WorldWideScience

Sample records for combustion union oil

  1. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  2. Combustion heater for oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  3. Combustive management of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris

  4. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  5. Combustion of Jordanian oil shale using circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.; Al-Azzam, S.

    1998-11-01

    this study re[resents design and manufacturing of a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed (C.F.B) to burn low grade fuel such as Jordanian oil shale. Hydrodynamic properties of C.F.B. were studied like minimum fluidization velocity, circulation flux and carryover rate. a hot run was firstly conducted by the combustion of L.P.G. to start up the combustion process. It proceeds until reaching the minimum burning temperature of oil shale particles, at which time the LPG supply was gradually reduced and oil shale feeding started. soon after reaching a self sustainable condition of oil shale particles, the LPG supply was cut off. The main combustion variables were investigated such as air to fuel ratios, temperature profiles across the bed, exhaust gas analysis and combustion efficiency. a combustion intensity of 859 kg/hr.m 2 and combustion efficiency of 96% were achieved. (authors). 19 refs., 9 tab., 18 fig

  6. Experimental investigation of flash pyrolysis oil droplet combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the combustion behaviour of a single droplet of pyrolysis oil derived from wheat straw and heavy fossil oil in a single droplet combustion chamber. The initial oil droplet diameters were in between 500 μm to 2500 μm. The experiments were performed...... at a temperature ranging between 1000 and 1400°C with an initial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s and oxygen concentration of 3%. The evolution of combustion of bio-oil droplets was recorded by a digital video camera. It was observed that the combustion behaviour of pyrolysis oil droplet differ from the heavy oil in terms...

  7. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  8. Combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplets using rhodium liquid as a homogeneous combustion catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanlohy, Hendry Y.; Wardana, I. N. G.; Hamidi, N.; Yuliati, L.

    2018-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplet at room temperature with and without catalyst have been studied experimentally. Its combustion characteristics have been observed by igniting the oil droplet on a junction of a thermocouple, and the combustion characteristics of oil droplets are observed using a high-speed camera. The results show that the uniqueness of crude jatropha oil as alternative fuel is evidenced by the different stages of combustion caused by thermal cracking in burning droplets. The results also show that the role of the catalyst is not only an accelerator agent, but there are other unique functions and roles as a stabilizer. Moreover, the results also found that the catalyst was able to shorten the ignition timing and burnout time. This phenomenon proves that the presence of catalysts alters and weakens the structure of the triglyceride geometry so that the viscosity and flash point is reduced, the fuel absorbs heat well and flammable.

  9. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...

  10. Efficient Atomization and Combustion of Emulsified Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    droplet atomization, as was observed by Ocampo- Barrera et al. [4] with heavy fuel oil and water emulsions. It is interesting to note that the droplet... Barrera , R., Villasenor, R., and Diego-Marin, A., "An experimental study of the effect of water content on combustion of heavy fuel oil/water emulsion

  11. Diesel oil combustion in fluidized bed; Combustion de aceite diesel en lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cazares, Mario [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-07-01

    The effect of the fluidized bed depth in the combustion in burning diesel oil in a fluidized bed, was analyzed. A self sustained combustion was achieved injecting the oil with an injector that utilized a principle similar to an automobile carburetor venturi. Three different depths were studied and it was found that the deeper the bed, the greater the combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiencies were attained from 82% for a 100mm bed depth, up to 96% for a 200mm bed depth. The diminution in the efficiency was mainly attributed to unburned hydrocarbons and to the carbon carried over, which was observed in the black smoke at the stack outlet. Other phenomena registered were the temperature gradient between the lower part of the bed and the upper part, caused by the fluidization velocity; additionally it was observed that the air employed for the oil injection (carbureting air) is the most important parameter to attain a complete combustion. [Espanol] Se analizo el efecto de la profundidad del lecho en la combustion al quemar aceite diesel en un lecho fluidizado experimental. Se logro combustion autosostenida inyectando el aceite con un inyector que utilizo un principio similar al venturi del carburador de automovil. Se estudiaron tres diferentes profundidades del lecho y se encontro que a mayor profundidad del lecho, mayor eficiencia de la combustion. Se lograron eficiencias de la combustion desde 82% para el lecho de 100 mm de profundidad hasta 96% para el de 200 mm. La disminucion de la eficiencia se atribuyo, principalmente, a los hidrocarburos no quemados y al carbon arrastrado, lo cual se observo en el humo negro a la salida de la chimenea. Otros fenomenos registrados fueron el gradiente de temperatura entre la parte baja del lecho y la parte superior causado por la velocidad de fluidizacion; ademas, se observo que el aire utilizado para inyectar el aceite (aire de carburacion) es el parametro mas importante para lograr una combustion completa.

  12. Numerical Simulation of In Situ Combustion of Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the process of in situ combustion of oil shale, taking into account the transport and chemical reaction of various components in porous reservoirs. The physical model is presented, including the mass and energy conservation equations and Darcy’s law. The oxidation reactions of oil shale combustion are expressed by adding source terms in the conservation equations. The reaction rate of oxidation satisfies the Arrhenius law. A numerical method is established for calculating in situ combustion, which is simulated numerically, and the results are compared with the available experiment. The profiles of temperature and volume fraction of a few components are presented. The temperature contours show the temperature variation in the combustion tube. It is found that as combustion reaction occurs in the tube, the concentration of oxygen decreases rapidly, while the concentration of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide increases contrarily. Besides, the combustion front velocity is consistent with the experimental value. Effects of gas injection rate, permeability of the reservoir, initial oil content, and injected oxygen content on the ISC process were investigated in this study. Varying gas injection rate and oxygen content is important in the field test of ISC.

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-55 - Tanks for flammable and combustible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... engine, including any oil-pressure pumps, filters, and heaters dealing with oil pressures above 26 psi... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tanks for flammable and combustible oil. 58.01-55... combustible oil. (a) For the purposes of this section, a machinery space of category A is a space that...

  14. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  15. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  16. Premixed Combustion of Coconut Oil on Perforated Burner

    OpenAIRE

    Wirawan, I.K.G; Wardana, I.N.G; Soenoko, Rudy; Wahyudi, Slamet

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil premixed combustion behavior has been studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ) varied from very lean until very rich. The results showed that burning of glycerol needs large number of air so that the laminar burning velocity (SL) is the highest at very lean mixture and the flame is in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. As φ is increased the  SL decreases and the secondary Bunsen flame with open tip occurs from φ ...

  17. PM From the Combustion of heavy fuel oils

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2018-03-30

    This work presents an experimental study investigating the formation and oxidation of particulate matter from the combustion of heavy fuel oil, HFO, droplets. The study includes results from both a falling droplet in a drop tube furnace and a suspended droplet in a heated convective flow. The falling droplets in a heated coflow air with variable temperature path and velocity were combusted and the resulting particles, cenospheres, were collected. To characterize the microstructure of these particles, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis were used. The particles were found to have either a porous or a skeleton/membrane morphology. The percentage of particles of either type appears to be related to the thermal history, which was controlled by the heated co-flow velocity. In the suspended droplet experiments, by suspending the droplet on a thermocouple, the temperature inside the droplet was measured while simultaneously imaging the various burning phases. A number of specific phases were identified, from liquid to solid phase combustion are presented and discussed. The droplet ignition temperature was seen to be independent of the droplet size. However, the liquid phase ignition delay time and the droplet lifetime were directly proportional to the initial droplet diameter.

  18. Modeling of in-situ combustion as thermal recovery method for heavy (medium) oil (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.; Achterbergh, N.; Rudolph, E.S.J.; Bruining, J.

    2010-01-01

    In-situ combustion (ISC), as a well known process for secondary and tertiary oil recovery, is an important alternative approach to achieve higher production efficiency for light and heavy oil reservoirs. The in-situ combustion process is a complex combination of a number of processes which occur in

  19. Pyrolysis oil combustion in a horizontal box furnace with an externally mixed nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion characteristics of neat biomass fast-pyrolysis oil were studied in a horizontal combustion chamber with a rectangular cross-section. An air-assisted externally mixed nozzle known to successfully atomize heavy fuel oils was installed in a modified nominal 100 kW (350,000 BTU/h nominal cap...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  1. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  3. The in situ combustion pilot project in Bare field, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perozo, H.A.; Mendoza, A.J.; Teixeira, J.; Alvarez, A.; Vasquez, P. [PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil fields, in-situ combustion technology can be used as a means to enhance oil recovery. This process consists of burning some part of the oil present in the reservoir to produce heat that allow increased oil displacement. The aim of this study is to present an in situ combustion pilot project (ISCPP). This project will be conducted by PDVSA Intevep and its partners in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, to assess the effect of in situ combustion in increasing recovery factors from heavy crude oil reservoirs. The laboratory combustion test analyses, the static and dynamic reservoir simulations, the design, construction and completion of all wells and the study, analysis and development of surface facilities are discussed. The ISCPP is expected to be running by the end of 2011.

  4. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  5. Premixed Combustion of Coconut Oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil premixed combustion behavior has been studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from very lean until very rich. The results showed that burning of glycerol needs large number of air so that the laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture and the flame is in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. As φ is increased the  SL decreases and the secondary Bunsen flame with open tip occurs from φ =0.54 at the downstream of perforated flame. The perforated flame disappears at φ = 0.66 while the secondary Bunsen flame still exist with SL increases following that of hexadecane flame trend and then extinct when the equivalence ratio reaches one or more. Surrounding ambient air intervention makes SL decreases, shifts lower flammability limit into richer mixture, and performs triple and cellular flames. The glycerol diffusion flame radiation burned fatty acids that perform cellular islands on perforated hole.  Without glycerol, laminar flame velocity becomes higher and more stable as perforated flame at higher φ. At rich mixture the Bunsen flame becomes unstable and performs petal cellular around the cone flame front. Keywords: cellular flame; glycerol; perforated flame;secondary Bunsen flame with open tip; triple flame

  6. Feasibility of in situ combustion into an Ocarina oil belt reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albornoz, O.; Izarra, N.; Vazquez, D.; Mendoza, A.; Oliveros, D.; Miranda, C.; Sastoque, M.; Hernandez, N. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Exploration and Production

    2009-07-01

    Venezuela's Orinoco oil belt (OOB) is the largest liquid hydrocarbon accumulation in the world, consisting of heavy and extra heavy oil. It contains an estimated 962 million barrels of oil. Since the recovery factor in the OOB is between 5 and 10 per cent, most of the crude oil must be extracted using technologies such as in-situ combustion. This paper presented an experimental study of the in-situ combustion process using oil, water and sand samples from the OOB, at a temperature of 50 degrees Celsius, a pressure of 1000 psig and an injection rate of 0.78 l/min at standard conditions. The obtained results were derived from three experimental tests using dry combustion, which were carried out to establish the feasibility of using this recovery method in the proposed reservoir. It was concluded that the application of in situ combustion technology is a feasible option for improved recovery of extra heavy crude oil from the reservoir studied, because the oil generated enough fuel quantity to keep moving the combustion front, allowing a higher recovery in the experiment. 14 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  8. Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Saroso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil combustion characteristic is observed experimentally by evaporating oil in the boiler then mix it with air before being burned at various equivalence ratios in the Hele-shaw cell. The result shows that, coconut oil tends to break into glycerol and fatty acid due to hydrolysis reaction producing the flame propagation, where the fatty acid flame propagates first then glycerol flame. Micro-explosion occurs when moisture from fatty acid combustion is absorbed by glycerol and higher heating due to higher flame speed produces more micro-explosion.

  9. Combustion modelling of a fuel oil flame; Modelisation de la combustion d`une flamme de fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flour, I.; Mechitouan, N.

    1996-10-01

    The combustion modelling of a fuel oil flame has been realised in the scope of the R and D `Combustion Turbines`. This report presents the results of the 2D simulation of a fuel oil flame (n-octane), at atmospherical pressure, without swirl, realised using the Eulerian two-phase flow software Melodif. This calculation has been defined in collaboration with IFP, using experimental data from the IFRP. The hollow cone spray of liquid fuel is injected in the middle of the combustion chamber, with a co-flowing annular air. The furnace diameter is 2 meter and its length is 6,25 meter. A large recirculation zone is induced by the air flow, and leads to take into account the whole furnace, in order to avoid some problems with the limit conditions at the outlet. This calculation deals with droplets evaporation, gaseous phase combustion and radiation heat transfer. Predictions concerning gaseous axial mean velocity and mean temperature gradient in the flame, are in good agreement with measurements. However the temperature is too low in the peripheral zone of the flow. This is probably due to the fact that heat exchanges at the wall furnace are not correctly represented, because of a lack of detailed limit conditions for the walls. The mean radial velocity is not so well predicted, but this measurement is also quite difficult in a strongly longitudinal flow. The results concerning the dispersed phase will not be compared, because no measurements on the liquid fuel were available. As it has been experimentally observed, the simulation shows that the fuel oil spray quickly evaporates as it enters the combustion chamber. This result allows to propose to use an homogeneous approach (hypothesis of no-slipping between the two phases) in an Eulerian one-phase flow code, in case of a 3D simulation of liquid fuel turbine. (authors)

  10. Emissions of Jatropha oil-derived biodiesel blend fuels during combustion in a swirl burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwazan, A. R.; Mohd. Jaafar, M. N.; Sapee, S.; Farouk, Hazir

    2018-03-01

    Experimental works on combustion of jatropha oil biodiesel blends of fuel with high swirling flow in swirl burner have been studied in various blends percentage. Jatropha oil biodiesel was produced using a two-step of esterification-transesterification process. The paper focuses on the emissions of biodiesel blends fuel using jatropha oil in lean through to rich air/fuel mixture combustion in swirl burner. The emissions performances were evaluated by using axial swirler amongst jatropha oil blends fuel including diesel fuel as baseline. The results show that the B25 has good emissions even though it has a higher emission of NOx than diesel fuel, while it emits as low as 42% of CO, 33% of SO2 and 50% of UHC emissions with high swirl number. These are due to the higher oxygen content in jatropha oil biodiesel.

  11. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  12. Combustion Characteristics of CI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Blends of Jatropha Oil Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Yunus Sheikh, Mohd.; Singh, Dharmendra; Nageswara rao, P.

    2018-03-01

    Jatropha Curcas oil is a non-edible oil which is used for Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) production. Jatropha biodiesel is produced using transesterification technique and it is used as an alternative fuel in CI diesel engine without any hardware modification. Jatropha biodiesel is used in CI diesel engine with various volumetric concentrations (blends) such as JBD5, JBD15, JBD25, JBD35 and JBD45. The combustion parameters such as in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, net heat release, cumulative heat release, mass fraction burned are analyzed and compared for all blends combustion data with mineral diesel fuel (D100).

  13. Combustion, performance and emission analysis of a DI diesel engine using plastic pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kalargaris, Ioannis; Tian, Guohong; Gu, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Plastic waste is an ideal source of energy due to its high heating value and abundance. It can be converted into oil through the pyrolysis process and utilised in internal combustion engines to produce power and heat. In the present work, plastic pyrolysis oil is manufactured via a fast pyrolysis process using a feedstock consisting of different types of plastic. The oil was analysed and it was found that its properties are similar to diesel fuel. The plastic pyrolysis oil was tested on a fou...

  14. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  15. Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, Beemkumar; Pandian, Amith Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesels from the mustard oil promise to be an alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to their similarity in properties. Higher alcohols are added to neat Mustard oil biodiesel (M100) to vary the properties of biodiesel for improving its combustion, emission and performance characteristics. N-Octanol has the ability to act as an oxygen buffer during combustion which contributes to the catalytic effect and accelerates the combustion process. N-Octanol is dispersed to neat Mustard oil biodiesel in the form of emulsions at different dosage levels of 10, 20 and 30% by volume. Three emulsion fuels prepared for engine testing constitutes of 90% of biodiesel and 10% of n-Octanol (M90O10), 80% of biodiesel and 20% of n-Octanol (M80O20) and 70% of biodiesel and 30% of n-Octanol (M70O30) by volume respectively. AVL 5402 diesel engine is made to run on these fuels to study the effect of n-Octanol on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of the mustard oil biodiesel. Experimental results show that addition of n-octanol has a positive effect on performance, combustion and emission characteristics owing to its inbuilt oxygen content. N-octanol was found to be the better oxidizing catalyst as it was more effective in reducing HC and CO emissions. A significant reduction in NOx emission was found when fuelled with emulsion techniques. The blending of n-octanol to neat Mustard oil biodiesel reduces the energy and fuel consumption and a marginal increase in brake thermal efficiency. Further, n-octanol also reduces the ignition delay and aids the combustion.

  16. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (Ceiba Pentandra) Seed Oil on Perforated Burner

    OpenAIRE

    Wirawan, I.K.G; Wardana, I.N.G; Soenoko, Rudy; Wahyudi, Slamet

    2014-01-01

    Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra) seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ) varie...

  17. Study for improving the in-situ combustion of Venezuela extra-heavy crude oil using unconventional additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rodriguez, A.J.; Perozo Hernandez, H. A.; Oliveros, D. A. [PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Reyes, N. [Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela); Reinoza, J. [Universidad de los Andes (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional oil resources, heavy oil now accounts for an important part of both world and Venezuelan resources. Its recovery presents many challenges and a new in situ combustion process using additives was developed to address them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the use of an additive to enhance the combustion process. Tests were performed with an inexpensive waste steam as additive and crude oil from the Orinoco oil belt. Six runs were performed, 2 were references and 4 used the additive placed in 2/3 of the total length of the cell. The use of additive led to more efficient combustion, greater stability of the combustion front, better oil recovery and the production of lighter compounds than without additive. This study demonstrated that the use of additive could be a promising opportunity for Venezuelan heavy oil operators.

  18. The combustion of low calorific value fuels (oil shale) by using fluidized bed combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzam, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The present work reports an experimental data for combustion of oil-shale in a fluidized bed combustor. The experimental set up was designed for the combustion of low calorific value fuel such as oil-shale to facilitate the variation of many parameters over a wide operating range. A cold run was firstly conducted to study the fluidization parameters. Fluidization experiment were made with different sized quartiz particles. Minimum fluidization velocities and other fluidization characteristics were determined at room temperature. Secondary a hot run was started, first studying the combustion of 'LPG' in a fluidized bed as a starting process, then studying the combustion if oil-shale with different flow rates. The experimetal results are promising and give rise to hopes that this valuable deposit can be used as a fuel source and can be burned sucessfully in a fluidized bed combustor. This study had prooved that utilization of oil-shale a fuel source is no more a complicated technical problem, this opens the way for power generation using fluidized bed combustors. (author). 17 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Alagumalai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, the development of alternate fuels for use in internal combustion engines has traditionally been an evolutionary process in which fuel-related problems are met and critical fuel properties are identified and their specific limits defined to resolve the problem. In this regard, this research outlines a vision of lemongrass oil combustion characteristics. In a nut-shell, the combustion phenomena of lemongrass oil were investigated at engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17.5 in a 4-stroke cycle compression ignition engine. Furthermore, the engine tests were conducted with partial premixed charge compression ignition-direct injection (PCCI-DI dual fuel system to profoundly address the combustion phenomena. Analysis of cylinder pressure data and heat-release analysis of neat and premixed lemongrass oil were demonstrated in-detail and compared with conventional diesel. The experimental outcomes disclosed that successful ignition and energy release trends can be obtained from a compression ignition engine fueled with lemongrass oil.

  20. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  1. Fuel oil combustion with low production of nitrogen oxides; Combustion de combustoleo con baja produccion de oxidos de nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalera Campoverde, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    This work presents the results of the theoretical-experimental study of the effects of the secondary air jet directed perpendicularly to the flame axis in the fuel oil combustion in a 500 Kw furnace. The main purpose of this study was to obtain low nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions without increasing the CO, which is observed in low NO{sub x} conventional burners. The experimental results showed a significative reduction of the NO{sub x} and of the CO, from 320 to 90 ppm and from 50 ppm to negligible values, respectively. A commercial computational code of fluid dynamics was employed for modeling the combustion in base line conditions, without secondary air and with the injection of secondary air. The experimental results were compared with calculated ones. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio teorico experimental de los efectos de los chorro de aire secundario dirigidos en forma perpendicular al eje de la flama en la combustion del combustoleo en un horno de 500 kW. El proposito principal del estudio fue obtener bajas emisiones de oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) sin incrementar el CO, lo cual se observa en quemadores convencionales de bajo NO{sub x}. Los resultados experimentales demostraron una reduccion significativa del NO{sub x} y del CO: de 320 a 90 ppm y de 50 ppm a valores despreciables, respectivamente. Se empleo un codigo computacional comercial de dinamica de fluidos para modelar la combustion en condiciones de linea base, sin aire secundario, y con la inyeccion del aire secundario. Se comparan resultados experimentales con los calculados.

  2. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD. Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10% and ethanol (10% have been mixed and added to (80% diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel (MOE20% has been found to be homogenous and stable without using surfactant. The presence of microalgae oil improved the ethanol fuel demerits such as low density and viscosity. The transesterification process was not required for oil viscosity reduction due to the presence of ethanol. The MOE20% fuel has been tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at different speed. The engine test results with MOE20% showed a very comparable engine performance of in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC to that of PD. The NOx emission and HC have been improved while CO and CO2 were found to be lower than those from PD at low engine speed.

  3. Heavy fuel oil pyrolysis and combustion: kinetics and evolved gases investigated by TGA-FTIR

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2017-08-24

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) obtained from crude oil distillation is a widely used fuel in marine engines and power generation technologies. In the present study, the pyrolysis and combustion of a Saudi Arabian HFO in nitrogen and in air, respectively, were investigated using non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. TG and DTG (differential thermo-gravimetry) were used for the kinetic analysis and to study the mass loss characteristics due to the thermal degradation of HFO at temperatures up to 1000°C and at various heating rates of 5, 10 and 20°C/min, in air and N2 atmospheres. FTIR analysis was then performed to study the composition of the evolved gases. The TG/DTG curves during HFO combustion show the presence of three distinct stages: the low temperature oxidation (LTO); fuel decomposition (FD); and high temperature oxidation (HTO) stages. The TG/DTG curves obtained during HFO pyrolysis show the presence of two devolatilization stages similar to that seen in the LTO stage of HFO combustion. Apart from this, the TG/DTG curves obtained during HFO combustion and pyrolysis differ significantly. Kinetic analysis was also performed using the distributed activation energy model, and the kinetic parameter (E) was determined for the different stages of HFO combustion and pyrolysis processes, yielding a good agreement with the measured TG profiles. FTIR analysis showed the signal of CO2 as approximately 50 times more compared to the other pollutant gases under combustion conditions. Under pyrolytic conditions, the signal intensity of alkane functional groups was the highest followed by alkenes. The TGA-FTIR results provide new insights into the overall HFO combustion processes, which can be used to improve combustor designs and control emissions.

  4. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.

    2004-01-15

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  5. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the Ameri...

  6. TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, M W; Rocca, A La; Shayler, P J

    2014-01-01

    Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution

  7. Combustion of Pure, Hydrolyzed and Methyl Ester Formed of Jatropha Curcas Lin oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaji Muhaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The density and viscosity of vegetable oil are higher than that of diesel oil. Thus its direct combustion in the diesel engine results many problems. This research was conducted to investigate the flame characteristics of combustion of jatropha curcas lin in pure, hydrolyzed and methyl ester form. The results indicated that the combustion of pure jatropha curcas lin occurs in three stages, hydrolyzed in two stages    and methyl ester in one stage. For pure jatropha curcas lin, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for  0.265 s.  It is followed by saturated fatty acid, burned for 0.389 s in the second stage. And, in the last stage is the burned of glycerol for 0.560 s. Meanwhile for hydrolyzed one, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for 0.736 s, followed by saturated fatty acid, burned  for 0.326 s in the second stage. And the last, for methyl ester is the burned for 0.712 s. The highest burning rate was for methyl ester which was 0.003931cc/s. The energy releasing rate of methyl ester, which was for 13,628.67 kcal/(kg.s resembled that of diesel oil the most, while the lowest rate was for pure jatropha curcas lin which was 8,200.94 kcal/(kg.s. In addition, massive explosion occurred in the fuel containing unsaturated fatty acid and glycerol

  8. Performance and Combustion Characteristics Analysis of Multi-Cylinder CI Engine Using Essential Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ashrafur Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are derived from not-fatty parts of plants and are mostly used in aromatherapy, as well as cosmetics and perfume production. The essential oils market is growing rapidly due to their claimed health benefits. However, because only therapeutic grade oil is required in the medicinal sector, there is a substantial low-value waste stream of essential oils that can be used in the transportation and agricultural sectors. This study investigated the influence of orange, eucalyptus, and tea tree oil on engine performance and combustion characteristics of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine. Orange, eucalyptus, and tea tree oil were blended with diesel at 10% by volume. For benchmarking, neat diesel and 10% waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blend were also tested. The selected fuels were used to conduct engine test runs with a constant engine speed (1500 RPM (revolutions per minute at four loads. As the load increased, frictional power losses decreased for all of the fuel samples and thus mechanical efficiency increased. At higher loads (75% and 100%, only orange oil-diesel blends produced comparable power to diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. Fuel consumption (brake and indicated for the essential oil-diesel blends was higher when compared to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. Thermal efficiency for the essential oil-diesel blends was comparable to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. At higher loads, blow-by was lower for essential oil blends as compared to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. At 50% and 100% load, peak pressure was lower for all of the essential oil-diesel blends when compared to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. From the heat release rate curve, the essential oil-diesel blends ignition delay times were longer because the oils have lower cetane values. Overall, the low-value streams of these essential oils were found to be

  9. Laser-induced fluorescence measurement of the oil film thickness in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroski, Greg M.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.

    1997-11-01

    The use of a fluorescent dopant molecule to enhance the natural fluorescence of motor oils, and allow quantitative determination of temperature and film thickens in internal combustion engines has been investigated. Measurement of the fluorescence as a function of temperature were made with neat Mobil 1, and solutions of the dopant BTBP in mineral oil and Mobil 1. The fluorescence yield of neat Mobil 1 was found to vary by 30 percent over the temperature range explored, but the spectral characteristics, as measured with bandpass filters, were unaffected by temperature. The BTBP fluorescence was found to increase significantly with temperature, and it was found the narrower regions in the spectrum increased proportionally more than the fluorescence collected over the entire spectrum, allowing a determination of temperature to be made which can then be used to correct for the change in fluorescence yield. Solutions in Mobil 1 showed a smaller increase than that observed in mineral oil.

  10. Co-Combustion of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Derived from Coffee Bean Residue and Diesel in an Oil-Fired Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of co-firing bio-oil produced from the fast pyrolysis process of coffee bean residue and diesel in a 300-kWth oil-fired furnace are investigated. Using bio-oil to completely replace fossil fuels has limitations since bio-oil has undesirable properties, such as high water and oxygen contents, high viscosity, and low heating value. However, a low blend ratio of bio-oil used as a substitute for petroleum-derived oil has advantages; i.e., it can be easily combusted in existing furnaces without modifications. Thus, a promising solution is the partial substitution of diesel with bio-oil, rather than completely replacing it. A furnace test is performed for diesel alone and bio-oil/diesel blends with 5 vol % bio-oil. The results show that excellent stable combustion is observed during the co-firing test. Compared with diesel, with 5 vol % bio-oil content in the blends, both the wall temperature and gas temperature drop only slightly and exhibit similar furnace temperature distribution; meanwhile, comparable NO emissions (smaller than 57 ppm are obtained, and lower CO2 emissions are achieved because biomass is both carbon neutral and renewable. Moreover, SO2 and CO emissions under these two burning conditions are very low; SO2 and CO emissions are smaller than 6 and 35 ppm, respectively.

  11. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  12. Seismic monitoring of in situ combustion process in a heavy oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeh, Hossein Mehdi; Srivastava, Ravi P; Vedanti, Nimisha; Landrø, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Three time-lapse 3D seismic surveys are analysed to monitor the effect of in situ combustion, a thermal-enhanced oil recovery process in the Balol heavy oil reservoir in India. The baseline data were acquired prior to the start of the in situ combustion process in four injection wells, while the two monitor surveys were acquired 1 and 2 years after injection start, respectively. We present the results of baseline and second monitor surveys. Fluid substitution studies based on acoustic well logs predict a seismic amplitude decrease at the top reservoir and an increase at the base reservoir. Both the amplitude dimming at the top reservoir and the brightening at the base reservoir are observed in the field data. The extent of the most pronounced 4D anomaly is estimated from the seismic amplitude and time shift analysis. The interesting result of seismic analysis is that the anomalies are laterally shifted towards the northwest, rather than the expected east, from the injector location suggesting a northwest movement of the in situ combustion front. No clear evidence of air leakage into other sand layers, neither above nor below the reservoir sand, is observed. This does not necessarily mean that all the injected air is following the reservoir sand, especially if the thief sand layers are thin. These layers might be difficult to observe on seismic data

  13. Combustion of mixtures of weathered Alaskan crude oils and water under external heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walavalkar, A.Y.; Kulkarni, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Two Alaskan oils, Milne Point crude and Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil were subjected to laboratory scale burn tests. These tests were conducted for weathered crude oil-water mixture layers floating on water. The oils were subjected to external radiation heat flux to determine threshold values of the heat flux required for ignition and sustained burning. It was determined that there is a threshold heat flux value for each type of mixture. Ignition and sustained combustion cannot be achieved when a layer of the mixture floating on top of the water surface is subjected to a heat flux that is lower than this threshold value. However, the mixture can be burned successfully when the external incident heat flux value is greater than or equal to the threshold value. The value of the threshold heat flux was found to be dependent on the oil type, the amount of water in the mixture, and the extent of weathering by the crude oil prior to ignition. The threshold heat flux value increased with increased amounts of water and increased level of weathering. The data for threshold heat flux correlates well with the density of crude oil at all water contents and weathering levels for all types of oil. This paper included simple charts to illustrate heat flux values for a given mixture. It was concluded that it is feasible to provide external heat flux greater than the threshold heat flux to a spill on an open body of water if an appropriately sized pool fire is started near the spill. 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  14. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the combustion of crude oil on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, B.A. Jr.; Bryner, N. P.; Wise, S.A.; Mulholland, G.W.; Evans, D.D.; Fingas, M.F.; Li, K.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine some of the factors necessary to assess the environmental impact of an in-situ burn of an oil spill on water. These factors include the fraction of an oil layer which can be burned, the quantity of smoke emitted, and the concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the smoke, crude oil, and burn residue. Alberta sweet mixed blend crude in 1, 3, 5, 10, and 30 mm layers on water was burned in the laboratory and smoke samples were collected at elevated and ambient temperatures and analyzed by two independent laboratories. While burning the crude oil produced less total PAHs than was in the original crude, the concentrations of PAHs with 5 or more rings were 10-20 times greater in the smoke than in the oil. The organic carbon fraction of the smoke was in the 14-21% range. As the fuel layer thickness was increased from 2 to 10 mm, the smoke yield increased from 0.035 g smoke/g fuel and the percentage of oil residue decreased from 46% to 17%. By consuming much of the oil spill and reducing the amount of PAHs in the water, and by dispersing the combustion products over a larger area, in-situ burning can mitigate the local environmental impact of an oil spill. There appears to be a range of situations, such as in Arctic ice fields, where in-situ burning might be the most viable cleanup method. 25 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Study on Combustion Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled by Synthesized Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Maki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The waste cooking oil or used cooking oil is the best source of biodiesel synthesizing because it enters into the so-called W2E field whereas not only get rid of the used cooking oils but produce energy from waste fuel. In this study, biodiesel was synthesized from the used cooking oil and specifications are tested. From 1 liter of used cooking oil, 940 ml is gained. The remaining of liter is glycerin and water. Blend of 20% of biodiesel with 80% of net diesel by volume is formed. Blends of 100% diesel and 100% biodiesel are prepared too. The diesel engine combustion performance is studied. Brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, and engine outlet temperature. Cylinder pressure variation with crank angle is analyzed. At last not least, the concentrations of hydro carbon and nitrogen pollutants are measured. The results showed significant enhancement in engine power and pollutant gases emitted. There is positive compatible with other critical researches.

  16. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  17. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-07

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.

  18. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  20. Estudio comparativo de los procesos de soldadura smaw y gmaw en las uniones de tuberías de transporte de combustible

    OpenAIRE

    Rivadeneyra Camino, Antonio; Serrano, Omar

    2009-01-01

    El sistema de transporte de combustible se realiza mediante sistemas de tuberías. Las uniones de los tubos se realiza por medio de proceso de soldadura SMAW o también llamado de electrodo revestido. Un proceso más rápido y que tiene mejor rendimiento en sus materiales consumibles es el proceso de soldadura GMAW o de electrodo desnudo con gas protector. Se realiza un estudio comparativo en todos los aspectos, como dilución, inspección visual, inspección radiográfica, ensayos y pruebas mecá...

  1. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-30

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  2. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  3. Developments in the technology for the combustion of water emulsions in Mexican fuel oil; Desarrollos en la tecnologia para la combustion de emulsiones agua en combustoleo mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego, Antonio Marin; Martinez Flores, Marco A.; Tamayo Flores, Gustavo; Alarcon Quiroz, Ernesto; Melendez Cervantes, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The residual petroleum oil (fuel oil) is the most used fuel in boilers of electrical and industrial power stations. Nevertheless, the use of this fuel can generate diverse problems such as the elevated particle emissions, that affect the boiler efficiency, darken the visibility by the smoke that leaves the chimneys and is emitted to the Environment. In addition, sulfur trioxide is produced, which reacts with the water present in the combustion gases, forming sulfuric acid that, when emitted, also affects the visibility of the plume and can be condensed, originating corrosion and increased accumulation of deposits in the boilers. The experimental research was made in a comparative base, between combustion tests of fuel oil, with emulsions where the water concentration and the size of the drops of this one was varied. A diagram of the supply of fuel and preparation of emulsions in a pilot furnace is shown. The article contains graphs of the effect of the water concentration of the emulsions in the particulate emission. The article contains figures of the cenospheres produced by the fuel oil combustion (500 x) and the ones produced by the combustion with 5% of water (500 x). Also shows graphs of the effect of the water drop size of emulsions in the particulate emission, of the reduction of the sulfur trioxide with soluble magnesium products in the water of emulsions, and of the free particle acidity with neutralizers of water emulsions of soluble magnesium. [Spanish] El aceite residual de petroleo (combustoleo) es el combustible mas utilizado en calderas de centrales electricas e industriales. Sin embargo, el uso de este combustible puede generar diverso problemas como las emisiones elevadas de particulas, que afectan la eficiencia de una caldera, obscurecen la visibilidad pero el humo que sale de las chimeneas y se emiten al medio ambiente. Ademas se produce trioxido de azufre, el cual reacciona con el vapor de agua presente en los gases de combustion, formado acido

  4. Genotoxicity of diesel engine emissions during combustion of vegetable oils, mineral oil, and their blends; Gentoxizitaet von Dieselmotoremissionen bei Verbrennung von Pflanzenoelen, Mineraloeldiesel und deren Mischkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Joern

    2013-07-09

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils and that blends of diesel fuel and vegetable oil are mutagenic. Three different vegetable oils (linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; rapeseed oil, RO), blends of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel (B20) and 50% vegetable oil and 50% diesel fuel (B50) as well as common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust was investigated for particle emissions and its mutagenic effect in comparison to emissions of DF. The engine was operated using European Stationary Cycle. Particle mass was determined gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison to DF it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by PO which was scarcely above DF. B50 revealed the lowest amount of TPM while B20 reached as high as DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. B50 showed higher mutagenic potential than B20. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends seem to be less mutagenic than the pure oils with a shifted maximum compared to blends with biodiesel and DF. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. And

  5. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  7. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  8. COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

  9. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (φ =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole.  Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of φ decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (φ = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while φ is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (φ = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (φ = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

  10. Reaction rate kinetics for in situ combustion retorting of Michigan Antrim oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Mickelson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The intrinsic reaction rate kinetics for the pyrolysis of Michigan Antrim oil shale and the oxidation of the carbonaceous residue of this shale have been determined using a thermogravimetric analysis method. The kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction were evaluated from both isothermal and nonisothermal rate data. The reaction was found to be second-order with an activation energy of 252.2 kJ/mole, and with a frequency factor of 9.25 ?? 1015 sec-1. Pyrolysis kinetics were not affected by heating rates between 0.01 to 0.67??K/s. No evidence of any reactions among the oil shale mineral constituents was observed at temperatures below 1173??K. However, it was found that the presence of pyrite in oil shale reduces the primary devolatilization rate of kerogen and increases the amount of residual char in the spent shale. Carbonaceous residues which were prepared by heating the oil shale at a rate of 0.166??K/s to temperatures between 923??K and 1073??K, had the highest reactivities when oxidized at 0.166??K/s in a gas having 21 volume percent oxygen. Oxygen chemisorption was found to be the initial precursor to the oxidation process. The kinetics governing oxygen chemisorption is (Equation Presented) where X is the fractional coverage. The oxidation of the carbonaceous residue was found also to be second-order. The activation energy and the frequency factor determined from isothermal experiments were 147 kJ/mole and 9.18??107 sec-1 respectively, while the values of these parameters obtained from a nonisothermal experiment were 212 kJ/mole and 1.5??1013 sec-1. The variation in the rate constants is attributed to the fact that isothermal and nonisothermal analyses represent two different aspects of the combustion process.

  11. Analysis of the Effect of Injection Pressure on Ignition Delay and Combustion Process of Biodiesel from Palm Oil, Algae and Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham Anas, Mohd; Khalid, Amir; Hakim Zulkifli, Fathul; Jaat, Norrizam; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant grease for use in diesel engines. The objective of this research is investigation the effects of the variant injection pressure on ignition delay and emission for different biodiesel using rapid compression machine. Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) is used to simulate a single compression stroke of an internal combustion engine as a real engine. Four types of biodiesel which are waste cooking oil, crude palm oil, algae and jatropha were tested at injection pressure of 80 MPa, 90 MPa and 130 MPa under constant ambient temperature at 950 K. Increased in injection pressure resulted shorter ignition delay proven by WCO5 which decreased from 1.3 ms at 80 MPa to 0.7 ms at 130 MPa. Meanwhile, emission for CO2 increased due to better fuel atomization for fuel-air mixture formation lead to completed combustion.

  12. Influence of distillation on performance, emission, and combustion of a DI diesel engine, using tyre pyrolysis oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Sivalingam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of waste to energy is one of the recent trends in minimizing not only the waste disposal but also could be used as an alternate fuel for internal combustion engines. Fuels like wood pyrolysis oil, rubber pyrolysis oil are also derived through waste to energy conversion method. Early investigations report that tyre pyrolysis oil derived from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to possess properties similar to diesel fuel. In the present work, the crude tyre pyrolisis oil was desulphurised and distilled to improve the properties and studied the use of it. Experimental studies were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke air cooled engine fuelled with two different blends, 30% tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (TPO 30 and 30% distilled tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (DTPO 30. The results of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine indicated that NOx is reduced by about 8% compared to tire pyrolysis oil and by about 10% compared to diesel fuel. Hydrocarbon emission is reduced by about 2% compared to TPO 30 operation. Smoke increased for DTPO 30 compared to TPO 30 and diesel fuel.

  13. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2013-10-14

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  14. Experimental study on fuel oil combustion in circulating fluidized bed; Estudio experimental sobre la combustion de combustoleo en lecho fluidizado circulante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rangel, Ricardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a circulating fluidized bed combustor of 0.5 thermal MW unique in its type in Latin America. The Bachelor`s thesis entitled ``Experimental Study on Fuel Oil Combustion in Circulating Fluidized Bed`` was performed operating this combustor with the purpose of determining the feasibility of burning heavy fuel oil in a stable and sustained form, as well as the effect of the addition of calcium carbonate to the combustor. The results of the experimental trials showed heavy fuel oil can be burned in a circulating fluidized bed, with low sulfur dioxide emissions. During the conduction of the experiments a sulfur retention of 43% was achieved with a Ca/S relationship of 4.5. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un combustor de lecho fluidizado circulante de 0.5 MW termicos de potencia, unico en su tipo en Latinoamerica. La tesis de licenciatura titulada Estudio Experimental sobre la Combustion de Combustoleo en Lecho Fluidizado Circulante se realizo operando dicho combustor, con el proposito de determinar la factibilidad de quemar combustoleo pesado en forma estable y autosostenida, asi como la influencia que tiene la adicion de carbonato de calcio al lecho. Los resultados de los ensayos experimentales mostraron que se puede quemar combustoleo pesado en un lecho fluidizado circulante, con bajas emisiones de bioxido de azufre. Durante la experimentacion se logro una retencion de azufre del 43%, con una relacion Ca/S de 4.5.

  15. Proceedings of the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting, 26-28 September 1994, Estes Park, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing scale-up of fast pyrolysis in North America and Europe, as well as the exploration and expansion of markets for the energy use of biocrude oils that now needs to take place, suggested that it was timely to convene an international meeting on the properties and combustion behavior of these oils. A common understanding of the state-of-the-art and technical and other challenges which need to be met during the commercialization of biocrude fuel use, can be achieved. The technical issues and understanding of combustion of these oils are rapidly being advanced through R&D in the United States. Canada, Europe and Scandinavia. It is obvious that for the maximum economic impact of biocrude, it will be necessary to have a common set of specifications so that oils can be used interchangeably with engines and combustors which require minimal modification to use these renewable fuels. Fundamental and applied studies being pursued in several countries are brought together in this workshop so that we can arrive at common strategies. In this way, both the science and the commercialization are advanced to the benefit of all, without detracting from the competitive development of both the technology and its applications. This United States-Canada-Finland collaboration has led to the two and one half day specialists meeting at which the technical basis for advances in biocrude development is discussed. The goal is to arrive at a common agenda on issues that cross national boundaries in this area. Examples of agenda items are combustion phenomena, the behavior of trace components of the oil (N, alkali metals), the formation of NOx in combustion, the need for common standards and environmental safety and health issues in the handling, storage and transportation of biocrudes.

  16. Microwave-induced combustion of crude oil for further rare earth elements determination by USN–ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.S.F. [Departamento de Química Inorgânica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 97105-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pereira, L.S.F.; Mello, P.A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Guimarães, R.C.L.; Guarnieri, R.A.; Fonseca, T.C.O. [CENPES/PETROBRAS, 21941-945 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Flores, E.M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Microwave-induced combustion was applied for light and heavy crude oils digestion. • It was feasible to determine all the REEs in heavy crude oil by ICP-MS. • Only diluted acid solutions were used in agreement to green chemistry recommendations. - Abstract: A procedure for light and heavy crude oils digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC) is proposed for the first time for further rare earth elements (REE) determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN). Samples of crude oil (API density of 10.8–23.5, up to 250 mg) were inserted in polycarbonate capsules and combusted using 20 bar of oxygen and 50 μL of 6 mol L{sup −1} ammonium nitrate as igniter. Nitric acid solutions (1–14.4 mol L{sup −1}) were evaluated for analyte absorption and a reflux step was applied after combustion (5 min of microwave irradiation at 1400 W) in order to achieve better analyte recoveries. Accuracy was evaluated using a spiked sample and also by comparison of results obtained by microwave-assisted digestion combined to ultraviolet radiation (MW–UV) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Using 3 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3}, quantitative recoveries (better than 97%) were obtained for all analytes. Blank values were always negligible. Agreement was higher than 96% for La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and Y by comparison of results with those obtained by MW–UV and by NAA (only for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, and Yb). Residual carbon content in digests using MIC was always below 1%. As an advantage over conventional procedures for crude oil digestion, using MIC, it was possible to use diluted acid as absorbing solution, obtaining better limits of detection and avoiding interferences in REE determination by USN–ICP-MS.

  17. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  18. Análisis de contenido del dominio tecnológico vegetable oil combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé PÉREZ-Arreortúa

    Full Text Available La patente es una medida de productividad científico-tecnológica muy utilizada como indicador tecnológico. Sus análisis está enfocado principalmente a recuentos por año, países, titulares e inventores, pero escasean los estudios de patentes considerando la clasificación técnica utilizada y la información contenida en el documento de invención. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo proponer el uso de la clasificación internacional de patentes y el análisis de contenido de determinados campos del documento de patente como unidad de análisis y medida para realizar un estudio patentométrico en el dominio tecnológico vegetable oil combustion. Se utiliza un conjunto de indicadores simples y relacionales, y el software proINTEC para el análisis y representación de los datos. La interpretación de los resultados confirma que la información contenida en las patentes de este dominio es pertinente a los intereses del proyecto que ejecuta el caso de estudio.

  19. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Özer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality biodiesel fuels can be produced by using different waste cooking oils. • Biodiesel fuel blends (in 5 and 10% vol) can be used without any negative effects. • Effects of biodiesel addition on the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48–0.36–0.24–0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NO x emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO 2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads

  20. Current status in oil-substitution energies in the European Union; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    With an objective to promote effectively and efficiently the introduction of oil-substitution energy development in Japan, investigations were carried out on policies and trends in the oil-substitution energy development introduced in the European Union (EU). Oil-substitution energies are utilized in the whole twelve EU countries only at about 4% of the primary energy consumption. Mostly utilized are hydraulically generated electric power, firewoods, and charcoal. Wind power generation which is regarded promising has had an initial market just formed in Denmark and the Netherlands. However, a number of policies has been issued, whose technical aspect includes the research technology developing program (JOULE) and the verification testing program (THERMIE). Being moved forward are the ALTENER as the economical and social policy and the energy saving action program (SAVE). This paper also describes the fourth framework research and development program which has started in fiscal 1994, as well as the CEET (energy saving, reusable energy utilization, and purification of fossil fuels) as a technological program for clean and efficient energies. 9 refs.

  1. The combustion properties analysis of various liquid fuels based on crude oil and renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab-Rogalinski, K.; Szwaja, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of investigation on combustion properties analysis of hydrocarbon based liquid fuels commonly used in the CI engine. The analysis was performed with aid of the CRU (Combustion Research Unit). CRU is the machine consisted of a constant volume combustion chamber equipped with one or two fuel injectors and a pressure sensor. Fuel can be injected under various both injection pressure and injection duration, also with two injector versions two stage combustion with pilot injection can be simulated, that makes it possible to introduce and modify additional parameter which is injection delay (defined as the time between pilot and main injection). On a basis of this investigation such combustion parameters as pressure increase, rate of heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration can be determined. The research was performed for the four fuels as follows: LFO, HFO, Biofuel from rape seeds and Glycerol under various injection parameters as well as combustion chamber thermodynamic conditions. Under these tests the change in such injection parameters as injection pressure, use of pilot injection, injection delay and injection duration, for main injection, were made. Moreover, fuels were tested under different conditions of load, what was determined by initial conditions (pressure and temperature) in the combustion chamber. Stored data from research allows to compare combustion parameters for fuels applied to tests and show this comparison in diagrams.

  2. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  3. Nickel, sulfur and vanadium determination in residues from crude oil distillation by ICPOES after microwave-induced combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, P.A.; Pereira, J.S.F.; Dressler, V.L.; Flores, E.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A microwave-induced combustion method is proposed for digestion of atmospheric and vacuum residues from heavy crude oil for simultaneous Ni, S and V determination by ICPOES. Ammonium nitrate solution (6 M, 50 μl) was used as igniter. Operational parameters were investigated as maximum sample mass, initial O 2 pressure, type and concentration of absorbing solutions (H 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HNO 3 ) and the necessity of additional reflux steps. Accuracy was better than 98 %. Limits of detection were 0.2, 2 and 0.1 mg kg -1 for Ni, S and V, respectively. (author)

  4. Synthesis by combustion reaction of ZnAl2O4 and application in methyl alcoholysis of soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.B.; Silva, A.S.; Cunha, R.B.L.; Leal, E.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel currently presents itself as a viable alternative to diesel oil front. However, implementation of actions most economic use as heterogeneous catalysts, allows further reduction of this biofuel by procedural steps. This work was supported application of catalytic ZnAl 2 O 4 obtained by combustion reaction in methyl alcoholysis of soybean oil. Samples of the supports were characterized by XRD, textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption and FTIR. The reaction tests were performed at 200°C, molar ratio 1:25, 2 and 4 wt% of catalyst and reaction time of 3 hours. XRD results indicate that the phase was obtained ZnAl 2 O 4 effectively, with surface areas of 14.9 and 8.6 m 2 g -1 . The tests demonstrated that reactional higher content of ester was 56.1 and 63.1% for the percentage of catalyst 2 and 4% respectively. (author)

  5. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  6. Experimental and analytical investigation on the emission and combustion characteristics of CI engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Navaneetha Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission and combustion characteristics of a four stroke multi fuel single cylinder variable compression ratio engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl ester and its blends 10%, 20%, 40%, and 60% with diesel (on volume basis are examined and compared with standard diesel. Biodiesel produced from tamanu oil by trans-esterification process has been used in this study. The experiment has been conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm with 50% load and at compression ratios of 16:1, 17:1, 18:1, 19:1, and 20:1. With different blend and for selected compression ratio the exhaust gas emissions such as CO, HC, NOx, CO2, and the combustion characteristics are measured. The variation of the emission parameters for different compression ratios and for different blends is given, and optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The results indicate higher rate of pressure rise and minimum heat release rate at higher compression ratio for tamanu oil methyl ester when compared with standard diesel. The blend B40 for tamanu oil methyl ester is found to give minimum emission at 50% load. The blend when used as fuel results in reduction of polluting gases like HC, CO, and increase in NOx emissions. The previously mentioned emission parameters have been validated with the aid of artificial neural network. A separate model is developed for emission characteristics in which compression ratio, blend percentage and load percentage were used as the input parameter whereas CO, CO2, HC, and NOx were used as the output parameter. This study shows that there is a good correlation between the artificial neural network predicted values and the experimental data for different emission parameters.

  7. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  8. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  9. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Canakci, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  10. The EU car oil programme; Das Auto-Oel-Programm der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, A. [RWTUEV Fahrzeug GmbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik

    1997-07-01

    The car oil programme is a compromise between the member states` demand for improvement of the ecological situation of urban areas and the cost on the one hand and the cost aspects governing technical modifications in vehicles and fuels on the other hand. With the goals stated in the article, road traffic emissions will be reduced. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Das Auto-Oel-Programm stellt einen Kompromiss zwischen den Forderungen aus den Mitgliedstaaten zur Verbesserung der Umweltsituation im innerstaedtischen Bereich und den unter Kostengesichtspunkten tragbaren Aenderungen an Fahrzeugen und Kraftstoffen dar. Mit den vorgegebenen Zielen wird es zu einer Verbesserung der Emissionen aus dem Strassenverkehr kommen. (orig./AKF)

  11. Analysis of Energy Resources and Programs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Appendix C. Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    sulfide, and paraffin to operate in bottomhole temperatures of 200oF and surface temperatures to -850F. Cer- tainly the USSR is...depths and high temperatures , gas and gas-co-^ensate bedia must be absent. . . The bulk of crude oil reserves are associated with...Congress, Vol. IB, pp. 93-108, Mexico 1967. 19 ■ • ’ - -■ ■-.-. • .,.,■ ; .,’ W rl - a 0 c ■o o »> >> u u 9 S -■ o 1. u & o

  12. Reconstruction of industrial boiler type DKVR-13 aiming for combustion of waste materials from oil-yielding production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhanov, P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the methods for improving of the energy efficiency is the use of a secondary energy resources such as waste products from industrial processes. In case of the oil extraction a great amount of waste product (sunflower shells) with a good thermal potential is available. During the industrial process from 100 kg raw material 15 kg shells are obtained. The combustion heat is about 1700 kJ/kg. The volatile compounds yield is 66.1%. An installation has been constructed intended to use the waste product from the extraction, consisting of: a water tube boiler with a steam capacity of 20 t/h and two PKM-12 type flue boilers and two DKVR 10-13 type water tube boilers. The DKVR 10-13 type boilers are designed for the production of 22.77 kg/s saturated steam with pressure 1.28 MPa and temperature 194 o C. They have an unified constructional schemes with a two-drum evaporating system and a natural circulation. The furnace has a horizontally evaporation beam washed by the gas flux. The reconstruction is aimed to create condition for the use of the sunflower shells as a main fuel and the natural gas or other fuel as additional. The scheme is one using the sloping bed combustion. 70% of the steam production is due to the shells combustion. Calculations for the grid parameters have been done. An additional heater improves the efficiency with 4.5% and the expected annual fuel saving is 300 t. The introduction of hot air (165 o C) provides both combustion and ecological benefits

  13. Fuel oil remains the cheapest combustible on the heat market, despite uneven competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel oil prices are currently very high, due to the increased crude oil price. On the market, the competition of fuel oil with natural gas and district heating is hard. Peter Kofmel, member of the Swiss parliament and president of the Swiss Association of Fuel Oil Traders, gives his opinion about the present market situation and prospect. This association has about 300 member companies. Except single big companies in the city areas, the member companies are mainly small and very small companies distributed over the whole Swiss territory [de

  14. Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

    2009-07-15

    Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased

  15. Characteristics of oil sludge from crude oil terminal and behaviors of the naturally occurring radioactive materials and heavy metals on combustion of the sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu

    2001-01-01

    The study on the characteristics and behaviors of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and heavy metals (HM) in the oil sludge from the crude oil terminal were performed using Gamma Spectroscopy (GM), Neutron Activation Analysis Instrumental (NAAI) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). GM and NAAI were used to analyze the concentrations of radionuclides whereas NAAI as well as ICP-MS techniques were applied for HM. The samples were then combusted at temperature ranging from 100 degree Celsius - 800 degree Celsius for a period of 30-150 minutes. The ashes produced were then analyzed again for the various elemental concentrations by the above techniques. The percentage of volatilization was then derived mathematically. The concentration of Ra-226 (123 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (117 Bq/ kg) in the oil sludge are higher compared with their parent U-238 (32.12 Bq/ kg) and Th-232 (35.36 Bq/ kg). The concentration of HM such as As (13.30 ppm), Cr (46 ppm) and Zn (4287 ppm) in the oil sludge are also higher compared with As (7.5 ppm), Cr (43 ppm) and Zn (36 ppm) contain in the Malaysian normal soil. The heating value for crude oil sludge is 9000 kJ/ kg which is below the value for self-sustaining combustion (11000 kJ/ kg). The percentage of volatilization varies from 2-70 % depends on the elements, temperature and period of combustion. Uranium was found to volatile more than other elements. Higher temperatures (>500 degree Celsius) and longer exposure time (>90 minutes) promoted metal and radionuclide volatilization significantly more than 20 %. Based on the first order kinetic reaction, a new global mathematical model was developed (Q e =1-e -k e t ). This model can predict the percentage of volatilization for the various elements contain in the sludge if the temperature and time of combustion are known. With this known percentage of volatilization, the concentration of various elements present in the bottom and fly ashes can be deduced. From

  16. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  17. Properties of chicken manure pyrolysis bio-oil blended with diesel and its combustion characteristics in RCEM, Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbong Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil (bio-oil was produced from chicken manure in a pilot-scale pyrolysis facility. The raw bio-oil had a very high viscosity and sediments which made direct application to diesel engines difficult. The bio-oil was blended with diesel fuel with 25% and 75% volumetric ratio at the normal temperature, named as blend 25. A rapid compression and expansion machine was used for a combustion test under the experimental condition corresponding to the medium operation point of a light duty diesel engine using diesel fuel, and blend 25 for comparison. The injection related pressure signal and cylinder pressure signal were instantaneously picked up to analyze the combustion characteristics in addition to the measurement of NOx and smoke emissions. Blend 25 resulted in reduction of the smoke emission by 80% and improvements of the apparent combustion efficiency while the NOx emission increased by 40%. A discussion was done based on the analysis results of combustion.

  18. Combustion of drops of Mexican fuel oils with high asphaltenes content; Combustion de gotas de combustoleos mexicanos con alto contenido de asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodriguez, Jose Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    In this work the combustion of fuel drops with a content of 18% of asphaltenes has been studied . The results obtained for this fuel were compared with the ones obtained for another with a content of 12% asphaltenes. The drops were suspended in a platinum filament and burned in an spherical radiant furnace. The drop size varied between 600 and 800 microns. The fuel drops with 12% asphaltenes showed shorter combustion times, a smaller diameter increment of the smaller diameter during the combustion stages and also a shorter burning time of the carbonaceous residue than the fuel drops with a content of 18% asphaltenes. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la combustion de gotas de combustible con 18% de contenido de asfaltenos. Los resultados obtenidos para este combustible se compararon con los obtenidos para otro con 12% de contenido de asfaltenos. Las gotas fueron suspendidas en un filamento de platino y quemadas en un horno radiante esferico. El tamano de las gotas vario entre 600 y 800 micras. Las gotas de combustible con 12% de asfaltenos mostraron tiempos de combustion mas cortos, un incremento del diametro menor durante las etapas de combustion y un tiempo de quemado del residuo carbonoso tambien mas corto que las gotas del combustible con 18% de contenido de asfaltenos.

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Heavy Fuel Oil Spray and Combustion under Low-Speed Marine Engine-Like Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On account of their high power, thermal efficiency, good reliability, safety, and durability, low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines are used as the main drive devices for large fuel and cargo ships. Most marine engines use heavy fuel oil (HFO as the primary fuel, however, the physical and chemical characteristics of HFO are not clear because of its complex thermophysical properties. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of fuel properties on the spray and combustion characteristics under two-stroke marine engine-like conditions via a sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis of fuel properties for non-reacting and reacting simulations are conducted by comparing two fuels having different physical properties, such as fuel density, dynamic viscosity, critical temperature, and surface tension. The performances of the fuels are comprehensively studied under different ambient pressures, ambient temperatures, fuel temperatures, and swirl flow conditions. From the results of non-reacting simulations of HFO and diesel fuel properties in a constant volume combustion chamber, it can be found that the increase of the ambient pressure promotes fuel evaporation, resulting in a reduction in the steady liquid penetration of both diesel and HFO; however, the difference in the vapor penetrations of HFO and diesel reduces. Increasing the swirl flow significantly influences the atomization of both HFO and diesel, especially the liquid distribution of diesel. It is also found that the ambient temperature and fuel temperature have the negative effects on Sauter mean diameter (SMD distribution. For low-speed marine engines, the combustion performance of HFO is not sensitive to activation energy in a certain range of activation energy. At higher engine speed, the difference in the effects of different activation energies on the in-cylinder pressure increases. The swirl flow in the cylinder can significantly promote fuel evaporation and

  20. Research and development in oil shale combustion and processing in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G.

    1996-01-01

    Israeli companies and universities are carrying out wide-scale research aimed at investigation and commercial use of oil shale. Oil shale reserves have been evaluated, a demonstration plant for power generation has been constructed, first steps in shale processing at experimental units have been made, and a few commercial projects for oil shale utilization are under consideration. In spite of the low quality of local shales, there are good prospects for their use in the profitable production of electric power and chemical products

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  2. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, M; Fujishima, H; Yamato, Y; Kuroki, T; Tanaka, A; Otsuka, K

    2013-01-01

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NO x removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NO x removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO 2 removal using a Na 2 SO 3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 – 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O 2 , CO 2 and NO x —when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm 3 /h. NO x concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 – 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NO x removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NO x emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO 2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NO x removal and the conventional technology.

  3. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  4. Improvement studies on emission and combustion characteristics of DICI engine fuelled with colloidal emulsion of diesel distillate of plastic oil, TiO2 nanoparticles and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisathan Sundararajan, Narayanan; Ammal, Anand Ramachandran Bhagavathi

    2018-02-10

    Experimentation was conducted on a single cylinder CI engine using processed colloidal emulsions of TiO 2 nanoparticle-water-diesel distillate of crude plastic diesel oil as test fuel. The test fuel was prepared with plastic diesel oil as the principal constituent by a novel blending technique with an aim to improve the working characteristics. The results obtained by the test fuel from the experiments were compared with that of commercial petro-diesel (CPD) fuel for same engine operating parameters. Plastic oil produced from high density polyethylene plastic waste by pyrolysis was subjected to fractional distillation for separating plastic diesel oil (PDO) that contains diesel range hydrocarbons. The blending process showed a little improvement in the field of fuel oil-water-nanometal oxide colloidal emulsion preparation due to the influence of surfactant in electrostatic stabilization, dielectric potential, and pH of the colloidal medium on the absolute value of zeta potential, a measure of colloidal stability. The engine tests with nano-emulsions of PDO showed an increase in ignition delay (23.43%), and decrease in EGT (6.05%), BSNO x (7.13%), and BSCO (28.96%) relative to PDO at rated load. Combustion curve profiles, percentage distribution of compounds, and physical and chemical properties of test fuels ascertains these results. The combustion acceleration at diffused combustion phase was evidenced in TiO 2 emulsion fuels under study.

  5. Fuel economy opportunities for internal combustion engines by means of oil-cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. F.; Li, J. C.; Qin, W. X.; Wei, Z. Y.; Chen, J.

    1997-06-01

    Comparative experiments of oil and water-cooling were performed on a 4-cylinder automotive gasoline engine and a single-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine. Measurements were made to investigate the variation of fuel consumption, combustor wall temperature and engine emissions (HC, CO, NOx and smoke) with two cooling media at steady-state conditions. Significant improvement of fuel economy was found mainly at partial load conditions with oil-cooling in comparison with the baseline water-cooling both for the two engines. The experimental results also showed general trend of reduction in engine emissions using oil as the coolant. Measurements of wall temperature demonstrated that oil-cooling resulted in considerable increase of the combustor wall temperature and reduce of warm-up period in starting process. For automotive gasoline engine, road tests indicated the same trend of fuel economy improvement with oil-cooling. The performance of the automotive oil-cooled engine was further improved by internal cooling with water or methanol injection.

  6. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jiangyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less that 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  7. Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatov, V.; Honnery, D.; Soria, J. [Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion (LTRAC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel flames at the same conditions. Adding of flammable polar additives (e.g. ethanol) to bio-oil improved some of the undesired properties of the fuel such as poor atomisation, low calorific value, and high NO{sub x} emission from the flame. Nevertheless, adding of ethanol should be carried out with caution since it leads to a reduction of the heat flux from the flame. Changing the concentration of flammable polar additives in bio-oil can be an optimising factor in achieving the proper balance between the best spray formation and the maximal heat flux from the flame. (author)

  8. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

  9. Numerical studies of spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuels using reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2014-04-01

    Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68 species and 283 reactions) were implemented in the CONVERGE CFD to simulate the spray and combustion processes of the two fuels. Tetradecane (C14H30) and n- heptane (C7H 16) were used as surrogates for diesel. For the palm biodiesel, the mixture of methyl decanoate (C11H20O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H19O2) and n-heptane was used as surrogate. The palm biodiesel surrogates were combined in proportions based on the previous GC-MS results for the five major biodiesel components namely methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate. The Favre-Averaged Navier Stokes based simulation using the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model was implemented in the numerical calculations of the spray formation processes while the SAGE chemical kinetic solver is used for the detailed kinetic modeling. The SAGE chemical kinetic solver is directly coupled with the gas phase calculations by renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model using a well-stirred reactor model. Validations of the spray liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length data were performed against previous experimental results. The simulated liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length were validated at an ambient density of 15kg/m3, and injection pressure conditions of 100, 200 and 300 MPa were utilized. The predicted liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length agree with the trends obtained in the experimental data at all injection conditions. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  10. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  11. CCS on Offshore Oil and Gas Installation - Design of Post Combustion Capture System and Steam Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Lars O.; Anantharaman, Rahul; Chikukwa, Actor; Mejdell, Thor

    2017-01-01

    Most of the released CO2 on offshore oil and gas installation originates from the gas turbines that power the installations. For certain offshore installations, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) could be an alternative to decrease the CO2 emissions. When opting for a chemical absorption CO2 capture system, a heat source for the stripper reboiler is needed. Since most offshore installations are powered by simple cycle GTs, there is typically no steam available that could be used for stripper reboi...

  12. Fuel oil-water emulsions combustion and application perspectives in Mexico; Combustion de emulsiones de agua en combustoleo y perspectivas de aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo Barrera, Rene [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    Fuel drops with a content of 16% by weight were burned in three emulsions prepared with 5%, 15% and 25% water. The combustion of the drops was carried out in an spherical furnace utilizing the technique of a drop suspended in a filament. The combustion process was registered by a high velocity video system. It was found that the surface of the particles produced by the combustion of the emulsions, had larger holes than the ones of the fuel, therefore it is expected that emulsifying the fuel can help in reducing the unburned particles emission. [Espanol] Se quemaron gotas de un combustoleo, con un contenido de asfaltenos del 16% en peso, y de tres emulsiones preparadas con 5%, 15% y 25% de agua. La combustion de las gotas se llevo a cabo en un horno esferico empleando la tecnica de gota suspendida en un filamento. El proceso de combustion se registro mediante un sistema de video de alta velocidad. Se encontro que la superficie de las particulas de coque, producidas por la combustion de emulsiones, tuvo hoyos mas grandes que la del combustoleo, por lo que es de esperarse que emulsionar el combustoleo puede ayudar a reducir las emisiones de particulas inquemadas.

  13. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  14. New Procedure to Develop Lumped Kinetic Models for Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yunqing

    2016-09-20

    A new procedure to develop accurate lumped kinetic models for complex fuels is proposed, and applied to the experimental data of the heavy fuel oil measured by thermogravimetry. The new procedure is based on the pseudocomponents representing different reaction stages, which are determined by a systematic optimization process to ensure that the separation of different reaction stages with highest accuracy. The procedure is implemented and the model prediction was compared against that from a conventional method, yielding a significantly improved agreement with the experimental data. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  15. Effect of silicone oil on solid propellant combustion in small motors. [for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing troublesome nozzle blockage (by condensation deposits) in laboratory-scale solid rockets by addition of a silicone oil as a propellant ingredient was explored experimentally. An aluminized composite propellant and its counterpart with 1% silicone oil replacing part of the binder were fired in a 63.5 mm diameter, end-burning, all-metal burner. Pressure-time histories were recorded for all of the tests by a Taber gauge mounted at the downstream end of the chamber; temperature-time data at the nozzle throat were obtained in some of the runs by thermocouples having junctions positioned at the wall but insulated from the metal. Deposition of condensables on the nozzle walls causing a progressive increase in the chamber pressure with time was noted. The fraction of firings exhibiting practically no condensation was 59% with silicone and 32% without. On the average, temperature readings at the nozzle throat were higher with the silicone propellants. Although various phenomena may contribute to these findings, the results are not understood completely.

  16. Balance of alkaline and acidic pollution loads in the area affected by oil shale combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Field measurements of concentrations of SO 2 and NO 2 in the air and deposition of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and Cl - in northeastern Estonia were carried out in the end of winter 1998/99. Concentrations in the air were measured by passive sampling method (Palmes tubes); snow samples were used to quantify the deposition loads. The measurement domain covered entire Ida-Viru County, eastern part of Laeaene-Viru County and a few sites in Jogeva County. These measurements and comparison with earlier investigations show that in wintertime most of sulfate over the area affected by oil shale industrial complex appears to be deposited with fly ash particles. The regression formulae for wintertime sulfate and calcium deposition loads for oil-shale region are derived. The inhomogeneous chemical composition of fly ash and influence of other (domestic, traffic) emissions are suggested as possible factors affecting the ratio of sulfate and calcium deposition loads. (author)

  17. Investigation of emissions and combustion characteristics of a CI engine fueled with waste cooking oil methyl ester and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nantha Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been identified as a potential alternative fuel for CI engines because use of biodiesel can reduce petroleum diesel consumption as well as engine out emissions. Out of many biodiesel derived from various resources, biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil (WCO can be prepared economically using usual transesterification process. In the present study, in-depth research and comparative study of blends of biodiesel made from WCO and diesel is carried out to bring out the benefits of its extensive usage in CI engines. The experimental results of the study reveal that the WCO biodiesel has similar characteristics to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke opacity are observed to be lower in the case of WCO biodiesel blends than diesel. On the other hand specific energy consumption and oxides of nitrogen of WCO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. In addition combustion characteristics of all biodiesel blends showed similar trends when compared to that of conventional diesel.

  18. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  19. Leaching of PAHs from agricultural soils treated with oil shale combustion ash: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimova, Jekaterina; Adamson, Jasper; Reinik, Janek; Irha, Natalya

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils amended with oil shale ash (OSA). Leachability studies to assess the release of PAHs to the environment are essential before the application of OSA in agriculture. A quantitative estimation of the leaching of PAHs from two types of soil and two types of OSA was undertaken in this study. Two leaching approaches were chosen: (1) a traditional one step leaching scheme and (2) a leaching scheme with pretreatment, i.e.., incubation of the material in wet conditions imitating the field conditions, followed by a traditional leaching procedure keeping the total amount of water constant. The total amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures was in the range of 15 to 48 μg/kg. The amount of total PAHs leached was higher for the incubation method, compared to the traditional leaching method, particularly for Podzolic Gleysols soil. This suggests that for the incubation method, the content of organic matter and clay minerals of the soil influence the fate of PAHs more strongly compared to the traditional leaching scheme. The amount of PAHs leached from OSA samples is higher than from soil/OSA mixtures, which suggests soils to inhibit the release of PAHs. Calculated amount of PAHs from experimental soil and OSA leaching experiments differed considerably from real values. Thus, it is not possible to estimate the amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures based on the knowledge of the amount of PAHs leached from soil and OSA samples separately.

  20. Combined effect of nanoemulsion and EGR on combustion and emission characteristics of neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-DEE-diesel blend fuelled diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthi, R.; Sankaranarayanan, G.; Pitchandi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neat lemongrass oil can be used as an alternate fuel in diesel engine. • The combined effect of nano emulsion and EGR using LGO25-DEE-Diesel is investigated. • The BTE is improved for nano emulsion fuel blend. • The NO x and smoke emissions decrease significantly. • Cylinder pressure and Heat release rate increase with longer ignition delay. - Abstract: In the present experimental study, the combined effects of nanoemulsion and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, variable compression ratio diesel engine fueled with neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-diesel-DEE (diethyl ether) blend are investigated. The Neat Lemongrass oil could be used as a new alternate fuel in compression ignition engines without any engine modifications. The entire investigation was conducted in the diesel engine using the following test fuels: emulsified LGO25, cerium oxide blended emulsified LGO25 and DEE added emulsified LGO25 with EGR respectively and compared with standard diesel and LGO25 (75% by volume of diesel and 25% by volume of lemongrass oil) fuels. The combined effect of DEE added nano-emulsified LGO25 with EGR yielded a significant reduction in NO x and smoke emission by 30.72% and 11.2% respectively compared to LGO25. Furthermore, the HC and CO emissions were reduced by 18.18% and 33.31% respectively than with LGO25. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption increased by 2.4% and 10.8% respectively than LGO25. The combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure and heat release rate increased by 4.46% and 3.29% respectively than with LGO25. The combustion duration and ignition delay increase at nano-emulsified LGO25 with DEE and EGR mode but decrease for nano-emulsified LGO25 fuel.

  1. Modélisation de la combustion de fuels lourds prenant en compte la dispersion des asphaltènes Modeling Heavy Fuel-Oil Combustion (While Considering Or Including Asphaltene Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Divers modèles, ayant pour but de prédire le taux d'imbrûlés solides lors de la combustion du fuel lourd, ont été mis au point dans le passé. Les paramètres entrant en ligne de compte sont le plus souvent les teneurs en résidus lourds hydrocarbonés (asphaltènes précipités au pentane ou à l'heptane et carbone Conradson et en métaux : c'est le cas des modèles Exxon et Shell développés respectivement en 1979 et 1981. D'autres modèles tiennent compte, en plus de la composition du fuel, de son mode d'atomisation, de son mode de diffusion dans le foyer et de la cinétique de combustion : on peut citer les travaux du Laboratoire Energie du MIT publiés en 1986. Néanmoins, ces facteurs ne sont pas les seuls à intervenir : l'expérience a montré que l'état de dispersion des asphaltènes peut jouer également un grand rôle, notamment dans le cas d'installations de combustion à injection mécanique, pour lesquelles la dispersion des gouttelettes n'est pas aussi fine que pour des installations munies d'une injection assistée par la vapeur. Cette influence de la dispersion des asphaltènes sur la combustion a été mise en évidence dans le passé par l'utilisation d'additifs dispersants et également par la combustion de fuels lourds constitués par dilution d'asphaltes précipités au pentane avec un gas-oil de cracking catalytique de raffinerie (LCO. Ce sont ces fuels que l'on a considérés dans la présente étude. L'effet de ce facteur dispersion n'a pas été quantifié jusqu'alors, la difficulté étant de définir une grandeur mesurable représentant la répartition des agglomérats d'asphaltènes. Dans cette étude, on a essayé en un premier temps de faire une approche fractale de la répartition des asphaltènes à partir de clichés (préparés par la société Total, cette méthode ayant déjà été utilisée avec succès pour décrire des structures d'aspects comparables. Malheureusement, on s'est heurté à des

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  3. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  4. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  5. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, 15 August 1995--15 February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to determine the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The first three phases (i.e., the first 1,000-hour demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted with a proven CWSF-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrid circuit was recently installed and will be evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and will be used to generate baseline data firing No. 6

  6. Undertakings executed with oil energy related specialists invited from Japan and the European Union; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren senmonka shohei jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Four energy related specialists were invited from the European Union countries for a period of about three weeks to execute opinion exchange through orientations, corporation visits, and seminars. Discussions were carried out during visits to the following organizations: the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy and the Agency of industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the New Energy Foundation, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Engineering Research Association for Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Systems, the Coal Liquefaction PSU Research Center, the Coal Research Institute of Idemitsu Kosan Co. the Central Research Institute of Power Industry, Nippon Steel Corporation, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD. A Seminar was conducted on the following subjects: a German speaker described the research and development of a hydrogenation liquefying process to manufacture liquid fuel from coal and solid wastes, a coal hydrogenation liquefying technology, a technology to recover fuel and petrochemical materials from chemical and plastics wastes; a British speaker explained the state of R and D on clean coal and the roles of ETSU in England; and a Danish speaker announced the energy policies in Denmark, and the R and D on a plant that uses coal dust combustion under super critical pressure. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  8. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1992--August 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  9. Performance evaluation of small scale internal combustion engine with mixtures for diesel oil-palm oil; Avaliacao do desempenho do motor de combustao interna de pequeno porte com misturas oleo diesel - oleo de dende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seye, Omar; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Emails: Seye62omar@yahoo.com, rcsouza@internext.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This work aims at the performance evaluation of the Cummins 4B -3.9, an internal combustion engine of maximum power 75 hp (56.6 kW) for small scale power generation, burning different mixtures of diesel fuel and palm oil. The palm oil in nature is mixed manually, what unfortunately will influence the engine performance as it hinders the combustion. The test protocol will include the biodiesel, later on. The emissions were assessed for several proportions of mixture diesel/palm oil covering the strip from 0 to 20% and the results were compared to the engine performance when it operates with diesel only. The motor is coupled to a dynamometer, whose operation consists of the acceleration and deceleration of water in order to simulate the effect of a load being applied to the motor. The system is controlled by the software LT commander that allows the start up and the shutdown of the engine from the screen of the computer that also monitors the following parameters as speed of rotation of the motor (RPM), applied torque (N-m), potency (hp), temperature of the lubricating oil, temperature of the water in the entrance and exit of the motor, and temperature of the environment (deg C), pressures of the lubricating oil and of opening of the injector (mBar). While a flow meter coupled to the piping measures the consumption of fuel, the gas analyzer ECHO Line 6000 it monitors the concentration and temperature of carbon monoxide (CO) (ppm), nitric oxide (NO) (ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), (ppm), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) (ppm) and Oxygen (O{sub 2}) (%) in the exhaust gases. This equipment also determines the combustion parameters as excess of air and the efficiency. The technical results present the efficiency variation, the pressure of the fuel, monoxide carbon, NOx emissions, Oxygen content in the exhaust gases, for the different mixture proportions. Furthermore, the results of economic viability show generation cost values of US$ 135,66/MWh for the motor operating

  10. Development and application of multi-zone model for combustion and pollutants formation in direct injection diesel engine running with vegetable oil or its bio-diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-zone model for calculation of the closed cycle of a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine is presented and applied for the interesting case of its operation with vegetable oil (cottonseed) or its derived bio-diesel (methyl ester) as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives (bio-fuels) to petroleum distillates. Although there are many experimental studies, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these fuels. The model is two dimensional, multi-zone with the issuing jets (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection and across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment (forming the non-burning zone) of the combustion chamber, before and after wall impingement. Droplet evaporation and jet mixing models are used to determine the amount of fuel and entrained air in each zone available for combustion. The mass, energy and state equations are applied in each zone to yield local temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. The concentrations of the various constituents are calculated by adopting a chemical equilibrium scheme for the C-H-O-N system of 11 species considered, together with the chemical rate equations for the calculation of nitric oxide (NO). A model for evaluation of soot formation and oxidation rates is included. The results from the relevant computer program for the in cylinder pressure, exhaust nitric oxide concentration (NO) and soot density are compared favorably with the corresponding measurements from an experimental investigation conducted on a fully automated test bed, standard 'Hydra', DI Diesel engine installed at the authors' laboratory. Iso-contour plots of equivalence ratio, temperature, NO and soot inside the combustion chamber at various instants of time when using these

  11. Microstructure of water emulsions in heavy fuel oil and its effect in the combustion; Microestructura de emulsiones agua en combustoleo pesado y su efecto en la combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Aranda, Angel Alberto

    2000-11-01

    In this work, it was investigated the effect of water drop size distribution (Wad's) of emulsions on the reduction of both the emission and size distribution of total suspended particles (TSP). Four emulsions were prepared in line with different static mixers (smx-1, 2, 3 and 4) and 6.8{+-}0.5% of water. They were burned in an experimental furnace with a HFO mass flow rate of 32 kg h{sup -1} and an excess of oxygen in the flue gases of 0.37%. The TSP emission was measured according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency Method 5 and particle size distribution (PSD) was determined using a cascade impactor by adjusting the procedure dictated by the Method 17 of the same agency. The emulsions were examined with an optical transmitted light microscope and an image analysis system to determinate the WDSD according to the Britannic Standard BS-3604. The unburned carbon of the particles was determined with a CHN-600 LECO elemental analyser using the ASTM-D5373 method. The size and morphology of the cenospheres were analyzed with a scanning electronic microscope and the total incident heat flux on the wall of combustion chamber was measured by a flux probe. The emulsion of the smx-1 mixer had a proportion in volume of 64% in water drops of 2 to 5 {mu}m and reduced the TSP emission in 43% with respect to that of the HFO without water (baseline test). In the emulsions from the mixers 2 and 3 this proportion was 52% respectively, and in both the TSP emission decreased 34%. In the smx-4 emulsion the proportion was of 28% and de TSP emission was reduced 25%. The PSD showed that the emulsions produced smaller cenospheres; the amount of emitted particles with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 1 {mu}m was 26.7% in the base line test, 43.0% with the smx-1 emulsion, 40% with the emulsions from mixers 2 and 3 and 34.8% with the smx-4 emulsion. The PSD was agree with the images obtained with the electronic microscope, where the base line particles were the

  12. Combustion, Performance, and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Like Fuel Blends Derived From a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a 5.5 kW four-stroke single-cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine operated with blends of biodiesel-like fuel (BLF15, BLF20 & BLF25 obtained from a 50:50 mixture of transesterified waste transformer oil (TWTO and waste canola oil methyl esters (WCOME with petroleum diesel. The mixture of the waste oils was named as biodiesel-like fuel (BLF.The engine fuelled with BLF blends was evaluated in terms of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. FTIR analysis was carried out to know the functional groups in the BLF fuel. The experimental results revealed the shorter ignition delay and marginally higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and exhaust gas temperature (EGT values for BLF blends as compared to diesel. The hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were decreased by 10.92–31.17% and 3.80–6.32%, respectively, as compared to those of diesel fuel. Smoke opacity was significantly reduced. FTIR analysis has confirmed the presence of saturated alkanes and halide groups in BLF fuel. In comparison to BLF20 and BLF25, the blend BLF15 has shown higher brake thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption values. The HC, CO, and smoke emissions of BLF15 were found lower than those of petroleum diesel. The fuel blend BLF15 is suggested to be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines without any engine modification.

  13. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.

    1995-05-12

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.

  14. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.  The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.Key words: Jatropha curcas oil, outer velocity characteristic, diesel engine, ignition delay.

  15. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to

  16. Calculation of Oil Film Thickness from Damping Coefficients for a Piston Ring in an Internal Combustion Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. In the present paper this method is further developed and utilized to determine the dynamic behavior of a piston ring in a combustion...

  17. Experimental investigation on the availability, performance, combustion and emission distinctiveness of bael oil/ diesel/ diethyl ether blends powered in a variable compression ratio diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, M.; Malayalamurthi, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present work aims at experimental investigation on the combined effect of injection timing (IT) and injection pressure (IP) on the performance and emissions characteristics, and exergy analysis of a compression-ignition (CI) engine powered with bael oil blends. The tests were conducted using ternary blends of bael oil, diethyl ether (DEE) and neat diesel (D) at various engine loads at a constant engine speed (1500 rpm). With B2 (60%D + 30%bael oil+10%DEE) fuel, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the engine is augmented by 3.5%, reduction of 4.7% of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission has been observed at 100% engine load with 250 bar IP. B2 fuel exhibits 7% lower scale of HC emissions compared to that of diesel fuel at 100% engine load in 23 °bTDC IT. The increment in both cooling water and exhaust gas availabilities lead to increasing exergy efficiency with increasing load. The exergy efficiency of about 62.17% has been recorded by B2 fuel at an injection pressure of 230 IP bar with 100% load. On the whole, B2 fuel displays the best performance and combustion characteristics. It also exhibits better characteristics of emissions level in terms of lower HC, smoke opacity and NOx.

  18. Thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide associated to a petroleum reservoir submitted to in-situ combustion in the Orinoco oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perozo, H.A.; Belandria, V. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP

    2009-07-01

    This paper described an in-situ combustion (ISC) pilot project that is being developed by Venezuela's state oil company in the Orinoco oil belt. Thermal oxidation is commonly used to remove contaminants from waste gases. Petroleos de Venezuela SA examined the effectiveness of this process for eliminating hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from flue gas associated with heavy oil thermal upgrading projects, with particular focus on the effect of temperature on H{sub 2}S oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in an isothermal batch reactor at temperatures between 200 and 500 degrees C. A synthetic gas stream was prepared. The experimental results showed that it is feasible to oxidize 100 per cent of the H{sub 2}S at temperatures as low as 300 degrees C by optimizing excess air and residence time in the reactor. Compared to the minimum required temperature of 760 degrees C to reach 98 per cent oxidation efficiency of H{sub 2}S in the conventional thermal oxidation process of most sour gases, this study found a lower temperature that satisfactorily eliminates H{sub 2}S for the desired application. The results confirmed the feasibility of using thermal oxidation to deal with H{sub 2}S in the flue gas stream during the application of ISC. 5 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  20. Throughput of oil and demand for oil of non-stationary loaded sliding bearings in internal combustion engines. Oeldurchsatz und Oelbedarf instationaer belasteter Gleitlager am Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, H.J.

    1981-12-17

    The throughput of oil and the demand for oil of the non-stationary loaded sliding bearings was determined in a high speed petrol engine. The crankshaft bearing and connecting rod bearing were examined. The bearing temperature of the connecting rod bearing was measured by thermocouples built into this bearing; transmission of the signal from the rotating to the fixed part of the system was by means of a rotating transmitter. The temperature measurement in the crankshaft bearing was done by thermocouples in the bearing shell. Using a separate oil supply for the test bearing, the demand for oil was determined by reducing the oil pressure. Comparative oil throughput calculations were carried out to clear up the relationships discovered in the equipment. The results of the investigation are collected in 15 points, which are explained in detail. These include: negligible effect on the oil throughput of the ignition timing, air ratio and coolant temperature at constant speed and constant mean pressure, the considerable rise of the oil throughput through the connecting rod and crankshaft bearing with increasing speed, and the dominating effect of play in the bearing on the maximum bearing temperature.

  1. Thriving public-private partnership to fortify cooking oil in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) to control vitamin A deficiency: Faire Tache d'Huile en Afrique de l'Ouest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablah, Mawuli; Klopp, Jennifer; Steinberg, Douglas; Touaoro, Zaoro; Laillou, Arnaud; Baker, Shawn

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 42% of children are at risk for vitamin A deficiency, and control of vitamin A deficiency will prevent more than 600,000 child deaths annually. In the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), an estimated 54.3% of preschool-age children are vitamin A deficient and 13% of pregnant women have night blindness. To project the achievements of this West African coalition. This article documents the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned associated with the development of a public-private partnership to fortify vegetable oil in West Africa through project reports and industry assessments. National-level food consumption surveys identified cooking oil as a key vehicle for vitamin A. Stakeholders therefore advocated for the production of fortified vegetable oil at large scale, supported industrial assessments, and reinforced the capacity of cooking oil industries to implement vitamin A fortification through effective coordination of public and private partnerships tied with standards, regulations, and social marketing. Strong alliances for food fortification were established at the regional and national levels. Stakeholders also developed policies, adopted directives, built capacity, implemented social marketing, and monitored quality enforcement systems to sustain fortification for maximum public health impact. The synergy created resulted from the unique and complementary core competencies of all the partners under effective coordination. The initiative began with the 8 UEMOA member countries and now includes all 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), plus Cameroon, Tanzania, and Mozambique, forming a sub-Saharan Africa-wide initiative on food fortification. All members of the Professional Association of Cooking Oil Industries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (AIFO-UEMOA) now fortify edible oil with vitamin A. Through multisector cooperation, an estimated 70% of the population

  2. Influence de la nature des fuels lourds sur la qualité de leur combustion Influence of Heavy Fuel Oil Composition on Particulate Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier A.

    2006-11-01

    heavy fuel oils in a 1 MW boiler and an 0. 1 MW furnace, the conclusion was reached that Conradson carbon residue (CCR of fuel oils is a good indicator of their combustibility, but that it is not sufficient in all cases, i. e. for the same CCR, different values of particulate emissions can be measured. Several possible interpretations were proposed and checked:(a Conradson carbon residue is the result of slow pyrolysis, but it is a procedure that is not sufficiently representative of actual conditions. Yet, by subjecting various fuel oils to flash pyrolysis (heated-grid technique, a good correlation is found between the amount of residue resulting and the CCR. Therefore the CCR remains a good combustibility indicator. (b For fuel oils ex atmospheric residue, ex vacuum residue and ex deasphalting, satisfactory correlations have been observed between CCR and various physicochemical properties of the heavy fractions of fuel oils (cut point of 450°C chosen, i. e. polyaromaticity (measured by carbon 13 NMR, C/H and molecular weight. However, visbreaking fuel oils meet other correlations, as do steam-cracking residues. Hence for these classes of fuel oils, anomalies can be predicted between the particulate emissions and CCR, which is effectively observed with some equipments. (c For the same CCR value, the relative proportion between light and heavy fractions of fuels can sometimes be seen to vary quite appreciably, thus causing changes in the richness and temperature maps of the resulting flames, and hence variations in particulate emissions. The extent of such variations will depend on the types of burners and combustion chambers in which the flame develops.

  3. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel ; Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.

  4. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  5. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  6. Blends of butanol and hydrotreated vegetable oils as drop-in replacement for diesel engines: Effects on combustion and emissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Beránek, V.; Mikuška, Pavel; Křůmal, Kamil; Coufalík, Pavel; Sikorová, Jitka; Topinka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 197, JUN (2017), s. 407-421 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01438S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : renewable diesel * engine * combustion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality (UEM-P) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Energy and fuel s (UEM-P) Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  7. Blends of butanol and hydrotreated vegetable oils as drop-in replacement for diesel engines: Effects on combustion and emissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Beránek, V.; Mikuška, Pavel; Křůmal, Kamil; Coufalík, Pavel; Sikorová, Jitka; Topinka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 197, JUN (2017), s. 407-421 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01438S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : renewable diesel * engine * combustion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality (UEM-P) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Energy and fuels (UEM-P) Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  8. The effect of rapeseed oil biodiesel fuel on combustion, performance, and the emission formation process within a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lešnik, Luka; Biluš, Ignacijo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-models for parameter determination can be derived using experimental results. • Proposed sub-models can be used for calculation of model parameters. • Biodiesel fuel reduces emissions compared to diesel fuel on full engine load. • Usage of biodiesel fuel slow down the emission formation rate. • Oxygen content in biodiesel fuel decreases the amount of formatted CO emissions. - Abstract: This study presents the influence of biodiesel fuel and blends with mineral diesel fuel on diesel engine performance, the combustion process, and the formation of emissions. The study was conducted numerically and experimentally. The aim of the study was to test the possibility of replacing mineral diesel fuel with biodiesel fuel made from rapeseed oil. Pure biodiesel fuel and three blends of biodiesel fuel with mineral diesel fuel were tested experimentally for that purpose on a heavy-duty bus diesel engine. The engine’s performance, in-cylinder pressure, fuel consumption, and the amount of produced NO x and CO emissions were monitored during experimental measurements, which were repeated numerically using the AVL BOOST simulation program. New empirical sub-models are proposed for determining a combustion model and emission models parameters. The proposed sub-models allow the determination of necessary combustion and emission model parameters regarding the properties of the tested fuel and the engine speed. When increasing the percentage of biodiesel fuel within the fuel blends, the reduction in engine torque and brake mean effective pressures are obtained for most of the test regimes. The reduction is caused due to the lower calorific value of the biodiesel fuel. Higher oxygen content in biodiesel fuel contributes to a better oxidation process within the combustion chamber when running on pure biodiesel or its blends. Better oxidation further results in a reduction of the formatted carbon and nitrogen oxides. The reduction of carbon emission is also

  9. Labor unions

    OpenAIRE

    Streeck, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    "Labor unions are interest associations of workers in waged employment. They are formed to improve the market situation and the life chances of their members, by representing them in the labor market, at the workplace, and in the polity, and in particular by collectively regulating their members' terms of employment. Unions emerged in the transition to industrial society in the nineteenth century, together with the de-fedualization of work, the rise of free labor markets, and the commodificat...

  10. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

  11. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  12. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis and the combustion of it; Biooeljyn tuotanto flashpyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The target of the research is to study the production of bio-oils using flash-pyrolysis and utilization of the bio-oil in oil-fueled boilers. The PDU-device was ordered in December 1994. The device was tested in Canada in the beginning of March 1996. The device will be mounted in Otaniemi in the research unit of VTT Energy. The device will by equipped, if possible, with a hot-filtering device in order to improve the purity and the quality of the oil. The capacity of the PDU-device is 20 kg/h of dry biomass of about 10 wt-% DS-content, with particle size less than 6 mm. The actual tests will be made in autumn 1996. The investment costs of the PDU are about 2.5 million FIM. The Canadian funding of the project is about 50 %. It has been planned that within the research project of Vapo oy, about 50 - 100 tons of bio-oil will be acquired from Canada for the engine tests carried out by Wartsilae Diesel, and the project will be responsible for planning and operation of the PDU and the demonstration plants. About 50 tons of wood-oil was received from Canada in January 1996 for the engine tests, the results of which will be reported separately by Wartsilae Diesel. The present costs of the tasks are about 1.2 million FIM, but the main part of the costs will be formed in 1996-1997

  13. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  14. Demonstration program for coal-oil mixture combustion in an electric utility boiler - Category III A. 1978 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The 1978 annual report covers New England Power Service Company's participation in the Department of Energy coal-oil mixture (COM) program. Continued world-wide unrest resulting in an unstable fuel oil supply coupled with rapidly inflating costs have caused continued interest in a demonstrable viable solution. NEPSCO's program, while not attaining all the milestones forecast, has made considerable progress. As of January 31, 1979, ninety-five (95% percent of engineering and design has been completed. Construction of facilities and installation of required equipment was approximately 75% complete and the six-week Feasibility Testing program was expected to commence during April 1979.

  15. Investigating SO3 Formation from the Combustion of Heavy Fuel Oil in a Four-Stroke Medium Speed Test Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Schramm, Jesper; Rabe, Rom

    2013-01-01

    The validation of detailed models, in terms of SO3 formation in large marine engines operating on sulfur-containing heavy fuel oils (HFOs), relies on experimental work. The requisite is addressed in the present work, where SO3 is measured in the exhaust gas of an 80 kW medium-speed single-cylinde...

  16. Desulfurization of fuel oils using an advanced oxidation method; Desulfuracion de combustibles usando un metodo de oxidacion avanzada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the oxidative desulfurization of fuel oils assisted by ultrasound was analyzed. It was studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, the fuel oil to aqueous solution volumetric ratio, and type of catalyst. The Fenton-like catalysts studied were ferric chloride and copper sulfate. [Spanish] En esta investigacion se analiza la desulfuracion oxidativa de combustoleo asistida con ultrasonido. Tambien se estudia el efecto de la concentracion de peroxido de hidrogeno (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), la relacion volumetrica combustoleo/solucion acuosa y el tipo de catalizador. Los catalizadores tipo Fenton que se estudiaron fueron el cloruro ferrico (FeCl{sub 3}) y el sulfato de cobre (CuSO{sub 4}).

  17. Effects of alternate fuels. Report No. 2. Analysis of basic refractories degraded by residual oil combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G. C.; Tennery, V. J.

    1978-02-01

    Industrial conversion in the U.S. to alternate fuels from natural gas is presently under way and will accelerate rapidly as a result of gas curtailments and National policy considerations. Currently the prime alternate fuels are distillate and residual oils and coal. Conversion to residual oils or coal for high-temperature process heat applications is anticipated to result in accelerated refractory and insulation corrosion and degradation due to reactions between fuel impurities and the ceramic linings of high-temperature equipment. Understanding the nature of such reactions and identification of means for preventing or retarding them will be of considerable assistance to both refractory manufacturers and users as well as a significant contribution to energy conservation.

  18. Characterization of diesel oil mixtures with soy oil used for activation of engines of internal combustion; Caracterizacao de misturas de oleo diesel com oleo de soja reutilizado para acionamento de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Teixiera, Mauri Martins; Abrahao, Selma Alves; Leite, Daniel Mariano [Universidade de Vicosa, (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: wagner.siqueira@ufv.br, haroldo@ufv.br, mauri@ufv.br, selma.abrahao@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Alternative energy sources have been studied in several countries, with emphasis on ways of obtaining and using more efficient. The objective of this work to evaluate and characterize mixtures of diesel oil (DO) with soybean oil reused (OSR), the ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of OSR in relation to specific gravity index viscosity and calorific value. To determine the specific gravity was used beaker, thermometer and a balance for each mixture was adjusted a regression model to estimate the bulk density as a function of temperature (25 to 90 deg C). We analyzed the viscosity of the mixtures using an orifice-type viscometer Saybolt, through regression analysis models were fit to estimate the viscosity as a function of temperature, heating the OSR 100% from 40 to 90 deg C decreased by up 90.4% to its viscosity. The tests were performed calorimetric using a bomb calorimeter determines the calorific value , the variation in calorific value followed a descending order with respect to OD with the increasing content of OSR. The OSR is efficient for use in internal combustion engines in small proportions. (author)

  19. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  20. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  1. Combustion noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  2. La pulvérisation du fuel oïl lourd par des combustibles gazeux Using Gaseous Fuels to Spray Heavy Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladurelli A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour faciliter l'inflammation du fuel lourd on procède à sa pulvérisation au droit du brûleur. Deux méthodes sont généralement employées à cet effet : - La pulvérisation mécanique qui consiste à faire passer le liquide sous forte pression au travers d'orifices calibrés de petit diamètre. - La pulvérisation pneumatique qui consiste à utiliser la détente d'un fluide auxiliaire préalablement comprimé. Les fluides couramment utilisés pour cela sont l'air comprimé et la vapeur d'eau ; toutefois tous les combustibles gazeux, notamment le gaz naturel et les gaz de raffinerie, peuvent également servir de fluide de pulvérisation quand ils sont disponibles sous pression. The igniting of heavy fuel oil is facilitated by spraying it at the burner. Two methods are used as a rule: - Pressure atomization, consisting in causing the liquid to pass at high pressure through calibrated small-diameter orifices. - Twin-fluid atomization, which consists in using the expansion of a previously compressed auxiliary fluid. The fluids commonly used for the purpose are compressed air and steam. However, any gaseous fuel, particularly natural gas and the refinery gases, can be used as the spraying fluid provided it is available under pressure.

  3. Oil use of the effluent plant ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment) as combustible for generation of energy in the power plant UG-50Hz; Utulizacao de oleo da ETEO (Estacao de Tratamento de Efluentes Oleosos) para geracao de energia na UG-50Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Francisco de; Nascimento, Jose Maria do; Silva, Luiz Antonio da; Salazar, Marcos Vinicios; Baptista, Reinaldo Lopes; Barros, Sueli Aguiar [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    The areas of finishing products of CSN Steel Plant generate contaminated effluents with oil and grease , that are treated in ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment). In this plant, the oil is processed to be sold for the consuming market. However, some seasons of the year, the market does not absorb the oil, and CSN is obliged to defray the burning of this oil, to not interrupt the productive process and cause an environmental impact. Because of this situation, we search alternatives for the viable use of this oil inside CSN steel plant, taking care for the security of the processes and the impact to the environment. This paper describes the details of the work and the implantation of the burning of this oil of the ETEO with BPF oil (type of petrochemical oil) as combustible in the boiler 7 of the power plant UG 50 Hz. For the implantation of this project, operational contingencies of security for equipment was prepared . Moreover, the work included chemical analyses of the oil and the conditions of the boiler using this mixing of oils. The reached results demonstrate the total viability of this project and it was proved another alternative of the use of this residue, with reduction of the fuel costs , steam costs and the electric energy generated in the power plant of CSN. (author)

  4. The flexfuel tractor. Invesigations on the combustion behaviour of vegetable oil fuels and on the discernability of fossil and biogenic fuels; Der Flexfuel Traktor. Untersuchungen zum Verbrennungsverhalten von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen und zur Unterscheidbarkeit fossiler und biogener Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieringer, Stefanie

    2012-07-01

    Increasing energy prices, especially for fossil fuels, as well as the necessity to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are emphasizing the advantages of self-produced vegetable oil fuels in agriculture. Monetary advantages are depending on basic conditions like farm size or tax legislation, which can be changing locally as well as temporarily. Due to the differing properties of diesel and vegetable oil fuel, engines have to be adapted to each fuel to fulfil performance requirements as well as emission limits and reliability. Knowing that there are advantages of vegetable oil compared to diesel fuel, though not always and everywhere present, it becomes obvious that the well known flexible fuel concept of passenger cars should be adapted for diesel engines of agricultural machines. So called flexfuel engines imply the detection of the fuel type and an automated adjustment of the engine control parameters without any manual action of an operator. Therefore, the first step consists of the evaluation of the combustion properties of rapeseed, sunflower, jatropha and false flax oil compared to diesel fuel. The tested vegetable oils showed very similar behaviour in the tested common rail diesel engine. Especially the limited emissions were met with the same engine control software with all vegetable oils. In consequence it is possible to realize a flexfuel engine using the two engine control maps available at the moment, one for diesel and the other one for vegetable oil fuels. For further investigations one oil type, namely rapeseed oil was selected to test the combustion behaviour of fuel blends made of diesel and vegetable oil. The goal was to determine the blend ratio of vegetable oil and diesel fuel at which the engine control software has to be changed from the diesel to the vegetable oil map automatically. If the fuel consists of 40% or more vegetable oil, the vegetable oil engine control map has to be selected in order to fulfil legal emission limits. Finally the

  5. Investigation on the emission quality, performance and combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine fueled with environmental friendly corn oil methyl ester - Diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, S; Soorya Prakash, K; Sudhakaran, R; Sathish Kumar, M

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with emission quality of diesel engine based on eco toxicological studies with different methods of environmental standard toxicity tests satisfy the Bharath and European emission norms. Based on the emission norms, Corn Oil Methyl Ester (COME) with diesel is tested in a compression ignition engine and the performance and combustion characteristics are discussed. The corn oil was esterified and the property of corn oil methyl ester was within the limits specified in ASTM D 6751-03. The COME was blended together with diesel in different proportion percentages along with B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100. The emission and performance tests for various blends of COME was carried out using single cylinder, four stroke diesel engine, and compared with the performance obtained with 100% diesel (D100). The results give clear information that COME has low exhaust emissions and increase in performance compared to D100 without any modifications. It gives better performance, which is nearer to the obtained results of D100. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) of B100 at the full load condition is found to be 4% lower than that of (D100). The maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of B100 is found to be 8.5% higher than that of the D100 at full load. Also, the maximum BTE of part load for different blends is varied from 5.9% to 7.45% which is higher than D100. The exhaust gas emissions like Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Hydro Carbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) are found to be 2.3 to 18.8% lower compared to D100 for part as well as full load. The heat release rate of biodiesel and it blends are found to 16% to 35% lower as compared to D100 for part load, where as for full load it is 21% lower than D100. The results showed that the test of emissions norms are well within the limits of Bharath VI and European VI and it leads to less pollution, less effect on green eco system and potential substitute to fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of

  7. Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nestor Y.; Milquez, Harvey Andrés; Sarmiento, Hugo

    2011-11-01

    A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were extracted from the filters using the Soxhlet technique, with dichloromethane as solvent. The extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (FID). No significant difference was found between PM mass collected when fueled with diesel and B15. Ten of the 16 PAH concentrations were not reduced by adding biodiesel: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. The acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and anthracene concentrations were 45%-80% higher when using diesel, whereas those for benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and pyrene were 30%-72% higher when using the B15 blend. Even though the 16 priority-PAH cumulative concentration increased when using the B15 blend, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was not different for both fuels.

  8. Urea-nitrate combustion synthesis of MgO/MgAl2O4 nanocatalyst used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani Vahid, Behgam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: As a base catalyst for biodiesel production, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel was successfully synthesized by combustion method with MgO, as the active phase, dispersed on the catalyst surface. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. Analyzing the effect of fuel ratio on the combustion synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 , it was revealed that the synthesized base catalyst with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was of the best specifications for biodiesel production process. Future researches may investigate the catalyst reusability and mild reaction conditions, so as to achieve more economical production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Efficient synthesis of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel by solution combustion method. • Improvement of catalytic activity and stability by optimum ratio fuel. • Enhanced dispersion of MgO over MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. • Production of biodiesel over MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst was synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and rapid method and used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil. MgAl 2 O 4 was synthesized by combustion method at different fuel ratios and then active phase of MgO was dispersed on the samples by impregnation method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalyst confirmed the sample synthesized with fuel ratio of 1.5 has high surface area, effective morphology and texture properties. Finally, in order to evaluate catalytic activity of the samples in biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed. The results indicated the catalyst prepared by combustion synthesis with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was optimum specifications for biodiesel production. Using this

  9. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  10. High-temperature process-steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico (solar energy in the oil patch). Phase I design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-31

    Southern Union Refining Company's Famariss Energy Refinery has worked diligently with Monument Solar Corporation in the conceptual and detail design for this unique application of solar generated steam. An area closely adjacent to the refinery and fronting New Mexico State Highway No. 18 has been designated for the solar collector array. Space planned for the demonstration parabolic trough array is sufficiently large to handle an array of 25,200 square feet in size - an array more than twice the size of the 10,080 square feet proposed originally. The conceptual design, performance, safety, environmental impact, and economic analysis are described. Engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  11. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  12. Future European Union air pollution regulations for automobiles (the auto/oil package); Kommende EU-regulering om luftforurening fra motorkoeretoejer (auto/olie-pakken)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, E. [Miljoestyrelsen (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The total package of air pollution regulations for motor vehicles from the Commission of the European Union will consist of five directives concerning cars, vans, trucks, busses, fuels, and regular inspection. Though only a proposal for cars and fuels at present has been put forward, the levels for the other parts of the package are determined. The Commission has made calculations showing that the proposals will be sufficient to secure compliance with future air quality standards in the main parts of the European Union area in the year of 2010. For the areas where the proposed regulations will be insufficient (specially stress with heavy traffic), the Commission recommends that the EU regulations are supplemented with local measures like road taxes, better public transport, traffic restrictions, award for breaking up old cars, and reconstructing diesel busses to gas. Thus the proposals have not been prepared based on principles of the best available technology. Such a model would, according to the Commission`s opinion, lead to measures that will not be optimum, neither economically nor environmentally. (LN)

  13. Influence of biofuels usage in internal combustion engines of agricultural tractors on output parametrs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Šmerda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of alternative fuels brings the social benefits in terms of reducing dependence on oil industry and its products as well as decreasing of damage of the environment together with using of na­tu­ral resources, especially in field of renewable energy resources. The use of biofuels is the most important part of energy strategy in European Union, whose member states have agreed the content of biofuels will achieve 5.75% of the total energy sum of fuel for transport purposes in 2010. Operation of internal combustion engine fueled by RME brings environmental benefits as described several authors in analysis of the life cycle. The contribution deals with technical difficulties of the RME usage in internal combustion engine used in agricultural tractors. Different fuel causes different process of combustion which means changes in output power and pollution. The aim of this experiment was to determine these effects. Experimental work was divided into two parts according to various fuel systems. The first tractor was equipped with mechanical injection system, the second one was provided with common-rail fuel system. The test procedures consisted of measurement of power- torque curves where the engine load was created by Eddy current dynamometer. Exhaust gas analyzer sampled the pollution of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons as the most important indicators of combustion process.

  14. IEA combustion agreement : a collaborative task on alternative fuels in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larmi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the alternative fuels in combustion task of the International Energy Agency is on high efficiency engine combustion, furnace combustion, and combustion chemistry. The objectives of the task are to develop optimum combustion for dedicated fuels by fully utilizing the physical and chemical properties of synthetic and renewable fuels; a significant reduction in carbon dioxide, NOx and particulate matter emissions; determine the minimum emission levels for dedicated fuels; and meet future emission standards of engines without or with minimum after-treatment. This presentation discussed the alternative fuels task and addressed issues such as synthetic fuel properties and benefits. The anticipated future roadmap was presented along with a list of the synthetic and renewable engine fuels to be studied, such as neat oxygenates like alcohols and ethers, biogas/methane and gas combustion, fuel blends, dual fuel combustion, high cetane number diesel fuels like synthetic Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel and hydrogenated vegetable oil, and low CN number fuels. Implementation examples were also discussed, such as fuel spray studies in optical spray bombs; combustion research in optical engines and combustion chambers; studies on reaction kinetics of combustion and emission formation; studies on fuel properties and ignition behaviour; combustion studies on research engines; combustion optimization; implementing the optimum combustion in research engines; and emission measurements. Overall milestone examples and the overall schedule of participating countries were also presented. figs.

  15. High temperature process steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico. Solar energy in the oil patch. Final report, Phase III: operation, maintenance, and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, L.E.; McGuire, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    This final report summarizes the technical reports for Phase III of this project. The third phase included the operation, maintenance, upgrade and performance reporting of a 10,080 square foot Solar Industrial Process Heat System installed at the Famariss Energy Refinery of Southern Union Refining Company near Hobbs, New Mexico. This report contains a description of the upgraded system, and a summary of the overall operation, maintenance and performance of the installed system. The results of the upgrade activities can be seen in the last two months of operational data. Steam production was significantly greater in peak flow and monthly total than at any previous time. Also monthly total cost savings was greatly improved even though natural gas costs remain much lower than originally anticipated.

  16. Biofuels Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  17. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  18. Total Costs and Benefits of Biomass in Selected regions of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, A. de; Bauen, A.; Costa, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant;- production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel......Project outline:In the Biocost project, representative biomass-to-electricity and biomass-to-transport-service fuel cycles located at different sites within the European Union have been evaluated concerning their environmental and economic performance. Each case study was compared to a fossil......-fuel fired reference case. The case studies examined comprise:-utilisation of foresty residues in the Naessjoe circulation fluidised bed combustion plant, Sweden, versus the use of Polish coal in the same plant;- utilisation of forestry residues and short-rotation coppice for industrial combined heat...

  19. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  20. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  1. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model......’ has spread far beyond the Anglo-Saxon countries and is now commonplace for unions as a way to reach new worker constituencies. Thus, even in ‘institutionally secure’ countries like Germany and the Nordic countries, unions are employing organising strategies while at the same time trying to defend...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...

  2. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  3. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlorio, M.; Coisson, J. D.; Bordiga, M.; Travaglia, F.; Garino, C.; Zuidmeer, L.; van Ree, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Conti, A.; Martelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers

  4. Energy supply of oil refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbaremdiker, M.I.; Kirichenko, N.A.; Nikolayev, N.I.; Yermakov, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    Residual products of refining oil should be used at the site of their production, i.e., at the oil refinery, in particular for gasification. According to the plan of the All-Union Scientific Research Industry of the Oil Industry, gasification is done in a lined reactor at 1400-1500/sup 0/C under pressure up to 1.5 MPa. The fuel components of gas are CO and H/sub 2/. The combustion heat of gas is 4600 kJ/m/sup 3/. The carbon black formed in the process is returned to the reactor and completely gasified, 90-93% of the sulfur from the fuel is converted into H/sub 2/S, the remaining part into organosulfuric compound. The fuel ash together with the carbon black is removed by gas from the reactor. The physical heat of the gas which is up to 25% of the combustion heat of the fuel is used in the boiler-recovery unit for producting saturated steam with pressure to 10 MPa. The gas cooled in the boiler-recovery unit is washed of carbon black and ash by hot water, then from H/sub 2/S by an alkaline sorbent (aqueous solution of tricalcium phosphate). The H/sub 2/S released during regeneration of the sorbent is used as the raw material for producing the elementary sulfur or A/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The carbon black is removed from the wash water by the granulation method. With mixing of the water containing carbon black with mazut, granules are obtained which are then dissolved by the original raw material, and the obtained suspension is fed into the reactor. The clarified water is returned to the cycle of gas purification. Based on the experimental data of the Institute of High Temperatures of the USSR Academy of Sciences, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Oil Industry and NIIOTAZ, a unit was developed for gasifying high-sulfur mazut for power plants.

  5. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  6. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  7. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Kiil, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Several options are available to control the emission of SO2 from combustion processes. One possibility is to use a cleaner technology, i.e. fuel switching from oil and coal to natural gas or biomass, or to desulphurize coal and oil. Another possibility is to change to a different technology...... for power production, such as sun, wind or nuclear power. However, presently and in the near future the most important technology to reduce SO2 emissions from power production is flue gas desulphurization (FGD). There are several methods of FGD, but the majority of the plants are wet scrubbers...

  8. Comparative study of Fischer–Tropsch production and post-combustion CO2 capture at an oil refinery: Economic evaluation and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Daniella; Franck, Per-Åke; Pettersson, Karin; Berntsson, Thore

    2013-01-01

    The impact on CO 2 emissions of integrating new technologies (a biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel plant and a post-combustion CO 2 capture plant) with a complex refinery has previously been investigated separately by the authors. In the present study these designs are integrated with a refinery and evaluated from the point-of-view of economics and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) emissions and are compared to a reference refinery. Stand-alone Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is included for comparison. To account for uncertainties in the future energy market, the assessment has been conducted for different future energy market conditions. For the post-combustion CO 2 capture process to be profitable, the present study stresses the importance of a high charge for CO 2 emission. A policy support for biofuels is essential for the biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel production to be profitable. The level of the support, however, differs depending on scenario. In general, a high charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production, while a low charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production. Integrated Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is most profitable in scenarios with a low wood fuel price. The stand-alone alternative shows no profitability in any of the studied scenarios. Moreover, the high investment costs make all the studied cases sensitive to variations in capital costs. - Highlights: • Comparison of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel production and CO 2 capture at a refinery. • Subsidies for renewable fuels are essential for FT fuel production to be profitable. • A high charge for CO 2 is essential for post-combustion CO 2 capture to be profitable. • A low charge for CO 2 economically favours FT fuel production. • Of the studied cases, CO 2 capture shows the greatest reduction in GHG emissions

  9. Torrefaction of empty fruit bunches under biomass combustion gas atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sellappah, Varsheta; Trinh, Thanh Hoai; Hassan, Suhaimi; Tanoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-11-01

    Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1991--August 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jiangyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less that 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  11. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  12. Long term profitable technique: in situ combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudin, Y.

    1980-03-01

    Onsite combustion, used for heavy petroleum, should permit the rate of recuperation of certain oil fields to be increased to 45% before the end of the century. This procedure, which has not yet been perfected and is, to large extent, still in the laboratory stage, is the object of extensive experiments in the oil fields of Suplacu and Balaria in Rumania. The IFP, which has been associated with these projects since 1969, is continuing its exhaustive laboratory tests. From an economic point of view, onsite combustion necessitates heavy investments, and the technical cost of production ranges from $5 to $15/bbl.

  13. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  14. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  15. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1991--February 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  16. Handbook of Combustion of urban solid wastes; Manual de Incineracion de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The book presents the state of the art of urban solid wastes combustion in the European Union and more specifically in Spain. the technical, economics, environmental and administrative aspects are analyzed.

  17. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  18. Sustainability in the Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  19. Teacher Unions 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  20. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  1. Oil Shale and Its Relation to Petroleum and Other Fuels (Summary Les schistes à l'huile et leurs relation avec le pétrole et les autres combustibles (résumé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billo S. M.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available World oil reserves in oil shales (1. 2 to 2 trillion barrels are at least 4 times as large as proven crude oil petroleum reserves (310 billion barrels. Petroleum is produced from oil shale by pyrolysis (destructive distillation by hecit. Coal can also be converted ta synthetic petroleum products by direct hydrogenation and by the modified Fischer-Tropsch process. Rising cost of oil exploration and production and increasing efficiency of synthetizing processes indicate that synthetic fuels may increase the supply of natural liquid fuels in the foreseeable future. The term kerogen is often used to comprise all the organic matter contained in sediments and may be of two kinds: 1 coalylike kerogen, and 2 sapropellic kerogen - oil shale type. It is believed that both kerogen and petroleum were formed from hypothetical ancestor - protopetroleum. They are found together in sedimenfs and their C13C12 ratios are similar. The largest producer of oil shale ore China, the USSR and Sweden. The USA is technologically prepared to begin production of synthetized fuels through varying economic condition. Richness and size of deposits, cost of mining, cost of retorting, character of products, and location of deposit in relation to plant and market, determine the economic value of a given deposit. Les réserves mondiales de schistes à huile (1,2 à 2 x 10. 12 barils sont au moins quatre fois supérieures aux réserves prouvées de pétrole brut (310 x 10. 9 barils. On extrait le pétrole des schistes par pyrolyse (distillation destructive thermique. Le charbon peut aussi être transformé en hydrocarbures par hydrogénation et par le procédé Fischer-Tropsch modifié. L'augmentation des coûts de l'exploration et de la production du pétrole et amélioration de l'efficacité des procédés synthétiques montrent que les produits synthétiques vont jouer un rôle croissant dans l'approvisionnement en combustibles liquides au cours des années à venir. Le terme k

  2. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  3. Equation for Combustion Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical relationship derived for interactions between turbulent flame and combustion noise. Relationship is rigorous theoretical correlation of combustion noise and combustion process. Establishes foundation for acoustic measurements as tool for investigating structure of turbulent flames. Mathematical relationship is expected to aid researchers in field of noise generated by combustion.

  4. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  5. Radiation protection - the unions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, P.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned trade union viewpoints on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. The main contentious issue was that the 5 rem dose limit might have been lower if ICRP had agreed to involve employers and the trade union movement in their considerations. However, it was concluded that, on balance, the trade union movement would welcome the proposed Regulations. (U.K.)

  6. Trade Union Organisers in Trade Union Organising Strategies: building workplace unionism or reinforcing bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Looker, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis considers the role of union full time officers in union organising strategies. Two decades of promoting union organising influenced by models developed by the AFL-CIO, has failed to arrest the decline of UK trade unions let alone produce evidence of renewal. Focusing mainly on one region in the UKs largest public sector trade union, Unison, the research provides for a detailed account of how organising strategies affect union work, presenting thick and deep data from full time off...

  7. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  8. Linking in Union Catalogs

    OpenAIRE

    Husby, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Library of Estonia organized a Conference on Union Catalogs which took place in Tallinn, in the National Library of Estonia on October 17–19, 2002. The Conference presented and discussed analytical papers dealing with various aspects of designing and implementing union catalogs and shared cataloging systems as revealed through the experiences of Eastern European, Baltic and South African research libraries. Here you can find the texts of the co...

  9. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  10. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    -2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...... combustion, waste incineration, residual oil combustion and in 2009 also combustion of biomass. The emission from waste incineration plants has decreased profoundly also in recent years due to installation and improved performance of flue gas cleaning devices. The emission from power plants have also...

  11. Unions and Wage Determination: Can Monopsonist Unions Reduce Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper extends the standard closed shop union model of wage determination by introducing endogeneity of union membership. The labor market outcome with endogenous membership may differ when unions behave monopsonisticaly relative to the case where they are "membership-takers", resulting in higher or lower wages (more or less favorable contract curve in efficient bargaining) according to the form union´s utility function and/or implicit decision process value union size. Some not...

  12. The Impact of Union Corruption on Union Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Christopher; Cebula, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between union corruption actions and union membership. State-level data from the Office of Labor-Management Standards, and other sources, are utilized over two study periods (1974-2000 and 2001- 2008) to test three hypotheses, including the union corruption hypothesis, as pos­sible explanations for the decline in union membership in the United States over time. Although our initial findings suggest a negative relationship exists between union corruption...

  13. Influence of Advanced Injection Timing and Fuel Additive on Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Running on Plastic Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalargaris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of engine optimisation when plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO is used as the primary fuel of a direct injection diesel engine. Our previous investigation revealed that PPO is a promising fuel; however the results suggested that control parameters should be optimised in order to obtain a better engine performance. In the present work, the injection timing was advanced, and fuel additives were utilised to overcome the issues experienced in the previous work. In addition, spray characteristics of PPO were investigated in comparison with diesel to provide in-depth understanding of the engine behaviour. The experimental results on advanced injection timing (AIT showed reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides emissions in comparison to standard injection timing. On the other hand, the addition of fuel additive resulted in higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. Finally, the spray tests revealed that the spray tip penetration for PPO is faster than diesel. The results suggested that AIT is not a preferable option while fuel additive is a promising solution for long-term use of PPO in diesel engines.

  14. Gentle giants : petroleum industry lobbying in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Refsdal, Nils Olav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to chart the petroleum lobby in the EU, and how oil and gas companies organise themselves in Brussels in order to influence EU policy. I also investigate how the relationship between the industry and the European Union has changed in recent years. The research question is as follows: Who are the actors representing the oil and gas industry in the European Union, how do they work and how has the introduction of the internal energy market affected them? I have ...

  15. Estudio de modificaciones geométricas en boquillas de calderas piro y acuotubulares para la combustión eficiente de crudos pesados // Study of geometric modifications in pyro and aquatubular mouthpieces of boilers for the efficient combustion of heavy oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lincheta Mesa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de boquillas de quemadores de calderas piro y acuotubulares. Se analizan diferentes variantes en lasdimensiones, forma y posición de los conductos de atomizador que dan paso al combustible y al fluido auxiliar en el casode quemadores con atomización por vapor.En todos los casos se evalúa el cono de pulverización y la calidad del spray, analizando la influencia de la presión deatomización y de la configuración geométrica en la eficiencia de atomización.Se determina la eficiencia de la combustión con varios tipos de boquillas, demostrándose la efectividad de lasmodificaciones introducidas cuando se queman combustibles de menor calidad.Se concluye que es posible sustituir algunas boquillas de importación y elevar la eficiencia en la combustión de crudospesados y sus mezclas, con un significativo efecto económico y como un paso más en el perfeccionamiento de las CentralesEléctricas del país para el aprovechamiento del crudo nacional.Palabras claves: quemador, atomizador, fuel oil, caldera, generación de vapor, combustibles, combustión._____________________________________________________________________Abstract :It is presented a study of mouthpieces of pyro and aquatubular burners of boilers. Different variants are analyzed indimensions, forms and position of the atomizer conduits that open the way to the fuel and auxiliary fluid in case of burnerswith steam atomization.In all cases, it is evaluated the pulverization cone and the quality of spray, analyzing the influence of atomization pressureand geometric configuration in the atomization efficiency.Estudio de modificaciones geométricas en boquillas de calderas piro y acuotubulares para la combustión eficiente decrudos pesadosThe efficiency of combustion is determined with several types of mouthpieces. The effectiveness of the introducedmodifications in connection with the import mouthpieces is demonstrated when fuels of smaller quality burns.It is

  16. Steam generation by combustion of processed waste fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudel, F.; Lengenfeld, P. [OEHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The use of specially processed waste fats as a fuel oil substitute offers, at attractive costs, an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional disposal like refuse incineration or deposition. For that purpose the processed fat is mixed with EL fuel oil and burned in a standard steam generation plant equipped with special accessories. The measured emission values of the combustion processes are very low.

  17. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  18. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  19. CYLINDER AND SYSTEM LUBRICATING OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION ADRIAN GIRBA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased thermal efficiency, savings in the fuel consumption and the possibility to burn low quality fuels conducted to an intense development of marine engines in past 20 years, this progress being emphasized by the increased combustion pressures and better combustion properties. These improvements represent a continuous challenge for lubricating oil manufacturers: the rise in combustion temperatures and pressures is making difficult to preserve the oil film in critical areas and the longer strokes of the piston leads to issues of spreading the oil. Adding here the new type of engines using gas or biofuel which requires different types of lubricating oils. Therefore, the success of new generation of engines will depend on lubricating oils quality. :

  20. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three of these ......The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  1. Are unions an anachronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, R

    1979-01-01

    The labor movement in the United States has its roots deep in the soil of worker discontent over grueling working conditions, low pay, and indifference of bosses, who profited from others' sweaty labor. As more and more grubby jobs are replaced by technological innovations, as work becomes more abstract and everyone wears a white shirt, and as managers schooled in motivation theory and humane ideals of participation replace the owner-bosses of yesterday, what role will the unions have left to play? The author of this article, who has been in both the labor force and management, explores what the changes in the labor market will be in the future and what these changes will mean for labor-management relations. He does not conclude that there is no role for unions-only that it will be very different and that to survive unions will have to tackle new issues in the workplace. That adaptation will affect management's stance as well.

  2. Desempenho de misturas pré-aquecidas de óleo de soja cru e diesel como combustível para motores agrícolas Performance of preheated crude soybean oil-diesel blends as fuel in agricultural engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Schlosser

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O óleo de soja é um dos óleos vegetais que têm potencial de uso como combustível para motores diesel, pois é renovável, seguro e de fácil utilização. Em temperatura ambiente, o óleo cru apresenta uma viscosidade cerca de dez vezes maior que a do óleo diesel. Para reduzir a viscosidade do óleo de soja a níveis aceitáveis, é necessária uma temperatura de aquecimento em torno de aproximadamente 60°C ou misturá-lo com óleo diesel. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho do óleo de soja cru e suas misturas com óleo diesel, pré-aquecidas antes da bomba injetora entre 57°C e 68°C, como combustível para motores diesel. O desempenho das misturas combustíveis foi avaliado num motor monocilíndrico de injeção indireta e comparado com o obtido pelo óleo diesel. Os ensaios de curta duração foram conduzidos entre 1.800 e 2.800rpm, sob condição de plena carga em dinamômetro hidráulico. Ensaios realizados a 68°C apresentaram sempre os melhores valores para torque, potência e consumo específico de combustível do que a 57°C. Uma mistura composta por 70% de óleo de soja e 30% de óleo diesel, aquecida a 68°C, apresentou os melhores resultados.Crude soybean oil is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuel for diesel engines. Soybean oil is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. At room temperature crude oil has a viscosity about ten times higher than that of diesel oil. To lower soybean oil's viscosity to the acceptable levels a heating temperature at least 60°C is needed or blending with diesel fuel. The objective of this study was evaluating the soybean oil and blends performance as a fuel for diesel engines. On both crude soybean oil and soybean oil blends were used pre-heating temperature levels on the range between 57°C and 68°C, before fuel pump. The performance of the fuel blends were evaluated in a single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine and compared with the performance

  3. Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references

  4. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  5. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  6. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  7. Marketing the College Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  8. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  9. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  10. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Bomelburg, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  11. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  12. Total costs and benefits of biomass in selected regions of the European Union - BioCosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A. de; Costa, F.B. [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Inst. de Sistemas e Robotica; Bauen, A. [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Div. of Life Sciences] [and others

    1998-11-01

    In the BioCosts project, representative biomass-to-electricity and biomass-to-transport-service fuel cycles located at different sites within the European Union have been evaluated concerning their environmental and economic performance. Each case study was compared to a fossil-fuel fired reference case. The case studies examined comprise: utilisation of forestry residues in the Naessjoe circulating fluidized bed combustion plant, Sweden, versus the use of Polish coal in the same plant; utilisation of forestry residues and short-rotation coppice for industrial combined heat and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power; production of biogas from manure slurry for municipal combined heat and power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use of Danish natural gas in the same engine; gasification of woody biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant; production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in a similar engine; production of rape-seed oil methyl ester and its use for goods transport in Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks; production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether from fossil sources for the same purpose 130 refs, 25 figs, 42 tabs. Research funded in part by the European Commission in the JOULE III programme

  13. European Union definitely introduces common taxes on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper taxes of the European Union on energy are reviewed. European Union Ministers of environment Council definitely ratified new common system of minimal energy taxes in last week. Council introduces par excellence minimal all-European size of an electricity, coal and natural gas consumption tax. New directive according to European Commission will improve operation of internal market and eliminate deformation of competitive environment among individual members as well as among mineral oils and the other energy sources. Slovak Republic taxes all motor fuel types by higher charge as is minimal level demanded by EU according to new directive after rising of consumable tax from mineral oils in August 2003. According to Minister of Finances Slovak Republic demanded European Union for a temporary 10-year period for utilizing electricity, coal, coke, and natural gas consumption tax. According to Ministry, Utilizing new taxes and rising of tax load is not in interest of started tax reform in Slovak Republic

  14. Radium in diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, J.

    1977-05-01

    In order to determine the addition of radon and radium to the air in mines, originatiny from the combustion of petroleum, measurements of the content of radium in diesel oil have been performed. Knowing the radium content theradon content can easily be calculated. The procedures used for the chemical analysis of radium is desribed. The ash remaining after combustion of the diesel oil is soluted in water and radium is precipiated as sulphate. The radium is detected by a ZnS (Ag) detector. The diesel oils from different petroleum companies contained between o.019-0.5pCi radium - 226. The conclution is that the consumption of diesel oils in motors used in mines does not contribute to the radium - 226 content at the air move than permissible according to norms.(K.K.)

  15. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  16. Racial Discrimination and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes the likely determinants of a trade union's policy regarding race and estimates the effect of the presence of unionism on the average wage of black workers relative to that of white workers under various types of union organizational structure. (RJ)

  17. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  18. Compositional Simulation of In-Situ Combustion EOR: A Study of Process Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Priyanka; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; von Solms, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of the influence of reservoir process characteristics in In-Situ combustion modeling and advance the work of Kristensen et al. in this domain; a fully compositional In-situ combustion (ISC) model of Virtual Kinetic Cell (VKC; single-cell model) for laboratory scale...... of the combustion front and thus decrease oil recovery, while increase in oxygen feed assists combustion and contributes towards improved oil recovery. The critical properties of the pseudo components are not determined experimentally, thus extending significance to fluid characterization. The composition plays...

  19. Catalytic cracking with deasphalted oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, W.I.; Taylor, J.L.; Peck, L.B.; Mosby, J.F.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic cracking process. It comprises: hydrotreating resid; thereafter deasphalting the hydrotreated resid to produce substantially deasphalted oil; catalytically cracking the hydrotreated oil in a catalytic cracking unit in the presence of a cracking catalyst to produce upgraded oil leaving coked catalyst; and regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of a combustion-supporting gas comprising excess molecular oxygen in an amount greater than the stoichiometric amount required for substantially completely combusting the coke on the catalyst to carbon dioxide.

  20. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  1. Meget mere union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hardø, Philip; Nielsen, Katrine Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    Den nylige aftale om at udvide eurozonen til også at omfatte en bankunion repræsenterer et markant skridt i den rigtige retning. Det retter i stort omfang op på eurozonens status som en »ufuldstændig« monetær union og vil gøre den mere robust.......Den nylige aftale om at udvide eurozonen til også at omfatte en bankunion repræsenterer et markant skridt i den rigtige retning. Det retter i stort omfang op på eurozonens status som en »ufuldstændig« monetær union og vil gøre den mere robust....

  2. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  3. Schubert Unions in Grassmann Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, T.; Ranestad, K.

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study the linear spans of, and in case of positive characteristic, the number of points on such unions over finite fields. Moreover we study...... a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of points over a finite field for the Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and we give some applications to coding theory. We define Schubert union codes, and study...

  4. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de

  5. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  7. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutmark, Ephraim

    2005-01-01

    .... "Flameless Combustion" is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability limits and therefore extremely low NOx production, efficient...

  8. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  9. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    are in some countries losing their dominant position due to the rise of separate professional confederations. It is argued in the article that the effect of union membership on voting choice is conditioned by the structure of the trade union movement. The support of union members for social democracy......This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement...... still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  10. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  11. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol

  12. Strobes: An Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  13. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  14. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  15. Falls among union carpenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John M

    2003-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the construction trades. We identified a cohort of 16,215 active union carpenters, hours worked, and their workers' compensation claims for a 10-year period. The data on this well-defined cohort were used to describe their work-related falls; to define rates of injury and the associated costs; and to identify high-risk groups. Same level falls occurred at a rate of 1.8/200,000 hours worked; falls from elevations at a rate of 2.3/200,000 hours worked. These injuries resulted in direct payments of 0.30 dollars per hour of work or 2.40 dollars per 8-hr day. Mean costs per fall increased with increasing age. Age was not associated with risk of falls from elevations; younger carpenters had modestly reduced rates of falls from the same level. Rates of falls decreased with increasing time in the union. Carpenters whose usual work involved drywall installation or residential work were at highest risk. Falls are a significant public health risk for carpenters and they are responsible for a significant burden of work-related injury costs. While there is a need for prevention of falls from elevations--through training, enforcement of fall protection regulations, improved safety climate, or engineering changes--there is also the need to prevent falls from lower elevations. Differences in risk likely reflect varying exposures and safety practices in different areas of carpentry, as well as training, experience, and job assignments based on longevity in the union. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  17. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  18. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states....... Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  19. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  20. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  1. Unions, training and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Belfield, Clive R.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper uses a combination of workplace and linked employee-workplace data from the 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey and the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey to examine the impact of unions on training incidence, training intensity/coverage, and training duration. It also examines the impact of unions and training on earnings and a measure of establishment labour productivity. In addition, the implications of training for the firm's bottom line are evaluated. Union...

  2. Union membership variation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates covariates of union density in ten West European countries. It adds to previous research by showing that collective bargaining coverage plays a substantial role. Hence future analyses of union density should emphasize the collective bargaining coverage variable, since...... trade unions may influence both the extent of coverage and the content of agreements. Of course, the question of the direction of the causality remains...

  3. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  4. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2018-02-01

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  5. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  6. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study unions of Schubert cycles of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F. We compute their linear span and, in positive characteristic......, their number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study...

  7. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel ; Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Errasti Cabrera; Ramón Piloto Rodríguez; Noel Ferrer Frontela; Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinoza; Antonio Werner de Dios Ortega; Leonardo Goyos Pérez

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustitu...

  8. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Biofuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Subram Maniam

    Bioalcohols, such as bioethanol and biobutanol, are suitable replacements for gasoline, while biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This study's contribution is experimentally validated chemical kinetic combustion mechanisms for biobutanol and biodiesel. Fundamental combustion data and chemical kinetic mechanisms are presented and discussed to improve our understanding of biofuel combustion. The net environmental impact of biobutanol (i.e., n-butanol) has not been studied extensively, so this study first assesses the sustainability of n-butanol derived from corn. The results indicate that technical advances in fuel production are required before commercializing biobutanol. The primary contribution of this research is new experimental data and a novel chemical kinetic mechanism for n-butanol combustion. The results indicate that under the given experimental conditions, n-butanol is consumed primarily via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radical molecules, which subsequently decompose to smaller hydrocarbon and oxygenated species. The hydroxyl moiety in n-butanol results in the direct production of the oxygenated species such as butanal, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. The formation of these compounds sequesters carbon from forming soot precursors, but they may introduce other adverse environmental and health effects. Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents high quality experimental data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and models its combustion using an improved skeletal mechanism. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which ultimately lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular

  9. Union & Disunion: Should Graduate Students Unionize? A Lingua Franca Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua Franca: the review of academic life, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a range of responses from professors and graduate students to the questions: "Will the National Labor Relations Board decision to allow graduate students to unionize dramatically reshape the academic environment? If so, is that for good or ill? Will unions help cure graduate school life of its many afflictions or make those afflictions…

  10. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  11. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  12. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  13. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  14. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  15. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms...

  16. International trade and currency unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This short article critically reviews the existing empirical literature on the potential trade benefi ts of currency unions and, more in particular, the EMU. Joining a currency union decreases transaction and information costs associated with international trade. From the existing literature two

  17. Is Union Job Dissatisfaction Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…

  18. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Stephen Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  19. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  20. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  1. Toward a More Perfect Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  2. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  3. Co-combustion: A summary of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leckner Bo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of biomass or waste together with a base fuel in a boiler is a simple and economically suitable way to replace fossil fuels by biomass and to utilize waste. Co-combustion in a high-efficiency power station means utilization of biomass and waste with a higher thermal efficiency than what otherwise had been possible. Due to transport limitations, the additional fuel will only supply a minor part (less than a few hundreds MW fuel of the energy in a plant. There are several options: co-combustion with coal in pulverized or fluidized bed boilers, combustion on added grates inserted in pulverized coal boilers, combustors for added fuel coupled in parallel to the steam circuit of a power plant, external gas producers delivering its gas to replace an oil, gas or pulverized fuel burner. Furthermore biomass can be used for reburning in order to reduce NO emissions or for afterburning to reduce N2O emissions in fluidized bed boilers. Combination of fuels can give rise to positive or negative synergy effects, of which the best known are the interactions between S, Cl, K, Al, and Si that may give rise to or prevent deposits on tubes or on catalyst surfaces, or that may have an influence on the formation of dioxins. With better knowledge of these effects the positive ones can be utilized and the negative ones can be avoided.

  4. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  5. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  6. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A VORTEX CONTAINMENT COMBUSTOR FOR COAL COMBUSTION SYTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the development of a vortex containment combustor (VCC) for coal combustion systems, designed to solve major problems facing the conversion of oil- and gas-fired boilers to coal (e.g., derating, inorganic impurities in coal, and excessive formation of NOx and...

  8. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd...

  9. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin A. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  10. Active lubrication applied to internal combustion engines - evaluation of control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    The performance of fluid film bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Therefore, this work evaluates different control strategies for applying active radial oil injection in the main bearings of internal combustion engines with the aim...... surface. The behaviour of a main bearing of a medium size combustion engine, operating with radial oil injection and with four different control strategies is analyzed, giving some insights into the minimum fluid film thickness, maximum fluid film pressure, friction losses and maximum vibration levels...

  11. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry. The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  12. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry.The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  13. Combustion behavior of spent solvent in a submerged combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Amakawa, Masayuki; Uchida, Katsuhide.

    1993-10-01

    An experimental study has been conducted in order to evaluate the applicability of a submerged combustion technique to the treatment of spent solvents contaminated with TRU elements. A bench-scale equipment of submerged combustor having combustion capacity of 1.39 liter of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) per hour was used to obtain process data such as the distribution behavior of radioactive nuclides in the submerged combustion process. This report describes the experimental results on the combustion characteristics of the simulated spent solvents of TBP and/or n-dodecane, and on the distribution behaviors of combustion products such as ruthenium and iodine in the submerged combustion process. (author)

  14. Energy Sector trends in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayral, M.

    1995-01-01

    The future of the economic and social development of the European Community depends to a great extent on the decisions taken from now on as regards energy. Its influence in current life, at all levels, justifies the general interest. Although there is still a lack of concertation between Member States in the decision making process on energy policy, three common objectives have been defined whose realisation affects everyone and needs thus a close cooperation between all parties involved. These objectives are: the global competitiveness of the Community economy, the security of supply and the protection of the environment. These objectives should be achieved within the context of the European Union single market, for which it is necessary to finalize the realisation of the internal energy market essentially in the gas and electricity sectors, considering that a greater openness exists already in the oil and coal sectors. (Author)

  15. The Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Beeeker, Etienne; Hossie, Gaelle; Bettzuege, Marc Oliver; Helm, Dieter; Roques, Fabien

    2015-08-01

    A synthesis of contributions is firstly proposed in this collective publication. In this synthesis, the authors describes the crisis faced by European energy (economic crisis, closure of some thermal power plants due to a lack of profitability, increase of electricity prices, low CO 2 quota prices resulting in a greater use of coal, an ageing refinery system, dependence on the Russian gas for some countries), identify four principles which could be used as guidelines for the European policy (responsibility, solidarity, economic rationality, resilience), define seven recommendations as objectives of a European energy policy. Then, the contributions address the following topics: security of electricity supply, security of European Union's gas supply called into question again, reforming the ETS market to strengthen the credibility of the European climate policy, a necessary evolution of the European energy and climate policy, the issue of a definition of a European energy policy as a dogma or a strategy, the challenge for building up a sustainable and consistent European energy and climate policy

  16. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions...... with a maximal number of -rational points for a given spanning dimension. We study the case and give a conjecture for general . We also define Schubert union codes in general, and study the parameters and support weights of these codes....

  17. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  18. The Turkmens and their oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John.

    1997-01-01

    Political, energy and economic policies are all still being formulated afresh in the newly independent country of Turkmenistan, since its withdrawal from the former Soviet Union. This paper explores how these policies will affect the production of oil. Exploitation of its hydrocarbon reserves is likely to be at the centre of economic development, and senior politicians, learning from the experience of neighbouring Azerbaijan, are understandably cautious about signing up with international oil companies. (UK)

  19. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  20. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  1. The State of the Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue of Angles marks the three hundredth anniversary of the Union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and England. The nature and development of the relations between the constituent parts of the United Kingdom is a fascinating topic also to outside observers, and some of the contributi......This special issue of Angles marks the three hundredth anniversary of the Union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and England. The nature and development of the relations between the constituent parts of the United Kingdom is a fascinating topic also to outside observers, and some...... of the contributions to this volume deal with the Union in a comparative European context. Both Scottish nationalism and Scottish unionism are analysed, and Anglo-Scottish relations are looked at from historical, sociological, linguistic and literary angles...

  2. A stronger, more supranational Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Are we witnessing a transformation of the EU from a strong supranational institution into a weaker Union dominated by governments? This chapter analyzes developments in the past two decades, investigating whether we have seen a shift in power from the EU to member state governments. Is there a sh......Are we witnessing a transformation of the EU from a strong supranational institution into a weaker Union dominated by governments? This chapter analyzes developments in the past two decades, investigating whether we have seen a shift in power from the EU to member state governments....... Is there a shift in the EU towards a new, more intergovernmental Union? The argument in this chapter is that what we are seeing is actually the gradual strengthening of the supranational character of the Union, following a typical trajectory. When a policy area is first included as part of the EU, decision...

  3. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  4. Internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  5. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  6. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  7. Migration and Trade Union Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2010-01-01

    We study in this paper both theoretically and empirically the influence of trade union rights in origin countries on bilateral migration flows. Theoretically, we propose two complementary models. In the first model, trade union rights are supposed to increase the bargaining power of workers. We model these rights as a transfer from high-skilled workers to low-skilled workers, assuming that this latter category of workers will benefit more from freedom of association and collective bargaining....

  8. Effect of char on the combustion process of multicomponent bio-fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Amir Houshang; Pozarlik, A.K.; van der Weide, E.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Luding, S.; Brem, G.

    2018-01-01

    Combustion of pyrolysis oil has attracted many attention in recent years as a renewable and environmental friendly fuel. However, pyrolysis oil as an multi-component fuel has some differences compared to conventional fossil fuels. One of the main differences is the formation of solid char in the

  9. Transition nozzle combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  10. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  11. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the attached pump is carried as a spare. Oil filters shall be provided on all internal combustion... arrangement shall be such that the filters may be cleaned without interrupting the oil supply except that such... coolers, heaters, filters, etc., for proper operation. Oil heaters shall be fitted with bypasses. (f...

  13. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  14. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  15. Shale-oil-derived additives for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidma, E.; Leetsman, L.; Muoni, R.; Soone, Y.; Zhiryakov, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidation, wearing, and anticorrosive properties of shale oil as an additive to liquid fuels and oils enable to improve the conditions of their use. Studies conducted by Institute of Oil Shale have shown that it is possible, on the basis of shale oil produced by Viru Keemia Grupp AS (Viru Chemistry Group Ltd.) and, particularly, on the basis of its fractions 230-320 and 320-360 deg C to produce efficient and stable additives for liquid fuels to improve their combustion and storage properties. In the production of additives from shale oil the prerequisite taken into account is its complexity of composition and high concentration of neutral and phenolic oxygen compounds. Additives produced from shale oil have multifunctional properties which enable to improve operational data of liquid fuels and to increase the power of diesel engines and boilers. (author)

  16. Combustion Engine Identification and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Serrano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is system identification and control of two different internal combustion engines, Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engine and a more conventional Combustion Ignited (CI) diesel engine. The control of both engines is aimed to emission reduction and to increase the eficiency. There is an introduction to the internal combustion engine, as well as theory used about system identification and Model Predictive Control (MPC). A physical model of a PPC en...

  17. Union certification elections in nursing care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palthe, Jennifer; Deshpande, Satish P

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study examines 387 union certification elections conducted by the National Labor Relations Board in nursing care facilities (North American Industry Classification System 623) from January 1999 to December 2001. Unions won 60% of the elections. Service Employees International Union was involved in 42% of the elections. Bargaining unit size significantly impacted union victory. Unions had a better probability of winning elections in the northeast and midwest than in the south. Unlike other industries, American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations affiliated unions did not suffer a big labor image in nursing care facilities. Implications for union organizers and administrators of nursing care facilities are discussed.

  18. 75 FR 32142 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Combustible Dust AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of combustible dust Web Chat. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate in a Web Chat on the workplace hazards of combustible dust. OSHA plans to use the information gathered in response to this Web...

  19. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    . JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  20. Coal power and combustion. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    ERDA's coal combustion and power program has focused on two major areas: Direct combustion of coal and advanced power systems. Efforts in the area of direct combustion are concentrated on: Development of atmospheric and pressurized systems capable of burning high-sulfur coal of all rank and quality in fluidized-bed combustors; development of advanced technology power systems to generate power more economically than present technology permits while using medium- and high-sulfur coal in an environmentally-acceptable manner; development of the technology enabling coal-oil slurries to be substituted as feedstock for gas or oil-fired combustors; and improvement of the efficiency of present boilers. Compared with conventional coal-fired systems, fluidized-bed combustion systems give higher power generation efficiencies and cleaner exhaust gases, even when burning high-sulfur coals. If the fluidized-bed system is pressurized, additional economies in capital and operating costs may be realized. The benefits from high-pressure combustion are a reduction of furnace size due to decreased gas volume and better sulfur removal. High-pressure combustion, however, requires the development of equipment to clean the hot combustion products to make them suitable for use in power generation turbines. The advanced power systems program is directed toward developing electric power systems capable of operating on coal or coal-derived fuels. These systems involve the use of high temperature gas turbines burning low-Btu gas and turbine systems using inert gases and alkali metal vapors. Some 25 projects in these areas are described, including a brief summary of progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  1. Trace elements in the Prestige fuel-oil spill: Levels and influence on Laxe Ria sediments (NW Iberian Peninsula); Elementos traza en el combustible vertido por el Prestige: Niveles e impacto sobre el sedimento de la Ria de Laxe (noroeste de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, R; Cobelo-Garcia, A; Santos-Echeandia, J [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo, (Spain); Marmolejo-Rodriguez, J [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    Trace elements have been determined in sediments from the Laxe Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula) one year before and one year after the Prestige fuel-oil spill (November 2002; 42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West). The elements analyzed (Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se and V) were chosen because they appeared to represent a potential contaminant from the deposited oil in the sediments. Enrichment factors, based on Al-normalized background concentrations, did not indicate metal contamination in the sediments from most of the ria; however, a severe contamination by Cu, Mo, Ni and V was found in the area of Corme Inlet, where the fuel oil could have accumulated as a result of the ria's hydrodynamic pattern. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la concentracion de 19 elementos quimicos en el combustible pesado derramado al mar desde los tanques del petrolero Prestige (noviembre de 2002; 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este). Entre ellos, se investigo la presencia de Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se y V en el sedimento superficial de la Ria de Laxe (NO de Espana) en los anos anterior y posterior al vertido debido a que sus niveles son similares tanto en el fuel como en el sedimento. Los factores de enriquecimiento, obtenidos tras normalizacion de las concentraciones con el aluminio, no indican contaminacion del sedimento en la ria. No obstante, se detecto una severa contaminacion por Cu, Mo, Ni y V en la ensenada de Corme donde el vertido podria haberse acumulado como resultado de la hidrodinamica de la propia ria.

  2. Flammability properties of typical aviation functional oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianlong; Zhou, Tiannian; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A sequence of experiments were conducted in a cone calorimeter to measure the flammability properties of 4050# lubricating oil and 15# hydraulic oil. Meanwhile, the heat release rate, mass loss rate and ignition time were used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the two kinds of oil with varying external radiant heat fluxes. The results show that the 15# oil is easier to be ignited than the 4050# oil and -0.55 power of the ignition time is linear with the external radiant heat flux, which agrees with the previous studies.

  3. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  4. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  5. FORT UNION DEEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  6. FORT UNION DEEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  7. An Equation-of-State Compositional In-Situ Combustion Model: A Study of Phase Behavior Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, M. G.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2009-01-01

    phase behavior sensitivity for in situ combustion, a thermal oil recovery process. For the one-dimensional model we first study the sensitivity to numerical discretization errors and provide grid density guidelines for proper resolution of in situ combustion behavior. A critical condition for success...

  8. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Most fossil fuels contain sulphur and also biofuels and household waste have a sulphur content. As a consequence sulphur species will often be present in combustion processes. In this paper the fate and influence of fuel sulphur species in combustion will be treated. First a description...... of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...

  9. Low emission internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  10. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  11. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  12. Highlights of the Customs Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Kharlov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors summarize the main results of two years of the operation of the Customs Union in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, which is hardly impressive in the aftermath of the global financial crisis and economic instability in Belarus. However, the authors stressed that it is too early to jump to conclusions about the effectiveness of the Customs Union. In addition, the structure of trade, working arrangements and the list of goods are changed. Separately it is analyzed the changing economic situation in Kazakhstan, where the increased influx of Russian investments are after joining the Customs Union fully operational. In different sectors of the domestic economy are active joint Kazakh-Russian companies because Kazakhstan has more attractive business environment, compared to Russia. Russian companies are interested in Kazakhstan and produce this product to sell back to Russia or Belarus. For Kazakhstan benefit is job creation, expansion of production base, increasing tax revenues, new investments.

  13. Social Attitudes, Labor Law, and Union Organizing: Toward A New Economics of Union Density

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about union wage bargaining. Much less has been written about union density, which has been viewed as simply the employment outcome under the wage bargain. This paper presents a new dynamic model of union density that exhibits multiple equilibria and path-dependency. The model builds upon Freeman (1998) who identified the importance of union spending on organizing and business spending on opposing unions. It emphasizes the demand for union representation which depends on...

  14. The Union Recreation Area. College Unions at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, George F.

    Within the context of college union programs, the recreational games of bowling, billiards, table tennis, and some table games are discussed, including their history, facilities, and operation. Specific duties and responsibilities of the Recreation Area Manager are outlined, as are counter personnel and procedures, and maintenance personnel and…

  15. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  16. Combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  17. Dynamic features of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  18. Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms, SUPRI TR-127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E.; Castanier, Louis M.

    2001-09-07

    The program spans a spectrum of topics and is divided into five categories: (i) multiphase flow and rock properties, (ii) hot fluid injection, (iii) primary heavy-oil production, (iv) reservoir definition, and (v) in-situ combustion.

  19. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  20. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  1. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  2. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  3. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this

  4. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  5. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  6. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  7. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  8. Monatary Union and the Outsiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Jonathan; Thygesen, Niels

    possible phases. This suggests that the 9 countries studied show a sufficient degree of co-movement in their main economic series to make their participation in a monetary union feasible. This has implications for a currently plausible scenario in which a core group qualifies according to the criteria...

  9. Microforms in Series Union List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsock, Ralph, Comp.

    This union list contains over 100 microform music collections from eight libraries which are members of the Mountain-Plains Chapter of the Music Library Association. The 22-page list includes major sets, series, and complete works of composers. Excluded are periodicals, single work/dissertation titles, and general collections that are currently…

  10. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employee...... influence primarily goes through a direct user channel, that is through union influence directed at the service users, whereas a minor effect possibly runs through a political channel, that is lobbying directed at the local politicians......., they have been unable to isolate a one-way effect, and the studies have not been attentive to whether the effect varies for different market forms. In this article, we focus on privatization in Denmark through a voucher market without price competition for eldercare services. Using new data for all 98...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...

  11. If Your Graduate Students Unionize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Edward T., II

    2001-01-01

    Describes the effects of and universities' response to a recent National Labor Relations Board decision which defined graduate assistants at private institutions as employees, giving them the right to organize, collectively bargain, and strike. Includes a sidebar on the effects of the graduate student union at the University of Iowa. (EV)

  12. Union Lake Bourbeuse River, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Poeciliidae -Cambusia affinis Mosquitofish 8,10 Order Atueriniformes Centrarchidne - Suinfishes AalbloTpites rupestris Rock Bass 9,10,14 LLpomis cyanellus...4, I’he i.ss, ( muscle ) shoals of the Tennessee River revisted. Amercan a~ae1zia Union. Annual Report (19 4)~ pp 25-28. Stansberv, i). ff. 1970

  13. A sociological analysis of labour unions and labour union elites in Developing countries: Turkish labour union elites

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    This study will concern itself with Turkish labour unions and social portrait of contemporary Turkish labour union elites: firstly, brief information on theoretical and historical background of labour (trade) unions is given, then major findings about contemporary Turkish labour union elites are presented. Multiple methodological approaches were used to define the research subject, to outline the research universe. Extensive field researches comprise the major data sources of the study. V...

  14. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  15. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  16. Direm prices, prices and margins of petroleum products in France and in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents in a series of graphics and tables, the evolution of petroleum products prices and margins in France and in the European Union: crude oil prices, Rotterdam's petroleum products quotation, raw brent refining margin, automotive and domestic fuel prices. (J.S.)

  17. Propellant combustion at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoyer, H.F.R.; Korting, P.A.O.G.

    1986-03-01

    The combustion characteristics of a family of composite propellants have been investigated at low (i.e., subatmospheric) pressures and three different temperatures. Although a de Vieille-type burning rate law appeared to be applicable, the burning rate exponent and coefficient vary strongly with the initial temperatures. Indications are that this is primarily due to the presence of nitroguanidine and oxalate. Combustion efficiency proved to be poor. At low pressures, all propellants are susceptible to irregular burning: above 50 kPa oscillatory combustion was hardly observed. All propellants exhibit distinct preferred frequencies for oscillatory combustion. These frequencies, being much lower than the acoustic frequency of the test system, are associated with the combustion characteristics of the propellants. They depend strongly on the combustion pressure and the initial propellant temperature.

  18. Why do people join trade unions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    In this study the reasons for joining a trade union are analyzed statistically using high quality data from Statistics Denmark comprising the entire Danish workforce combined with European Social Survey data from rounds 1-3. These data enables measuring the effect of union density at the workplace...... level on union recruitment, which is not done before. Workplace union density is taken to measure the strength of the workplace’s custom of being union member creating an instrumental incentive to join the union. Self-placement on a political left-right scale measures political attitude taken...... to be a value rational motive. The statistical results indicate that the most important predictor of joining the union is workplace union density and only in a secondary manner does political attitude matter. It is concluded that the normative pressure of one’s colleagues is the dominating reason for joining...

  19. Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Group Credit Unions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) to diversify, credit unions now have the opportunity to market their services to specific employee groups or industries which can reduce the overall risk to the credit unions' health or solvency...

  20. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  1. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  2. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Sánchez Armando; Montero-Alpírez Gisela; Ayala-Bautista Ramón; Coronado-Ortega Marcos Alberto; García-González Conrado; Campbell- Ramírez Héctor Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicoche...

  3. Example Problems in LES Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    memorandum is the evaporation and subsequent combustion of liquid fuel droplets. Kerosene, a complex hydrogen mixture, is explored from the standpoint of...AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2016-002 Example Problems in LES Combustion Douglas V. Nance Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Example Problem in LES Combustion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  4. Arab Maghreb Union: Achievement and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADU1ATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A283 604 THESIS w ’ : ’ ARAB MAGHREB UNION: ACHIEVEMENT AND PROSPECTS by Abderrahmen Messaoudi...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 June Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Arab Maghreb Union...release; distribution is unlimited. *A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 wordsj February 17, 1989, witnessed the signing of the Arab Maghreb Union. This union has

  5. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  6. The modes of gaseous combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nickolai M

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of contemporary problems in combustion science, namely flame propagation, detonation and heterophaseous combustion based on the works of the author. The current problems in the area of gas combustion, as well as the methods allowing to calculate and estimate limiting conditions of ignition, and flame propagation on the basis of experimental results are considered. The book focuses on the virtually inaccessible works of Russian authors and will be useful for experienced students and qualified scientists in the area of experimental studies of combustion processes.

  7. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  8. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the operational...

  9. Combustion from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Combustion, the process of burning, is defined as a chemical reaction between a combustible reactant (the fuel) and an oxidizing agent (such as air) in order to produce heat and in most cases light while new chemical species (e.g., flue gas components) are formed. This book covers a gap on the market by providing a concise introduction to combustion. Most of the other books currently available are targeted towards the experienced users and contain too many details and/or contain knowledge at a fairly high level. This book provides a brief and clear overview of the combustion basics, suitable f

  10. Combustion of jojoba methyl ester in an indirect injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Radwan, M.S.; Elfeky, S.M.S. [Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

    2003-07-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine for the first time the performance and combustion noise of an indirect injection diesel engine running with new fuel derived from pure jojoba oil, jojoba methyl ester, and its blends with gas oil. A Ricardo E6 compression swirl diesel engine was fully instrumented for the measurement of combustion pressure and its rise rate and other operating parameters. Test parameters included the percentage of jojoba methyl ester in the blend, engine speed, load, injection timing and engine compression ratio. Results showed that the new fuel derived from jojoba is generally comparable and a good replacement to gas oil in diesel engine at most engine operating conditions, in terms of performance parameters and combustion noise produced. (author)

  11. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... strategies for financial and correspondent services, including the ability of the proposed corporate credit... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD80 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY...) setting forth the requirements and process for chartering corporate federal credit unions. DATES: Comments...

  12. A Different Role for Teachers Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

  13. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  14. The Implementation of the Greek Union Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsirikou, Anthi

    This paper is based on the results of the study of the Work Group of Bibliographic Standards for the Greek union catalog, the first stage of Greek academic library union catalog development. The first section lists the objectives of the union catalog. The state of the art of Greek academic libraries is discussed in the second section. The lack of…

  15. Participation in virtual organizations - the union responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Despite most of the hype on virtual organisations, the introduction does not necessarily produce or develop a high trust situation. The paper report on Scandinavian union responses to virtualization, with case examples of manufacturing enterprise groupings. Despite explicit technology promoting p...... policies by unions, participation in management of technology is not granted, but was taken by the shopstewards and their unions...

  16. Union members receive better redundancy terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2003-01-01

    In July 2003, a trade union affiliated to the Dutch Christian Trade Union Federation (CNV) negotiated extra benefits for its own members in a redundancy agreement with the Getronics IT company. A similar deal was reached in 2002 by an affiliate of the Dutch Trade Union Federation (FNV) at Ballast

  17. The Woman's Voice in Andean Labor Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    Women have attained leadership roles in the struggle for improvements among workers in Peruvian and Bolivian unions. Three modalities of women's involvement are the following: (1) spouse of a union member; (2) minority unionist; and (3) union leader. Women's perceptions of their power and men's exclusionary attitudes influence these organizational…

  18. Projects submitted to international science and technology center by Institute of Combustion Problems. Production of powder magnet materials on the basis of natural oxide minerals for purification of the water surface from oil and petrol pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofa, N.; Ksandopoulo, G.

    1996-01-01

    Goal: To obtain a cheap magnet sorbent with high sorbing activity to move off oil and petrol pollution from the surface of water and to purify pools and sewage waters. Task: By mechanical and chemical treatment of natural oxide compounds with a member of selected components there is synthesized a fine-dispersed powder material with micro composition structure of the particles (dielectric nucleus, conductive and magnet surface layers). Formation of surface layers is determined by the regime of mechanical and chemical treatment and alloying additives of the mixture, Properties of the treated powder depend finally on the structure and properties of synthesized surface layers organically connected between themselves and a nuclear carrier of a particle. Due to the characteristics of magnet permeability obtained oxide material is not worse than metallic powders of iron and its alloys. Besides, it has a high corrosion stability and stability of magnet properties in the humid environment and at heating up to 600 C. High sorbing activity provides absolute purification of water surface from oils at small residence times with polluted surface. Peculiarities of state of the particles surface of synthesized material provide structural stability of sorbed mass which enables moving it off from the water surface by mechanic or magnet techniques. By the method being used and feedstock synthesized magnet powder is very cheap and can be used after regeneration directly or as a construction material

  19. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  20. 78 FR 77721 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of Funding Opportunity. SUMMARY: The National Credit...

  1. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of Funding Opportunity. SUMMARY: The National Credit...

  2. 78 FR 33445 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of Funding Opportunity. SUMMARY: The National Credit...

  3. 75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  4. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  7. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à certaines propriétés comme le point d’éclair. Cette opération utilise habituellement de la vapeur d’eau. D’autres substances peuvent remplir la même fonction, comme les hydrocarbures légers. Dans cet article, on étudie l’utilisation du gaz combustible de la raffinerie comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères dans une unité de distillation atmosphérique.

  8. Objetivo: Ahorro de combustible

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Sopena, Rosa María; Catalán Mogorrón, Heliodoro Fco.

    2011-01-01

    Con los precios de la energía en escalada imparable y particularmente, el gasóleo en precios históricos, se hace indispensable que el agricultor intente ahorrar en la partida energética de su explotación agrícola. El tractor se pondrá en el punto de mira del ahorro. Curioso paradigma, el gran amigo del agricultor, el tractor, se convierte en el máximo responsable de la partida energética. Una cifra, el consumo de combustible puede llegar incluso al 50% del coste horario total en la vida de...

  9. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  10. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2017-03-28

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  12. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  13. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  14. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  15. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  16. Risk management in Lithuanian and Irish credit unions: Trends and impacts on credit union development

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupelyte, Dalia; McCarthy, Olive

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the Irish and Lithuanian credit union movements in terms of risk management and risk performance, and to discuss credit union risk regulation. Risk management in credit unions often closely relates to credit union development stages so that as credit unions mature, higher standards of risk management should be implemented. In some cases these changes are accompanied by shifts in the regulatory framework. A comparison of the situations in Lithuania and Ire...

  17. Krisen i den Britiske Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    at betale for skotsk, walisisk og nordirsk selvbestemmelse. De tre store britiske partier er først lige begyndt at forholde sig til den krise der er for den Britiske Union og hvad de har tænkt sig at gøre for at løse problemerne vil vi vende tilbage til her i Orientering i den kommende tid....

  18. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  19. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  20. The economic effects of labor unions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedder, R.; Gallaway, L. [Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2002-12-31

    Using a variety of statistical techniques, it is concluded that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts - trillions of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries, and union militancy in coal mining has contributed importantly to largely eliminating employment in this once large industry. While some individual workers have profited from unions, the aggregate economic impact is strongly negative.

  1. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorazewiez, S.

    1998-01-01

    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author)

  2. union publique HR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assur...

  3. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Social Customs and Trade Union Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Daniel Sparwath

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of social customs on one of the most important instances of collective action, namely, workers uniting in trade unions. Although many studies have used social custom theory to explain unionization, existing studies have not adequately analysed social...... customs at the workplace. Using workplace union density as a proxy for social custom, this analysis improves existing studies in a number of ways. First, multi-level analyses of a large panel data set from Denmark reveal that there is a significant positive effect of workplace union density...... in unionization are required to create self-sustaining social customs for union membership. Thirdly, we test the acceleration using segmented regression analysis and find a significant acceleration around 45–65 per cent workplace union density. In the conclusion, we discuss the implications of our study...

  5. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Combustible Dust AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meetings. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings on the workplace hazards of combustible dust. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these...

  6. 75 FR 10739 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Combustible Dust AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meetings. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings on the workplace hazards of combustible dust. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these...

  7. A method for producing cable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' ev, V.V.; Atarukov, A.G.; Borisenko, P.N.; Filippov, F.I.; Kazanskii, V.L.; Khromova, G.K.; Musaev, D.D.; Prokof' ev, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The method for producing cable oil, which involves mixing petroleum oil with a polymer product, is improved by using a polymerization product which contains polyisobutylene with a 9,000-15,000 molecular mass. Following the mixing, easily combustible fractions and gaseous products are separated out to the point where the concentrations of polyisobutylene in the prepared oil reaches 16-20 percent. Adding 5 percent colophony into the cable oil makes it possible to produce a product which has increased stability and high electric indicators. In aging the existing cable soaking oil, the oil's specific volumetric resistance falls from -.65 X 10/sup 9/ to -2 X 10/sup 10/ Om X cm, while the dielectric loss increases 10 times or more; the oil, produced by the proposed method, has a resistivity which drops from 0.88 X 10/sup 14/ Om X cm; the sample, containing colophony, has a dielectric loss increase by a factor of two.

  8. Oil supply on demand: Oil pumps in serial application; Bedarfsgerechte Oelversorgung: Regeloelpumpen im Serieneinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparski, C. [S H W Automotive GmbH und Co. KG, Bad Schussenried (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Usually, constant displacement oil pumps are used for the oil supply of combustion engines. Gerotor, helical or spur gear pumps or vane pumps are the most common solutions. The disadvantage of the mentioned design is the oil delivery as function of pump speed, independent from the engine needs. Variability of oil delivery for reduction of hydraulic losses is the logical consequence. The first variable displacement oil pump which has fulfilled this requirement is the Internal Regulated Oil Pump (IRP). The mass production of this oil pump started in 2002. The solution for outer gear pumps and vane cells followed shortly. The following contribution gives a summary of different technical concepts for adjusting of oil delivery, beginning with pump pressure as a leading value till map regulation and its transformation in mass production products. (orig.)

  9. Research on a dispersing solution for burnt crude oils: Aegean Sea oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Morales, N.; Dominguez, F.

    1993-01-01

    The oil tanker Aegean Sea spilled oil when it grounded during severe storm conditions near La Coruna, Spain. Much of the oil burned after an explosion was caused by the hull breaking apart. Oil which contaminated several beaches was affected by both combustion and weathering. Experiments were conducted on oil sampled from the beaches to investigate dispersion of the oil using Beep Enersperse 1990 at different shaking speeds. Biodegradation experiments were also conducted in the presence of Beep Enersperse 1990 but with seawater absent. Although emulsification of the burnt and weathered oil was very difficult, good dispersion and biodegradation were obtained. After 42 d in a stirred reactor, biodegradation of the oil reached at least 80%. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Combustion & Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLDRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Combustion and Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLRDC) supports the experimental and computational study of fundamental combustion phenomena to...

  11. In-situ combustion simulation with dynamic grid; Simulacao de combustao in-situ com grades dinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, C.H.A.; Almeida, M.P.; Vasconcelos, H.H.M.; Oliveira, C.L.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we study the effects of the introduction of 3D dynamics grids on in-situ combustion simulation results as means of describing the most realistically possible the dynamics of these processes, in particular of the combustion front. The dynamic refinement of grid blocks is important because in thesis it enhances the precision in the calculations once that more grid blocks are considered in the grid, especially within the narrow region of high temperature of the combustion front. We have performed dry combustion simulation (only water injection) and wet combustion simulation (air + water injection) for forward combustion in a variety of well configurations. Our initial results have shown changes in oil, water and gas productions when we use dynamics grids in the simulations, making clear the relevance of its usage in the understanding of the dynamics of these processes. (author)

  12. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  13. Combustion instability control in the model of combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadullin, A N; Ahmethanov, E N; Iovleva, O V; Mitrofanov, G A

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external periodic perturbations on the instability of the combustion chamber in a pulsating combustion. As an external periodic disturbances were used sound waves emitted by the electrodynamics. The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of using the method of external periodic perturbation to control the combustion instability. The study was conducted on a specially created model of the combustion chamber with a swirl burner in the frequency range from 100 to 1400 Hz. The study found that the method of external periodic perturbations may be used to control combustion instability. Depending on the frequency of the external periodic perturbation is observed as an increase and decrease in the amplitude of the oscillations in the combustion chamber. These effects are due to the mechanisms of synchronous and asynchronous action. External periodic disturbance generated in the path feeding the gaseous fuel, showing the high efficiency of the method of management in terms of energy costs. Power required to initiate periodic disturbances (50 W) is significantly smaller than the thermal capacity of the combustion chamber (100 kW)

  14. Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    14 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows partially-filled collapse pits on the eastern flank of Alba Patera, a large volcano in northern Tharsis. The three pits near the bottom (south) of the image have collapsed to the point of coalescence, while the northern-most pit remains largely a separate entity. Location near: 38.5oN, 103.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  15. PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) IN CRUDE OIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The performance of maize (Zea mays) in crude oil treatment was investigated at the University of Port. Harcourt botanical garden. Germination ... Percentage germination decreased with increase in concentration of crude oil equilibrated with water. Germination .... International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural ...

  16. Oil investment in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1990s Latin America became a favoured target for foreign investors as one of the side-effects of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The reason is linked to macroeconomic reforms in Latin America and the failure of equivalent reforms in the former communist countries. Latin American state-owned-oil companies have been welcomed as borrowers on the international financial markets. Simultaneously private sector investment in the oil industry has increased. This chapter examines nationalisation and the state oil companies, the financing of the state sector, privatisation, the boosting of oil exploration and security issues. The sustainability of the economic reforms in the region is discussed. (UK)

  17. Effect of Microorganisms in the Bioremediation of Spent Engine Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    lubricating various internal combustion engines that include all categories of motor vehicles. Engine oil is described by. Klamann (1984) as the oil that principally functions as cleaning the motor engines, lubricating the moving parts of motor engines, inhibiting corrosion of motor engines, improving sealing and cooling the ...

  18. Characterization of pure plant oil and biodiesel from Jatropha curcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems associated with long term availability of conventional hydrocarbon fuels for automotive engines, and the continuous emission of combustion ... study investigates the characteristics of pure plant oils (PPO) of Jatropha curcas and Thevetia nerifolia ; biodiesel produced from them at different methanol/ oil ratio.

  19. Russian oil goes to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandelaki, T.L.; Tankayev, R.U.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Russia retained its place as the world's third largest producer of oil and gas condensate after Saudi Arabia and the USA. Data are provided on Russia's oil sales to its domestic market, to the former Soviet Union and to the rest of the world. These are accompanied by a commentary on Russia's world-wide market, refining in Russia, transportation costs of crude from the generally remote areas where it is produced and price ranges in the various market segments. (7 tables) (UK)

  20. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  1. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S.W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature ( D), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally

  2. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  3. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...... is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  4. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  5. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  6. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  7. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  8. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  9. On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LEVENTIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.

  10. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Siu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  11. Framing the debate over teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The power of teacher unions in the U.S. has waned since the 2010 mid-term elections.  The convergence of business conservatism and teacher accountability ideologies has led to an intense targeting of public teacher unions as a problem, both economically and educationally.  Using the target audience framework of Schneider and Ingram (1993, I break down the framing used in the present anti-union movement and explore a local example of anti-union legislation in Pennsylvania.  The analysis reveals a socially constructed dichotomy in which victimized children are pitted against greedy teachers.  To stem this wave of anti-unionism, teacher unions must recognize their position as public contenders and rearticulate their message using child-first rhetoric.

  12. [Non-unions. From diagnosis to healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, E; Glombitza, M; Böhm, H-J; Hax, P-M; Rixen, D

    2013-07-01

    Non-unions are a relevant medical and socio-economic problem. Hyper-, oligo- and atrophic non-unions as well as septic and aseptic non-unions are differentiated. Correct classification is essential for the selected therapy. The "diamond concept" describes five pillars, on which bone healing is based and that have to be considered in the treatment of non-unions: osteogenic cells (mesenchymal stem cells), osteoinduction (growth factors), osteoconduction (scaffolds), mechanical stability, and vascularization. Factors that predispose to non-union also influence fracture healing. The gold standard of therapy are still resection of the non-union, decortication and autologous bone grafting. No advantage could be proven for any of the numerous procedures in monotherapy. But the combination of various procedures - polytherapy - seems to be promising. The aim is to optimize these concepts.

  13. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  14. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: the mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, H.; Hu, E.; Zhi, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China. (Author)

  15. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: the mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, H.; Hu, E.; Zhi, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China. (Author)

  16. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D [Idaho Falls, ID; Carrington, Robert A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-10

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  17. The European Union: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    If to all these we add the protectionist measures that the new president of the United States wishes to implement, as well as some deterioration in the European Union credibility generated by Brexit, the bureaucratic aspects that characterize the European institutions, etc., we can outline the context of the European Union, which requires a series of measures to ensure the progress of the European Union as a whole and, in particular, the effective integration of each Community country.

  18. Wage Setting in Democratic Labour Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...... is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from the average. These findings are in accordance with empirical results....

  19. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  20. Trade union organization in employment relations

    OpenAIRE

    Čeledová, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Trade unions organizations in employment relations The thesis deals with trade union organization as the most important representative of employees in collective employment relations. The purpose of this thesis is to describe a task of trade union organization as a legal subject from the view of legal theory, as well as from the view of contemporary legal regulation which has recently been substantially changed due to the recodification of private law. These contemporary amendments change a s...

  1. Unions and investment in intangible capital

    OpenAIRE

    Sulis, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Although coverage of collective bargaining agreements has been declining for decades in most countries, it is still extensive, especially in non-Anglo-Saxon countries. Strong unions may influence firms’ incentives to invest in capital, particularly in sectors where capital investments are sunk (irreversible), as in research-intensive sectors. Whether unions affect firms’ investment in capital depends on the structure and coordination of bargaining, the preference of unions between wages and e...

  2. Heavy metals behavior during monocombustion and co-combustion of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Oliveira, J.F.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I. [DEECA, INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the study of the combustion of granular dry sewage sludge performed on a pilot fluidized bed system. The results of monocombustion of sludge and co-combustion with coal were compared with those of coal combustion for ash partitioning, the formation of gaseous pollutants, and heavy metals behavior. It was found that the mineral matter of sludge was essentially retained as bottom ash. The production of fine ash was small during the monocombustion but was high during co-combustion due to the tendency of coal to produce fine ash, which also contained unburned char. The degree of heavy metal volatilization was found to be slightly higher during co-combustion than in monocombustion; however, most of the metals were retained in the ash and their emissions were found to be below the regulated levels. Hg was completely volatilized. However, during combustion trials involving coal, Hg was captured in the cyclone ash at temperatures below 300{sup o}C. During sludge monocombustion the retention of Hg in cyclone ash containing low loss on ignition (LOI) was not enough to decrease emissions below the EU regulated levels; hence, it is necessary to install dedicated flue gas treatment for Hg removal. The leachability and ecotoxicity of sludge and ash were also compared with the new regulatory limits for landfill disposal in the European Union (EU).

  3. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  4. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  5. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  6. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  7. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Sánchez Armando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicochemical properties of the compounds and the operating conditions of equipment were developed using the simulator Aspen® and supplementary information. The main aspects of the engine working conditions were considered such as diesel-biodiesel ratio, air/fuel mixture, temperature of the combustion gases and heat load. Diesel physicochemical specifications were taken from reports of PEMEX and SENER. Methyl esters corresponding to the transesterification of fatty acids that comprise castor oil were regarded as representative molecules of biodiesel obtained from chromatographic analysis. The results include CO2, water vapor, combustion efficiency, power and lower calorific value of fuels.

  8. The combustion of biomass - the impact of its types and combustion technologies on the emission of nitrogen oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Milica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmonization of environmental protection and the growing energy needs of modern society promote the biomass application as a replacement for fossil fuels and a viable option to mitigate the green house gas emissions. For domestic conditions this is particularly important as more than 60% of renewables belongs to biomass. Beside numerous benefits of using biomass for energy purposes, there are certain drawbacks, one of which is a possible high emission of NOx during the combustion of these fuels. The paper presents the results of the experiments with multiple biomass types (soybean straw, cornstalk, grain biomass, sunflower oil, glycerin and paper sludge, using different combustion technologies (fluidized bed and cigarette combustion, with emphasis on the emission of NOx in the exhaust gas. A presentation of the experimental installations is given, as well as an evaluation of the effects of the fuel composition, combustion regimes and technology on the NOx emissions. As the biomass combustion took place at temperatures low enough that thermal and prompt NOx can be neglected, the conclusion is the emissions of nitrogen oxides primarily depend on the biomass composition- it is increasing with the increase of the nitrogen content, and decreases with the increase of the char content which provides catalytic surface for NOx reduction by CO. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33042: Improvement of the industrial fluidized bed facility, in scope of technology for energy efficient and environmentally feasible combustion of various waste materials in fluidized bed i br. III42011: Development and improvement of technologies for efficient use of energy of several forms of agricultural and forest biomass in an environmentally friendly manner, with the possibility of cogeneration

  9. Numerical prediction of the chemical composition of gas products at biomass combustion and co-combustion in a domestic boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomiak Henryk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the numerical modelling of biomass combustion has been successfully applied to determine the combustion mechanism and predict its products. In this study the influence of the addition of waste glycerin in biomass wood pellets on the chemical composition of exhaust gases has been investigated. The pellets have been prepared from spruceand pine wood sawdust without and with addition of waste glycerin. The waste glycerol is a undesirable by-product of biodiesel transesterification at oil manufacturing. The produced pellets were being burned in the 10 kW domestic boiler adapted to wood pellets combustion. The possibilities of pollutants generation (CO2, CO, NOx SOx and compounds containing chlorine in the exhaust gases coming from the boiler were numerically calculated using the latest version of CHEMKIN-PRO software, introduced by the American company Reaction Design. The results of the calculations correspond to the data obtained on a real object, in particular: combustion temperature, gas pressure, residence time of fuel in the burner, air flow, fuel consumption, as well as elementary composition of fuel supplied into the boiler. The proposed method of predicting the chemical composition of exhaust gases allows proper control of the combustion process and can be considered as an important step in reducing the pollutants (lower emission of NOx, SOx and CO2 neutral and thus to contribute to the improvement of the environmental quality. In addition, knowledge of the amounts of Clbased compounds produced in combustion process (under given conditions, can serve as an important hint in terms of corrosion prevention of boiler- and chimney steels.

  10. Hospital RN job satisfaction and nurse unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, Jean Ann; Spetz, Joanne; Ash, Michael; Herrera, Carolina-Nicole; Keane, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether unionization is associated with job satisfaction among RNs in the United States using nationally representative surveys of RNs. Factors that predict job satisfaction for RNs in healthcare continue to be of great concern to nurse administrators and managers because job satisfaction remains an important aspect of nurse retention. In addition, the notion of having unions for RNs has also gained prominence on the national stage. The relationship between RN job satisfaction and having an RN union has rarely been studied, but in 2 studies, a paradox was found; hospitals with RN unions had higher job dissatisfaction but greater retention. This study will test the relationship between having an RN union and job satisfaction with data that are both more recent and nationally representative. We analyze the public-use data from the 2004 and 2008 National Sample Surveys of Registered Nurses. In both 2004 and 2008, union representation was negatively associated with job satisfaction, although this relationship was not statistically significant in 2008. Some nurse administrators and executives would not be surprised by this finding. However, although union nurses may express more dissatisfaction, they may also be more vocal and less fearful about voicing concerns. If managers can harness this ability of the nurses to be articulate and outspoken, working with unions and union nurses can be productive and satisfying.

  11. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  12. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  13. Wage and Labor Union in Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pipit Pitriyan; Adiatma Y.M Siregar

    2012-01-01

    The presence of Labor Unions is expected to provide a higher bargaining power for its members so that the rights of workers can be better acknowledged. In Indonesia, presently, the role of unions is more highlighted in the determination of the minimum wage. This study aims to estimate the the role of labor union on wage determination of Indonesia’s labor intensive manufacturing sector and whether wage differentials occurs among labor union member/non-member of Indonesia’s labor intensive manu...

  14. Modeling segregated in- situ combustion processes through a vertical displacement model applied to a Colombian field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Aristizabal, Jose Julian; Grosso Vargas, Jorge Luis

    2005-01-01

    Recently it has been proposed the incorporation of horizontal well technologies in thermal EOR processes like the in situ combustion process (ISC). This has taken to the conception of new recovery mechanisms named here as segregated in-situ combustion processes, which are conventional in-situ combustion process with a segregated flow component. Top/Down combustion, Combustion Override Split-production Horizontal-well and Toe-to-Heel Air Injection are three of these processes, which incorporate horizontal producers and gravity drainage phenomena. When applied to thick reservoirs a process of this nature could be reasonably modeled under concepts of conventional in-situ combustion and Crestal Gas injection, especially for heavy oils mobile at reservoir conditions. A process of this nature has been studied through an analytic model conceived for the particular conditions of the Castilla field, a homogeneous thick anticline structure containing high mobility heavy oil, which seems to be an excellent candidate for the application of these technologies

  15. How in-situ combustion process works in a fractured system : two-dimensional, core and block scale simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadaei, H.; Renard, G. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Lyon (France); Quintard, M.; Debenest, G. [L' Inst. de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Kamp, A.M. [Centre Huile Lourde Ouvert et Experimental CHLOE, Pau (France)

    2008-10-15

    Core and matrix block scale simulations of in situ combustion (ISC) processes in a fractured reservoir were conducted. ISC propagation conditions and oil recovery mechanisms were studied at core scale, while the 2-D behaviour of ISC was also studied at block-scale in order to determine dominant processes for combustion propagation and the characteristics of different steam fronts. The study examined 2-phase combustion in a porous medium containing a solid fuel as well as 2-D conventional dry combustion methods. The aim of the study was to predict ISC extinction and propagation conditions as well as to understand the mechanisms of oil recovery using ISC processes. The simulations were also used to develop up-scaling guidelines for fractured systems. Computations were performed using different oxygen diffusion and matrix permeability values. The effect of each production mechanism was studied separately. The multi-phase simulations showed that ISC in fractured reservoirs is feasible. The study showed that ISC propagation is dependent on the oxygen diffusion coefficient, while matrix permeability plays an important role in oil production. Oil production was governed by gravity drainage and thermal effects. Heat transfer due to the movement of combustion front velocity in the study was minor when compared to heat transfer by conduction and convection. It was concluded that upscaling methods must also consider the different zones distinguished for oil saturation and temperatures. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  16. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R.; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    1997-01-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data

  17. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  18. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  19. on the oxidation stability of lubricating oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The internal combustion engine is a model oxidator, since it contains a hydrocarbon motor oil with air under agitation at high temperatures. In addition, metals such as copper, lead, nickel, chromium and iron, used for the manufacture of the engines, are effective oxidation catalysts which increases the rate of oxidation. The.

  20. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  1. Combustion Noise in Modern Aero-Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, I.; Moreau, S.; Nicoud, F.; T., Livebardon; Bouty, E.; Poinsot, T.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Combustion noise has recently been the subject of attention of both the aeroacoustic and the combustion research communities. Over the last decades, engine manufacturershave made important efforts to significantly reduce fan and jet noise, which increased the relative importance of combustion noise. Two main mechanisms of combustion-noise generation have been identified: direct combustion noise, generated by acoustic waves propagating to the outlet, and indirect combus...

  2. Particulate Emissions Associated with Diesel Engine Oil Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tornehed, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Particulate emissions from diesel engines have been a key issue for diesel engine developers in recent decades. Their work has succeeded in reducing the exhaust particles from the combustion of fuel, which has led to increasing interest in the contribution of particulates from lubrication oil. When discussing oil-related particulate emissions, hydrocarbon particles are customarily referred to. This thesis uses a broader definition, in which oil-related particulate emissions are modelled not o...

  3. Rotary internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine assembly. It includes: a central rotor means formed with at least one peripheral fuel cavity. The cavity having a first surface defining a thrust surface and a second surface defining a contoured surface; a housing means enclosing the rotor and having an internal wall encircling the rotor. The internal wall being intercepted by at least two recesses defining cylinder means. The housing means and the rotor means being relatively rotatable; piston means individual to each the cylinder means and reciprocable therein; each piton means having a working face complementary to aid contoured surface; and power means for urging the working face into intimate areal contact with the contoured surface to create a first seal means. The housing means having at lest one fuel inlet port, at least one fuel ignition means and at least one exhaust port whereby during the course of a revolution of the rotor means relative to the housing means, the first seal means, the power means, the respective ports, the ignition means and the fuel cavity cooperate to develop fuel compression, fuel ignition and exhaust functions.

  4. Hydrogen combustion in aqueous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.R.; Griffiths, S.K.; Shepherd, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water fogs are recognized as an effective means to mitigate the effects of large-scale hydrogen combustion that might accompany some reactor loss-of-coolant reactor accidents. Fogs of sufficiently high density to produce large beneficial effects may, however, be difficult to generate and maintain. An alternate method of suspending the desired mass of water is via high expansion-ratio aqueous foams. Because the foam would be generated using the combustible gaseous contents of the containment vessel, combustion occurs inside the foam cells. Although foams generated with inert gas have been well studied for use in fire fighting, little is known about combustion in foams generated with flammable mixtures. To help assess the usefulness of aqueous foams in a mitigation plan, the authors have conducted open tube tests and closed vessel tests of hydrogen/air combustion with and without foam. At low and intermediate hydrogen concentrations, the foam has little effect on the ultimate isochoric pressure rise. Above 15% hydrogen concentration, the foam causes a significant reduction in the pressure rise. The maximum effect occurs at about 28% hydrogen where the peak overpressure is reduced by two and one-half. Despite this overall pressure reduction, the flame speed is increased by up to an order of magnitude for combustion in the foam and strong pressure fluctuations are observed near a hydrogen concentration of 23%

  5. Hydrogen combustion in aqueous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.R.; Griffiths, S.K.; Shepherd, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Water fogs are recognized as an effective means to mitigate the effects of large-scale hydrogen combustion that might accompany some loss of coolant nuclear reactor accidents. Fogs of sufficiently high density to produce large beneficial effects may, however, be difficult to generate and maintain. An alternate method of suspending the desired mass of water is via high expansion-ratio aqueous foams. Because, in practice, the foam would be generated using the combustible gaseous contents of the containment vessel, combustion occurs inside the foam cells. Although foams generated with inert gas have been well studied for use in fire fighting, little is known about combustion in foams generated with flammable mixtures. To help assess the usefulness of aqueous foams in a mitigation plan, several open-tube tests and more than 100 closed-vessel tests of hydrogen/air combustion, with and without foam were conducted. At low and intermediate hydrogen concentrations, the foam has little effect on the ultimate isochoric pressure rise. Above 15% hydrogen concentration, the foam causes a significant reduction in the pressure rise. The maximum effect occurs at about 28% hydrogen (the stoichiometric limit is 29.6% hydrogen) where the peak overpressure is reduced by 2 1/2. Despite this overall pressure reduction, the flame speed is increased by up to an order of magnitude for combustion in the foam, and strong pressure fluctuations are observed near a hydrogen concentration of 23%

  6. Hydrogen combustion in aqueous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Griffiths, S.; Shepherd, J.

    1983-01-01

    Water fogs are recognized as an effective means to mitigate the effects of large-scale hydrogen combustion that might accompany some loss-of-coolant nuclear reactor accidents. Fogs of sufficiently high density to produce large beneficial effects may, however, be difficult to generate and maintain. An alternate method of suspending the desired mass of water is via high expansion-ratio aqueous foams. Because, in practice, the foam would be generated using the combustible gaseous contents of the containment vessel, combustion occurs inside the foam cells. Although foams generated with inert gas have been well studied for use in fire fighting, little is known about combustion in foams generated with flammable mixtures. To help assess the usefulness of aqueous foams in a mitigation plan, we have conducted several open tube tests and over one hundred closed vessel tests of hydrogen/air combustion with and without foam. At low and intermediate hydrogen concentrations, the foam has little effect on the ultimate isochoric pressure rise. Above 15% hydrogen concentration, the foam causes a significant reduction in the pressure rise. The maximum effect occurs at about 28% hydrogen (the stoichiometric limit is 29.6% hydrogen) where the peak overpressure is reduced by a factor of two and one-half. Despite this overall pressure reduction, the flame speed is increase by up to an order of magnitude for combustion in the foam and strong pressure fluctuations are observed near a hydrogen concentration of 23%

  7. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  8. College Unions at Work. Administration and Operation of the College Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jack; McQueen, Sidney

    This study deals with administrative and operational patterns of 278 college unions located in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Japan. Emphasis is placed on physical plant, organizational structure, professional staff, financial operation of the union, general union policies, relationship to departments, facilities, and…

  9. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo Junior, Rodolpho; Gomes, Jorge da Rocha

    2005-01-02

    Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. Qualitative study. Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Publica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.

  10. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  11. Numerical analysis of a one-dimensional multicomponent model of the in-situ combustion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2013-01-01

    parameter, the critical ignition saturation, is introduced, in order to describe the easiness of oil ignition. Its dependence on the different parameters of the oil mixture and injection gas is studied. The conclusions on the processes governing the ignition of oil in the presence of water are made......, the model is based on SARA representation of a petroleum mixture (saturates–aromatics–resins–asphaltenes), which may react differently with oxygen and produce other components (for example, light oils and coke). In total, the model contains 14 components, which may undergo 15 chemical reactions. The set...... of reactions in the original model of M.R. Kristensen has been modified in order to account for secondary combustion of the light oil fraction. The results of the model implementation are applied to the four heavy oil systems and qualitatively compared to the results of previous experimental studies. A new...

  12. 29 CFR 452.77 - Permissible use of union funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible use of union funds. 452.77 Section 452.77 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.77 Permissible use of union funds. Certain uses of union... subordinate union may be contributed to a committee formed to challenge the results of a national union...

  13. 12 CFR 701.2 - Federal credit union bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal credit union bylaws. 701.2 Section 701.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.2 Federal credit union bylaws. (a) Federal credit...

  14. 12 CFR 705.8 - State-chartered credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-chartered credit unions. 705.8 Section 705.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN PROGRAM FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.8 State-chartered credit unions. State...

  15. 12 CFR 705.7 - Loans to participating credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans to participating credit unions. 705.7 Section 705.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN PROGRAM FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.7 Loans to participating credit unions...

  16. 12 CFR 710.9 - Federally insured state credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federally insured state credit unions. 710.9 Section 710.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATION § 710.9 Federally insured state credit unions. A federal insured state credit union...

  17. 12 CFR 741.206 - Corporate credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corporate credit unions. 741.206 Section 741.206 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.206 Corporate credit...

  18. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  19. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wu, Weihua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taatjes, Craig A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scheer, Adam Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Kevin M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yu, Eizadora T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Powell, Amy Jo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gao, Connie W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  20. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  1. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  2. International Union of Radioecologists' activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The International Union of Radioecologists (I.U.R.) has maintained a vigorous program of activities in accordance with the goals of its charter. To meet these goals, the I.U.R. has sponsored a number of workshops, meetings, and other related activities aimed at improving our ability to understand and predict the consequences of release of radionuclides to the environment. These include: intercomparison and harmonization of methodologies and a continuous feedback between scientists engaged in mathematical modeling and those carrying out field studies. Specialized workshops dealing with problems in understanding transfer coefficients in the terrestrial environment are being held. In the marine environment, long-distance transport in sediments plays an important role for the spread of radioisotopes released from reprocessing plants (e.g., in the Eastern Atlantic, the Northland Baltic Sea). Representatives of the countries concerned (including from Northern Countries) will define conditions of information exchange, sampling (time, character of sediments), and modelisation

  3. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  4. Chemistry and combustion of fit-for-purpose biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothamer, David A; Donohue, Timothy J

    2013-06-01

    From the inception of internal combustion engines, biologically derived fuels (biofuels) have played a role. Nicolaus Otto ran a predecessor to today's spark-ignition engine with an ethanol fuel blend in 1860. At the 1900 Paris world's fair, Rudolf Diesel ran his engine on peanut oil. Over 100 years of petroleum production has led to consistency and reliability of engines that demand standardized fuels. New biofuels can displace petroleum-based fuels and produce positive impacts on the environment, the economy, and the use of local energy sources. This review discusses the combustion, performance and other requirements of biofuels that will impact their near-term and long-term ability to replace petroleum fuels in transportation applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  6. Student internships with unions and workers: building the occupational health and safety movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    One of the most successful programs to recruit young professionals to the occupational safety and health field was launched more than 35 years ago, in 1976. Created by the Montefiore Medical Center's Department of Social Medicine collaborating with Tony Mazzocchi of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW), it placed medical, nursing, and public health students in summer internships with local unions to identify and solve health and safety problems in the workplace. The experience of working with and learning from workers about the complex interactions of political, economic, and scientific-technological issues surrounding workplace conditions inspired many students to enter and stay in our field. Many former interns went on to make important medical and scientific contributions directly linked to their union-based projects. Former interns are now among the leaders within the occupational health and safety community, holding key positions in leading academic institutions and governmental agencies.

  7. A new context for cooperation between Russia an the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The energy issue is assuming a strategic importance in relations between Russia and the European Union. Among other things, this is characterised by the debates concerning the energy Charter Treaty, by negotiations concerning Russia's application to join the WTO as well as by establishment of a dialogue between Europe and Russia concerning energy. This article analyses the new factors of this energy partnership which explain the potential for cooperation and at the same time its limits. These factors are: (1) the peripherization of Russia in the international labour market, (2) the enlargement of the European Union to take in countries dependent on Russia for imports of gas and oil, (3) the liberalization of the gas and electricity markets within the European Union which constitutes a challenge for short and long-term energy security and (4) the inclusion of sustainable development within the definition of energy security. (authors)

  8. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  9. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  10. New Roles for the Trade Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Sø Rocha, Robson

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on lessons from Denmark and the Nordic area to offer a novel and comprehensive logic of action within the emerging political economy that may be used to assess the possible new roles that unions can take on. The authors argue that unions are capable of “civilizing” globalizati...

  11. 78 FR 72537 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... there is an inherent risk that a subsidiary CUSO could adversely affect the investing credit union and... supervisory authority (SSA). CUSOs engaging in certain complex or high-risk activities are required to... credit union industry by acting as a collaborative means to share risk, manage costs, and deliver...

  12. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  13. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  14. Banking Union- Present Stage and its Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking Union is very important for financial stability of EU, for preventing any future crisis, for improving corporate governance in the banking sector, for completing the single market for financial services and for the strengthening of monetary union, for opening the way to fiscal union and to political union. There is not enough theoretical research in the field of banking union, but there are many recent contributions on behalf of foreign and Romanian experts and analysts, which refer mainly to the three components/pillars of EU banking union: a Single Supervision Mechanism (SSM, a Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM and an harmonized system of deposit guarantee schemes. Some micro studies and surveys carried out by prestigious institutions, like Deutsche Bank, Brookings Institution, CEPS have been run over and analyzed together with the positions and opinions of different European officials, and also with the content of EU secondary legislation. An empirical research was made with the aim to identify all essential aspects relating to EU banking union, which may concern the academics, researchers and business community. The paper is based on a previous research study coordinated by author and contains his own conclusions focused on the main arguments in favour of banking union.

  15. Students Union, University Administration and Political Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... peculiarity of university students as elites in training, as well as a trajectory of students' union activities in university administration and political development around the world, this paper asserts, resting on the reciprocal determinism of the social learning theory, that students union makes university administration smooth.

  16. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  17. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  18. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  19. Union innovation in Ontario's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, D.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade the Power Worker's Union (PWU) has embarked on a number of innovative approaches that have provided significant benefit to the nuclear industry. These include advanced labour relations approaches, equity participation and groundbreaking skills training initiatives. This presentation outlines these and other initiatives in the context of the union's view of the nuclear generation industry's future. (author)

  20. 76 FR 79531 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... exclude CLF stock subscriptions, based on the asset's negligible credit risk and to facilitate corporate... removing paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(4) and adding paragraph (h) to read as follows: Sec. 704.6 Credit risk... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD95 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY...