereas no association could be detected with genotypes or haplotypes of the promoter loci. According to sequence alignment, the polymorphisms in the 3' UTR of the gene alter the binding site of microRNA-641, which was analyzed by luciferase reporter system. It was observed that haplotypes altering one or two nucleotides in the binding site of the seed region of microRNA-641 significantly increased the amount of generated protein in vitro. These findings support the role of polymorphic SNAP-25 variants both at psychogenetic and molecular biological levels.

  20. Sugar Sugar – don’t be misled / laat je niet misleiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    NRC Handelsblad’s Saturday 25 November issue contains an entry of eleven pages entirely devoted to sugar. It discusses a broad range of topics related to sugar, including the role of sugar throughout the centuries, sugar consumption in the Netherlands, the amount of sugar in bread, and sugar

  1. Poor Dietary Guidelines Compliance among Low-Income Women Eligible for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinyoung Jun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed program aims to improve nutritional intakes of low-income individuals (<185% poverty threshold. The objective of this study was to describe the compliance with Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains among SNAP-Ed eligible (n = 3142 and ineligible (n = 3168 adult women (19–70 years nationwide and SNAP-Ed participating women in Indiana (n = 2623, using the NHANES 2007–2012 and Indiana SNAP-Ed survey data, respectively. Sensitivity analysis further stratified women by race/ethnicity and by current SNAP participation (<130% poverty threshold. Nationally, lower-income women were less likely to meet the fruit (21% vs. 25% and vegetable (11% vs. 19% guidelines than higher-income women, but did not differ on whole grains, which were ~5% regardless of income. The income differences in fruit and vegetable intakes were driven by non-Hispanic whites. Fewer SNAP-Ed-eligible U.S. women met fruit (21% vs. 55% and whole grain (4% vs. 18% but did not differ for vegetable recommendations (11% vs. 9% when compared to Indiana SNAP-Ed women. This same trend was observed among current SNAP participants. Different racial/ethnic group relationships with DGA compliance were found in Indiana compared to the nation. Nevertheless, most low-income women in the U.S. are at risk of not meeting DGA recommendations for fruits (79%, vegetables (89%, and whole grains (96%; SNAP-Ed participants in Indiana had higher compliance with DGA recommendations. Increased consumption of these three critical food groups would improve nutrient density, likely reduce calorie consumption by replacing high calorie choices, and improve fiber intakes.

  2. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth / For Kids / When Blood ... get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to kids ...

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  4. Propiedades antifúngicas diferenciadas de extractos vegetales como estrategia potencial para la prevención, manejo y control del "moho verde" (Trichoderma spp.). En el cultivo de los hongos comestibles (Lentinula, Pleurotus).

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Quintanar, Claudia Katia

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad, se utilizan agroquímicos como el benomil para el control de Trichoderma en el cultivo de hongos comestibles; sin embargo, su uso es cada vez más restringido por la sociedad debido a su potencial toxicidad y persistencia en el ambiente. Los alimentos producidos con productos naturales son cada vez más demandados, debido a esto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue el obtener extractos vegetales con propiedades antifúngicas diferenciadas para el control del “moho verde” (Trich...

  5. Aplicación de películas comestibles a base de quitosano y mucílago de nopal en fresa (Fragaria ananassa) almacenada en refrigeración

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Hernández, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar un estudio para evaluar la aplicación de películas comestibles a base de quitosano y mucílago de nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) en la calidad de fresas (Fragaria ananassa) variedad "Festival", almacenadas en recipientes plásticos, listas para consumir y almacenadas en refrigeración. La primera etapa del estudio consistió en estandarizar una técnica para la extracción de mucílago de nopal. Se evaluaron varias técnicas reportadas...

  6. Young People\\'s Relationships with Sugar Daddies and Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s relationships with sugar daddies and mummies. It considers definitional, measurement and analytical issues involved in assessing these relationships, their magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences. The review compares and ...

  7. Distal triceps injuries (including snapping triceps): A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttlewood, Kimberley; Beazley, James; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-06-18

    To review current literature on types of distal triceps injury and determine diagnosis and appropriate management. We performed a systematic review in PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE using the terms distal triceps tears and snapping triceps on the 10 th January 2017. We excluded all animal, review, foreign language and repeat papers. We reviewed all papers for relevance and of the papers left we were able to establish the types of distal triceps injury, how these injuries are diagnosed and investigated and the types of management of these injuries including surgical. The results are then presented in a review paper format. Three hundred and seventy-nine papers were identified of which 65 were relevant to distal triceps injuries. After exclusion we had 47 appropriate papers. The papers highlighted 2 main distal triceps injuries: Distal triceps tears and snapping triceps. Triceps tear are more common in males than females occurring in the 4 th -5 th decade of life and often due to a direct trauma but are also strongly associated with weightlifting and American football. The tears are diagnosed by history and clinically with a palpable gap. Diagnosis can be confirmed with the use of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment depends on type of tear. Partial tears can be treated conservatively with bracing and physio whereas acute tears need repair either open or arthroscopic using suture anchor or bone tunnel techniques with similar success. Chronic tears often need augmenting with tendon allograft or autograft. Snapping triceps are also seen more in men than women but at a mean age of 32 years. They are characterized by a snapping sensation mostly medially and can be associated with ulna nerve subluxation and ulna nerve symptoms. US is the diagnostic modality of choice due to its dynamic nature and to differentiate between snapping triceps tendon or ulna nerve. Treatment is conservative initially with activity avoidance and if that fails surgical

  8. A Simple Snap Oscillator with Coexisting Attractors, Its Time-Delayed Form, Physical Realization, and Communication Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Jafari, Sajad; Akgul, Akif; Karthikeyan, Anitha; Çiçek, Serdar; Shekofteh, Yasser

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report a novel chaotic snap oscillator with one nonlinear function. Dynamic analysis of the system shows the existence of bistability. To study the time delay effects on the proposed snap oscillator, we introduce multiple time delay in the fourth state equation. Investigation of dynamical properties of the time-delayed system shows that the snap oscillator exhibits the same multistable properties as the nondelayed system. The new multistable hyperjerk chaotic system has been tested in chaos shift keying and symmetric choc shift keying modulated communication designs for engineering applications. It has been determined that the symmetric chaos shift keying modulated communication system implemented with the new chaotic system is more successful than the chaos shift keying modulation for secure communication. Also, circuit implementation of the chaotic snap oscillator with tangent function is carried out showing its feasibility.

  9. Neutron flux calculations for the Rossendorf research reactor in (hex)- and (hex,z)-geometry using SNAP-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.; Findeisen, A.

    1986-04-01

    The multigroup neutron diffusion theory code SNAP-3D has been used to perform time independent neutron flux and power calculations of the 10 MW Rossendorf research reactor of the type WWR-SM. The report describes these calculations, as well as the actual reactor configuration, some details of the code SNAP-3D, and two- and three-dimensional reactor models. For evaluating the calculations some flux values and control rod worths have been compared with those of measurements. (author)

  10. Toward the topology design of mechanisms that exhibit snap-through behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, T. E.; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Topology optimization has proven to be a powerful method for the conceptual design of structures and mechanisms. In previously published work, we concentrated on the development of numerical methods that accommodate the finite deformation and incorporated these analyses into the topology...... optimization. We demonstrated by relatively straightforward transversely loaded clamped-clamped beam examples that topology optimization can be used to design structures that experience snap-through behavior. Here, we focus our attention on the design problem formulation where the goal is to develop a general...... approach for the design of mechanisms that experience more complex snap-through behavior. A multiphase design strategy is outlined, numerous significant challenges to this complex design process are discussed, and several examples are presented that demonstrate progress toward this goal. (C) 2004 Elsevier...

  11. Development of a mercury electromagnetic centrifugal pump for the SNAP-8 refractory boiler development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, R. A.; Schnacke, A. W.

    1974-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump, in which pressure is developed in mercury because of the interaction of the magnetic field and current which flows as a result of the voltage induced in the mercury contained in the pump duct, was developed for the SNAP-8 refractory boiler test facility. Pump performance results are presented for ten duct configurations and two stator sizes. These test results were used to design and fabricate a pump which met the SNAP-8 criteria of 530 psi developed pressure at 12,500 lb/hr. The pump operated continuously for over 13,000 hours without failure or performance degradation. Included in this report are descriptions of the experimental equipment, measurement techniques, all experimental data, and an analysis of the electrical losses in the pump.

  12. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  13. Sugar beet processing into alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Chistyakov, M P; Verzhbitskaya, V A; Tereshchenko, N R

    1963-08-28

    To produce a juice with high sugar content suitable for manufacture of alcohol, sugar beet is subjected to multistage pressing with an extraction following each pressing operation. The solvent in the first extraction is the juice obtained after the second pressing; hot water is used for the second extraction and vinasse for the third. The latter, after pressing, combined with molasses is used for manufacture of yeast.

  14. ENGAGING ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ROBOTICS THROUGH HUMMINGBIRD KIT WITH SNAP! VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Newley; Hasan Deniz; Erdogan Kaya; Ezgi Yesilyurt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hummingbird robotics kit with Snap! programing language was used to introduce basics of robotics to elementary and middle school students. Each student in the robotics program built a robot. The robot building process was open ended. Any specific robotics challenge was not provided to the students. Students’ knowledge about robots and programming language were measured through pre, post, and delayed posttests. Results indicated that students improv...

  15. Niobium tunnel junction fabrication using e-gun evaporation and SNAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlandt, J.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Schellingerhout, A. J. G.; Mooij, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    We have fabricated high quality small area Nb-Al-Al 2O 3-Nb junctions with SNAP, making use of e-beam evaporation in a 10 -5 Pa diffusion pumped vacuum system. Nominal dimensions of the junctions are 8x8, 4x4 and 2x2 μm 2. We obtain typical current densities of 5-6 × 10 +2A/cm 2 and (critical current) x (subgap resistance) products of 40 mV.

  16. SNAP Participants? Eating Patterns over the Benefit Month: A Time Use Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hamrick, Karen S.; Andrews, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Individuals receiving monthly benefits through the U.S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) often fall short of food at the end of the month and some report feelings of hunger. To investigate this situation, we used time diaries from the 2006-08 American Time Use Survey and Eating & Health Module to identify the timing of days where respondents reported no eating occurrences. Analysis includes descriptive statistics, a logit model, and a simulated benefit month. We found that SNA...

  17. SNAP dendrimers: multivalent protein display on dendrimer-like DNA for directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Miriam; Stein, Viktor; Hollfelder, Florian

    2011-09-19

    Display systems connect a protein with the DNA encoding it. Such systems (e.g., phage or ribosome display) have found widespread application in the directed evolution of protein binders and constitute a key element of the biotechnological toolkit. In this proof-of-concept study we describe the construction of a system that allows the display of multiple copies of a protein of interest in order to take advantage of avidity effects during affinity panning. To this end, dendrimer-like DNA is used as a scaffold with docking points that can join the coding DNA with multiple protein copies. Each DNA construct is compartmentalised in water-in-oil emulsion droplets. The corresponding protein is expressed, in vitro, inside the droplets as a SNAP-tag fusion. The covalent bond between DNA and the SNAP-tag is created by reaction with dendrimer-bound benzylguanine (BG). The ability to form dendrimer-like DNA straightforwardly from oligonucleotides bearing BG allowed the comparison of a series of templates differing in size, valency and position of BG. In model selections the most efficient constructs show recoveries of up to 0.86 % and up to 400-fold enrichments. The comparison of mono- and multivalent constructs suggests that the avidity effect enhances enrichment by up to fivefold and recovery by up to 25-fold. Our data establish a multivalent format for SNAP-display based on dendrimer-like DNA as the first in vitro display system with defined tailor-made valencies and explore a new application for DNA nanostructures. These data suggest that multivalent SNAP dendrimers have the potential to facilitate the selection of protein binders especially during early rounds of directed evolution, allowing a larger diversity of candidate binders to be recovered. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. On using the dynamic snap-through motion of MEMS initially curved microbeams for filtering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ouakad, Hassen M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations of the dynamics of micromachined shallow arches (initially curved microbeams) and the possibility of using their dynamic snap-through motion for filtering purposes are presented. The considered MEMS arches are actuated by a DC electrostatic load along with an AC harmonic load. Their dynamics is examined numerically using a Galerkin-based reduced-order model when excited near both their first and third natural frequencies. Several simulation results are presented demonstrating interesting jumps and dynamic snap-through behavior of the MEMS arches and their attractive features for uses as band-pass filters, such as their sharp roll-off from pass-bands to stop-bands and their flat response. Experimental work is conducted to test arches realized of curved polysilicon microbeams when excited by DC and AC loads. Experimental data of the micromachined curved beams are shown for the softening and hardening behavior near the first and third natural frequencies, respectively, as well as dynamic snap-through motion. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Morphological study on the olfactory systems of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the olfactory system of a semi-aquatic turtle, the snapping turtle, has been morphologically investigated by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and lectin histochemistry. The nasal cavity of snapping turtle was divided into the upper and lower chambers, lined by the sensory epithelium containing ciliated and non-ciliated olfactory receptor neurons, respectively. Each neuron expressed both Gαolf, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the odorant receptors, and Gαo, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the type 2 vomeronasal receptors. The axons originating from the upper chamber epithelium projected to the ventral part of the olfactory bulb, while those from the lower chamber epithelium to the dorsal part of the olfactory bulb. Despite the identical expression of G-protein α-subunits in the olfactory receptor neurons, these two projections were clearly distinguished from each other by the differential expression of glycoconjugates. In conclusion, these data indicate the presence of two types of olfactory systems in the snapping turtle. Topographic arrangement of the upper and lower chambers and lack of the associated glands in the lower chamber epithelium suggest their possible involvement in the detection of odorants: upper chamber epithelium in the air and the lower chamber epithelium in the water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the presence of plutonium in Madagascar following the SNAP-9A satellite failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C; Holm, E; Rabesiranana, N; Garcia-Tenorio, R; Chamizo, E

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu activity concentration and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratio in peat bogs sampled in 2012 from marshlands in central Madagascar. The purpose was to investigate the presence of plutonium isotopes, 238, 239, 240 Pu, from the 1964 satellite failure carrying a SNAP-9A radiothermal generator. With an average 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu activity ratio of 0.165 ± 0.02 (decay corrected to 1964), the peat bogs in Madagascar exhibit similar values as the ones found in the southeastern African continent, except they are one order of magnitude higher than expected (0.025) from global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratio showed a distinct decrease for layers dating back to the mid-1960s (down to 0.069 compared with an anticipated ratio of 0.17 for global fallout), indicating that the SNAP-9A failure also resulted in an elevated deposition of 239 Pu. The obtained results demonstrate that further Pu analysis in Madagascar and in southeastern continental Africa is necessary to fully account for the regional Pu deposition from the SNAP-9A event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of an integral field spectrograph for the SNAP satellite. Prototype, simulation and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeunier, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The SNAP (Supernovae/Acceleration Probe) project plans to measure very precisely the cosmological parameters and to determine the nature of dark energy by observations of type Ia supernovae and weak lensing. The SNAP instrument consists in a 2-meter telescope with a one square-degree imager and a spectrograph in the visible and infrared range. A dedicated optimized integral field spectrograph based on an imager slicer technology has been developed. To test and validate the performances, two approaches have been developed: a complete simulation of the complete instrument at the pixel level and the manufacturing and test of a spectrograph prototype operating at room temperature and in cryogenic environment. In this thesis we will test the optical and functional performances of the SNAP spectrograph: especially diffraction losses, stray-light and spectro-photometric calibration. We present an original approach for the spectro-photometric calibration adapted for the slicer and the optical performances resulting from the first measurement campaign in the visible range. (author) [fr

  2. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Rowe, Christopher L.; Eisenreich, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  3. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  4. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar... imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS...

  5. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  6. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  7. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  8. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  9. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  10. Utilização de revestimento comestível à base de quitosana para aumentar a vida útil de melão minimamente processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Costa Chevalier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Revestimentos comestíveis podem contribuir para aumentar a vida útil de frutas minimamente processadas reduzindo a umidade e a migração do soluto, a troca gasosa, respiração e velocidades de reação de oxidação, bem como reduzir distúrbios fisiológicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de quitosana associada com argila montmorillonita e óleo essencial de cravo, em relação às características físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e atributos sensoriais de melão (Cucumis melo L. minimamente processado quando armazenados a 4°C. Os melões foram lavados, descascados, retiradas as sementes, cortados em cubos, foi aplicado os revestimentos e em seguida os cubos foram armazenados em embalagem PET (politereftalato de etileno, por um período de 7 dias a 4±1°C. Realizaram-se análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, análises microbiológicas (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, bolores e leveduras e análise sensorial (textura, cor, aroma, avaliação global. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata no dia do processamento (dia 0 e após 1, 3, 5 e 7 dias de armazenamento. Pode-se concluir que os revestimentos que continham quitosana juntamente com argila montmorillonita e quitosana juntamente com montmorillonita e óleo essencial de cravo (T3 e T4 foram mais eficientes na conservação das características físico-químicas de melão minimamente processado quando comparados com a amostra controle e o tratamento que continha somente quitosana. O uso de quitosana isoladamente e juntamente com montmorillonita e óleo essencial de cravo foram eficientes para manter as características sensoriais e microbiológicas por mais tempo.

  11. A SNAP-tagged derivative of HIV-1--a versatile tool to study virus-cell interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Eckhardt

    Full Text Available Fluorescently labeled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV derivatives, combined with the use of advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, allow the direct visualization of dynamic events and individual steps in the viral life cycle. HIV proteins tagged with fluorescent proteins (FPs have been successfully used for live-cell imaging analyses of HIV-cell interactions. However, FPs display limitations with respect to their physicochemical properties, and their maturation kinetics. Furthermore, several independent FP-tagged constructs have to be cloned and characterized in order to obtain spectral variations suitable for multi-color imaging setups. In contrast, the so-called SNAP-tag represents a genetically encoded non-fluorescent tag which mediates specific covalent coupling to fluorescent substrate molecules in a self-labeling reaction. Fusion of the SNAP-tag to the protein of interest allows specific labeling of the fusion protein with a variety of synthetic dyes, thereby offering enhanced flexibility for fluorescence imaging approaches.Here we describe the construction and characterization of the HIV derivative HIV(SNAP, which carries the SNAP-tag as an additional domain within the viral structural polyprotein Gag. Introduction of the tag close to the C-terminus of the matrix domain of Gag did not interfere with particle assembly, release or proteolytic virus maturation. The modified virions were infectious and could be propagated in tissue culture, albeit with reduced replication capacity. Insertion of the SNAP domain within Gag allowed specific staining of the viral polyprotein in the context of virus producing cells using a SNAP reactive dye as well as the visualization of individual virions and viral budding sites by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Thus, HIV(SNAP represents a versatile tool which expands the possibilities for the analysis of HIV-cell interactions using live cell imaging and sub-diffraction fluorescence

  12. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  13. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  14. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  15. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closer to the levels seen in people without diabetes) your child's HbA1c, the better controlled the blood sugars have ... Diabetes Hypoglycemia Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Your Child's Diabetes Health Care Team Helping Kids Deal With Injections ...

  16. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  17. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  18. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan Conservação de pera Williams utilizando coberturas comestíveis compostas de alginato e carragena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessiane Silva de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os parâmetros físico-químicos da pera Williams, com e sem cobertura comestível, armazenada a 25 ºC por 15 dias. Foram testadas coberturas de alginato 2% e carragena 0,5%. As análises realizadas nas amostras foram: perda de massa fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza e cor. As coberturas comestíveis foram caracterizadas por meio das propriedades mecânicas, de permeabilidade, espessura e opacidade. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação de coberturas comestíveis com carragena e alginato em peras influenciou as características físico-químicas, como perda de massa fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, cor e firmeza das frutas. Entretanto, a cobertura de alginato mostrou os melhores resultados na conservação de peras. Filmes de alginato apresentaram menor permeabilidade ao vapor de água e maior tensão de ruptura, servindo como uma barreira protetora à fruta.

  19. Mercury concentrations in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) correlate with environmental and landscape characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Madeline A; Driscoll, Charles T; Schulz, Kimberly L; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited onto the landscape can be transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates up the aquatic food chain. Here, we report on Hg concentrations in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) across New York State, USA. The objectives of this study were to: (1) test which landscape, water, and biometric characteristics correlate with total Hg (THg) concentrations in snapping turtles; and (2) determine whether soft tissue THg concentrations correlate with scute (shell) concentrations. Forty-eight turtles were sampled non-lethally from ten lakes and wetlands across New York to observe patterns under a range of ecosystem variables and water chemistry conditions. THg concentrations ranged from 0.041 to 1.50 μg/g and 0.47 to 7.43 μg/g wet weight of muscle tissue and shell, respectively. The vast majority of mercury (~94%) was in the MeHg form. Sixty-one percent of turtle muscle samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) consumption advisory limit of 0.3 μg Hg/g for fish. Muscle THg concentrations were significantly correlated with sulfate in water and the maximum elevation of the watershed. Shell THg concentrations were significantly correlated with the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of water, the maximum elevation of the watershed, the percent open water in the watershed, the lake to watershed size, and various forms of atmospheric Hg deposition. Thus, our results demonstrate that THg concentrations in snapping turtles are spatially variable, frequently exceed advisory limits, and are significantly correlated with several landscape and water characteristics.

  20. Oviductal morphology in relation to hormonal levels in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkindi, A Y A; Mahmoud, I Y; Woller, M J; Plude, J L

    2006-02-01

    Microscopic and in situ visual observations were used to relate circulating hormone levels to morphological changes in the oviduct of the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina throughout the ovarian cycle. Increase in levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels coincide with an increase in number and growth of endometrial glands, luminal epithelial cells and secretory droplets throughout the oviduct. Testosterone and estradiol levels rose significantly (P < 0.05) after the May-June period and remained high throughout the rest of the summer. Progesterone levels remained stable throughout the summer, with a brief decline in July due to luteolysis. Hormonal values declined significantly (P < 0.001) at the end of the ovarian cycle in the fall. In situ visual observation of fresh oviducts at different stages of gravidity in recently ovulated turtles revealed that proteinaceous like components from the endometrial glands were released into the lumen to form fibers. The morphological features of the oviduct remained active throughout the summer months even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species which deposits all the eggs in late-May to mid-June. The high steroid levels correlate with and may be responsible for the secretory activity present throughout the summer and their decline correlates with change to low secretory activity in the fall. Calcium deposition accompanied by morphological changes in luminal cells are suggestive of secretory activity. In the egg-bearing turtles, uterine Ca2+ concentrations measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed significantly higher Ca2+ concentrations (P < 0.001) in eggs with soft shell than eggs without shell. There was a significant increase in calcium granules and proteinaceous fibers in luminal surface of the uterus during the period of eggshelling. This supports the fact that in the snapping turtle like in other reptiles, eggshelling process occurs in the uterus.

  1. Production components and yield of bushing snap bean in conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Renato Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Production systems influence crops differently, mainly in terms of yield. However, there are few studies that have evaluated different bushing snap bean genotypes in different systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the production components and yield of bushing snap beans in conventional and organic production systems. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in a factorial 6 × 2 arrangement, corresponding to six genotypes and two production systems, with three replications. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo®, Isla Macarrão Baixo®, Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo®, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli®, UEL 1, and UEL 2 were submitted to the following determinations: days to flowering; plant height; medium number of pods per plant; average pod mass, length, and diameter; and yield of commercial pods. A joint analysis of variance was conducted by applying the F test, with mean comparison performed using the Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Anthesis of the genotypes Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo, UEL 2, Isla Macarrão Baixo, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli is anticipated in the conventional production system. The genotype UEL 2 shows higher precocity in anthesis within the conventional system. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo and UEL 1 produce more pods per plant in the conventional system. In the organic system, the genotype Feltrin Macarrão Napoli produces double the number of pods per plant compared with Isla Manteiga Baixo. The organic system leads to greater plant height and average mass, length, and diameter of pods in relation to the conventional system. The commercial pod yield of bushing snap bean is not altered by differences in the production system or genotype.

  2. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  3. Smut resistance in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: From a mutation breeding programme with the popular early maturing sugar cane variety CoC 671 fourteen clones could be selected which were found to be free of smut infection after three successive years of artificial testing. Smut resistance was also found after in-vitro culture propagation of susceptible cultivars G80-454 and CoC 671. (author)

  4. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  5. An efficacy trial of brief lifestyle intervention delivered by generalist community nurses (CN SNAP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanaian Mahnaz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle risk factors, in particular smoking, nutrition, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity (SNAP are the main behavioural risk factors for chronic disease. Primary health care (PHC has been shown to be an effective setting to address lifestyle risk factors at the individual level. However much of the focus of research to date has been in general practice. Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nurses working in the PHC setting. Community health nurses are well placed to provide lifestyle intervention as they often see clients in their own homes over an extended period of time, providing the opportunity to offer intervention and enhance motivation through repeated contacts. The overall aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a brief lifestyle intervention delivered by community nurses in routine practice on changes in clients' SNAP risk factors. Methods/Design The trial uses a quasi-experimental design involving four generalist community nursing services in NSW Australia. Services have been randomly allocated to an 'early intervention' group or 'late intervention' (comparison group. 'Early intervention' sites are provided with training and support for nurses in identifying and offering brief lifestyle intervention for clients during routine consultations. 'Late intervention site' provide usual care and will be offered the study intervention following the final data collection point. A total of 720 generalist community nursing clients will be recruited at the time of referral from participating sites. Data collection consists of 1 telephone surveys with clients at baseline, three months and six months to examine change in SNAP risk factors and readiness to change 2 nurse survey at baseline, six and 12 months to examine changes in nurse confidence, attitudes and practices in the assessment and management of SNAP risk factors 3 semi-structured interviews/focus with nurses, managers and clients

  6. Modified snap-on attachment with ′O-ring′ for two piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gunasekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of near normal functions in patients who have been treated with hemimaxillectomy is generally difficult, in view of the restriction in mouth opening following healing of large surgical wound. Further, the extent and nature of the surgical defect differ from patient to patient. Thus, design of an obturator needs to be patient oriented. In this report, we describe a novel snap-on attachment with O-ring in a conventional two piece hollow bulb obturator for a 70-year-old male treated for carcinoma of the left maxilla and sinus.

  7. Helminth infracommunities of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from Westhampton Lake, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmer, Derek A; Platt, Thomas R

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of infracommunity similarity were examined for 27 male and 6 female common snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina serpentina, collected from Westhampton Lake on the campus of the University of Richmond in Richmond, Virginia, during the summer months of 1979 and 1980. Patterns of infracommunity similarity based on parasite abundance emphasized differences between years and between host sexes. Patterns of similarity based on parasite presence or absence emphasized differences among the months sampled. This suggests that there were consistent seasonal changes across both years in terms of which parasites were present, but that there were differences between years in terms of the abundances of those parasites.

  8. Comparison of CLASS and ITK-SNAP in segmentation of urinary bladder in CT urography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized method for bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) for computeraided diagnosis of bladder cancer. We have developed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) consisting of four stages: preprocessing and initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and post-processing. In case the bladder contains regions filled with intravenous (IV) contrast and without contrast, CLASS segments the noncontrast (NC) region and the contrast (C) filled region separately and conjoins the contours. In this study, we compared the performance of CLASS to ITK-SNAP 2.4, which is a publicly available software application for segmentation of structures in 3D medical images. ITK-SNAP performs segmentation by using the edge-based level set on preprocessed images. The level set were initialized by manually placing a sphere at the boundary between the C and NC parts of the bladders with C and NC regions, and in the middle of the bladders that had only C or NC region. Level set parameters and the number of iterations were chosen after experimentation with bladder cases. Segmentation performances were compared using 30 randomly selected bladders. 3D hand-segmented contours were obtained as reference standard, and computerized segmentation accuracy was evaluated in terms of the average volume intersection %, average % volume error, average absolute % volume error, average minimum distance, and average Jaccard index. For CLASS, the values for these performance metrics were 79.0±8.2%, 16.1±16.3%, 19.9±11.1%, 3.5±1.3 mm, 75.7±8.4%, respectively. For ITK-SNAP, the corresponding values were 78.8±8.2%, 8.3±33.1%, 24.2±23.7%, 5.2±2.6 mm, 71.0±15.4%, respectively. CLASS on average performed better and exhibited less variations than ITK-SNAP for bladder segmentation.

  9. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing allotment and the associated production history will be transferred from MDFC to WSG, effective... Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit... publish the modifications to the fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company...

  10. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  11. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  12. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth / For Teens / When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  13. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  14. A fluorogenic probe for SNAP-tagged plasma membrane proteins based on the solvatochromic molecule Nile Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Efthymia; Reymond, Luc; Umebayashi, Miwa; Hovius, Ruud; Riezman, Howard; Johnsson, Kai

    2014-03-21

    A fluorogenic probe for plasma membrane proteins based on the dye Nile Red and SNAP-tag is introduced. It takes advantage of Nile Red, a solvatochromic molecule highly fluorescent in an apolar environment, such as cellular membranes, but almost dark in a polar aqueous environment. The probe possesses a tuned affinity for membranes allowing its Nile Red moiety to insert into the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, becoming fluorescent, only after its conjugation to a SNAP-tagged plasma membrane protein. The fluorogenic character of the probe was demonstrated for different SNAP-tag fusion proteins, including the human insulin receptor. This work introduces a new approach for generating a powerful turn-on probe for "no-wash" labeling of plasma membrane proteins with numerous applications in bioimaging.

  15. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead contamination of the Big River in Missouri`s Old Lead Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmann, S.R.; Krajicek, J.J. [Southeast Missouri State Univ., Cape Girardeau, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-04-01

    The usefulness of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead (Pb) contamination of aquatic ecosystems was assessed. Thirty-seven snapping turtles were collected from three sites on the Big River, an Ozarkian stream contaminated with Pb mine tailings. Morphometric measurements, tissue Pb concentrations (muscle, blood, bone, carapace, brain, and liver), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD) activity, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, osmolality, and chloride ion content were measured. The data showed no effects of Pb contamination on capture success or morphological measurements. Tissue Pb concentrations were related to capture location. Hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma glucose, and plasma chloride ion content were not significantly different with respect to capture location. The {delta}-ALAD activity levels were decreased in turtles taken from contaminated sites. Lead levels in the Big River do not appear to be adversely affecting the snapping turtles of the river. Chelydra serpentina is a useful species for biomonitoring of Pb-contaminated aquatic environments.

  16. Estimação do período de carência de medicamento veterinário em produtos comestíveis (tecidos) de origem animal por modelos de regressão

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cristina Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Resíduos de medicamento veterinário podem estar presentes em produtos comestíveis de origem animal, tais como carne, leite, ovos e mel. Para assegurar que a concentração de tais resíduos não excede um limite considerado seguro (Limite Máximo de Resíduo - LMR) deve ser estabelecido o período de carência, que é o tempo que deve ser respeitado para que um animal possa ser enviado para o abate após ter recebido um dado medicamento veterinário. A estimação do período de carência usualmente é feita...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  18. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  19. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  20. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap-25) gene polymorphism frequency in fibromyalgia syndrome and relationship with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkarli, Ayse; Sengül, Cem; Tepeli, Emre; Balkarli, Huseyin; Cobankara, Veli

    2014-05-31

    SNAP-25 protein is contributory to plasma membrane and synaptic vesicle fusions that are critical points in neurotransmission. SNAP-25 gene is associated with behavioral symptoms, personality and psychological disorders. In addition, SNAP-25 protein can be related to different neurotransmitter functions due to its association with vesicle membrane transition and fusion. This is important because neurologic, cognitive, and psychologic disorders in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) can be related to this function. This relationship may be enlightening for etiopathogenesis of FMS and treatment approaches. We aimed to study a SNAP-25 gene polymorphism, which is related to many psychiatric diseases, and FMS association in this prospective study. We included 71 patients who were diagnosed according to new criteria and 57 matched healthy women in this study. Both groups were evaluated regarding age, height, weight, BMI, education level, marital and occupational status. A new diagnosis of FMS was made from criteria scoring, SF-36, Beck depression scale, and VAS that were applied to the patient group. SNAP-25 gene polymorphism and disease activity score correlations were compared. Mean age was 38±5,196 and 38.12±4.939 in patient and control groups, respectively (p=0.542). No significant difference was found between groups regarding age, height, weight, BMI, education level, marital or occupational status (p > 0.05). Ddel T/C genotype was significantly higher in the patient group (p = 0.009). MnlI gene polymorphism did not show a correlation with any score whereas a significant correlation was found between Ddel T/C genotype and Beck depression scale and VAS score (p < 0.05). FMS etiopathogenesis is not clearly known. Numerous neurologic, cognitive and psychological disorders were found during studies looking at cause. Our study showed increased SNAP-25 Ddel T/C genotype in FMS patients compared to the control group, which is related to behavioral symptoms, personality and

  1. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... imports. The OAQ was increased due to an increase in estimated sugar demand since the FY 2011 OAQ was... sugar imports, as required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations relative to their FY 2011 expected raw sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane...

  2. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  3. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  4. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  5. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  6. A Multilevel Functional Study of a SNAP25 At-Risk Variant for Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houenou, Josselin; Boisgontier, Jennifer; Henrion, Annabelle; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Dumaine, Anne; Linke, Julia; Wessa, Michèle; Daban, Claire; Hamdani, Nora; Delavest, Marine; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Lançon, Christophe; Schürhoff, Franck; Szöke, Andrei; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Barau, Caroline; Poupon, Cyril; Etain, Bruno; Leboyer, Marion; Jamain, Stéphane

    2017-10-25

    The synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP25 is a key player in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion and has been associated with multiple psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We recently identified a promoter variant in SNAP25 , rs6039769 , that is associated with early-onset bipolar disorder and a higher gene expression level in human prefrontal cortex. In the current study, we showed that this variant was associated both in males and females with schizophrenia in two independent cohorts. We then combined in vitro and in vivo approaches in humans to understand the functional impact of the at-risk allele. Thus, we showed in vitro that the rs6039769 C allele was sufficient to increase the SNAP25 transcription level. In a postmortem expression analysis of 33 individuals affected with schizophrenia and 30 unaffected control subjects, we showed that the SNAP25b / SNAP25a ratio was increased in schizophrenic patients carrying the rs6039769 at-risk allele. Last, using genetics imaging in a cohort of 71 subjects, we showed that male risk carriers had an increased amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity and a larger amygdala than non-risk carriers. The latter association has been replicated in an independent cohort of 121 independent subjects. Altogether, results from these multilevel functional studies are bringing strong evidence for the functional consequences of this allelic variation of SNAP25 on modulating the development and plasticity of the prefrontal-limbic network, which therefore may increase the vulnerability to both early-onset bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Functional characterization of disease-associated variants is a key challenge in understanding neuropsychiatric disorders and will open an avenue in the development of personalized treatments. Recent studies have accumulated evidence that the SNARE complex, and more specifically

  7. Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic...... stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected...

  8. Aplicação de revestimentos comestíveis em pêssego (Prunus persica Use of edible coating in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle de Assis Jacometti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de revestimentos comestíveis sobre a vida-de-prateleira, perda de massa, atividade metabólica e contaminação microbiológicas em pêssegos in natura. Foram utilizados pêssegos brancos cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 revestidos com soluções de 1% de goma gelana (p/v e 1% goma gelana + 1% sorbitol (p/v, embalados em caixas de papelão e armazenados a 10ºC / 80-85% UR por 16 dias. Frutos sem revestimento serviram de controle. Os revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não alteraram a atividade fisiológica dos pêssegos, medida através da taxa de respiração, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável ao longo da armazenagem. Não houve diferença entre as taxas de perda de massa, que ficaram em torno de 1,4g/100g.dia. Os revestimentos não alteraram a aceitação dos pêssegos em termos de sabor e em termos de aparência, o controle obteve notas superiores aos revestidos devida a opacidade que o revestimento conferiu aos frutos. Na contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e bolores e leveduras não houve diferença entre os tratamentos ao longo da armazenagem, mas em termos de microrganismos psicrotróficos os frutos revestidos apresentaram uma menor contagem em relação ao controle. Revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não aumentaram a vida-de-prateleira de pêssegos armazenados sob refrigeração devido à composição do revestimento, que não reduziu a perda de massa nem a atividade fisiológica dos frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of edible coatings on shelf-life, weight loss, metabolic activity and microbial contamination of peaches in natura. White peaches cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 were coated with 1% gelan gum (p/v and 1% gelan gum + 1% sorbitol (p/v solutions, packed in paperboard box and stored at 10ºC/80-85% RH during 16 days. No coated fruits served as control. Gelan and gelan

  9. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, P H; Sileo, L; Mulhern, B M

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the freshwater areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolatility, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicated physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  10. Diatoms on the carapace of common snapping turtles: Luticola spp. dominate despite spatial variation in assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly C Wu

    Full Text Available Filamentous algae are often visible on the carapaces of freshwater turtles and these algae are dominated by a few species with varying geographic distributions. Compared to filamentous algae, little is known about the much more speciose microalgae on turtles. Our objectives were to compare the diatom flora on a single turtle species (the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina across part of its range to examine spatial patterns and determine whether specific diatom taxa were consistently associated with turtles (as occurs in the filamentous alga Basicladia spp.. Using preserved turtle specimens from museums, we systematically sampled diatoms on the carapaces of 25 snapping turtles across five states. The diverse diatom assemblages formed two groups-the southern Oklahoma group and the northern Illinois/Wisconsin/New York group, with Arkansas not differing from either group. Of the six diatom species found in all five states, four species are widespread, whereas Luticola cf. goeppertiana and L. cf. mutica are undescribed species, known only from turtles in our study. L. cf. goeppertiana comprised 83% of the diatom abundance on Oklahoma turtles and was relatively more abundant on southern turtles (Oklahoma and Arkansas than on northern turtles (where mean abundance/state was > 10%. L. cf. mutica was the most abundant species (40% on New York turtles. Some Luticola species are apparently turtle associates and results support a pattern of spatial variation in Luticola species, similar to that in Basicladia. Using museum specimens is an efficient and effective method to study the distribution of micro-epibionts.

  11. High levels of maternally transferred mercury disrupt magnetic responses of snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Coe, Brittney Hopkins; Youmans, Paul W; Hopkins, William A; Phillips, John B

    2017-09-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is involved in spatial behaviours ranging from long-distance migration to non-goal directed behaviours, such as spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA). Mercury is a harmful pollutant most often generated from anthropogenic sources that can bio-accumulate in animal tissue over a lifetime. We compared SMA of hatchling snapping turtles from mothers captured at reference (i.e., low mercury) and mercury contaminated sites. Reference turtles showed radio frequency-dependent SMA along the north-south axis, consistent with previous studies of SMA, while turtles with high levels of maternally inherited mercury failed to show consistent magnetic alignment. In contrast, there was no difference between reference and mercury exposed turtles on standard performance measures. The magnetic field plays an important role in animal orientation behaviour and may also help to integrate spatial information from a variety of sensory modalities. As a consequence, mercury may compromise the performance of turtles in a wide variety of spatial tasks. Future research is needed to determine the threshold for mercury effects on snapping turtles, whether mercury exposure compromises spatial behaviour of adult turtles, and whether mercury has a direct effect on the magnetoreception mechanism(s) that mediate SMA or a more general effect on the nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  13. Temperature effects on snapping performance in the common snapper Chelydra serpentina (Reptilia, Testudines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervust, Bart; Brecko, Jonathan; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the effect of temperature on whole-animal performance traits other than locomotion are rare. Here we investigate the effects of temperature on the performance of the turtle feeding apparatus in a defensive context. We measured bite force and the kinematics of snapping in the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) over a wide range of body temperatures. Bite force performance was thermally insensitive over the broad range of temperatures typically experienced by these turtles in nature. In contrast, neck extension (velocity, acceleration, and deceleration) and jaw movements (velocity, acceleration, and deceleration) showed clear temperature dependence with peak acceleration and deceleration capacity increasing with increasing temperatures. Our results regarding the temperature dependence of defensive behavior are reflected by the ecology and overall behavior of this species. These data illustrate the necessity for carefully controlling T(b) when carrying out behavioral and functional studies on turtles as temperature affects the velocity, acceleration, and deceleration of jaw and neck extension movements. More generally, these data add to the limited but increasing number of studies showing that temperature may have important effects on feeding and defensive performance in ectotherms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine on gonadal development of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Martin, Pamela A; Fernie, Kimberly J; Park, Brad J; Mayne, Gregory

    2006-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been suspected of affecting sexual development by inducing aromatase, resulting in the increased conversion of androgens to estrogens. We used snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), a species in which sex is dependent on the production of estrogen through aromatase activity in a temperature-dependent manner, to investigate if environmentally relevant exposures to atrazine affected gonadal development. Eggs were incubated in soil to which atrazine was applied at a typical field application rate (3.1 L/ha), 10-fold this rate (31 L/ha), and a control rate (no atrazine) for the duration of embryonic development. The incubation temperature (25 degrees C) was selected to produce only males. Although some males with testicular oocytes and females were produced in the atrazine-treated groups (3.3-3.7%) but not in the control group, no statistical differences were found among treatments. Furthermore, snapping turtle eggs collected from natural nests in a corn field were incubated at the pivotal temperature (27.5 degrees C) at which both males and females normally would be produced, and some males had oocytes in the testes (15.4%). The presence of low numbers of males with oocytes may be a natural phenomenon, and we have limited evidence to suggest that the presence of normal males with oocytes may represent a feminizing effect of atrazine. Histological examination of the thyroid gland revealed no effect on thyroid morphology.

  15. Diatoms on the carapace of common snapping turtles: Luticola spp. dominate despite spatial variation in assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shelly C.; Bergey, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous algae are often visible on the carapaces of freshwater turtles and these algae are dominated by a few species with varying geographic distributions. Compared to filamentous algae, little is known about the much more speciose microalgae on turtles. Our objectives were to compare the diatom flora on a single turtle species (the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina) across part of its range to examine spatial patterns and determine whether specific diatom taxa were consistently associated with turtles (as occurs in the filamentous alga Basicladia spp.). Using preserved turtle specimens from museums, we systematically sampled diatoms on the carapaces of 25 snapping turtles across five states. The diverse diatom assemblages formed two groups–the southern Oklahoma group and the northern Illinois/Wisconsin/New York group, with Arkansas not differing from either group. Of the six diatom species found in all five states, four species are widespread, whereas Luticola cf. goeppertiana and L. cf. mutica are undescribed species, known only from turtles in our study. L. cf. goeppertiana comprised 83% of the diatom abundance on Oklahoma turtles and was relatively more abundant on southern turtles (Oklahoma and Arkansas) than on northern turtles (where mean abundance/state was > 10%). L. cf. mutica was the most abundant species (40%) on New York turtles. Some Luticola species are apparently turtle associates and results support a pattern of spatial variation in Luticola species, similar to that in Basicladia. Using museum specimens is an efficient and effective method to study the distribution of micro-epibionts. PMID:28192469

  16. Critical Windows of Cardiovascular Susceptibility to Developmental Hypoxia in Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin B; Kohl, Zachary F; Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions fluctuate dramatically in some reptilian nests. However, critical windows of environmental sensitivity for cardiovascular development have not been identified. Continuous developmental hypoxia has been shown to alter cardiovascular form and function in embryonic snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), and we used this species to identify critical periods during which hypoxia modifies the cardiovascular phenotype. We hypothesized that incubation in 10% O2 during specific developmental periods would have differential effects on the cardiovascular system versus overall somatic growth. Two critical windows were identified with 10% O2 from 50% to 70% of incubation, resulting in relative heart enlargement, either via preservation of or preferential growth of this tissue, while exposure to 10% O2 from 20% to 70% of incubation resulted in a reduction in arterial pressure. The deleterious or advantageous aspects of these embryonic phenotypes in posthatching snapping turtles have yet to be explored. However, identification of these critical windows has provided insight into how the developmental environment alters the phenotype of reptiles and will also be pivotal in understanding its impact on the fitness of egg-laying reptiles.

  17. Secretory proteins in the reproductive tract of the snapping turtle, Chelhydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, I Y; Paulson, J R; Dudley, M; Patzlaff, J S; Al-Kindi, A Y A

    2004-12-01

    SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate the secretory proteins produced by the epithelial and endometrial glands of the uterine tube and uterus in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina. The proteins were analyzed throughout the phases of the reproductive cycle from May to August, including preovulatory, ovulatory, postovulatory or luteal, and vitellogenic phases. The pattern of secretory proteins is quite uniform along the length of the uterine tube, and the same is true of the uterus, but the patterns for uterine tube and uterus are clearly different. We identify 13 major proteins in C. serpentina egg albumen. Bands co-migrating with 11 of these are found in the uterine tube, but at most 4 are found in the uterus, suggesting that the majority of the albumen proteins are most likely secreted in the uterine tube, not in the uterus. Although some of the egg albumen proteins are present in the uterine tube only at the time of ovulation, most of the bands corresponding to albumen proteins are present throughout the breeding season even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species. These results suggest that the glandular secretory phase in the uterine tube is active and quite homogeneous in function regardless of location or phase of the reproductive cycle.

  18. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endoscopically assisted resection of a scapular osteochondroma causing snapping scapula syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futani Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor in the scapula. This condition might lead to snapping scapula syndrome, which is characterized by painful, audible, and/or palpable abnormal scapulothoracic motion. In the present case, this syndrome was successfully treated by use of endoscopically assisted resection of the osteochondroma. Case presentation A 41-year-old man had a tolerable pain in his scapular region over a 10 years' period. The pain developed gradually with shoulder motion, in particular with golf swing since he was aiming a professional golf player career. On physical examination, "clunking" was noted once from 90 degrees of abduction to 180 degrees of shoulder motion. A trans-scapular roentgenogram and computed tomography images revealed an osteochondroma located at the anterior and inferior aspect of the scapula. Removal of the tumor was performed by the use of endoscopically assisted resection. One portal was made at the lateral border of the scapula to introduce a 2.7-mm-diameter, 30 degrees Hopkins telescope. The tumor was resected in a piece-by-piece manner by the use of graspers through the same portal. Immediately after the operation pain relief was obtained, and the "clunking" disappeared. CT images showed complete tumor resection. The patient could start playing golf one week after the surgery. Conclusion Endoscopically assisted resection of osteochondroma of the scapula provides a feasible technique to treat snapping scapula syndrome and obtain early functional recovery with a short hospital stay and cosmetic advantage.

  20. Identifying mechanisms that structure ecological communities by snapping model parameters to empirically observed tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Clark, Adam; Lehman, Clarence; Tilman, David

    2018-04-01

    Theory predicts that interspecific tradeoffs are primary determinants of coexistence and community composition. Using information from empirically observed tradeoffs to augment the parametrisation of mechanism-based models should therefore improve model predictions, provided that tradeoffs and mechanisms are chosen correctly. We developed and tested such a model for 35 grassland plant species using monoculture measurements of three species characteristics related to nitrogen uptake and retention, which previous experiments indicate as important at our site. Matching classical theoretical expectations, these characteristics defined a distinct tradeoff surface, and models parameterised with these characteristics closely matched observations from experimental multi-species mixtures. Importantly, predictions improved significantly when we incorporated information from tradeoffs by 'snapping' characteristics to the nearest location on the tradeoff surface, suggesting that the tradeoffs and mechanisms we identify are important determinants of local community structure. This 'snapping' method could therefore constitute a broadly applicable test for identifying influential tradeoffs and mechanisms. © 2018 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Towards Lego Snapping; Integration of Carbon Nanotubes and Few-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Mohsen; Boland, Mathias; Farrokhi, M. Javad; Strachan, Douglas

    Integration of semiconducting, conducting, and insulating nanomaterials into precisely aligned complicated systems is one of the main challenges to the ultimate size scaling of electronic devices, which is a key goal in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This integration could be made more effective through controlled alignment of the crystallographic lattices of the nanoscale components. Of the vast number of materials of atomically-thin materials, two of the sp2 bonded carbon structures, graphene and carbon nanotubes, are ideal candidates for this type of application since they are built from the same backbone carbon lattice. Here we report carbon nanotube and graphene hybrid nanostructures fabricated through their catalytic synthesis and etching. The growth formations we have investigated through various high-resolution microscopy techniques provide evidence of lego-snapped interfaces between nanotubes and graphene into device-relevant orientations. We will finish with a discussion of the various size and energy regimes relevant to these lego-snapped interfaces and their implications on developing these integrated formations.

  2. APPRAISAL OF THE SNAP MODEL FOR PREDICTING NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN TROPICAL SOILS UNDER EUCALYPTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip James Smethurst

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Nitrogen Availability Predictor (SNAP model predicts daily and annual rates of net N mineralization (NNM based on daily weather measurements, daily predictions of soil water and soil temperature, and on temperature and moisture modifiers obtained during aerobic incubation (basal rate. The model was based on in situ measurements of NNM in Australian soils under temperate climate. The purpose of this study was to assess this model for use in tropical soils under eucalyptus plantations in São Paulo State, Brazil. Based on field incubations for one month in three, NNM rates were measured at 11 sites (0-20 cm layer for 21 months. The basal rate was determined in in situ incubations during moist and warm periods (January to March. Annual rates of 150-350 kg ha-1 yr-1 NNM predicted by the SNAP model were reasonably accurate (R2 = 0.84. In other periods, at lower moisture and temperature, NNM rates were overestimated. Therefore, if used carefully, the model can provide adequate predictions of annual NNM and may be useful in practical applications. For NNM predictions for shorter periods than a year or under suboptimal incubation conditions, the temperature and moisture modifiers need to be recalibrated for tropical conditions.

  3. Determinatio of Psychometrics Index of SNAP-IV Rating Scale in Parents Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: SNAP-IV rating scale to diagnosis Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD developed by Swanson, Nolan and Pelham. The aim of this study is determination of psychometrics specifications of this scale. Materials & Methods: This Descriptive research is a methodological, applied and validity assessment study. One thousand students at 7 to 12 age of primary school in Tehran city were selected by cluster sampling. Then the students mothers was asked to complete rating scale to consider behavior of their children.30 staff members of sample group were retest after one mounts. Diagnostic interview was administered at 36 members of sample group. Data were analyzed by using pearsonian correlation coefficient, Kolmogorof – Smirnoff and Behrens – Fisher T test. Results: Criterion validity was 48%, factor analysis was detected 3 factors that explain 56% of the total variance. Reliability coefficient was 82% . internal consistency coefficient was 90% and split –half coefficient was 76%, Cut-off point in scale and subscales was 1.57,1.47 and 1.9 respectively. Conclusion: The SNAP-IV Rating scales have fit psychometrics specifications. Therefore, it is useable in various diagnostic and therapeutic conditioning.

  4. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  5. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  6. Water Integration In Sugar Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Hatim Balla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sugar industry uses much water and produces a significant amount of wastewater for disposal. Efficient utilization of water is vital in the process industries not only to reduce the cost of the supply and discharge of freshwater associated with the process but also to minimize environmental problems associated with the use and discharge of water. This paper presents the analysis of fresh water used and wastewater discharged in a sugar manufacturing process. In order to reduce the load of the cooling water system. The system was modified to an open recirculation cooling water system. Also the excess condensate internal water and the discharged water from cooling water system were analyzed and optimized using pinch analysis and mathematical optimization techniques by Resource Conversation Networks spreadsheet software.

  7. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  9. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  10. Evaluación de déficit de atención con hiperactividad: la escala SNAP IV adaptada a la Argentina Assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity: SNAP-IV scale adapted to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Grañana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Valorar la utilidad de la escala SNAP IV como instrumento de detección de trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH en niños argentinos de 4 a 14 años de edad. MÉTODOS: Se adaptó y se administró la escala SNAP IV a un grupo de 1 230 escolares de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se determinó el diagnóstico con el control clínico de acuerdo a los criterios del Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales, 4.ª edición. Se determinaron la sensibilidad y especificidad así como los puntajes de corte para la escala SNAP IV en la población estudiada. RESULTADOS: Se estableció el puntaje en la escala SNAP IV que tuviera la mejor correlación entre sensibilidad y especificidad para determinar los casos verdaderos positivos que realmente tuvieran un diagnóstico clínico. Los puntajes de corte obtenidos fueron: un índice de 1,66 (15/27 puntos para la subescala déficit de atención y de 1,77 (16/27 puntos para hiperactividadimpulsividad en la población estudiada. CONCLUSIONES: La escala SNAP IV para detección de TDAH se considera válida en el caso de la población estudiada, siempre y cuando se modifiquen los puntajes de corte para obtener la mejor relación sensibilidad/especificidad, con base en las particularidades culturales y socioeconómicas de dicha población.OBJECTIVE: Assess the usefulness of the SNAP-IV scale as an instrument for detecting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in Argentine children aged 4 to 14 years. METHODS: The SNAP-IV scale was adapted and administered to a group of 1 230 schoolchildren in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The diagnosis was determined with the clinical control, based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. The sensitivity and specificity, as well as the cut-off scores for the SNAP-IV scale in the population studied, were determined. RESULTS: The score on the SNAP-IV scale

  11. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  12. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY... August 17, 2010 concerning Fiscal Year 2011 tariff-rate quota allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the effective date of that notice to...

  13. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  14. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organization of an interphase system for the coupling of WINS-D4 and SNAP-3D programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias Suarez, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this report a modular system developed for the CC-1 critical assembly's physical calculation is described. It was based upon the WINS-D4 and SNAP-3D codes, which are coupled by means of an interphase module and a groups diffusion cross sections library

  16. Reproductive physiology in eastern snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) exposed to runoff from a concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eastern snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is widely distributed throughout the eastern and central U.S. and may be a useful model organism to study land use impacts on water quality. We compared the reproductive condition of C. serpentina from a pond impacted by runoff fr...

  17. A Study of Structural Stress Technique for Fracture Prediction of an Auto-Mobile Clutch Snap-Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Myeong, Man Sik; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2016-01-01

    The endurance reliability assessment of a highly complex mechanism is generally predicted by the fatigue life based on simple stress analysis. This study discusses various fatigue life assessment techniques for an automobile clutch snap ring. Finite element analyses were conducted to determine the structural stress on the snap ring. Structural stress that is insensitive in regards to the mesh size and type definition is presented in this study. The structural stress definition is consistent with elementary structural mechanics theory and provides an effective measure of a stress state that pertains to fatigue behavior of welded joints in the form of both membrane and bending components. Numerical procedures for both solid models and shell or plate element models are presented to demonstrate the mesh-size insensitivity when extracting the structural stress parameters. Conventional finite element models can be used with the structural stress calculations as a post-processing procedure. The two major implications from this research were: (a) structural stresses pertaining to fatigue behavior can be consistently calculated in a mesh-insensitive manner regardless of the types of finite element models; and (b) by comparing with the clutch snap-ring fatigue test data, we should predict the fatigue fractures of an automobile clutch snap ring using this method

  18. The mobility of food retailers: How proximity to SNAP authorized food retailers changed in Atlanta during the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry; Bagwell-Adams, Grace; Shannon, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun; Wei, Yangjiaxin

    2018-07-01

    Retailer mobility, defined as the shifting geographic patterns of retail locations over time, is a significant but understudied factor shaping neighborhood food environments. Our research addresses this gap by analyzing changes in proximity to SNAP authorized chain retailers in the Atlanta urban area using yearly data from 2008 to 2013. We identify six demographically similar geographic clusters of census tracts in our study area based on race and economic variables. We use these clusters in exploratory data analysis to identify how proximity to the twenty largest retail food chains changed during this period. We then use fixed effects models to assess how changing store proximity is associated with race, income, participation in SNAP, and population density. Our results show clear differences in geographic distribution between store categories, but also notable variation within each category. Increasing SNAP enrollment predicted decreased distances to almost all small retailers but increased distances to many large retailers. Our chain-focused analysis underscores the responsiveness of small retailers to changes in neighborhood SNAP participation and the value of tracking chain expansion and contraction in markets across time. Better understanding of retailer mobility and the forces that drive it can be a productive avenue for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synaptosomal Protein of 25 kDa (Snap25 Polymorphisms Associated with Glycemic Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible role of Snap25 polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM was evaluated by analyzing three SNPs within intron 1 in a region known to affect the gene expression in vitro. Genomic DNA from 1019 Saudi individuals (489 confirmed T2DM and 530 controls was genotyped for SNPs rs363039, rs363043, and rs363050 in Snap25 using the TaqMan Genotyping Assay. Significantly higher levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c were detected in T2DM patients carrying the rs363050 (AG/GG genotypes compared to the (AA genotype (f=4.41, df=1, and p=0.03 and f=5.31, df=1, and p=0.03, resp.. In these same patients, insulin levels were significantly decreased compared to the (AA individuals (f=7.29, df=1, and p=0.009. Significant associations were detected between rs363050 (AG/GG genotypes and increasing fasting glucose levels (p=0.01 and OR: 1.05, HbA1c levels (OR: 5.06 and p=0.02, and lower insulinemia (p=0.03 and OR: 0.95 in T2DM patients. The minor Snap25 rs363050 (G allele, which results in a reduced expression of Snap25, is associated with altered glycemic parameters in T2DM possibly because of reduced functionality in the exocytotic machinery leading to suboptimal release of insulin.

  20. User’s guide to SNAP for ArcGIS® :ArcGIS interface for scheduling and network analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Dennis Dykstra; Fred Bower; Stephen O’Brien; Richard Abt; John. and Sessions

    2012-01-01

    This document introduces a computer software named SNAP for ArcGIS® , which has been developed to streamline scheduling and transportation planning for timber harvest areas. Using modern optimization techniques, it can be used to spatially schedule timber harvest with consideration of harvesting costs, multiple products, alternative...

  1. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar addiction: the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwater, Margaret L; Fletcher, Paul C; Ziauddeen, Hisham

    2016-11-01

    As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying 'food addiction' (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addiction. We reviewed the literature on food and sugar addiction and considered the evidence suggesting the addictiveness of highly processed foods, particularly those with high sugar content. We then examined the addictive potential of sugar by contrasting evidence from the animal and human neuroscience literature on drug and sugar addiction. We find little evidence to support sugar addiction in humans, and findings from the animal literature suggest that addiction-like behaviours, such as bingeing, occur only in the context of intermittent access to sugar. These behaviours likely arise from intermittent access to sweet tasting or highly palatable foods, not the neurochemical effects of sugar. Given the lack of evidence supporting it, we argue against a premature incorporation of sugar addiction into the scientific literature and public policy recommendations.

  3. Restructuring a State Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Program: Implications of a Local Health Department Model for SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Helen W; Backman, Desiree; Kizer, Kenneth W

    The US Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) funds state programs to improve nutrition and physical activity in low-income populations through its Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention grants. States vary in how they manage and structure these programs. California substantially restructured its program in 2012 to universally position local health departments (LHDs) as the programmatic lead in all jurisdictions. This study sought to determine whether California's reorganization aligned with desirable attributes of decentralized public management. This study conducted 40 in person, semistructured interviews with 57 local, state, and federal SNAP-Ed stakeholders between October 2014 and March 2015. Local respondents represented 15 counties in all 7 of California's SNAP-Ed regions. We identified 3 common themes that outlined advantages or disadvantages of local public management, and we further defined subthemes within: (1) coordination and communication (within local jurisdictions, across regions, between local and state), (2) efficiency (administrative, fiscal, program), and (3) quality (innovation, skills). We conducted qualitative content analysis to evaluate how respondents characterized the California experience for each theme, identifying positive and negative experiences. California's LHD model offers some distinct advantages, but the model does not exhibit all the advantages of decentralized public management. Strategic planning, partnerships, subcontracting, and fiscal oversight are closer to communities than previously. However, administrative burden remains high and LHDs are limited in their ability to customize programs on the basis of community needs because of state and federal constraints. California's use of a universal LHD model for SNAP-Ed is novel. Recent federal SNAP-Ed changes present an opportunity for other states to consider this structure. Employing small-scale approaches initially (eg

  4. Redescription of Dracunculus globocephalus Mackin, 1927 (Nematoda: Dracunculidae), a parasite of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Little, M D

    2004-12-01

    Dracunculus globocephalus Mackin, 1927 (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) is redescribed from specimens collected from the mesentery of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina (L.), in Louisiana, USA. The use of scanning electron microscopy, applied for the first time in this species, made it possible to study details in the structure of the cephalic end and the arrangement of male caudal papillae that are difficult to observe under the light microscope. This species markedly differs from all other species of Dracunculus in having the spicules greatly unequal in size and shape, in the absence of a gubernaculum, and in the disposition of male caudal papillae. The validity of D. globocephalus is confirmed, but the above mentioned morphological differences are not sufficient for listing it in a separate genus. This is the first record of D. globocephalus in Louisiana.

  5. Effects of Management Practices on Meloidogyne incognita and Snap Bean Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, D A; Johnson, A W

    1982-01-01

    Phenamiphos applied at 6.7 kg ai/ha through a solid set or a center pivot irrigation system with 28 mm of water effectively controlled root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, and resulted in greater snap bean growth and yields irrespective of growing season, tillage method, or cover crop system. The percentage yield increases attributed to this method of M. incognita control over nontreated controls were 45% in the spring crop, and 90% and 409% in the fall crops following winter rye and fallow, respectively. Root galling was not affected by tillage systems or cover crop, but disk tillage resulted in over 50% reduction in bean yield compared with yields from the subsoil-bed tillage system.

  6. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347 also completed the Big Five Inventory-Adolescent, 144 provided 2-week retest data, and 128 others completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. Outpatient adolescents (N = 103) completed the SNAP-Y, and 97 also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The SNAP-Y demonstrated strong psychometric properties, and structural, convergent, discriminant, and external validities. Consistent with the continuity of personality, results paralleled those in adult and college samples using the adult Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Second Edition (SNAP-2), from which the SNAP-Y derives and which has established validity in personality-trait assessment across the normal-abnormal continuum. The SNAP-Y thus provides a new, clinically useful instrument to assess personality traits and personality pathology in adolescents.

  7. The unhealthy food environment does not modify the association between obesity and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Harrison, Gail G; Wang, May C; Seto, Edmund Y W; Pebley, Anne R

    2017-01-14

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but not much is known about the mechanisms behind this association. The objective of this study was to determine if the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets modifies the association between obesity and participation in SNAP. Data comes from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey; included are a subsample of adults (18+ years) who were SNAP participants or eligible non-participants (N = 1,176). We carried out multilevel analyses with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m 2 ), SNAP participation, and the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets as dependent, independent and modifying variables, respectively, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, working status, mental health, and neighborhood poverty. SNAP participants had double the odds of obesity compared to eligible non-participants (OR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.44-2.83). However, the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets did not modify this association. SNAP participation was associated with higher odds of obesity in our primarily Hispanic sample in Los Angeles County, with no effect modification found for the unhealthy portion of the food environment. More research is needed with additional food environment measures to confirm our null findings. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking SNAP participation and obesity as they remain unclear.

  8. Embryonic hypoxia programmes postprandial cardiovascular function in adult common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Oliver H; Conner, Justin; Nelson, Derek; Crossley, Janna; Crossley, Dane A

    2017-07-15

    Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a potent stressor during embryonic development, altering the trajectory of trait maturation and organismal phenotype. We previously documented that chronic embryonic hypoxia has a lasting impact on the metabolic response to feeding in juvenile snapping turtles ( Chelydra serpentina ). Turtles exposed to hypoxia as embryos [10% O 2 (H10)] exhibited an earlier and increased peak postprandial oxygen consumption rate, compared with control turtles [21% O 2 (N21)]. In the current study, we measured central blood flow patterns to determine whether the elevated postprandial metabolic response in H10 turtles is linked to lasting impacts on convective transport. Five years after hatching, turtles were instrumented to quantify systemic ([Formula: see text]) and pulmonary ([Formula: see text]) blood flows and heart rate ( f H ) before and after a ∼5% body mass meal. In adult N21 and H10 turtles, f H was increased significantly by feeding. Although total stroke volume ( V S,tot ) remained at fasted values, this tachycardia contributed to an elevation in total cardiac output ([Formula: see text]). However, there was a postprandial reduction in a net left-right (L-R) shunt in N21 snapping turtles only. Relative to N21 turtles, H10 animals exhibited higher [Formula: see text] due to increased blood flow through the right systemic outflow vessels of the heart. This effect of hypoxic embryonic development, reducing a net L-R cardiac shunt, may support the increased postprandial metabolic rate we previously reported in H10 turtles, and is further demonstration of adult reptile cardiovascular physiology being programmed by embryonic hypoxia. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Magnetoelastic bending and snapping of ferromagnetic plates in oblique magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Youhe

    1995-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel has been considered for structural components such as first walls and blankets of fusion power reactors because the material shows low rates of irradiation swelling. Since it is magnetizable, the magnetoelastic interaction between magnetic field and deformation of the structures in a fusion reactor is so strong that their safety is of concern due to the magnetoelastic bending, buckling and magnetic damping, etc. Basic research of the magnetoelastic characteristics of ferromagnetic plate has been paid special attention by researchers. In this paper, the magnetoelastic bending and snapping are studied for a ferromagnetic plate in an oblique magnetic field. The theoretical model is based on the variational principle where the functional is employed as real total energy in the system including external work. The obtained expression of magnetic force on the plate is the same as that derived from the dipole model when the total magnetic field in the ferromagnetic medium is considered. In order to effectively solve the nonlinearly coupled interaction problem between magnetic field and mechanical deformation, a numerical program combining the finite element method for analyzing the magnetic field with the finite difference technique for finding out the bending deformation of the plate is employed to obtain the solution of magnetoelastic bending of a soft ferromagnetic plate. The numerical calculations are carried out for the typical example of a ferromagnetic cantilevered beam-plate in an oblique magnetic field. From the bending curves, that is the tip deflection versus applied magnetic fields, the critical magnetic field for the magnetoelastic snapping is predicted by the Southwell plot. The theoretical predictions show that the critical magnetic field decreases with the increase in incident angle of the oblique magnetic field. By the effect of incident angle on the magnetic buckling, the discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data can

  10. The establishment of MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan nuclear power plant for Ultimate Response Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Sheng, E-mail: wshsu@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Yu, E-mail: s101013702@m101.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong-Rong, E-mail: jongrongwang@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Ting-Yi, E-mail: minired1119@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Te-Chuan, E-mail: tcwang@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C., 1000, Wenhua Road Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jyh-Tong, E-mail: jyhtong@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shao-Wen, E-mail: chensw@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The establishment of a MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan (BWR/4). • MELCOR/SNAP model was used to estimate the effectiveness of URG for Chinshan. • The MELCOR results were compared to MAAP, TRACE and PCTRAN. • URG is a new method to prevent a Fukushima-like accident. • The low raw water (150 GPM) can make the cladding temperature below 1088.7 K. - Abstract: After Fukushima Daiichi disaster, the safety analysis of severe accidents became one of the safety concerns in Taiwan. The Emergency Operating Procedure (EOP) cannot cope with a multiple system failure situation under a severe accident since it is a “Symptom-basis” procedure. To deal with that, Taiwan Power Company built up a new strategy for Fukushima-like accident called Ultimate Response Guideline (URG). It is a simple strategy with three main conditions: loss of regular motor driven injection system, loss of all AC power and tsunami/earthquake warning. If two of three happen, the operating procedure will change from EOP to URG and start the main works by following the strategy. There are three main works in URG: controlled-depressurization, line up low pressure injection water and prepare containment venting. In this study, MELCOR2.1 was used to calculate the cases of URG and checked the goal of the strategy that prevents the accident or not. There were three steps in this research. First, a model of Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP) was built. Second, one was the case with URG and the other was not by using the above MELCOR model. The results were compared to MAAP5.0, TRACE and PCTRAN. Finally, some sensitivity studies of depressurization and water injection rate were done.

  11. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  12. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  13. Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S

    2012-09-01

    Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  15. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  16. Garrafas de PET para óleo comestível: avaliação da barreira à luz PET bottles for edible oil packaging: evaluation of the light barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Coltro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos comestíveis são produtos alimentícios sensíveis à luz, pois estão sujeitos à degradação por foto-oxidação, cujas conseqüências são escurecimento do produto e alteração de aroma e sabor, levando à rejeição do produto. Assim, quando os óleos são acondicionados em embalagens transparentes, a foto-oxidação torna-se a principal causa da deterioração oxidativa devido ao efeito da luz, encurtando a vida-de-prateleira do produto e daí surgindo a necessidade da utilização de absorvedores de UV, substâncias incolores que, quando incorporadas ao material da embalagem, absorvem a energia UV incidente ou inativam cromóforos excitados protegendo o produto. Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a barreira à luz de embalagens de PET disponíveis no mercado brasileiro utilizadas para o acondicionamento de óleo comestível por meio da obtenção de espectros de transmissão de luz especular no UV-Visível. As embalagens que apresentaram barreira à luz foram submetidas a ensaios analíticos com a finalidade de identificação e quantificação do aditivo utilizado. Os aditivos absorvedores de UV identificados nas embalagens plásticas foram relacionados quanto à restrição de uso e limites de composição estabelecidos pela Resolução 105 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA. Com isso foi possível fazer um diagnóstico do uso de absorvedores de UV em embalagens de PET utilizadas para o acondicionamento de óleo comestível disponíveis no mercado brasileiro.The edible oils are light sensitive food products since they degrade by photo-oxidation, which promotes darkening of the product, alteration of its flavor and consequently its rejection. For edible oils packed in transparent packages, photo-oxidation becomes the main cause of the oxidative deterioration due to the light effect, reducing the shelf-life of the product. Then, it is necessary to use UV absorbers, colorless substances

  17. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  18. Conversion of yellow crude sugar into alcohol. Conversion of yellow crude sugar in a mixture with sugar beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtul, F B; Malchenko, A L; Poluyanova, M T; Gromovich, V F; Maskimova, E A; Golodovskaya, A I; Pal' gova, L S

    1963-01-01

    Crude sugar (96.5 to 98.4% sucrose) in a mixture with molasses can be converted into alcohol by either batchwise or continuous fermentation processes with good process characteristics. Best yields are obtained when the amount of crude sugar is not more than 50% of the total weight of fermenting material. The bakers' yeast and alcohol produced are of good quality.

  19. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  20. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  1. Estudio teórico de algunas propiedades termodinámicas de los ácidos grasos obtenidos como destilados en la desodorización de aceites comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto, M. M.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the feasibility of a change of technology in the deodorization stage of edible vegetable oil refining is being investigated. The proposed technology involves a modification in the composition of the distillates coming from the deodorization stage and their further treatment To design the apparatus which are required by the proposed technology it is necessary to study the physical properties of the distillates. The thermodynamic properties of the fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic, which are the principal components produced at the deodorization stage have been studied. The properties that have been studied were those corresponding to the critical point (critical temperature, pressure and volume, the vapour pressure-temperature relation and the latent heat of vaporisation. Different methods to estimate the above mentioned properties and some experimental published data have been compared.

    Estudio teórico de algunas propiedades termodinámicas de los ácidos grasos obtenidos como destilados en la desodorización de aceites comestibles Actualmente se investiga la viabilidad de un cambio en la tecnología de la desodorización de aceites comestibles que afecta a la composición de los destilados que se obtienen en el proceso y al tratamiento de los mismos. El diseño de los equipos que conlleva este cambio de tecnología requiere el estudio de propiedades físicas de los destilados. Se han estudiado algunas propiedades termodinámicas de los ácidos palmítico, esteárico, oleico y linoleico, componentes mayoritarios resultantes del proceso de desodorización. Las propiedades estudiadas han sido las correspondientes al punto crítico (temperatura, presión y volumen críticos, las curvas de presión de vapor en función de la temperatura y el calor latente de vaporización. Se han recogido distintos métodos de estimación de las mencionadas propiedades y algunos datos experimentales, y se han comparado los

  2. The SNARE protein SNAP23 and the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c in human skeletal muscle are implicated in insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Pontus; Andersson, Linda; Vind, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    /cytosolic compartment in the patients with the type 2 diabetes. Expression of the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c was higher in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. Studies in L6 cells showed that Munc18c promoted the expression of SNAP23. CONCLUSIONS: We have translated our previous in vitro results......OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies suggest that the SNARE protein synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) is involved in the link between increased lipid levels and insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. The objective was to determine whether SNAP23 may also be involved in the known...... association between lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes in humans, as well as to identify a potential regulator of SNAP23. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy, insulin-sensitive control...

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  4. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  5. Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Weia Arianne

    2008-01-01

    Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the

  6. Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise affect blood sugar levels Understand how other factors, such as illness or stress, affect blood sugar levels Monitor the effect of ... appropriate device for you. Your doctor or diabetes educator can also help you ... how the process works: Wash and dry your hands well. Insert a ...

  7. Sugar amino acids and related molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  8. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  9. A sugar maple planting study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Clayton M. Carl

    1970-01-01

    Past attempts to establish sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by planting have generally met with little success. The failures have been blamed mainly on competition by other vegetation and on damage done by animals. Finding an effective way to establish sugar maple seedlings is a key part in the research being carried on in Vermont by the USDA Forest Service to...

  10. Sugar maple: its characteristics and potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple dominates the northern hardwood forest, but grows over a broader geographic area. Conditions of soil and climate largely limit its distribution, and account for its less continuous cover along fringes of the range. Sugar maple regenerates readily following a wide range of overstory treatments. Success depends upon its status as advance regeneration,...

  11. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  12. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  13. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  14. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 200,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  15. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  16. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 325,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  17. Septin 7 reduces nonmuscle myosin IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex and hinders GLUT4 storage vesicle docking and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasik, Anita A.; Dumont, Vincent [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tienari, Jukka [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, 05850 Hyvinkää (Finland); Nyman, Tuula A. [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Fogarty, Christopher L.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehtonen, Eero [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory Animal Centre, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Groop, Per-Henrik [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, 3004 Melbourne (Australia); Lehtonen, Sanna, E-mail: sanna.h.lehtonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Septin 7, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) and SNAP23 form a complex. • Knockdown of septin 7 increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Insulin decreases septin 7 level and increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Septin 7 hinders GSV docking/fusion by reducing NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex.

  18. Septin 7 reduces nonmuscle myosin IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex and hinders GLUT4 storage vesicle docking and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasik, Anita A.; Dumont, Vincent; Tienari, Jukka; Nyman, Tuula A.; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku; Lehtonen, Eero; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Septin 7, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) and SNAP23 form a complex. • Knockdown of septin 7 increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Insulin decreases septin 7 level and increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Septin 7 hinders GSV docking/fusion by reducing NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex.

  19. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  20. Creating a business toolbox for a start-up : a case study of SnapSwap International

    OpenAIRE

    Kovshikov, Iaroslav

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was implemented at SnapSwap International in spring and summer 2017. The case company is a fin-tech start-up established in 2015 and located in Luxembourg. The company aims to develop a new payment solution (money messenger) for the European market. The purpose of the thesis is to observe commonly used business techniques (SWOT, Business Model Canvas (BMC), Persona, and Empathy Map) and analyze current business activities of the company employing these tools. The theoretic...

  1. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  2. Experimental investigation of snap-through motion of in-plane MEMS shallow arches under electrostatic excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2015-12-11

    We present an experimental investigation for the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of clamped–clamped in-plane MEMS shallow arches when excited by harmonic electrostatic forces. Frequency sweeps are conducted to study the dynamic behaviors in the neighborhoods of the first and third resonance frequencies as well as the super-harmonic resonances. Experimental results show local softening behavior of small oscillations around the first resonance frequency and hardening behavior at the third resonance frequency for small dc and ac loads. Interesting dynamic snap-through cross-well motions are observed experimentally at high voltages for the first time in the micro-scale world. In addition to the dynamic snap-through motion, the MEMS arch exhibits large oscillations of a continuous band of snap-through motion between the super-harmonic resonance regime and the first primary resonance regime. This continuous band is unprecedented experimentally in the micro/macro world, and is promising for a variety of sensing, actuation and communications applications.

  3. Experimental investigation of snap-through motion of in-plane MEMS shallow arches under electrostatic excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah; Bellaredj, Mohammed L F; Al Hafiz, Md Abdullah; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation for the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of clamped–clamped in-plane MEMS shallow arches when excited by harmonic electrostatic forces. Frequency sweeps are conducted to study the dynamic behaviors in the neighborhoods of the first and third resonance frequencies as well as the super-harmonic resonances. Experimental results show local softening behavior of small oscillations around the first resonance frequency and hardening behavior at the third resonance frequency for small dc and ac loads. Interesting dynamic snap-through cross-well motions are observed experimentally at high voltages for the first time in the micro-scale world. In addition to the dynamic snap-through motion, the MEMS arch exhibits large oscillations of a continuous band of snap-through motion between the super-harmonic resonance regime and the first primary resonance regime. This continuous band is unprecedented experimentally in the micro/macro world, and is promising for a variety of sensing, actuation and communications applications.

  4. Research to Understand Milk Consumption Behaviors in a Food-Insecure Low-Income SNAP Population in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Jaye Finnell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk, due to its affordability and nutritional value, can fortify the diets of families that experience food insecurity or find a high-quality diet cost-prohibitive. However, it can also be a leading source of excess calories and saturated fat. Yet, little is known about what influences consumer behavior of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP recipients toward the type of milk used or the prevalence of low-fat milk use among this population. This cross-sectional telephone survey of SNAP recipients (n = 520 documented that 7.5% of this population usually consumes low-fat milk, a prevalence that lags behind national figures (34.4% for the same time-period. There was a weak association between sociodemographic characteristics of SNAP recipients and low-fat milk use. Instead, less low-fat milk consumption was associated with a knowledge gap and misperceptions of the nutritional properties of the different types of milk. Promoting low-fat milk use by correcting these misperceptions can improve the diet of America’s low-income population and reduce food insecurity by maximizing the nutritional value of the foods consumed.

  5. Dynamics of snap-off and pore-filling events during two-phase fluid flow in permeable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamaljit; Menke, Hannah; Andrew, Matthew; Lin, Qingyang; Rau, Christoph; Blunt, Martin J; Bijeljic, Branko

    2017-07-12

    Understanding the pore-scale dynamics of two-phase fluid flow in permeable media is important in many processes such as water infiltration in soils, oil recovery, and geo-sequestration of CO 2 . The two most important processes that compete during the displacement of a non-wetting fluid by a wetting fluid are pore-filling or piston-like displacement and snap-off; this latter process can lead to trapping of the non-wetting phase. We present a three-dimensional dynamic visualization study using fast synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography to provide new insights into these processes by conducting a time-resolved pore-by-pore analysis of the local curvature and capillary pressure. We show that the time-scales of interface movement and brine layer swelling leading to snap-off are several minutes, orders of magnitude slower than observed for Haines jumps in drainage. The local capillary pressure increases rapidly after snap-off as the trapped phase finds a position that is a new local energy minimum. However, the pressure change is less dramatic than that observed during drainage. We also show that the brine-oil interface jumps from pore-to-pore during imbibition at an approximately constant local capillary pressure, with an event size of the order of an average pore size, again much smaller than the large bursts seen during drainage.

  6. Subacute casemix classification for stroke rehabilitation in Australia. How well does AN-SNAP v2 explain variance in outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Friedbert; Renton, Roger; Dickson, Hugh G; Estell, John; Connolly, Carol E

    2011-02-01

    We sought the best predictors for length of stay, discharge destination and functional improvement for inpatients undergoing rehabilitation following a stroke and compared these predictors against AN-SNAP v2. The Oxfordshire classification subgroup, sociodemographic data and functional data were collected for patients admitted between 1997 and 2007, with a diagnosis of recent stroke. The data were factor analysed using Principal Components Analysis for categorical data (CATPCA). Categorical regression analyses was performed to determine the best predictors of length of stay, discharge destination, and functional improvement. A total of 1154 patients were included in the study. Principal components analysis indicated that the data were effectively unidimensional, with length of stay being the most important component. Regression analysis demonstrated that the best predictor was the admission motor FIM score, explaining 38.9% of variance for length of stay, 37.4%.of variance for functional improvement and 16% of variance for discharge destination. The best explanatory variable in our inpatient rehabilitation service is the admission motor FIM. AN- SNAP v2 classification is a less effective explanatory variable. This needs to be taken into account when using AN-SNAP v2 classification for clinical or funding purposes.

  7. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Methods Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian...

  8. Lipid metabolism during embryonic development of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, Cynthia J; Teece, Mark A

    2009-05-01

    The metabolism of lipids and fatty acids during embryonic development of Chelydra serpentina (common snapping turtle) was investigated. Substantial changes in lipid class and fatty acid composition occurred as lipids were transferred from the yolk to the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and then to the brain, eyes, heart, and lungs of the hatchling. Lipids were hydrolyzed in the yolk prior to transport to the YSM, shown by a large increase in free fatty acids (FFAs) during the second half of development. Triglyceride-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was utilized preferentially to phospholipid-derived DHA. In the YSM, arachidonic acid (ARA) was selectively incorporated into phospholipids while DHA was preferentially incorporated into triglycerides. Selective incorporation of DHA and ARA into the brain and eyes, and ARA into the heart was observed, indicating the importance of these PUFAs for organ development and function. The amount of DHA and ARA in each organ was less than 1% of that measured in the yolk of the freshly laid egg, indicating that only a small portion of yolk PUFAs were incorporated into the hatchling organs studied. We discuss the differences in the mechanisms and utilization of yolk lipids in turtles compared with lipid uptake during embryonic development in birds.

  9. Toxicity of nitrogenous fertilizers to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) in field and laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2007-09-01

    Many reptiles oviposit in soil of agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of two commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers, urea and ammonium nitrate, on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. Eggs were incubated in a community garden plot in which urea was applied to the soil at realistic rates of up to 200 kg/ha in 2004, and ammonium nitrate was applied at rates of up to 2,000 kg/ha in 2005. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed in the laboratory in covered bins so as to minimize loss of nitrogenous compounds through volatilization or leaching from the soil. Neither urea nor ammonium nitrate had any impact on hatching success or development when exposed in the garden plot, despite overt toxicity of ammonium nitrate to endogenous plants. Both laboratory exposures resulted in reduced hatching success, lower body mass at hatching, and reduced posthatching survival compared to controls. The lack of toxicity of these fertilizers in the field was probably due to leaching in the soil and through atmospheric loss. In general, we conclude that nitrogenous fertilizers probably have little direct impacts on turtle eggs deposited in agricultural landscapes.

  10. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. THE DEPENDENCE OF HEAT CONSUMPTION ON THE DYNAMICS OF EXTERNAL AIR TEMPERATURE DURING COLD SNAP PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarov Andrey Georgievich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of outdoor temperature variations during the cold period of the year influences the operation of the systems providing the required microclimate in the premises, which may be subject to automation systems that affects the IQ of a building, it is important to note that in the last decade there has been a growth in the participation of intelligent technologies in the formation of a microclimate of buildings. Studying the microclimate quality in terms of energy consumption of the premises and the building considers climate variability and outdoor air pollution, which is connected with the economic aspects of energy efficiency and productivity, and health of workers, as a short-term temperature fall in the premises has harmful consequences. Low outdoor temperatures dry the air in the premises that requires accounting for climate control equipment and, if necessary, the personal account of its work. Excess heat in the premises, including office equipment, corrects the temperature conditions, which reduces the adverse effect of cold snap.

  12. Safety Test Program Summary SNAP 19 Pioneer Heat Source Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1971-07-01

    Sixteen heat source assemblies have been tested in support of the SNAP 19 Pioneer Safety Test Program. Seven were subjected to simulated reentry heating in various plasma arc facilities followed by impact on earth or granite. Six assemblies were tested under abort accident conditions of overpressure, shrapnel impact, and solid and liquid propellant fires. Three capsules were hot impacted under Transit capsule impact conditions to verify comparability of test results between the two similar capsule designs, thus utilizing both Pioneer and Transit Safety Test results to support the Safety Analysis Report for Pioneer. The tests have shown the fuel is contained under all nominal accident environments with the exception of minor capsule cracks under severe impact and solid fire environments. No catastrophic capsule failures occurred in this test which would release large quantities of fuel. In no test was fuel visible to the eye following impact or fire. Breached capsules were defined as those which exhibit thoria contamination on its surface following a test, or one which exhibited visible cracks in the post test metallographic analyses.

  13. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  14. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  15. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Raul K; Welch, Kenneth C

    2017-07-12

    Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the "sugar oxidation cascade", the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  16. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  17. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  18. The Determination of Sugars by Chromatographic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sumartini, Sri; Kantasubrata, Julia

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to analyse sugars using TLC and HPLC methods, In the TLC method, separation of sugars was performed on silica plates impregnated with monosodium phosphate and using mixture of ethylacettuel pyridinde/water as an eluent. Whilst in the HPLC method, the use of three column types i.e. diol, RP-18 and modified silica column were tested. The results showed that TLC method was able to measure three sugars i:e. sucrose, glucose and fructose with standard deviations o...

  19. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  20. FILMES Y REVESTIMIENTOS COMESTIBLES COMO EMPAQUES ACTIVOS BIODEGRADABLES EN LA CONSERVACIÓN DE ALIMENTOS FILMES E REVESTIMENTOS COMESTÍVEIS COMO EMBALAGEM ATIVA BIODEGRADÁVEL NA CONSERVAÇÃO DE ALIMENTOS EDIBLE FILMS AND COATINGS AS BIODEGRADABLE ACTIVE PACKAGING IN THE PRESERVATION OF FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBA MANUELA DURANGO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los filmes y revestimientos comestibles son una innovación dentro del concepto de empaque activo biodegradable, los cuales interactúan con los alimentos con el fin de extender su vida útil, mejorar su seguridad y/o propiedades sensoriales o funcionales, mientras mantiene la calidad del alimento empacado. El uso de filmes y revestimientos comestibles a base de biopolímeros ha tomado un auge importante en la industria de alimentos, debido a muchos factores como sus características de biodegradabilidad, que contribuyen a disminuir la contaminación ambiental, su potencial para evitar la alteración de los alimentos y la posibilidad de generar nuevos mercados a productos derivados de fuentes naturales renovables. Los filmes y revestimientos comestibles han demostrado ser efectivos en la preservación de muchos alimentos, especialmente en frutas y hortalizas para mantener su apariencia fresca, su firmeza, el brillo, aumentando la calidad del producto y su valor comercial.Os Filmes e revestimentos comestíveis são uma inovação do conceito de embalagem ativa biodegradável, os quais interagem com os alimentos com o fim de estender sua vida útil, melhorar sua segurança y/o propriedades sensoriais o funcionais, enquanto mantêm a qualidade do alimento empacado. O uso de filmes e revestimentos comestíveis a base de biopolímeros têm-se tornado importante na indústria de alimentos, devido a fatores tais como suas características de biodegradabilidade, que contribuem a diminuir a contaminação ambiental; seu potencial para evitar a alteração dos alimentos e a possibilidade de gerar novos mercados a produtos originários de fontes naturais renováveis. Os filmes e revestimentos comestíveis têm demonstrado ser efetivos na preservação de muitos alimentos, especialmente em frutas e hortaliças para manter sua aparência fresca, sua firmeza, o brilho, aumentando a qualidade do produto y seu valor comercial.Edible films and coatings are an

  1. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  2. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  3. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  4. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz R, O.; Griffith M, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  6. Respiration-Dependent Utilization of Sugars in Yeasts: a Determinant Role for Sugar Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Iliana; Donnini, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    In many yeast species, including Kluyveromyces lactis, growth on certain sugars (such as galactose, raffinose, and maltose) occurs only under respiratory conditions. If respiration is blocked by inhibitors, mutation, or anaerobiosis, growth does not take place. This apparent dependence on respiration for the utilization of certain sugars has often been suspected to be associated with the mechanism of the sugar uptake step. We hypothesized that in many yeast species, the permease activities fo...

  7. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  8. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  9. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  10. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 from 10 USA/UK population samples. Associations of SSB, diet beverages, and sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) with BP were assessed by multiple linear regression. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake related directly to BP, P-values 0.005 to Sugar-sweetened beverage intake higher by 1 serving/day (355 ml/24-h) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +1.6/+0.8 mm Hg (both P sugar-sodium interactions: for individuals with above-median 24-h urinary sodium excretion, fructose intake higher by 2 SD (5.6 %kcal) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +3.4/+2.2 mm Hg (both P sugar-BP differences for persons with higher sodium excretion, lend support to recommendations that intake of SSB, sugars, and salt be substantially reduced. PMID:21357284

  11. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  12. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  14. Ozone tolerance in snap bean is associated with elevated ascorbic acid in the leaf apoplast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, K.O. [North Carolina State Univ., United States Dept. of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, and Dept. of Crop Science, Raleigh, NC (United States); Eason, G. [North Carolina, State Univ., United States Dept. of Plant Pathology, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) in the leaf apoplast has the potential to limit ozone injury by participating in reactions that detoxify ozone and reactive oxygen intermediates and thus prevent plasma membrane damage. Genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were compared in controlled environments and in open-top field chambers to assess the relationship between extracellular AA content and ozone tolerance. Vacuum infiltration methods were employed to separate leaf AA into extracellular and intracellular fractions. For plants grown in controlled environments at low ozone concentration (4 nmol mol{sup -1} ozone), leaf apoplast AA was significantly higher in tolerant genotypes (300-400 nmol g{sup -1} FW) compared with sensitive genotypes (approximately 50 nmol g{sup -1} FW), evidence that ozone tolerance is associated with elevated extracellular AA. For the open top chamber study, plants were grown in pots under charcoal-filtered air (CF) conditions and then either maintained under CF conditions (29 nmol mol{sup -1} ozone) or exposed to elevated ozone (67 nmol mol{sup -1} ozone). Following an 8-day treatment period, leaf apoplast AA was in the range of 100-190 nmol g{sup -1} FW for all genotypes, but no relationship was observed between apoplast AA content and ozone tolerance. The contrasting results in the two studies demonstrated a potential limitation in the interpretation of extracellular AA data. Apoplast AA levels presumably reflect the steady-state condition between supply from the cytoplasm and utilization within the cell wall. The capacity to detoxify ozone in the extracellular space may be underestimated under elevated ozone conditions where the dynamics of AA supply and utilization are not adequately represented by a steady-state measurement. (au)

  15. A Novel Candidate Gene for Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in the Common Snapping Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Anthony L.; Metzger, Kelsey J.; Miller, Alexandra; Rhen, Turk

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) was described nearly 50 years ago. Researchers have since identified many genes that display differential expression at male- vs. female-producing temperatures. Yet, it is unclear whether these genes (1) are involved in sex determination per se, (2) are downstream effectors involved in differentiation of ovaries and testes, or (3) are thermo-sensitive but unrelated to gonad development. Here we present multiple lines of evidence linking CIRBP to sex determination in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina. We demonstrate significant associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c63A > C) in CIRBP, transcript levels in embryonic gonads during specification of gonad fate, and sex in hatchlings from a thermal regime that produces mixed sex ratios. The A allele was induced in embryos exposed to a female-producing temperature, while expression of the C allele did not differ between female- and male-producing temperatures. In accord with this pattern of temperature-dependent, allele-specific expression, AA homozygotes were more likely to develop ovaries than AC heterozygotes, which, in turn, were more likely to develop ovaries than CC homozygotes. Multiple regression using SNPs in CIRBP and adjacent loci suggests that c63A > C may be the causal variant or closely linked to it. Differences in CIRBP allele frequencies among turtles from northern Minnesota, southern Minnesota, and Texas reflect small and large-scale latitudinal differences in TSD pattern. Finally, analysis of CIRBP protein localization reveals that CIRBP is in a position to mediate temperature effects on the developing gonads. Together, these studies strongly suggest that CIRBP is involved in determining the fate of the bipotential gonad. PMID:26936926

  16. Temperature-dependent sex determination modulates cardiovascular maturation in embryonic snapping turtles Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Travis; Rhen, Turk; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-03-01

    We investigated sex differences in cardiovascular maturation in embryos of the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination. One group of eggs was incubated at 26.5°C to produce males. Another group of eggs was incubated at 26.5°C until embryos reached stage 17; eggs were then shifted to 31°C for 6 days to produce females, and returned to 26.5°C for the rest of embryogenesis. Thus, males and females were at the same temperature when autonomic tone was determined and for most of development. Cholinergic blockade increased resting blood pressure (P(m)) and heart rate (f(H)) in both sexes at 75% and 90% of incubation. However, the magnitude of the f(H) response was enhanced in males compared with females at 90% of incubation. β-adrenergic blockade increased P(m) at 75% of incubation in both sexes but had no effect at 90% of incubation. β-adrenergic blockade reduced f(H) at both time points but produced a stronger response at 90% versus 75% of incubation. We found that α-adrenergic blockade decreased P(m) in both sexes at 75% and 90% of incubation and decreased f(H) at 75% of incubation in both sexes. At 90% of incubation, f(H) decreased in females but not males. Although these data clearly demonstrate sexual dimorphism in the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular physiology in embryos, further studies are needed to test whether differences are caused by endocrine signals from gonads or by a hormone-independent temperature effect.

  17. Heritable Variation for Sex Ratio under Environmental Sex Determination in the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra Serpentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    The magnitude of quantitative genetic variation for primary sex ratio was measured in families extracted from a natural population of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), which possesses temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Eggs were incubated at three temperatures that produced mixed sex ratios. This experimental design provided estimates of the heritability of sex ratio in multiple environments and a test of the hypothesis that genotype X environment (G X E) interactions may be maintaining genetic variation for sex ratio in this population of C. serpentina. Substantial quantitative genetic variation for primary sex ratio was detected in all experimental treatments. These results in conjunction with the occurrence of TSD in this species provide support for three critical assumptions of Fisher's theory for the microevolution of sex ratio. There were statistically significant effects of family and incubation temperature on sex ratio, but no significant interaction was observed. Estimates of the genetic correlations of sex ratio across environments were highly positive and essentially indistinguishable from +1. These latter two findings suggest that G X E interaction is not the mechanism maintaining genetic variation for sex ratio in this system. Finally, although substantial heritable variation exists for primary sex ratio of C. serpentina under constant temperatures, estimates of the effective heritability of primary sex ratio in nature are approximately an order of magnitude smaller. Small effective heritability and a long generation time in C. serpentina imply that evolution of sex ratios would be slow even in response to strong selection by, among other potential agents, any rapid and/or substantial shifts in local temperatures, including those produced by changes in the global climate. PMID:1592234

  18. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  19. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  20. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  1. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar preferences and digestion of sugars in artificial fruit of different sugar types and concentrations were investigated in a South African facultative frugivore, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). We studied sugar preferences, daily food and energy intake, and digestive efficiencies and transit times with birds that were ...

  2. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  3. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  4. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this

  5. Conservation of papaya minimally processed with the use of edible coating based on xanthan gum Conservação de mamão minimamente processado com uso de revestimento comestível à base de goma xantana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Renzo Cortez-Vega

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservation of papaya minimally processed by the use of edible coatings based on xanthan gum for 12 days at 4±1 °C. Different treatments were performed: control (T1 uncoated; 1 % glycerol and 0.5 % xanthan gum (T2; 1 % glycerol, 0.5 % xanthan gum and 1 % chitosan (T3; 1 % glycerol, 0.5 % xanthan gum and 0.25 % guar gum (T4; 1 % glycerol, 0.5 % xanthan gum, 0.25 % guar gum and 1 % chitosan (T5. Such coatings were prepared in aqueous solution and added to them 1% glycerol. In the control treatment and the coated pieces of papaya were analyzed weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, color, and microbiological groups: psychrophilic, Salmonella spp., total coliform and thermotolerant. The different coatings based on xanthan gum were effective in preserving papaya minimally processed, relative to control sample. The addition of guar gum to xanthan coatings influenced negatively in the weight loss and the parameters of color, lightness, a* and b*. The addition of chitosan (T3 beneficially influence in reducing weight loss, maintenance of luminosity and a smaller reduction in parameters a* and b*, however, was not observed antimicrobial effect. Thus, it is suggested as an edible coatings papaya minimally processed coatings composed only xanthan gum (T2, which caused a reduction of weight loss, maintenance of lightness and b* and smaller reduction in a*. However, experiments aimed at maintaining firmness, pH and acidity should be conducted in future. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a conservação do mamão “Formosa” minimamente processado, com o uso de revestimento comestível à base de goma xantana, por 12 dias a 4±1 °C. Foram realizados os tratamentos: controle (T1, sem revestimento; revestimento com 0,5% de goma xantana (T2; revestimento com 0,5% de goma xantana e 1% de quitosana (T3; revestimento com 0,5% de goma xantana e 0,25% de goma guar (T4; revestimento com 0,5% de goma xantana, 0

  6. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo creciente ha estimulado el desarrollo de los vegetales cuarta gama o mínimamente procesados. Actualmente, se promueve el uso de tecnologías aplicadas a estos productos que les brinden mayor duración y garanticen la reducción de pérdidas poscosecha. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de tres de estas tecnologías poscosecha sobre la intensidad de la respiración y la calidad sensorial general de las hortalizas mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., apio (Apium graveolens, zanahoria (Daucus carota y chayote (Sechium edule. Para el recubrimiento comestible se utilizó pectina de bajo metoxilo (2%, cera carnauba (1%, glicerol (1.5% y ácido ascórbico (0.05%. El tratamiento térmico se hizo a 60 °C durante 2 min, con adición de ácido ascórbico (0.25%, ácido cítrico (0.5% y cloruro de calcio (0.025%. El baño químico se realizó con una solución de ácido cítrico (0.5%, ácido ascórbico (0.05% y cloruro de calcio (0.05%. La tasa de producción de CO2 se midió por el método estático, monitoreando la composición de los gases del espacio de cabeza durante 24 h a 8 °C y humedad relativa de 90%. La evaluación sensorial de color, aroma, crujencia y sabor objetable fueron las características organolépticas tomadas en cuenta para evaluar la calidad general de cada vegetal, la cual fue realizada con un panel de siete jueces previamente entrenados. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, siendo los bloques cada uno de los vegetales y las variables de respuesta la tasa de respiración y la calidad sensorial general. Se encontró que el tratamiento térmico y el recubrimiento comestible permitieron que los vegetales conservaran la calidad sensorial. El análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control (P > 0.05. La celeridad de la respiración disminuyó en el apio, el br

  7. The Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sugar Extraction and Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hedayati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, which can be extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, is one of the most important ingredients of food. Conducting more research to increase the extraction efficiency of sugar is necessary due to high production of sugar beet and its numerous processing units in northern Khorasan province. In this research, the effect of temperature, time and the frequency of ultrasonic waves on mechanical properties of sugar beet and its extraction rate of sugar in moisture content of 75% were studied. In this regard, an ultrasonic bath in laboratory scale was used. The studied parameters and their levels were frequency in three levels (zero, 25 and 45 KHz, temperature in three levels (25, 50 and 70 ° C and the imposed time of ultrasonic waves in three levels (10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were prepared using planned experiments and the results were compared with control sugar beet samples. A Saccharimeter was used to measure the concenteration of sugar in samples. Two different types of probe including semi-spherical end and the other one with sharpened edges were used to measure mechanical properties. The studied parameters of frequency, temperature and time showed significant effect on sugar extraction and their resulted effect in optimized levels revealed up to 56% increase in sugar extraction compared with control samples. The obtained values of elastic modulus and shear modulus showed a decreasing trend. The obtained values of total energy of rupture, the total energy of shear, the maximum force of rupture, and the yield point of rupture showed an increasing trend. The frequency had no significant effect on the yield point of rupture and shear force.

  8. An improved method to prepare an injectable microemulsion of the galanin-receptor 3 selective antagonist, SNAP 37889, using Kolliphor® HS 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Karlene J.; Williams, Spencer J.; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Jarrott, Bevyn; Djouma, Elvan

    2014-01-01

    Research into the galanin-3 (GAL3) receptor has many challenges, including the lack of commercially available selective ligands. While the identification of non-peptidergic GAL3 receptor-selective antagonists, 1-phenyl-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]iminoindol-2-one (SNAP 37889) and 1-[3-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]iminoindol-2-one (SNAP 398299) have implicated a role for GAL3 receptors in anxiety, depression and drug-seeking behaviour, a major limitation of their use is poor aqueous solubility. Previously we have used 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with 1% hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose in saline to dissolve SNAP 37889 for intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of rats; however this produced a micro-suspension that was not ideal. The injectable formulation of SNAP 37889 was improved as follows:•30% (w/v) Kolliphor® HS 15 (Solutol HS® 15) and sodium phosphate buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.4) were used as vehicles.•A smooth glass mortar and pestle was used to triturate the Kolliphor® HS 15 and SNAP 37889 into a paste before addition to the sodium phosphate buffer at room temperature (RT).•The resulting mixture was vortexed until the paste was fully dissolved and the microemulsion was allowed to sit for 20 min to allow air bubbles to coalesce. PMID:26150955

  9. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...), Additional U.S. Note 6, which authorizes entry of raw cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in...

  10. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Kibblewhite; Alice Nettleton; Rachael McLean; Jillian Haszard; Elizabeth Fleming; Devonia Kruimer; Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition...

  11. Extra-articular subcutaneous "inverted king post-truss" ligament reconstruction for severe swan neck deformity (snapping finger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soras, X; de Mourgues, P; Pradel, P; Urien, J-P; Beaudoin, E

    2017-02-01

    A swan neck deformity (SND) can be well tolerated for a long time, until the appearance of a disabling "snapping finger". In its most advanced condition, the other hand is needed to initiate finger flexion. We propose a technique of extra-articular, subcutaneous ligament reconstruction with an "inverted king post-truss" configuration use in roofs and to reinforce railway bridges. An artificial ligament (MaxBraid™ polyethylene surgical suture, 5 metric, Biomet) makes a figure of eight between transosseous tunnels in the proximal and middle phalanges, crossing over top of the A3 pulley. We limited our series to severe SND cases with "snapping finger". We excluded isolated SNDs without functional disability. Eleven patients were followed for 3.4 years on average. The cause was an acute injury 8 times (7 balloon accidents), rheumatoid arthritis 2 times and overuse once (saxophone). Only one case was a poor outcome of mallet finger. The 11 patients were reassessed by a telephone survey. Two patients underwent reoperation: one for a ligament rupture, the other one for a knot that became untied. One patient had a suspected late rupture but without recurrence of the disabling snapping finger. The 11 patients considered themselves improved by the intervention. Nine patients did not notice any difference between their operated finger and the contralateral side. Return to manual activity was possible once the skin had healed. The technique is simpler than the spiral oblique retinacular ligament (SORL) reconstruction technique described by Thomson-Littler and also less demanding because it does not involve the distal interphalangeal joint. It requires only a short incision in the volar crease of the proximal interphalangeal joint. No tendon or ligament is sacrificed. Neither postoperative immobilization nor lengthy physical therapy is needed. Complications can be avoided by selecting the appropriate artificial ligament material and careful knot tying. Copyright © 2016 SFCM

  12. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants were calculated in 2014 (in Toronto, Canada) by subtracting all naturally occurring sugars from the total sugar level. The average amount of added sugars in restaurant kids' meals (25 ± 0.36 g) exceeded the WHO's proposed daily recommendation for sugar intake. There was a wide range of added sugar levels in kids' meals ranging from 0 g to 114 g. 50% of meals exceeded the WHO's proposed daily sugar recommendation, and 19% exceeded the WHO's current daily sugar recommendation. There is a wide range of sugar levels in kids' meals from restaurants, and many contain more than a day's worth of sugar.

  13. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created

  14. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  15. The Snapping Elbow Syndrome as a Reason for Chronic Elbow Neuralgia in a Tennis Player - MR, US and Sonoelastography Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Pawluś, Aleksander; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral nerve neuropathy after median neuropathy, with an incidence of 25 cases per 100 000 men and 19 cases per 100 000 women each year. Skipping (snapping) elbow syndrome is an uncommon cause of pain in the posterior-medial elbow area, sometimes complicated by injury of the ulnar nerve. One of the reason is the dislocation of the abnormal insertion of the medial triceps head over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension movements. Others are: lack of the Osboune fascia leading to ulnar nerve instability and focal soft tissue tumors (fibromas, lipomas, etc). Recurrent subluxation of the nerve at the elbow results in a tractional and frictional neuritis with classical symptoms of peripheral neuralgia. As far as we know snapping triceps syndrome had never been evaluated in sonoelastography. A 28yo semi-professional left handed tennis player was complaining about pain in posterior-medial elbow area. Initial US examination suggest golfers elbow syndrome which occurs quite commonly and has a prevalence of 0.3-0.6% in males and 0-3-1.1% in women and may be associated (approx. 50% of cases) with ulnar neuropathy. However subsequently made MRI revealed unusual distal triceps anatomy, moderate ulnar nerve swelling and lack of medial epicondylitis symptoms. Followed (second) US examination and sonoelastography have detected slipping of the both ulnar nerve and the additional band of the medial triceps head. Snapping elbow syndrome is a poorly known medical condition, sometimes misdiagnosed as the medial epicondylitis. It describes a broad range of pathologies and anatomical abnormalities. One of the most often reasons is the slipping of the ulnar nerve as the result of the Osborne fascia/anconeus epitrochlearis muscle absence. Simultaneously presence of two or more "snapping reasons" is rare but should be always taken under consideration. There are no sonoelastography studies describing golfers elbow syndrome

  16. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving...... samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control ("Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples" [1]). We here report the data from the analysis...

  17. SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) Increases Long-Term Food Security among Indiana Households with Children in a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rebecca L; Maulding, Melissa K; Abbott, Angela R; Craig, Bruce A; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is negatively associated with US children's dietary intake and health. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) aims to alleviate food insecurity by offering nutrition, budgeting, and healthy lifestyle education to low-income individuals and families. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of the Indiana SNAP-Ed on food security among households with children. A randomized, controlled, parallel study design with SNAP-Ed as an intervention was carried out during a 4- to 10-wk intervention period. Intervention group participants received the first 4 Indiana SNAP-Ed curriculum lessons. Study participants (n = 575) were adults aged ≥18 y from low-income Indiana households with ≥1 child living in the household. Both treatment groups completed an assessment before and after the intervention period and 1 y after recruitment. The 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module was used to classify the primary outcomes of food security for the household and adults and children in the household. A linear mixed model was used to compare intervention with control group effects over time on food security. Mean ± SEM changes in household food security score and food security score among household adults from baseline to 1-y follow-up were 1.2 ± 0.4 and 0.9 ± 0.3 units lower, respectively, in the intervention group than in the control group (P security score from baseline to 1-y follow-up among household children was not significantly different in the intervention group compared with the control group. SNAP-Ed improved food security over a longitudinal time frame among low-income Indiana households with children in this study. SNAP-Ed may be a successful intervention to improve food security. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. The Australian National Sub-acute and Non-acute Patient Casemix Classification (AN-SNAP): its application and value in a stroke rehabilitation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowthian, P; Disler, P; Ma, S; Eagar, K; Green, J; de Graaff, S

    2000-10-01

    To investigate whether the Australian National Sub-acute and Non-acute Patient Casemix Classification (SNAP) and Functional Independence Measure and Functional Related Group (Version 2) (FIM-FRG2) casemix systems can be used to predict functional outcome, and reduce the variance of length of stay (LOS) of patients undergoing rehabilitation after strokes. The study comprised a retrospective analysis of the records of patients admitted to the Cedar Court Healthsouth Rehabilitation Hospital for rehabilitation after stroke. The sample included 547 patients (83.3% of those admitted with stroke during this period). Patient data were stratified for analysis into the five SNAP or nine FIM-FRG2 groups, on the basis of the admission FIM scores and age. The AN-SNAP classification accounted for a 30.7% reduction of the variance of LOS, and 44.2% of motor FIM, and the FIM-FRG2 accounts for 33.5% and 56.4% reduction respectively. Comparison of the Cedar Court with the national AN-SNAP data showed differences in the LOS and functional outcomes of older, severely disabled patients. Intensive rehabilitation in selected patients of this type appears to have positive effects, albeit with a slightly longer period of inpatient rehabilitation. Casemix classifications can be powerful management tools. Although FIM-FRG2 accounts for more reduction in variance than SNAP, division into nine groups meant that some contained few subjects. This paper supports the introduction of AN-SNAP as the standard casemix tool for rehabilitation in Australia, which will hopefully lead to rational, adequate funding of the rehabilitation phase of care.

  19. Enzymatic approaches to rare sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    Rare sugars have recently attracted much attention because of their potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. A systematic strategy for enzymatic production of rare sugars, named Izumoring, was developed >10years ago. The strategy consists of aldose-ketose isomerization, ketose C-3 epimerization, and monosaccharide oxidation-reduction. Recent development of the Izumoring strategy is reviewed herein, especially the genetic approaches to the improvement of rare sugar-producing enzymes and the applications of target-oriented bioconversion. In addition, novel non-Izumoring enzymatic approaches are also summarized, including enzymatic condensation, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cascade reaction, aldose epimerization, ulosonic acid decarboxylation, and biosynthesis of rare disaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism...... and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  1. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  2. Atrazine alters expression of reproductive and stress genes in the developing hypothalamus of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Kathryn L G; Rhen, Turk

    2016-07-29

    Atrazine is an herbicide used to control broadleaf grasses and a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. Snapping turtles lay eggs between late May and early June, which could lead to atrazine exposure via field runoff. Our goal was to determine whether a single exposure to 2ppb or 40ppb atrazine during embryogenesis could induce short- and long-term changes in gene expression within the hypothalamus of snapping turtles. We treated eggs with atrazine following sex determination and measured gene expression within the hypothalamus. We selected genes a priori for their role in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axes of the endocrine system. We did not identify any changes in gene expression 24-h after treatment. However, at hatching AR, Kiss1R, and POMC expression was upregulated in both sexes, while expression of CYP19A1 and PDYN was increased in females. Six months after hatching, CYP19A1 and PRLH expression was increased in animals treated with 2ppb atrazine. Our study shows persistent changes in hypothalamic gene expression due to low-dose embryonic exposure to the herbicide atrazine with significant effects in both the HPG and HPA axes. Effects reported here appear to be conserved among vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum fertilizer on soil microbial community composition, enzyme activities and snap bean growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Cai, Chen; Thabit, Mohamed; Wang, Pu; Li, Guomin; Duan, Ziheng

    2016-10-01

    The dry mycelium fertilizer (DMF) was produced from penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM) following an acid-heating pretreatment to degrade the residual penicillin. In this study, it was applied into soil as fertilizer to investigate its effects on soil properties, phytotoxicity, microbial community composition, enzyme activities, and growth of snap bean in greenhouse. As the results show, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and organic matter of soil with DMF treatments were generally higher than CON treatment. In addition, the applied DMF did not cause heavy metal and residual drug pollution of the modified soil. The lowest GI values (<0.3) were recorded at DMF8 (36 kg DMF/plat) on the first days after applying the fertilizer, indicating that severe phytotoxicity appeared in the DMF8-modified soil. Results of microbial population and enzyme activities illustrated that DMF was rapidly decomposed and the decomposition process significantly affected microbial growth and enzyme activities. The DMF-modified soil phytotoxicity decreased at the late fertilization time. DMF1 was considered as the optimum amount of DMF dose based on principal component analysis scores. Plant height and plant yield of snap bean were remarkably enhanced with the optimum DMF dose.

  4. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Bjerg Bennike

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control (“Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples” [1]. We here report the data from the analysis. The comparative analysis was performed on 24 colon mucosa biopsies, extracted from the sigmoideum of two gastroenterologically healthy participants for the purpose of this study. A set of biopsies were additionally stored for 30 min at room temperature prior to formalin-fixation. The samples were analyzed by high throughput gel free quantitative proteomics. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002029. Keywords: Human, Colon, Mucosa, RNAlater, FFPE, Snap-frozen, Stability, LC–MS, Proteomics

  5. Cleavage of SNAP25 and its shorter versions by the protease domain of serotype A botulinum neurotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Mizanur

    Full Text Available Various substrates, catalysts, and assay methods are currently used to screen inhibitors for their effect on the proteolytic activity of botulinum neurotoxin. As a result, significant variation exists in the reported results. Recently, we found that one source of variation was the use of various catalysts, and have therefore evaluated its three forms. In this paper, we characterize three substrates under near uniform reaction conditions using the most active catalytic form of the toxin. Bovine serum albumin at varying optimum concentrations stimulated enzymatic activity with all three substrates. Sodium chloride had a stimulating effect on the full length synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25 and its 66-mer substrates but had an inhibitory effect on the 17-mer substrate. We found that under optimum conditions, full length SNAP25 was a better substrate than its shorter 66-mer or 17-mer forms both in terms of kcat, Km, and catalytic efficiency kcat/Km. Assay times greater than 15 min introduced large variations and significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency. In addition to characterizing the three substrates, our results identify potential sources of variations in previous published results, and underscore the importance of using well-defined reaction components and assay conditions.

  6. Sugar export limits size of conifer needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademaker, Hanna; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Bohr, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaf size varies by more than three orders of magnitude, from a few millimeters to over one meter. Conifer leaves, however, are relatively short and the majority of needles are no longer than 6 cm. The reason for the strong confinement of the trait-space is unknown. We show that sugars...... does not contribute to sugar flow. Remarkably, we find that the size of the active part does not scale with needle length. We predict a single maximum needle size of 5 cm, in accord with data from 519 conifer species. This could help rationalize the recent observation that conifers have significantly...

  7. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  8. A Loose Relationship: Incomplete H+/Sugar Coupling in the MFS Sugar Transporter GlcP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Zabadne, Annas J; Salisowski, Anastasia; Madej, M Gregor; Fendler, Klaus

    2017-12-19

    The glucose transporter from Staphylococcus epidermidis, GlcP Se , is a homolog of the human GLUT sugar transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Together with the xylose transporter from Escherichia coli, XylE Ec , the other prominent prokaryotic GLUT homolog, GlcP Se , is equipped with a conserved proton-binding site arguing for an electrogenic transport mode. However, the electrophysiological analysis of GlcP Se presented here reveals important differences between the two GLUT homologs. GlcP Se , unlike XylE Ec , does not perform steady-state electrogenic transport at symmetrical pH conditions. Furthermore, when a pH gradient is applied, partially uncoupled transport modes can be generated. In contrast to other bacterial sugar transporters analyzed so far, in GlcP Se sugar binding, translocation and release are also accomplished by the deprotonated transporter. Based on these experimental results, we conclude that coupling of sugar and H + transport is incomplete in GlcP Se . To verify the viability of the observed partially coupled GlcP Se transport modes, we propose a universal eight-state kinetic model in which any degree of coupling is realized and H + /sugar symport represents only a specific instance. Furthermore, using sequence comparison with strictly coupled XylE Ec and similar sugar transporters, we identify an additional charged residue that may be essential for effective H + /sugar symport. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiration-dependent utilization of sugars in yeasts: a determinant role for sugar transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Iliana; Donnini, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    In many yeast species, including Kluyveromyces lactis, growth on certain sugars (such as galactose, raffinose, and maltose) occurs only under respiratory conditions. If respiration is blocked by inhibitors, mutation, or anaerobiosis, growth does not take place. This apparent dependence on respiration for the utilization of certain sugars has often been suspected to be associated with the mechanism of the sugar uptake step. We hypothesized that in many yeast species, the permease activities for these sugars are not sufficient to ensure the high substrate flow that is necessary for fermentative growth. By introducing additional sugar permease genes, we have obtained K. lactis strains that were capable of growing on galactose and raffinose in the absence of respiration. High dosages of both the permease and maltase genes were indeed necessary for K. lactis cells to grow on maltose in the absence of respiration. These results strongly suggest that the sugar uptake step is the major bottleneck in the fermentative assimilation of certain sugars in K. lactis and probably in many other yeasts.

  10. COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR DETERMINATION OF COST DAILY SUGAR PRODUCTION AND INCIDENTS DECISIONS FOR COMPANIES SUGAR (SACODI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of sugar production is complex; anything that affects this chain has direct repercussions in the sugar production’s costs, it’s synthetic and decisive indicator for the taking of decisions. Currently the Cuban sugar factory determine this cost weekly, for that, its process of taking of decisions is affected. Looking for solutions to this problem, the present work, being part of a territorial project approved by CITMA, intended to calculate the cost of production daily, weekly, monthly and accumulated until indicated date, according to an adaptation to the methodology used by the National Costs System of sugarcane created by the MINAZ, it’s supported by a computer system denominated SACODI. This adaptation registers the physical and economic indicators of all direct and indirect expenses of the  sugarcane and besides this information generates an economic-mathematical model of goal programming whose solution indicates the best balance in amount of sugar of the entities of the sugar factory, in short term. The implementation of the system in the sugar factory «Julio A. Mella» in Santiago de Cuba in the sugar-cane production 08-09 produced an estimate of decrease of the cost of until 3,5 % for the taking of better decisions. 

  11. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Erickson; Joanne Slavin

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  12. Dynamics of sugar-metabolic enzymes and sugars accumulation during watermelon (citrullus lanatus) fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed sugar accumulation and the activities of sugar-metabolic enzymes in ripening fruits of three cultivars of watermelon; a high-sugar type w2, a low-sugar type (w1), and their hybrid. In w2, the glucose and fructose contents were higher than the sucrose content in the earlier stage of fruit development, and fruit growth was accompanied by increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents. The sucrose content increased substantially after 20 days after anthesis (DAA) and it was the main soluble sugar in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.71). In W, the fructose and glucose contents were significantly higher than the sucrose content in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.25). Comparing the two parent cultivars, sucrose was the most important factor affecting the total sugar content in mature fruit, although glucose and fructose also contributed to total sugar contents. The fructose and glucose contents in the fruit of F1 were mid-way between those of their parents, while the sucrose content was closer to that of W (sucrose:hexoses ratio in F1, 0.26). In the early stage of fruit development of W2, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. After 20 DAA, the acid invertase and neutral invertase activities decreased and those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase increased, leading to increased sucrose content. In W1, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase at the early stage. The sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were lower in W1 than in W2 at the later stages of fruit development. The patterns of sugar accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities during fruit development in F1 were similar to those in W1. (author)

  13. Biomass by-product from crystal sugar production: A comparative study between Ngadirejo and Mauritius sugar mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan; Bantacut, T.; Romli, M.; Noor, E.

    2018-03-01

    Sugarcane has been used as raw material in crystal sugar industry. Sugar cane that contains high sugar will be utilized into crystals sugar. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane is large enough in 2016 approximately 360 713 tons/year. Crystal sugar itself is a daily necessity for its use in the food and beverage industry. Problem that occurs in Indonesia is the energy consumption. The sugar mills supposed to be an independent energy source which means it can produce its own energy by utilization the material that is available in the sugar mills such as by-product (bagasse, molasses, filter cake, etc.), the by product in every production stage are quite a lot in sugar industry especially in Indonesia. In this paper, a comparison between two sugar mills was examined between Ngedirejo sugar mill and Mauritius sugar mill which has the same geological state as Indonesia. The results of comparison between the two sugar factories demonstrated the difference in terms of productivity of the sugar that has been produced and the effectiveness of the production process in a sugar mill seen from the amount of waste and the by product.

  14. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  15. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2018-03-01

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  16. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  17. Utilization of sugar beets iin alcohol plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N M

    1958-01-01

    It is shown that it is easily possible to switch EtOH plants, which have used potatoes as raw material, to sugar beets. The whole regime is presented with respect to volumes, temperatures, amounts, and yields in the various steps.

  18. Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Goodwin, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from 14 C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN 3 , HgCl 2 , dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated

  19. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. ... and Lin [3] and Ghatak et al [4] have studied the use of optical fibers as sensing elements. ... at the interface, an evanescent wave propagates parallel to the interface. .... the ends of the fiber are fixed with fiber holders on either side.

  20. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  1. Mapping sugar beet pectin acetylation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Bonnin, Estelle; Quéméner, Bernard; Hellìn, Pilar; Thibault, Jean-François

    2005-08-01

    Homogalacturonan-derived partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates were recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (endo-polygalacturonase+pectin methyl esterase+side-chain degrading enzymes) of sugar beet pectin followed by anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Around 90% of the GalA and 75% of the acetyl groups present in the initial sugar beet pectin were recovered as homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates, the remaining GalA and acetyl belonging to rhamnogalacturonic regions. Around 50% of the acetyl groups present in sugar beet homogalacturonans were recovered as partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerisation 5 whose structures were determined by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). 2-O-acetyl- and 3-O-acetyl-GalA were detected in roughly similar amounts but 2,3-di-O-acetylation was absent. Methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred mainly upstream 2-O-acetyl GalA. Oligogalacturonates containing GalA residues that are at once methyl- and acetyl-esterified were recovered in very limited amounts. A tentative mapping of the distribution of acetyl and methyl esters within sugar beet homogalacturonans is proposed. Unsubstituted GalA residues are likely to be present in limited amounts (approximately 10% of total GalA residues), due to the fact that methyl and acetyl groups are assumed to be most often not carried by the same residues.

  2. Sugar pine management—an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Averell; John C. Crowell; Clarence R. Quick; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1955-01-01

    The purposes of this bibliography are to enumerate and describe publications that have a bearing on the growing of sugar pine for timber production. It is intended primarily for the information of forest managers, and it includes mainly those articles which appeared to pertain rather directly to management. Although a careful search was made for titles, no claim is...

  3. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Gao

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Combined overconsumption of fat and sugar, but not the overconsumption of fat per se, leads to excessive CML production in hypothalamic neurons, which, in turn, stimulates hypothalamic inflammatory responses such as microgliosis and eventually leads to neuronal dysfunction in the control of energy metabolism.

  4. Building improved models of sugar maple mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Patrick L. Zimmerman

    2012-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the northern United States is causing concern, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees. Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies is purposive in nature; soil properties are assessed only on those plots where dead...

  5. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  6. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the

  7. Decolorization of turbid sugar juice from sugar factory using waste powdered carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Hind; Ahmed, Youssef; El-Shafey, Ola; El-Shafey, Shaymaa; Fouad, Rasha; Shoueir, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Waste management of powdered activated carbon from cyclone of some sugar factories was used for decolorization of sugar mud juice (SMJ) in this study. The presence of powdered activated carbon waste (PACW) was admitted again for their use in SMJ decolorization. The determined specific surface area are typically S BET = 613.887 m2/g and the pore distribution lies in mesoporous domain. Color removal (CR%) and decolorization capacity (DC) of the characterized PACW are similar to those of decolorants used at this time for sugar refining. The CR% with PACW reached 81.03% at pH7.0 and dosed in the amount 0.5 g/50 ml of SMJ. There are two acceptable mechanisms illustrates the attachments between phenols and carboxylate ions. In this paper, we put a simple and rapid dark liquid decolorization by controlling rejected carbon waste, which will be useful for treatment of dark liquid sugar.

  8. Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

  9. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  10. Comparative study of effects of table sugar, laboratory grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    In the second phase of the experiment, the quantity of carbohydrates ... Key words: Banana, tissue culture, sugars, table sugar, laboratory grade sucrose, mannitol. ..... 9. TAIZ, L. & ZEIGER, E., 2006. Stress physiology. Plant Physiology, Taiz, L.

  11. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND... present a certificate to the appropriate customs official at the date of entry of specialty sugars. Entry...

  12. Sugar maple ecology and health: proceedings of an international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; eds.

    1999-01-01

    Contains 28 papers and abstracts on sugar maple history and ecology; recent sugar maple declines; nutrient and belowground dynamics in northeastern forests; and interactions of forest health with biotic and abiotic stressors.

  13. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains...... unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly...... to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar...

  14. Widespread sugar maple decline and regeneration failure in the Adirondacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry C. Jenkins; Elizabeth Moffett; Daphne Ross

    1999-01-01

    Over large areas of the Adirondacks, hardwood stands whose canopies are dominated by or contain abundant mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) have almost no sugar maple saplings or seedlings in the understory.

  15. Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  16. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  17. Sugar amount analysis in food from Lithuanian food market

    OpenAIRE

    Gudauskaitė, Milda

    2015-01-01

    When taking too much simple sugar, especially sucrose, harmful health effects occur: more tooth decay occurs, the excess sugar coverts into fat, digestive system gets irritated, increase of weight, possibility in increasing of developing cancer cells, pancreatic and other misbalances in the endocrine organs. Thesis goal: to perform sugar amount analysis in Lithuanian food market Analysis methodology. Assessing the amount of sugar (g/100g) there was analyzed 147 major food la...

  18. Sugar and metabolic health: is there still a debate?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, JB; Fielding, BA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review: There is considerable political and public awareness of new recommendations to reduce sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in our diets. It is therefore timely to review the most recent changes in guidelines, with a focus on evidence for metabolic health, recent research in the area and gaps in our knowledge. Recent findings: Sufficient evidence links a high intake of sugar to dental caries and obesity, and high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages in particular to increase...

  19. 75 FR 21050 - V-GPO, Inc., Valesc Holdings, Inc., Venture Stores, Inc., Vertigo Theme Parks, Inc. (f/k/a Snap2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] V-GPO, Inc., Valesc Holdings, Inc., Venture Stores, Inc., Vertigo Theme Parks, Inc. (f/k/a Snap2 Corp.), Videolan Technologies, Inc., VisionGateway... Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Vertigo...

  20. Evaluation of diamide insecticides co-applied with other agrochemicals at various times to manage Ostrinia nubilalis in processing snap bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseth, Anders S; Groves, Russell L; Chapman, Scott A; Nault, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    Multiple applications of pyrethroid insecticides are used to manage European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, in snap bean, but new diamide insecticides may reduce application frequency. In a 2 year small-plot study, O. nubilalis control was evaluated by applying cyantraniliprole (diamide) and bifenthrin (pyrethroid) insecticides at one of three phenological stages (bud, bloom and pod formation) of snap bean development. Co-application of these insecticides with either herbicides or fungicides was also examined as a way to reduce the total number of sprays during a season. Cyantraniliprole applications timed either during bloom or during pod formation controlled O. nubilalis better than similar timings of bifenthrin. Co-applications of insecticides with fungicides controlled O. nubilalis as well as insecticide applications alone. Insecticides applied either alone or with herbicides during bud stage did not control this pest. Diamides are an alternative to pyrethroids for the management of O. nubilalis in snap bean. Adoption of diamides by snap bean growers could improve the efficiency of production by reducing the number of sprays required each season. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Increases in snap bean and soybean seedling diseases associated with a chloride salt and changes in the micro-partitioning of tap root calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a series of field experiments from 1995 through 2010, the incidence of seedling diseases of snap bean and soybean caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium spp., and Fusarium spp. was greater with an application of KCl than with K2SO4 applied at 93 kg K/ha. To determine if th...

  2. EBT Payment for Online Grocery Orders: a Mixed-Methods Study to Understand Its Uptake among SNAP Recipients and the Barriers to and Motivators for Its Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Olivia; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Rodriguez, Noemi; Athens, Jessica; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2018-04-01

    To examine Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients' use of the first online supermarket accepting Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) payment. In this mixed-methods study, the authors collected EBT purchase data from an online grocer and attempted a randomized controlled trial in the South Bronx, New York City, followed by focus groups with SNAP beneficiaries aged ≥18 years. Participants were randomized to shop at their usual grocery store or an online supermarket for 3 months. Focus groups explored barriers and motivators to online EBT redemption. Few participants made online purchases, even when incentivized in the randomized controlled trial. Qualitative findings highlighted a lack of perceived control over the online food selection process as a key barrier to purchasing food online. Motivators included fast, free shipping and discounts. Electronic Benefit Transfer for online grocery purchases has the potential to increase food access among SNAP beneficiaries, but challenges exist to this new food buying option. Understanding online food shopping barriers and motivators is critical to the success of policies targeting the online expansion of SNAP benefits. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining Internet Access and Social Media Application Use for Online Nutrition Education in SNAP-Ed Participants in Rural Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehmer, Emily; Smith, Sylvia; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Davis, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    To examine Internet access and interest in receiving nutrition education via social media applications among low-income adults participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed). A cross-sectional survey was distributed during 25 SNAP-Ed classes throughout the 16 southernmost counties of Illinois. From 188 responses, the majority of participants had Internet access (76%). Among participants aged 18-32 years (n = 51), 92% owned a smartphone with Internet access and 57% indicated that they would use online nutrition education, with most interest in e-mail (41%), Facebook (40%), and text messaging (35%). There was little interest in using blogs, Vine, Twitter, Tumblr, and Pinterest. Overall, 49% of middle-aged adults aged 33-64 years and 87% of seniors aged ≥65 years reported they would not use online nutrition education. Results indicated similar Internet accessibility in southern Illinois among low-income populations compared with national rural rates. Interest in using online nutrition education varied among SNAP-Ed participants according to age. Young adults appeared to be the most captive audience regarding online nutrition education. Results may be useful to agencies implementing SNAP-Ed to supplement current curriculum with online nutrition education for audiences aged ≤32 years. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]SNAP-7941 – the first PET tracer for the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Cécile; Nics, Lukas; Zeilinger, Markus; Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas; Mairinger, Severin; Shanab, Karem; Spreitzer, Helmut; Viernstein, Helmut; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to its involvement in a variety of pathologies (obesity, diabetes, gut inflammation and depression), the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a new target for the treatment of these lifestyle diseases. We previously presented the radiosynthesis of [ 11 C]SNAP-7941, the first potential PET tracer for the MCHR1. Methods: We herein present its in vitro and in vivo evaluation, including binding affinity, plasma stability, stability against liver mircrosomes and carboxylesterase, lipohilicity, biodistribution, in vivo metabolism and small-animal PET. Results: [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 evinced high stability against liver microsomes, carboxylesterase and in human plasma. The first small-animal PET experiments revealed a 5 fold increased brain uptake after Pgp/BCRP inhibition. Therefore, it can be assumed that [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 is a Pgp/BCRP substrate. No metabolites were found in brain. Conclusion: On the basis of these experiments with healthy rats, the suitability of [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 for the visualisation of central and peripheral MCHR1 remains speculative

  5. The SNAP-25 gene is associated with cognitive ability: evidence from a family-based study in two independent Dutch cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosso, M.F.; de Geus, E.J.C.; van Belzen, MJ; Polderman, T.J.C.; Heutink, P.; Boomsma, D.I.; Posthuma, D.

    2006-01-01

    The synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) gene plays an integral role in synaptic transmission, and is differentially expressed in the mammalian brain in the neocortex, hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra and cerebellar granular cells. Recent studies have suggested

  6. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  7. Factors associated with the acceptance of sugar and sugar substitutes by the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D A

    1985-09-01

    Acceptance is described in both market and sensory research terminology and recent developments in the fields of applied psychology and physiology are examined for their pertinence to public acceptance of sucrose and its substitutes. Information on the function of sucrose in foods other than beverages is presented with emphasis on salivation as an acceptance factor and attention is drawn to its possible dental significance. Distinctions are made between the sweetening and bulking properties of sucrose and sugar substitutes. Factors having a bearing on the acceptance of sweet foods and the determination of their optimal sugar content are described in detail. While major decreases in sucrose intake in the US resulted from high-fructose corn-sweetener usage in soft drinks, no evidence is yet available to suggest that the use of sugar substitutes of the intense artificial sweetener type has caused any decrease in ordinary sugar consumption. Neither is the consumption of polyols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol) high enough in confectionery categories to cause any discernible decrease in sugar usage. The evidence suggests not so much that sugar substitutes may have stopped the growth in sucrose usage, but that new product categories such as diet foods and "sugarless' confections may have been created. These categories were never available to fermentable carbohydrate sweeteners and equivalence in acceptance to sucrose-sweetened products was not an important factor in their growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  9. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the

  10. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling, classifying...

  11. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  12. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  13. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  14. Possibility as monosaccharide laxative of rare sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosaka, Kazumasa

    2009-05-01

    Allitol, D-talitol and L-iditol are sugar alcohols that are rare in nature. Due to their previous rarity, little is known about the laxative effects of these rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, reliable data on the laxative effect that these sugar alcohols cause in experimental animals could help to evaluate the effectiveness of new monosaccharide laxative drugs. To investigate the laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to observe the diarrhea that occurred after oral administration of these sugar alcohols in mice. Moreover, to investigate the influence on intestinal function of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to examine small intestine transit and the luminal water content. Results indicated that rare sugar alcohols have a laxative effect in mice. Diarrhea started at a dose of 4.95 g/kg of rare sugar alcohols. There was a statistically significant laxative effect for D-talitol and L-iditol at a dose of 9.9 g/kg as compared to vehicle. Moreover, rare sugar alcohols significantly increased the small intestinal transit and the luminal water content of the small intestine and cecum in mice as compared to each vehicle. Overall, L-iditol greatly changes the function of intestine. In conclusion, rare sugar alcohols increase water content in small intestine and accelerate small intestine transit. These results support laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, rare sugar alcohols may be useful as monosaccharide laxatives and may be used to treat constipation.

  15. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Kibblewhite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ food composition database (FOODfiles 2010 by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  16. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and

  17. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  18. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  19. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Sugar Price Policy on U.S. Imports of Processed Sugar-containing foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jabara, Cathy L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of sugar protection, as well as the effects of these other factors, on U.S. demand for imports of sugar-containing products. The paper also addresses two main issues: (1) whether substitution of alternative sweeteners has allowed U.S. food manufactures to reduce the competitive advantage provided to foreign manufactures by U.S. sugar policies, and (2) which countries -- developed or developing -- have been able to increase their exports of sugar-containing prod...

  1. Effects of Thiamethoxam-Treated Seed on Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Nontarget Arthropods, and Crop Performance in Southwestern Virginia Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L; Kuhar, T P; Kring, T; Herbert, D A; Arancibia, R; Schultz, P

    2017-12-08

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide commonly applied directly to the seeds (seed-treatment) of commercial snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. While previous studies have examined target and nontarget effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments in snap beans and other crops, to our knowledge, none have been conducted in agroecosystems predominated by the pest Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). This study examined the effects of thiamethoxam-treated snap beans on E. varivestis, other arthropods, and crop performance in southwestern Virginia. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate residual toxicity of treated snap beans to E. varivestis and a key predator, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Treated plants were highly toxic to E. varivestis at 13 d, moderately toxic from 16 to 20 d, and minimally toxic at 24 d. P. maculiventris was unaffected by exposure to treated plants or by feeding on E. varivestis that consumed treated plants. Small plot field experiments in 2014 and 2015 showed no significant effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments on E. varivestis densities, other arthropods, crop injury, or yield. In 2016, planting was delayed by persistent rain, resulting in early E. varivestis colonization. In this year, thiamethoxam-treated plants had significantly lower densities and feeding injury from E. varivestis, followed by significantly higher yields. Natural enemies were unaffected by seed-treatments in all field experiments. These experiments demonstrated that thiamethoxam seed-treatments provide control of E. varivestis when beetles infest fields within 2 to 3 wk after planting; but otherwise provide negligible advantages. Negative effects from thiamethoxam seed-treatments on nontarget arthropods appear minimal for snap beans in this region. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  2. Interactions Between SNAP-25 and Synaptotagmin-1 Are Involved in Vesicle Priming, Clamping Spontaneous and Stimulating Evoked Neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schupp, Melanie; Malsam, Jörg; Ruiter, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    between region I (vesicle priming) and region II (evoked release). Spontaneous release was disinhibited by region I mutations and found to correlate with defective complexin (Cpx) clamping in an in vitro fusion assay, pointing to an interdependent role of synaptotagmin and Cpx in release clamping...... triggering, depend on direct SNARE complex interaction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The function of synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1):soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) interactions during neurotransmission remains unclear. We mutated SNAP-25 within the recently identified region I and region II...... was disinhibited by region I mutation and found to correlate with defective complexin (Cpx) clamping in vitro, pointing to an interdependent role of synaptotagmin and Cpx in release clamping. Therefore, vesicle priming, clamping spontaneous release, and eliciting evoked release are three different functions of syt...

  3. Subcellular localization of proteins in the anaerobic sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris via SNAP-tag labeling and photoconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorur, A.; Leung, C. M.; Jorgens, D.; Tauscher, A.; Remis, J. P.; Ball, D. A.; Chhabra, S.; Fok, V.; Geller, J. T.; Singer, M.; Hazen, T. C.; Juba, T.; Elias, D.; Wall, J.; Biggin, M.; Downing, K. H.; Auer, M.

    2010-06-01

    Systems Biology studies the temporal and spatial 3D distribution of macromolecular complexes with the aim that such knowledge will allow more accurate modeling of biological function and will allow mathematical prediction of cellular behavior. However, in order to accomplish accurate modeling precise knowledge of spatial 3D organization and distribution inside cells is necessary. And while a number of macromolecular complexes may be identified by its 3D structure and molecular characteristics alone, the overwhelming number of proteins will need to be localized using a reporter tag. GFP and its derivatives (XFPs) have been traditionally employed for subcelllar localization using photoconversion approaches, but this approach cannot be taken for obligate anaerobic bacteria, where the intolerance towards oxygen prevents XFP approaches. As part of the GTL-funded PCAP project (now ENIGMA) genetic tools have been developed for the anaerobe sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris that allow the high-throughput generation of tagged-protein mutant strains, with a focus on the commercially available SNAP-tag cell system (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA), which is based on a modified O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) tag, that has a dead-end reaction with a modified O6-benzylguanine (BG) derivative and has been shown to function under anaerobic conditions. After initial challenges with respect to variability, robustness and specificity of the labeling signal we have optimized the labeling. Over the last year, as a result of the optimized labeling protocol, we now obtain robust labeling of 20 out of 31 SNAP strains. Labeling for 13 strains were confirmed at least five times. We have also successfully performed photoconversion on 5 of these 13 strains, with distinct labeling patterns for different strains. For example, DsrC robustly localizes to the periplasmic portion of the inner membrane, where as a DNA-binding protein localizes to the center of the cell, where the

  4. Capacidade antioxidante total de óleos vegetais comestíveis: determinantes químicos e sua relação com a qualidade dos óleos Total antioxidant capacity of edible vegetable oils: chemical determinants and associations with oil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Naciuk Castelo-Branco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade antioxidante total de óleos vegetais comestíveis é determinada por sua composição físico-química e pode estar associada a atributos de qualidade dos óleos, especialmente a sua bioatividade e possivelmente a sua estabilidade oxidativa. Este artigo apresenta os fundamentos dos ensaios de capacidade antioxidante total e avalia criticamente os ensaios aplicáveis na análise de óleos e os pontos críticos nas aplicações dos ensaios para a análise dessas amostras. Discute-se o potencial papel dos componentes químicos dos óleos comestíveis como determinantes da capacidade antioxidante total, assim como a possível relação da capacidade antioxidante com a bioatividade e a estabilidade oxidativa dos óleos. Finalmente, discutem-se evidências de que, caso seja sistematicamente investigado em trabalhos experimentais futuros, o uso de ensaios de capacidade antioxidante total na análise de óleos vegetais pode contribuir para integrar o conhecimento da composição química com a bioatividade e possivelmente com a estabilidade de óleos vegetais específicos. Dessa forma, os ensaios de capacidade antioxidante apresentam potencial para aplicação no controle da qualidade integral de óleos comestíveis.The total antioxidant capacity of edible vegetable oils is determined by their physical-chemical composition and might be associated with their quality attributes, especially with bioactivity and possibly with oxidative stability. The current review presents the fundamentals of total antioxidant capacity assays and critically evaluates the assays applicable to the analysis of oils. The role of the chemical components of edible oils as determinants of total antioxidant capacity is discussed, as well as the potential associations between antioxidant capacity and bioactivity or oxidative stability of the selected oils. Finally, we discuss evidences that, if systematically addressed in future experimental work, the application of

  5. Embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) preferentially regulate intracellular tissue pH during acid-base challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartau, Ryan B; Crossley, Dane A; Kohl, Zachary F; Brauner, Colin J

    2016-07-01

    The nests of embryonic turtles naturally experience elevated CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood PCO2  and a respiratory acidosis, resulting in reduced blood pH [extracellular pH (pHe)]. Some fishes preferentially regulate tissue pH [intracellular pH (pHi)] against changes in pHe; this has been proposed to be associated with exceptional CO2 tolerance and has never been identified in amniotes. As embryonic turtles may be CO2 tolerant based on nesting strategy, we hypothesized that they preferentially regulate pHi, conferring tolerance to severe acute acid-base challenges. This hypothesis was tested by investigating pH regulation in common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) reared in normoxia then exposed to hypercarbia (13 kPa PCO2 ) for 1 h at three developmental ages: 70% and 90% of incubation, and yearlings. Hypercarbia reduced pHe but not pHi, at all developmental ages. At 70% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.324 pH units while pHi of brain, white muscle and lung increased; heart, liver and kidney pHi remained unchanged. At 90% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.352 pH units but heart pHi increased with no change in pHi of other tissues. Yearlings exhibited a pHe reduction of 0.235 pH units but had no changes in pHi of any tissues. The results indicate common snapping turtles preferentially regulate pHi during development, but the degree of response is reduced throughout development. This is the first time preferential pHi regulation has been identified in an amniote. These findings may provide insight into the evolution of acid-base homeostasis during development of amniotes, and vertebrates in general. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Expression of putative sex-determining genes during the thermosensitive period of gonad development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Metzger, K; Schroeder, A; Woodward, R

    2007-01-01

    Modes of sex determination are quite variable in vertebrates. The developmental decision to form a testis or an ovary can be influenced by one gene, several genes, environmental variables, or a combination of these factors. Nevertheless, certain morphogenetic aspects of sex determination appear to be conserved in amniotes. Here we clone fragments of nine candidate sex-determining genes from the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). We then analyze expression of these genes during the thermosensitive period of gonad development. In particular, we compare gene expression profiles in gonads from embryos incubated at a male-producing temperature to those from embryos at a female-producing temperature. Expression of Dmrt1 and Sox9 mRNA increased gradually at the male-producing temperature, but was suppressed at the female-producing temperature. This finding suggests that Dmrt1 and Sox9 play a role in testis development. In contrast, expression of aromatase, androgen receptor (Ar), and Foxl2 mRNA was constant at the male-producing temperature, but increased several-fold in embryos at the female-producing temperature. Aromatase, Ar, and Foxl2 may therefore play a role in ovary development. In addition, there was a small temperature effect on ER alpha expression with lower mRNA levels found in embryos at the female-producing temperature. Finally, Dax1, Fgf9, and SF-1 were not differentially expressed during the sex-determining period, suggesting these genes are not involved in sex determination in the snapping turtle. Comparison of gene expression profiles among amniotes indicates that Dmrt1 and Sox9 are part of a core testis-determining pathway and that Ar, aromatase, ER alpha, and Foxl2 are part of a core ovary-determining pathway. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Phenotypic plasticity in the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina): long-term physiological effects of chronic hypoxia during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Oliver H; Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-15

    Studies of embryonic and hatchling reptiles have revealed marked plasticity in morphology, metabolism, and cardiovascular function following chronic hypoxic incubation. However, the long-term effects of chronic hypoxia have not yet been investigated in these animals. The aim of this study was to determine growth and postprandial O2 consumption (V̇o2), heart rate (fH), and mean arterial pressure (Pm, in kPa) of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) that were incubated as embryos in chronic hypoxia (10% O2, H10) or normoxia (21% O2, N21). We hypothesized that hypoxic development would modify posthatching body mass, metabolic rate, and cardiovascular physiology in juvenile snapping turtles. Yearling H10 turtles were significantly smaller than yearling N21 turtles, both of which were raised posthatching in normoxic, common garden conditions. Measurement of postprandial cardiovascular parameters and O2 consumption were conducted in size-matched three-year-old H10 and N21 turtles. Both before and 12 h after feeding, H10 turtles had a significantly lower fH compared with N21 turtles. In addition, V̇o2 was significantly elevated in H10 animals compared with N21 animals 12 h after feeding, and peak postprandial V̇o2 occurred earlier in H10 animals. Pm of three-year-old turtles was not affected by feeding or hypoxic embryonic incubation. Our findings demonstrate that physiological impacts of developmental hypoxia on embryonic reptiles continue into juvenile life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. EPINEPHRINE OR GV-26 ELECTRICAL STIMULATION REDUCES INHALANT ANESTHESTIC RECOVERY TIME IN COMMON SNAPPING TURTLES (CHELYDRA SERPENTINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Alexandra; Shmalberg, Justin; Gatson, Bonnie; Bartolini, Pia; Curtiss, Jeff; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged anesthetic recovery times are a common clinical problem in reptiles following inhalant anesthesia. Diving reptiles have numerous adaptations that allow them to submerge and remain apneic for extended periods. An ability to shunt blood away from pulmonary circulation, possibly due to changes in adrenergic tone, may contribute to their unpredictable inhalant anesthetic recovery times. Therefore, the use of epinephrine could antagonize this response and reduce recovery time. GV-26, an acupuncture point with reported β-adrenergic and respiratory effects, has reduced anesthetic recovery times in other species. In this prospective randomized crossover study, six common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were anesthetized with inhalant isoflurane for 90 min. Turtles were assigned one of three treatments, given immediately following discontinuation of isoflurane: a control treatment (0.9% saline, at 0.1 ml/kg i.m.), epinephrine (0.1 mg/kg i.m.), or acupuncture with electrical stimulation at GV-26. Each turtle received all treatments, and treatments were separated by 48 hr. Return of spontaneous ventilation was 55% faster in turtles given epinephrine and 58% faster in the GV-26 group versus saline (P < 0.001). The times to movement and to complete recovery were also significantly faster for both treatments than for saline (P < 0.02). Treated turtles displayed increases in temperature not documented in the control (P < 0.001). Turtles administered epinephrine showed significantly increased heart rates and end-tidal CO(2) (P < 0.001). No adverse effects were noted in the study animals. The mechanisms of action were not elucidated in the present investigation. Nevertheless, the use of parenteral epinephrine or GV-26 stimulation in the immediate postanesthetic period produces clinically relevant reductions in anesthetic recovery time in common snapping turtle. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effects of concurrent GV-26 and epinephrine administration

  9. An oscillating wave energy converter with nonlinear snap-through Power-Take-Off systems in regular waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-tao; Yang, Jian-min; Xiao, Long-fei

    2016-07-01

    Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter γ is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter γ affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter γ, which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.

  10. Turgor-mediated transport of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daie, J.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of 14 C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions

  11. How to Crack the Sugar Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, H-J

    2017-01-01

    The known ubiquitous presence of glycans fulfils an essential prerequisite for fundamental roles in cell sociology. Since carbohydrates are chemically predestined to form biochemical messages of a maximum of structural diversity in a minimum of space, coding of biological information by sugars is the reason for the broad occurrence of cellular glycoconjugates. Their glycans originate from sophisticated enzymatic assembly and dynamically adaptable remodelling. These signals are read and translated into effects by receptors (lectins). The functional pairing between lectins and their counterreceptor(s) is highly specific, often orchestrated by intimate co-regulation of the receptor, the cognate glycan and the bioactive scaffold (e.g., an integrin). Bottom-up approaches, teaming up synthetic and supramolecular chemistry to prepare fully programmable nanoparticles as binding partners with systematic network analysis of lectins and rational design of variants, enable us to delineate the rules of the sugar code.

  12. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  13. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  14. [Sugar and the birth of dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijs, F

    2004-06-01

    It took mankind some ten thousand years to get sugarcane from the Pacific to the Mediterranean. Once it reached Europe and the Europeans knew how to handle it, it took them only a hundred years to turn the production of sugar into the biggest industry of the world. Exactly in those hundred years the birth of modern medicine--and dentistry--is placed. This coincidence is too particular to be left unnoticed.

  15. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ≈ 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  17. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PASTE FROM SUGAR BEET OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a new technology for processing sugar beet into intermediate product for the food industry. Nowadays sugar beet is mainly used for processing into granulated sugar. In the granulated sugar obtaining sugar beet undergoes deep extraction of all nutrients: proteins, minerals, pectin, organic acids, preventing the crystallization process, and then the refined product (granulated sugar with a mass fraction of sucrose not less than 99.75% is obtained. We developed a technology for producing a sugar beet paste, which allows to preserve both sucrose, and almost all useful for human food substances containing in beet. A sugar beet paste is a valuable food product. Carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins are found in it. The block diagram of a sugar beet paste is given in the article. Technology of obtaining a sugar beet paste was tested under production conditions at the cannery (Joint Stock Company "Sadovoye" Liskinsky district,. Storozhevoe village, Voronezh region. The chemical composition of the paste (Dry Substances = 40% was determined, the degree of meeting of daily requirement for nutrients was calculated. 100 g of the product satisfy the daily requirement for dietary fiber by 42.5%, organic acids by 27.5% potassium by 24.0%, magnesium by 40.0%, iron by 26.7%. The sugar beet paste can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry, for products with increased nutritional value, as well as the finished product instead of marmalade and jam.

  18. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-06-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

  19. Sugars and Desiccation Tolerance in Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Karen L.; Leopold, A. Carl

    1988-01-01

    Soluble sugars have been shown to protect liposomes and lobster microsomes from desiccation damage, and a protective role has been proposed for them in several anhydrous systems. We have studied the relationship between soluble sugar content and the loss of desiccation tolerance in the axes of germinating soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams), pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska), and corn (Zea mays L. cv Merit) axes. The loss of desiccation tolerance during imbibition was monitored by following the ability of seeds to germinate after desiccation following various periods of preimbibition and by following the rates of electrolyte leakage from dried, then rehydrated axes. Finally, we analyzed the soluble sugar contents of the axes throughout the transition from desiccation tolerance to intolerance. These analyses show that sucrose and larger oligosaccharides were consistently present during the tolerant stage, and that desiccation tolerance disappeared as the oligosaccharides were lost. The results support the idea that sucrose may serve as the principal agent of desiccation tolerance in these seeds, with the larger oligosaccharides serving to keep the sucrose from crystallizing. PMID:16666392

  20. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  1. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition.

  2. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

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    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  3. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  4. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  5. Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, P.; Sabato, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  6. Comparison of a mouse and a novel human scFv-SNAP-auristatin F drug conjugate with potent activity against EGFR-overexpressing human solid tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitok M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mira Woitok,1,2 Diana Klose,1 Stefano Di Fiore,1 Wolfgang Richter,3 Christoph Stein,1 Gerrit Gresch,1 Elena Grieger,1 Stefan Barth,1 Rainer Fischer,1,2 Katharina Kolberg,1,* Judith Niesen1,* 1Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME, Aachen, Germany; 2Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (Biology VII, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; 3Tube Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Vienna, Austria *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs can deliver toxins to specific targets such as tumor cells. They have shown promise in preclinical/clinical development but feature stoichiometrically undefined chemical linkages, and those based on full-size antibodies achieve only limited tumor penetration. SNAP-tag technology can overcome these challenges by conjugating benzylguanine-modified toxins to single-chain fragment variables (scFvs with 1:1 stoichio­metry while preserving antigen binding. Two (human and mouse scFv-SNAP fusion proteins recognizing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR were expressed in HEK 293T cells. The purified fusion proteins were conjugated to auristatin F (AURIF. Binding activity was confirmed by flow cytometry/immunohistochemistry, and cytotoxic activity was confirmed by cell viability/apoptosis and cell cycle arrest assays, and a novel microtubule dynamics disassembly assay was performed. Both ADCs bound specifically to their target cells in vitro and ex vivo, indicating that the binding activity of the scFv-SNAP fusions was unaffected by conjugation to AURIF. Cytotoxic assays confirmed that the ADCs induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at nanomolar concentrations and microtubule disassembly. The SNAP-tag technology provides a platform for the development of novel ADCs with defined conjugation sites and stoichiometry. We achieved the stable and efficient linkage of AURIF to human or murine scFvs using the SNAP-tag technology, offering a strategy to

  7. Improved hemocompatibility of silicone rubber extracorporeal tubing via solvent swelling-impregnation of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and evaluation in rabbit thrombogenicity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Major, Terry C; Goudie, Marcus J; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Handa, Hitesh

    2016-06-01

    Blood-contacting devices, including extracorporeal circulation (ECC) circuits, can suffer from complications due to platelet activation and thrombus formation. Development of nitric oxide (NO) releasing polymers is one method to improve hemocompatibility, taking advantage of the ability of low levels of NO to prevent platelet activation/adhesion. In this study a novel solvent swelling method is used to load the walls of silicone rubber tubing with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). This SNAP-silicone rubber tubing exhibits an NO flux of ca. 1×10(-10)molcm(-2)min(-1), which mimics the range of NO release from the normal endothelium, which is stable for at least 4h. Images of the tubing before and after swelling, obtained via scanning electron microscopy, demonstrate that this swelling method has little effect on the surface properties of the tubing. The SNAP-loaded silicone rubber and silicone rubber control tubing are used to fabricate ECC circuits that are evaluated in a rabbit model of thrombogenicity. After 4h of blood flow, the SNAP-loaded silicone rubber circuits were able to preserve the blood platelet count at 64% of baseline (vs. 12% for silicone rubber control). A 67% reduction in the degree of thrombus formation within the thrombogenicity chamber was also observed. This study demonstrates the ability to improve the hemocompatibility of existing/commercial silicone rubber tubing via a simple solvent swelling-impregnation technique, which may also be applicable to other silicone-based blood-contacting devices. Localized nitric oxide (NO) release can be achieved from biomedical grade polymers doped with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). Despite the promising in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility results reported for these NO releasing polymers, many of these materials may face challenges in being translated to clinical applications, especially in the areas of polymer processing and manufacturing. In this study, we report a solvent

  8. Qualidade pós-colheita de caqui 'fuyu' com utilização de diferentes concentrações de cobertura comestível Postharvest quality of 'fuyu' persimmon using different concentrations of edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carvalho da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ao aplicar cera em frutas, tem-se o objetivo de criar uma película de proteção com a função de reduzir a perda de massa por evaporação e transpiração, e ainda diminuir a possibilidade de contaminação dos frutos por agentes causadores de podridão, melhorando assim o aspecto visual do produto. Dessa forma, é possível aumentar o tempo de conservação, diminuindo consequentemente os prejuízos por perdas na pós-colheita. O caqui é uma fruta muito apreciada, com alto potencial de exportação, porém sensível ao manuseio e armazenamento. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação da cera comestível Megh Wax ECF-124 (18% de ativos, composta por emulsão de cera de carnaúba, tensoativo aniônico, preservante e água, produzida por Megh Indústria e Comércio Ltda em três diferentes concentrações (25, 50 e 100%, na qualidade pós-colheita do caqui 'Fuyu' armazenado por 14 dias. Os atributos avaliados para qualidade foram: firmeza, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, perda de massa e coloração. Os resultados demonstraram que a aplicação da cera nas diferentes concentrações foi efetiva, principalmente na conservação da massa do caqui cv. Fuyu e manutenção da coloração externa. A aplicação de cera não causou diferenças significativas nas propriedades químicas avaliadas. O tratamento na concentração de 25% apresentou menor índice de descarte durante armazenamento, todavia maiores concentrações demonstraram menores valores de perda de massa. Aplicação de cera de carnaúba em caqui apresenta um grande potencial de uso para melhoria na conservação pós-colheita, podendo ser aplicado juntamente com outras tecnologias, auxiliando na manutenção da qualidade para exportação.One of the main objectives of applying edible coatings on fruits surface is to create a protective film to reduce weight loss due to evaporation and transpiration and also to decrease the risk of fruit rot caused by

  9. Qualidade pós-colheita de tomates 'Débora' com utilização de diferentes coberturas comestíveis e temperaturas de armazenamento Quality of 'Debora' tomato using different edible coatings and storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Chiumarelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas comestíveis sobre a qualidade pós-colheita do tomate de mesa cv. Débora. Foram utilizadas as seguintes coberturas: cera de carnaúba Fruit Wax H2 (18%, emulsão de resinas Fruit Wax M-AC (18% e cera de carnaúba Megh Wax ECF-124 (18%; tomates sem cera serviram de controle. Foram utilizados 40 frutos por tratamento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após a limpeza e aplicação das ceras, os frutos foram armazenados a 12,5°C e 25°C e 90% de umidade relativa. Análises para perda de massa fresca (%, coloração e qualidade foram realizadas durante quinze dias. No final do período de armazenagem, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à firmeza, pH, concentração de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C e acidez. Foi realizada também análise sensorial para frutos armazenados nas duas diferentes temperaturas. O tratamento com Megh Wax ECF-124 proporcionou menor perda de massa e frutos mais firmes em ambas as temperaturas. Tomates tratados com Fruit Wax M-AC e Megh Wax ECF-124 apresentaram maior porcentagem de frutos apropriados ao consumo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto à coloração e análises químicas, exceto para os frutos cobertos com Fruit Wax M-AC, que apresentaram menor teor de vitamina C em ambas as temperaturas e maior pH a 25°C. As ceras Fruit Wax M-AC e Megh Wax ECF-124 não interferiram no sabor e no odor dos frutos. A aplicação de cera contribui para uma diminuição na perda de massa e decréscimo no número de frutos descartados devido a danos físicos e podridões, sendo que Megh Wax ECF-124 é mais eficiente na manutenção da qualidade de tomates de mesa.This study aimed at evaluating the effect of edible coatings on tomato cv. Debora post-harvest quality. The following waxing emulsions were used: wax of carnauba Fruit Wax H2 (18%, emulsion of resins Fruit Wax M-AC (18% and wax of carnauba Megh Wax ECF-124 (18%; tomatoes without

  10. Qualidade pós-colheita de cerejas cv. Ambrunés utilizando coberturas comestíveis Post harvest quality of cherry cv. Ambrunés using edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Duarte Carvalho Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a qualidade de cerejas cv. Ambrunés ("picotas", cobertas com películas comestíveis à base de zeína e cera de carnaúba, aplicadas na forma de imersão e pulverização, e armazenadas em ambiente controlado a 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa de 90 - 95 %. Os parâmetros usados para avaliar a qualidade dos frutos foram: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, perda de peso, relação SST/ATT e deterioração fúngica. Os frutos foram avaliados até o 52º dia de conservação. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba mostrou-se superior em todos os parâmetros, quando comparados com os frutos-testemunha e os cobertos com zeína. A cobertura à base de zeína provocou a aceleração da maturação dos frutos e apresentou deterioração fúngica a partir do 24º dia de armazenamento. Foi observado que a forma de comercialização das cerejas sem o pedúnculo ("picotas" representa maior possibilidade de contaminação fúngica através da área lesionada. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba aplicada na forma de imersão retardou a podridão até o 45º dia de conservação, apresentando-se como o melhor tratamento.The objective of this study was evaluate the quality of cherries cv Ambrunés (cherries perforated covered with edible coatings based on zeina and carnaúba wax emulsion, appliied in the form of immersion and pulverization and storage in controlled environment with temperature 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC and humidity 90 - 95 %. The parameters used to evaluate the quality of the fruits were: soluble solid, titratable acidity, loss of weight, soluble solid relation / titratable total acidity and fungal deterioration. The fruits were evaluated until the 52nd day of conservation. The treatment that used the emulsion carnaúba wax was superior in all of the parameters when compared with the control fruits and the fruits coatings with zeina. The coating based on zeína provoked an acceleration

  11. Contenido de nutrientes e inoculación con hongos ectomicorrízicos comestibles en dos pinos neotropicales Nutrient contents and inoculation with edible ectomycorrhizal fungi on two neotropical pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA CARRASCO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Un alto porcentaje de mortalidad se presenta en plántulas de pinos que son trasplantados de vivero a campo, debido a que no poseen hongos ectomicorrízicos los cuales forman simbiosis obligada con las plantas de forma natural en los bosques. Estos hongos facilitan la absorción de nutrientes y agua, además de estimular su crecimiento. Debido a la importancia ecológica y fisiológica de los hongos ectomicorrízicos, el presente trabajo evaluó el efecto en crecimiento, peso seco, porcentaje de colonización y contenido de nutrientes de la inoculación de seis especies ectomicorrízicas comestibles de los géneros Lacearía y Hebeloma en Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. y P. pseudostrobus Lindl., en condiciones de invernadero. Después de 397 días de la siembra se observó un efecto benéfico en el crecimiento de ambos pinos como resultado de la inoculación en términos de peso seco en parte aérea y radical, así como un mayor contenido de N, P y K. El porcentaje de micorrización en plantas inoculadas con las especies fúngicas varió de 57 % a 90 %. Cuando se efectuó inoculación combinada de especies ectomicorrízicas, se registró dominancia de una de las especies inoculadas, en términos de colonización radical. En estos tratamientos con inoculación simultánea, los efectos benéficos registrados en los hospederos fueron comparables a los observados cuando se inoculó de manera individual a las especies fúngicas dominantes. En función de los resultados encontrados se recomienda en el establecimiento de plantaciones forestales la inoculación de ambas especies de pinos con especies de hongos de los géneros Laccaria y Hebeloma.A high percentage of mortality appears in pine seedlings transplanted from nursery to field, due to the fact that they lack ectomycorrhizal fungi which form obligated symbiosis with plants in natural conditions in the forests. These fungi facilitate the absorption of nutrients and water, and therefore

  12. Étude théorique et expérimentale du transfert du dioctyl phtalate à partir d'un disque de PVC plastifié plongé dans une huile comestible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djilani, S.-E.; Toubal, A. A.; Messadi, D.

    1998-10-01

    When polymer and liquid are contacted with each other, as in packaging, some mass exchanges may occur, which constitute a major drawback when the liquid is a foodstuff or blood. However, these mass transfers in the polymers can appear as very interesting from the industrial point of view, if one is able to use and control them. It is then necessary to have a good knowledge of these transfer processes which are controlled by diffusion. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) migration into an edible oil was studied under worst conditions: high plasticization level (50% by weight) and temperature(30 circC). The quantitative analysis of DOP in a such complex liquid medium and in the PVC itself was made easy by the use of the radioactive tracer technique. A simplified mathematical model, obtained by neglecting the oil transport in the PVC, was evaluated. This model based on the research of a finite differences explicit solution allows to reproduce for the DOP, the concentration profiles in the polymer and the kinetics of transfer in the oil, with a P-value ≥ 0.001. La mise en contact polymère-liquide se traduit généralement par des échanges de matière entre les 2 milieux considérés, ce qui constitue un inconvénient majeur lorsque le liquide est un aliment ou le sang. Cependant, ces transferts de matière dans les polymères peuvent apparaître comme très intéressants sur le plan industriel, si l'on est capable de les utiliser et de les contrôler. Il est donc nécessaire d'avoir une bonne connaissance de ces processus de transfert qui sont contrôlés par diffusion. Nous avons étudié la migration du dioctyl phtalate (DOP) dans une huile comestible en nous plaçant dans les conditions les plus défavorables: taux de plastification (50% en poids) et température (30°C) élevés. L'analyse quantitative du DOP dans un milieu liquide aussi complexe et dans le PVC lui- même a été facilitée par l'utilisation de la technique des traceurs radioactifs. Un modèle math

  13. Conservação de maçã minimamente processada com o uso de películas comestíveis Preservation of minimally processed apple using edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Brigatto Fontes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de películas comestíveis na conservação de maçãs da cultivar Royal Gala Minimamente Processadas (MP durante armazenamento refrigerado por 13 dias. Os tratamentos foram: o controle, a solução conservadora (1% ácido ascórbico; 0,5% ácido cítrico; 0,7% NaCl; 0,25% CaCl2 e as películas [dextrina (5,5%, fécula de mandioca (3% e alginato de sódio (2% com CaCl2 (0,6%]. A solução conservadora reduziu a taxa respiratória e a produção de etileno em relação ao controle e promoveu maior claridade da polpa. Os tratamentos com películas apresentaram redução média de 38% na taxa respiratória e mais de 50% na produção de etileno em relação ao controle, sendo o alginato o mais eficiente. A película de alginato apresentou maior umidade no início do armazenamento, igualando-se aos demais tratamentos no 9º dia. No tratamento controle, os valores de firmeza dos tecidos diminuíram com o armazenamento e nos demais tratamentos, a tendência foi oposta. Maçãs com alginato apresentaram menor acidez e coloração mais escura dentre os tratamentos, respectivamente, em função do pH e da coloração da própria solução filmogênica.The effect of edible coatings on the preservation of the Minimally Processed (MP Royal Gala apples under refrigerated storage for 13 days was studied. The treatments were: the control solution, preserving solution (1% of acid ascorbic; 0,5% of citric acid; 0,7% of NaCl; 0,25% of CaCl2, manioc starch (3%, and sodium alginate (2% with CaCl2. The preserving solution decreased the respiratory and the ethylene production rate and showed a lighter pulp. The coatings decreased the respiratory rate by 38% and the ethylene production by 50%. The alginate was the most efficient, and it presented a better retention of moisture up to the 9th day of storage. The control presented less firmness at during storage, but the other treatments presented the opposite. Apples with

  14. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-12-12

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns.

  15. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES IN EGGS AND HATCHLINGS OF THE COMMON SNAPPING TURTLE (CHELYDRA SERPENTINA SERPENTINA) FROM THE GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN (1989-91). (R827102)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractDuring 1989-91, we assessed developmental abnormalities in embryos and hatchlings from eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina). Eggs were collected and artificially incubated from eight sites in Ontario, Canada and Akwesasne/...

  17. Regional Multinationals and the Korean Comestics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the market penetration and expansion strategy of cosmetics and toiletries multinational enterprises (MNEs) in South Korea from the perspective of regional strategy as developed recently by Rugman. We find that MNEs have different market entry and expansion strategies in the home region and in the foreign region. Home region MNEs (Japanese MNEs in this case), in general, utilize their firm-specific advantages (FSAs) better than foreign region MNEs (European and MNEs from th...

  18. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (psugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcription Factor AREB2 Is Involved in Soluble Sugar Accumulation by Activating Sugar Transporter and Amylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; Hu, Da-Gang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apple ( Malus domestica ) to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation. The MdAREB2 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoters of the sugar transporter and amylase genes and activate their expression. Both MdAREB2 and MdSUT2 transgenic plants produced more soluble sugars than controls. Furthermore, MdAREB2 promoted the accumulation of sucrose and soluble sugars in an MdSUT2 -dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdAREB2 directly activates the expression of amylase and sugar transporter genes to promote soluble sugar accumulation, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Hydrolyzed sugar in cattle feeding. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, L K; Kurilov, N V; Mysnik, N D

    1978-01-01

    Hydrolyzed wood molasses (32% sugar) at 1 kg/day increased weight gains of bulls 14.6% in 86-day exports when given along with urea-containing granulated feed and straw. Rumen volatile fatty acids, feed digestibility, and N utilization were increased in bulls, and cow productivity was increased along with a 0.1 to 0.15% increase in milk fat content. Sulfite liquor at 400 g/day (4% of feed) also increased weight gains 13.9% in bulls.